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A. T. Wheeler, B.E. M. J. Clarke, B.Sc., B.E., Ph.D. G. J. Hancock, B.Sc., B.E., Ph.D. T. M. Murray, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. June 1997 Centre for Advanced Structural Engineering Department of Civil Engineering University of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia, 2006 Abstract

The report presents a model for the determination of the ultimate moment capacity of bolted moment end plate connections utilising rectangular hollow sections and two rows of bolts. The model considers the combined effects of prying action due to flexible end plates and the formation of yield lines in the end plates, enabling the design of the connection with a row of bolts above and below the section. The model has been calibrated and validated using experimental data from an associated test program. The design model constitutes a relatively simple method for predicting the ultimate moment capacity for the particular type of bolted moment end plate connection described herein.

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Table of Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION................................................................... 1 PRYING ACTION .................................................................. 3 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ................................................... 4 THEORETICAL FORMULATION..................................... 7 4.1 GENERAL ............................................................................... 7 4.2 YIELD LINE ANALYSIS ......................................................... 8 4.3 MODIFIED STUB-TEE METHOD ......................................... 11

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 General Model..........................................................................11 Thick Plate Behaviour.............................................................13 Intermediate Plate Behaviour.................................................14 Thin Plate Behaviour...............................................................15

**4.4 GENERALISED CONNECTION MODEL ............................... 16
**

4.4.1 4.4.2 Ultimate Strength.....................................................................16 Serviceability Limits................................................................19

5.

**DESIGN MODEL ................................................................. 21 5.1 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE DESIGN...................................... 22
**

5.1.1 5.1.2 Connection Capacity Limited by Bolt Failure......................22 Connection Capacity Limited by End Plate Failure ............23

5.2 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE DESIGN ........................... 23

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**5.3 DESIGN PROCEDURE .......................................................... 24 5.4 DESIGN EXAMPLES ............................................................. 26
**

5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 Example 1 .................................................................................26 Example 2 .................................................................................27 Example 3 .................................................................................28

6. 7. 8.

CONCLUSIONS ................................................................... 29 REFERENCES...................................................................... 31 NOTATION ........................................................................... 33

APPENDICES

A. YIELD LINE MECHANISMS .............................................. 35 B. TEST DATA............................................................................. 43

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1. Introduction

The increase in the use of rectangular hollow sections in mainstream structures coupled with the economics of prefabrication has highlighted the need for simple design methods that produce economical connections for tubular members. In an effort to address this need, the Australian Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) has published the document Design of Structural Steel Hollow Section Connections (Syam and Chapman, 1996), in which design models are presented for commonly used tubular connections. The moment end plate connection described in this report is not included in the AISC publication, since an appropriate design model does not currently exist. Some typical applications of the moment end plate connection using rectangular hollow sections are shown in Figure 1.

Beam Splice Connection

Beam-Column Connection Figure 1 - Bolted Moment End Plate Connections using Rectangular Hollow Sections The moment end plate connection joining I-section members has been used extensively, and considerable documentation on its behaviour exists in the literature (for example, Grundy et al., 1980; Murray, 1988, 1990; Kukreti et al., 1990). By contrast, research on end plate connections joining rectangular and square hollow sections has been limited, and furthermore has concentrated primarily upon pure tensile loading (Kato and Hirose, 1985; Packer et al., 1989), or combined compression and bending (Kato and Mukai, 1991) as in a column-to-column bolted flange splice connection. 1

When the end plate connection is subjected to pure flexure, tensile loads are applied to those bolts on the tensile side of the neutral axis through the bending of the plate. Failure of the connection generally occurs when those bolts reach their tensile capacity