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Online Railway Reservation
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Giridharan Ravindran Roll No : 16 T.Y.B.Sc. (Computer Sci.) 2010-2011, S.K.Somaiya College,Vidyavihar
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It gives me great pleasure in presenting this project report. Its justification will never sound good if I do not express my vote of thanks to our S.K Somaiya College and Respective Principal I would also like to thank our Coordinator Mrs for her timely support in the completion of this project. I thank our internal project guide Mrs. Swati Maurya, who has done a lot to keep this project systematically and on schedule. I am thankful for their valuable guidance at every stage of the project. Finally, I would thank to all others, who give their extended support to complete this project.
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INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION
Indian Railways have been divided into 9 Zones - Western, Central, Eastern, Northern, North Eastern, Northeast Frontier, Southern, South Central & South Eastern covering the largest route length of over 63000 Kms of total Indian boundary. The last stations of the four
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Online Railway Reservation
directional boundaries are West-Mumbai, South-Kanyakumari, EastGuwahati, North-Jammu. It is the most convenient way of travelling if you are travelling on a budget. The railways have one of the most efficient communication systems between 2 stations. The types of class available are 1st class, AC 2tier, AC 3tier, 2nd class sleeper & chair car. The 1st class being phased out being converted in to AC 2 tier/AC 3 tier (recently being introduced in some of the trains).
INTRODUCTION TO THE RESERVATION SYSTEM
The Indian Railways (IR) carries about 5.5 lakh passengers in reserved accommodation every day. The computerised Passenger Reservation System (PRS) facilitates booking and cancelling of tickets from any of the 4000 terminals (i.e PRS booking windows) all over the country. These tickets can be booked or cancelled for journeys commencing in any part of India and ending in any other part, with travel times as long as 72 hours and distances up to several thousand kilometers. The application was first implemented at the Secunderabad PRS site in September 1994 and subsequently at the other four PRS sites. Currently, the PRS servers are maintained at the five sites in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Secunderabad and operate in a distributed database process environment. Communication of all the terminals with their server was established using Railway/Department of Telecommunication (DOT) channel lines, fibreoptic cable/microwave channels, switches, modem, multiplexers etc. The inter-networking of five PRS nodes was completed in April 1999. Interconnectivity is established between the five PRS centres over 2 mbps leased Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) lines. The system has the capability of issuing reserved tickets from anywhere to anywhere, in any train, date or class between any pair of stations from any booking terminal of the PRS. passengers’ request for reservation, cancellation and
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Using their credit card people can easily get their tickets done within minutes. [Type text] Page 6 . With the help of this facility people can book their tickets through internet. apart from railway station counters where tickets are available. South Central Railway (SCR).Online Railway Reservation modification of journey are handled by the system through requisition slips. 6 RAILWAY RESERVATION METHODS : Online Booking Counter Booking ONLINE BOOKING: This facility is given to general public by railway department. Nowadays there are various ticket counters. South Eastern Railway (SER). North Eastern Railway (NER). The system is also capable of generating different types of Management Information System (MIS) Reports. Reservation Charts and Daily Terminal Cash Summary. Western Railway (WR). Southern Railway (SR). sitting in their home by a single click of the mouse. There are certain charges for online booking as well. The reservation counters are there at railway departments from where people can get the tickets to their respective destinations. Major outputs generated by the system are Reservation cumjourney tickets. Indian railway is having ten zonal railways namely Eastern Railway (ER). North East Frontier Railway (NFR) and East Central Railway (ECR). Central Railway (CR). Northern Railway (NR). Cancellation/Modification tickets. COUNTER BOOKING: This is oldest method of booking the ticket.
Customer information centers at the railways station are unable to serve such queries at peak periods. it takes a long time [Type text] Page 7 . special trains etc. On most of the reservation centers in India there are always long queues. train arrival and departure details. In case of e-ticket and I. so it takes a long time for any individual to book the tickets. In case of booking e-ticket or I.ticket by IRCRC the only disadvantage is any individual cannot plan for onward journey. The number of reservation counters available to the Indian passengers and customers are very less. As of now there are no call centers facilities available to solve the queries of the Indian passengers and customers.Online Railway Reservation 7 EXISTING RESARVATION SYSTEM – SHORT COMMING Railway passengers frequently need to know about their ticket reservation status.ticket if there is any case of cancellation the amount to be refunded to the customer is not been credited to the customer’s account instantly. ticket availability on a particular train or for a place.
we are also making database for all the trains running across the country. As the proposed system is comparatively faster than the existing system. there will be very less rush and shorter queues at the reservation counters or centers.Online Railway Reservation 8 PROPOSED RESERVATION SYSTEMADVANTAGE The proposed system is comparatively faster than the existing system. As required. In the proposed system. we can edit the database of the trains and also add the new trains which will be proposed in future budgets [Type text] Page 8 .
Online Railway Reservation 9 Gantt Chart [Type text] Page 9 .
Online Railway Reservation 10 Gnatt Chart [Type text] Page 10 .
[Type text] Page 11 .Online Railway Reservation 11 DEFINITION OF EVENT The event table is a table of data that is typically written to the log file for each scenario and also appears in the Analysis window. The event table contains timing information about specific events that occur during the scenario. Only stimulus events with event codes will appear in the event table.
Online Railway Reservation 12 Srno Event 1 Passenger Create an accounts Passenger needs to get information about seats and fares Trigger New Account Source Passenger Activity Create a new account Check for seat availabilit y and gets the fares detail Reservati on of ticket Response Gets an new userid and password Yes/no response according to enquiry made by the passenger Confirmatio n of ticket Destinati on Passenge r 2 Click on Enquiry Desk Passenger Passenge r 3 Passenger makes a reservation of ticket Passenger pays of the ticket Click on booking section for reservatio n of ticket Paying of ticket Passenger Passenge r and manage ment Passenge r and Manage ment 4 Passenger Payment of ticket is done in 2 ways either in -Credit card -Debit card produce the final ticket along the payment detail to the passenger 5 Passenger cancel a Cancelling Passenger Cancelati on of Confirmatio n Page 12 [Type text] .
it follows that use cases also need to have definitive limits defined. users. (3)System Boundary A system boundary defines the scope of what a system will be. these can be described in separate diagrams or in documents that can be linked to each use case. usecase (2)Use Case A use case is a kind of type. It describes the relationships between requirements. The different roles the actor represents are the actual business roles of users in a given system. A system boundary of a use case diagram defines the limits of the system [Type text] Page 13 . An actor in a use case diagram interacts with a use case Represents the actions performed by one or more actors in the pursuit of a particular goal. A system cannot have infinite functionality. ELEMENTS OF USE CASE DIAGRAMS ELEMENT (1)Actor DESCRIPTION An actor portrays any entity (or entities) that performs certain roles in a given system. and the major components. So. It does not describe the requirements in detail.Online Railway Reservation ticket of ticket reservatio n ticket cancelation of ticket and take refund acknowledg ement Passenge r13 and manage ment USE CASE DIAGRAMS A use case diagram acts as a focus for the description of user requirements.
Inclusion is used to show how a use case breaks into smaller steps. 1: Usecase Daigram for Enquiry [Type text] Page 14 .Online Railway Reservation 14 (4)Include Usecase se sese usecase An including use case calls or invokes the included one. The included use case is at the arrowhead end.
Online Railway Reservation < c a l P S b < h s o a y o i e k g s u n c i s t t c k f n e l o n m f u s r g a d e e a h r > t e > l a p v a i l a b l i t y 15 2:Usecase for Resevation of ticket [Type text] Page 15 .
Online Railway Reservation p b f l P S r i o a y i y o l g s n m k l i s t t s n e s d n m t e g i t e h f c a r e o k i r e l t s i t c i k c n e k e t t h e f o r m Use Case: Make Reservation Actors: Passenger Purpose: Reserve a seat or berth Overview: Allows the user to make a reservation for a journey. User specifies passenger details 4. User specifies payment details 5. 3.User logs in 2. User specifies the train and journey details. Normal Flow: 1. User confirms transaction [Type text] Page 16 16 .
3. User specifies the train and journey details.Online Railway Reservation 3:Usecase for Cancellation r c f l P S e i o a y f n l g s u c l i s t n e d l c n m a g a n e c r k t e n i l o c l w k a l e t e t i d o g n m e f n o t r m Use Case: Make Cancelation Actors: Passenger Purpose: Cancel a seat or berth Overview: Allows the user to make a reservation for a journey.User logs in 2. User specifies passenger details 4. User get refund acknowledgment [Type text] Page 17 17 . Normal Flow: 1. User cancel a ticket 5.
ERD’s may also be more abstract. but does not identify every table that would be necessary for an electronic resource management database.Online Railway Reservation 18 ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM: An ERD is a model that identifies the concepts or entities that exist in a system and the relationships between those entities. theoretical view of the major entities and relationships needed for management of electronic resources. For example. but serving to diagram the major concepts and relationships. ELEMENTS OF A ER DIAGRAM Entity: An entity is an object or concept about which you want to store information. This ERD is of the latter type. Key attribute: A key attribute is the unique. and the relationship lines represent the keys in one table that point to specific records in related tables. an employee's social security number might be the employee's key attribute [Type text] Page 18 . An ERD is often used as a way to visualize a relational database: each entity represents a database table. intended to present an abstract. It may assist the database design process for an e-resource management system. distinguishing characteristic of the entity. not necessarily capturing every table needed within a database. Relationships: Relationships illustrate how two entities share information in the database structure.
Online Railway Reservation 19 Debit Sleeper for Concession Seat Credit General Ac Payment General Class Ticket Refund Train Fare Passenger Enquiry checks produces gets cancels d User has books al Fare Avialability Fare [Type text] Page 19 .
a logic where a decision is to be made is depicted by a diamond. with the options written on either sides of the arrows emerging Page 20 ELEMENT (1)Initial Activity (2)Activity (3)Decisions [Type text] . Denoted by a solid circle. Represented by a rectangle with rounded (almost oval) edges Similar to flowcharts.Online Railway Reservation 20 ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS An activity diagram shows a business process or a software process as a flow of work through a series of actions. ELEMENTS OF A ACTIVITY DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION This shows the starting point or first activity of the flow. This is similar to the notation used for Initial State.They are useful for analyzing usecase by describing what action needs to be taken place and when they should occur describing a complicated sequential algorithm and modeling application with parallel processes.
Online Railway Reservation from the diamond. For example. also called as a final activity. Check for seat availability [Type text] Page 21 . and the horizontal line again to show the end of the parallel activity. within box brackets. This is represented by a horizontal split (thick dark line) and the two concurrent activities next to each other. Such activities are called concurrent activities. 21 (4)Concurrent Activities (5)Final Activity Some activities occur simultaneously or in parallel. listening to the lecturer and looking at the blackboard is a parallel activity. The end of the Activity diagram is shown by a bull's eye symbol.
Online Railway Reservation 22 P se g r as n e Lg o in E q ir D s n u y ek F a r q ir dd t ils ill ll e u e ea S se c e k d a y t m h c s e ils Reservation of Ticketk o [Type text] Page 22 .
Online Railway Reservation 23 P se g r as n e Lg oi n Bosatc e ok i kt Fl a r q i e d t is il l e u d ea l r l S se c ek d as yt m h c s e i l o k n o Sse c ni m& o k tc e yt m o fr s b os i k t P se g rp y f rtc e as n e as o i k t Ce i C d rd a t Cancelationrof Ticket [Type text] Db Cr e i ad t Page 23 .
Online Railway Reservation 24 Pse gr as ne Lg o in F d tails fo ca ce ill e r n latio n n o S s mch ck d tails y te e s e o k C ce a tick t an l e CLASS fu dack o le ge e t DIAGRAM d m n R n e nw [Type text] Page 24 .
..* one or more instances 0. and for detailed modelling translating the models into programming code.* zero or more instances [Type text] Page 25 .The classes in a class diagram represent both the main objects and or interactions in the application. may) 1 Exactly one instance 1. or one instance (optional. A class is represented by a rectangle. The following diagram shows a typical class in a class diagram 25 Class Name List of variables/methods List of methods Class Name multiplicities Class Name List of variables/attribut es List of methods Common multiplicities association List of variables/attribut es List of methods 0.Online Railway Reservation The class diagram is the main building block in object oriented modelling. They are being used both for general conceptual modeling of the systematics of the application..1 No instances.
.* 1 R e fu n d 1 * T ic k e t P a s s e n 11 e + g r + + p id + +pnam e + v a lid _ t ic k e t ( ) +age + a d d r e s s + g e t s _ d e t a ils ( ) + con tact F a re A c S le + e m a il 1 1 + n o _ o f _ t ic k e t s + g e t _ d e t a ils ( ) + ch e ck s_ ty p e () + b o o k s _ t ic k e t ( ) + pnr_ no + q u ota c a n c e l e d _ d a+ t de i s t a n c e t ic k e t s _ c a n c e le d a m t _ r e t u r n +e cd a l c u l a t e s ( ) C la + ty p [Type text] Page 26 C o n c e s s i o n a l GF ea nr ee r a l F .Online Railway Reservation 26 T ra in + tn o S e a t A v a ila b lity + tn am e 1 + d ate + b o a r d in g 1 k .e + seats b oo + seats v acan t + g e t _ d e t a ils ( ) + ch e ck () + s e t _ d e t a ils ( ) + cou n t_ se a ts() 1 1 . *1 d + d e s t i n a t i o n .
* zero or more instances [Type text] Page 27 . may) 1 Exactly one instance 1.Object diagrams are used to render a set of objects and their relationships as an instance.. or one instance (optional..Online Railway Reservation OBJECT DIAGRAM Object diagrams are derived from class diagrams so object diagrams are dependent upon class diagrams. Object diagrams also represent the static view of a system but this static view is a snapshot of the system at a particular moment.* one or more instances 0. Object diagrams represent an instance of a class diagram.1 No instances.. The basic concepts are similar for class diagrams and object diagrams. Class Name 27 List of variables/ attributes Class Name multiplicities Class Name List of variables/ attributes association List of variables/ attributes Common multiplicities 0.
2 c : C la s s has has c t a f : F are n o_ o f_ t ick e t s := 4 has SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS [Type text] cr : C on ce s s s io n a l R a t e t y p e := r a ilw a y e m p loy e e cr a t e := 5 0 0 0 Page 28 .Online Railway Reservation 28 p : P as has t : T r a in t n o:= 6 0 1 2 t n a m e := C h e n n a i.M u m b a i E x p r e s s b oa r d in g := K a ly a n d e s t in a t ion := C h e n n a i b o ok s has s : S e a t A v a ila b lit y d a t e := 1 7 / 0 6 / 1 0 s e a t s _ b ook e d := 1 0 0 s e a t s _ v a ca n t := 2 0 0 t : T ick e t p n r _ n o:1 q u ot a := r a ilw a y e m p lo y e e d is t a n ce := 1 3 1 8 k m s has p id := 6 0 2 4 p n a m e := G ir a g e := 2 0 a d d r e s s := B a con t a ct := 9 9 6 e m a il:= g ir i.
Time flows down the diagram. which represents the sequence of messages between instances of classes. ELEMENTS (1)Actor Or : Class name (2)LifeLine (3)Messages (a)Synchronous A vertical line that represents the sequence of events that occur in a participant during an interaction. The sender sent the message to the receiver and wait for the procedure completion (b)Simple One object sends the messages to the passive object (c)Return It returns message from called procedure of receiver to the sender [Type text] Page 29 . subsystems. or actors. and it shows the flow of control from one participant to another ELEMENTS OF A 29 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION A participant that is external to the system that you are developing. or actor. components.Online Railway Reservation A sequence diagram shows an interaction. This participant can be an instance of a class. component. while time progresses down the line.
Online Railway Reservation 30 u : User s : System <<create>> create new account() 1: 2 : accepts userid and passw od 3 : updates the acccount on system() 4 : Help Desk (Enqiury)() 5 : provides the enquiry form 6 : fill the enquiry form() 8 : provide an error [if any] 9 : accept the information 10 : Click on booking section() 11 : sw itch to booking form 12 : enter the details for booking ticket() 13 : provide error [if any] 14 : confirmation of reservation ticket 15 : pays for ticket through debit card / credit card 16 : display ticket [Type text] 7 : veri 17 : takes printout of ticket() Page 30 18 : fill details of cancelation() .
Collaboration diagrams represent a combination of information taken from class. BASIC COLLABORATION DIAGRAM SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS CLASS ROLES CLASS ROLES DESCRIBE HOW OBJECTS BEHAVE. and so on. sequence. Association roles Association roles describe how an association will behave given a particular situation. collaboration diagrams do not have an explicit way to denote time and instead number messages in order of execution.1. Sequence numbering can become nested using the Dewey decimal system. USE THE UML OBJECT SYMBOL TO ILLUSTRATE CLASS ROLES .2. 1. [Type text] Page 31 . and use case diagrams describing both the static structure and dynamic behavior of a system.Online Railway Reservation 31 COLLARABATION DIAGRAM A collaboration diagram describes interactions among objects in terms of sequenced messages. 1. nested messages under the first message are labeled 1. BUT DON 'T LIST OBJECT ATTRIBUTES . Messages Unlike sequence diagrams. You can draw association roles using simple lines labeled with stereotypes.3. For example.
Online Railway Reservation The a condition for a message is usually placed in square brackets immediately following the sequence number. Use a * after the sequence number to indicate a loop. 32 [Type text] Page 32 .
In short. This is done with the help of Behavioral elements Elements of a State Diagram ELEMENTS (1)Initial State [Type text] DESCRIPTION This shows the starting point or first Page 33 .Online Railway Reservation 9 5 8 6 4:Help Desk (Enquiry) 2 1 7 s p 8 7 5 4 1 9 6 2 0 3 : A p P F V : T R D S c r F P E i V C e w c o i a n l e r S P k f s n e v t l r o i y a u v t p l e c i f s n l i c d r k f y t s a r d o h y e p y r d o e c t m n r i a e n t h g i c o n a t h e k g i a B n e c r t n b e l c i o q k d c n r s k l o u d e u w a o f n r s k i e t l n s k q o f i r t h a c u r o f n y a e i d e n m r t o g i l v g a [ h r f l d s a [ t y I c r S o e m I i a o b e r f t e i f n u c m o a n a c g o t r i t a m r n e h k i l e n m y l i o c s t o y ] c n a f ] t r g n i e c t d o e n i f l c t a k t e / i t c o d k n e b t i t c a r d 33 STATE DIAGRAMS State diagrams (also called State Chart diagrams) are used to help the developer better understand any complex/unusual functionalities or business flows of specialized areas of the system. or a sub-system. or even a single object in a system. State diagrams depict the dynamic behavior of the entire system.
" where the state has no variables describing it further and no activities. In a state diagram. Denoted by a solid circle. [Type text] Page 34 . there will be multiple of such symbols. Represents the state of object at an instant of time. The actual trigger event and action causing the transition are written beside the arrow.Online Railway Reservation activity of the flow. separated by a slash. also called a final state. Denoted by a rectangle with rounded corners and compartments 34 (2)State (3)Transition (4)Final State An arrow indicating the Object to transition from one state to the other. This is also called as a "pseudo state. Transitions that occur because the state completed an activity are called "triggerless" transitions The end of the state diagram is shown by a bull's eye symbol. A final state is another example of a pseudo state because it does not have any variable or action described. one for each state of the Object we are discussing.
Online Railway Reservation 35 n ew A cco u n t e n t r y / C lic k o n lo g in f o r m F ill a ll d e t a ils in f o c lic k o n e n q u ir y f o r m E n q u ir y D e s k/ C h e c k t h e e n q u ir y do L o g in e n t r y / C lic k o n E n q u cirlic F oor n b o o k in g s e c t io n yk m e n t r y / C lic k o n B o o k in g S e c t io n e n t r y / C lic k o n C a n c e la t io n o f t ic k e t B o o k s a t ic k e t c lic k s o n c a n c e la t io n f o r m F ills t h e d e t a ils C a n c e ls a t c k e t d o / c h e c k s v a lid it y C a n c e ls t ic k e t S y s t e m c o n f r im s d o / b o o k s t ic k e t C r e d it c a r d e x it / d is p la y t h e a p p r o p a y e it h e r t h r o u g h C lo R e fu n d ackn Structure Chart o w e le d g e m e n t t o p a s s e n g e r D e b it C a r d [Type text] Page 35 .
constructed of squares representing the different modules in the system. but other representations are allowable. which shows the breakdown of the configuration system to the lowest manageable levels. the structure chart is used to identify CIs and their associated artifacts that a proposed change may impact. An accurate and complete structure chart is the key to the determination of the configuration items. Each module is represented by a box. and number of readily identifiable functions and modules within each function and whether each identifiable function is a manageable entity or should be broken down into smaller components. the chart is drawn and used as a way for the client and the various software designers to communicate. During the configuration control process. In the design stage.Online Railway Reservation A Structure Chart (SC) in software engineering and organizational theory is a 36 chart. A structure chart is also used to diagram associated elements that comprise a run stream or thread. The representation must describe the breakdown of the configuration system into subsystems and the lowest manageable level. constructed of squares representing the different modules in the system. It is often developed as a hierarchical diagram. A structure chart is a top down modular design tool. The lines represent the connection and or ownership between activities and subactivities as they are used in organization charts.Programmers use a structure chart to build a program in a manner similar to how an architect uses a blueprint to build a house. [Type text] Page 36 . The tree structure visualizes the relationships between the modules.A structure chart is a top-down modular design tool. the chart is continually referred to as the master-plan". and lines that connect them. The lines represent the connection and or ownership between activities and subactivities as they are used in organizational chart. and lines that connect them. and a visual representation of the configuration system and the internal interfaces among its CIs. which contains the module's name.This chart is used in structured programming to arrange the program modules in a tree structure. During the actual building of the program (implementation).. A structure chart depicts the size and complexity of the system.
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preceded by a colon and underlined. ELEMENTS OF A COMPONENT DIAGRAM ELEMENT DESCRIPTION (1)Component (2)Class/Interface/ Object The objects interacting with each other in the system. Similar to the notations used in class and object diagrams (3)Relation/Association Similar to the relation/association used in class diagrams.binary code components or executable components. Depicted by a rectangle with the name of the object in it.Online Railway Reservation 38 COMPONENT DIAGRAMS A component diagram shows the organizational dependency among software components including source code components.Gives relation between to components [Type text] Page 38 .
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A package could be shown as a rectangle with a small tab attached to the left side of the top of the rectangle. [Type text] Page 40 .Online Railway Reservation 40 PACKAGE DIAGRAM Package diagrams can use packages that represent the different layers of a software system to illustrate the layered architecture of a software system. In this case the name of the package should be placed on the tab. Members of the package may be shown within the boundaries of the package. The dependencies between these packages can be adorned with labels / stereotypes to indicate the communication mechanism between the layers ELEMENTS OF A DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM ELEMENTS (1)Package (2)Members of Package DESCRIPTION Package is namespace used to group together elements that are semantically related and might change together.
Online Railway Reservation 41 Books the ticket Ticket Payment Passenger Cancelation Cancel the ticket [Type text] Page 41 .
Depicted by a cube with the name of the object in it. The node represents the environment in which a component or a set of components execute. database server.Online Railway Reservation 42 DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAMS The basic deployment diagram element is the node. application server. and so forth. [Type text] Page 42 . preceded by a colon. The different nodes in the deployment diagram can be interconnected to represent interdependencies. ELEMENTS OF A DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAM ELEMENTS (1)Node (2)Connection DESCRIPTION The element that provides the execution environment for the components of a system. or even application infrastructure software like a Web server. This means that a node in a deployment diagram can represent a multitude of things—physical hardware such as a server machine. and underlined. a system software like an operating system. Similar to the relation/association used in class diagrams to define the interconnection between nodes. thus providing a deployment diagram that is easy to comprehend and provides the complete deployment environment of a system.
Online Railway Reservation 43 < < p ro cce sso r> > < < D e v ice > > Passenger P rin t O ut En q u r iy d e s k < < D e v ice > > M o n ito r B o o k s a T ic k e t Pa y m e n t C a n c e la t io n R e fu n d [Type text] Page 43 .
Photo d. Forgot Password c. Train Details a. Login User a. New User b. Reports 3. About us About the system information 6.Online Railway Reservation 44 MENU HEIRARCHY ONLINE RAILWAY RESERVATION 1. Final Ticket [Type text] Page 44 . Reservation Form c. Login for Reservation b. Reservation List b. Cancelation a. Payment d. Final Ticket for print 4. About us e. Cancelation Page 5 . Cancel Ticket c. Cancelation c. Login for Reservation a. Another Login b. Help f.1 Fares Details a. Change Password 2. Menu of the List a.2 Seats Details b. Report a.
Online Railway Reservation 45 PROGRAM FLOWCHART (1) PROGRAM LISTING [Type text] Page 45 .
Online Railway Reservation Testing Techniques Used 1. Blackbox Testing 2. WhiteBox Testing 46 [Type text] Page 46 .
The details mission of the group varies from company. can at least se where they are what they about to run over & how close they are to cliff. [Type text] Page 47 . Testing is done to find information critical decisions about the project or product that are made on basis of that information. some projects are simple & routine like driving to store in broad daylight. 2) TESTING :Once source code has been generated software must be tested to uncover many errors possible before to customer. Behind those details there is common factor. You illuminate the road ahead so the programmer & managers. But most project work doing are driving a truck off road in mountains at night those project needs headlights as lights the way. however they bicker over the map. b) Exercise the I/p & O/p domains of program functional behavior & performance. Its goal is design series of test cases that have likelihood of finding errors software testing technique provide systematic guidance for designing test that :a) Exercise internal logic of software components. Testing phase must maximize the number of errors detected & minimize the number of test cases.Online Railway Reservation 47 TESTING CONCEPT :1) ROLE OF TESTING :A project is like a load trip.
b) Boundary value analysis: is one of the black box testing technique. [Type text] Page 48 .Online Railway Reservation 48 Testing is of two types a) Functional b) Structure Functional testing has a) Equivalence Partitioning: can be used to reduce the number of test cases that need to developed by dividing the output domain of a programme into classes.A valid input is an element of the input domain that is expected to return an erroneous value. It is based on the observation that faults tend to cluster around boundary in programmes. On the basis of this an attempt can be made to cover the structure of the programme. It is also assumed that if testing cases fails to produce an error all other domains in the system will fail to produce an error. It focuses on Exception handling. it has the high probability of finding bugs. It is systematic method of identifying sets of classes of input conditions to be tested. each equivalence class is a representative of large set of test cases may be taken to infer the elements of class .
c) Mutation Testing. Structural testing has a) Control Flow Graph: Any procedural design can be designed into a control flow graph.Online Railway Reservation 49 c) Cause effect graphing: Above techniques do not consider combination of inputs. It is used to show the logical and control flow of the graph. It mainly focuses on testing the value assignment of each variable in programme by executing sub paths from the assignment or definition to some program points in which the variable is used. it is generally computationally expensive. d) [Type text] Cyclomatic Complexity: Page 49 . The conditions should be stated such that they have a true or a false value. Is a fault based Testing technique used to test the quality of the test suite . Cause Effect Graphing is a technique that aids in selecting combinations of input in a systematic way such that number of test-cases do not become unmanageably large. b) Data Flow Based Testing. A cause is distinct input condition and effect is a distinct output conditions. Lines or arrows are used to show the graph where lines are edges and circles are used to show one or more actions of the nodes.
Online Railway Reservation Derives a quantitative measure of Logical complexity. It gives 50 the number of independent paths through strongly connected directed graphs i. and to help identify a units/ components testability. maintainability and understandability. It is used mainly to find the number of paths to look at a node for testing.e each node can be reached from anywhere. to help pinpoint areas of potential instability. ➢ Exercise internal data to ensure there validity. ➢ Exercise all loops at there boundaries & within there optional bound. ➢ A good test case is one that has high probability of finding an as yet undiscovered error. ➢ A successful test is one that uncovered an as undiscovered error. CODING STANDARD :1) TESTING OBJECTIVES ➢ Testing is process of executing program with the intent of finding n error. ➢ Exercise all logical decisions on there true & false sides. b) Black Box Testing [Type text] Page 50 design to cases . Using White Box testing methods derives that :➢ Guarantee that all individual paths within module have been exercise at least once. to provide quatitative indication. a) White Box Testing White Box Testing some times called glass box testing is test case design method that uses control structure of procedure derive test cases.
While at some time conducting test to uncover errors associated with interfacing. 1) INTEGRATION TESTING :Integration testing is a systematic technique for concluding the program structure. 51 the testing Test cases are good in revealing the presence of faults Successful in implementation of test cases implies that there are no errors in program .Online Railway Reservation Black Box Testing also called behavior testing focuses on functional requirement of software. The objective is to take unit testing component & build a program structure that has been detected by design. One possible ideal set of test case is one that includes all possible I/p to the program & is called exhaustive testing. Interface error. A test case is good if it detect in undiscovered error in program. Testing Approaches used. In [Type text] Page 51 . An ideal test case set is one that succeeds only if there are no errors in the program.Test cases should be minimize as they are expensive in case of money & efforts. Behavior or performance error. Black Box testing enables software engineer to derive the set I/p condition that will fully exercise all functional requirement of program. Primary objectives of test cases are to ensure that if there is an error or fault in program it is exercise by the test cases. Black box attempt to find in following categories:➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ TEST CASES :Incorrect or missing function. Initialization & termination error. Error in data structure or external database access.
Increment integration is an anti thesis of big bang approach where the program is tested & constructed in small increments where errors are easy to correct & isolate. all components are combining in advance & the entire 52 program is tested a whole. ➢ 1) Fault based Testing: The object of fault based testing in OOP system to design tests that have high possibility of uncovering faults.Online Railway Reservation big bang approach. [Type text] Page 52 . 2) Validation Testing in OO context: it focuses mainly on visible actions performed and their outputs from the system. Use-based Testing: begins the construction of the system and classes that use very few of server classes. To draw better results from this testing testers should draw use-cases.Regression testing is applied to ensure that no side effects occur. Each thread is integrated and tested individually. interfaces are more likely to be tested completely & systematic test approach may be applied. Integration testing has two different approaches in OOP’s concept ➢ Read-based testing: it integrates the set of classes required to respond to the set of the inputs or eventa for the system. Because the system must meet customers Requirements and begins with the analysis of the system.
Online Railway Reservation 53 [Type text] Page 53 .
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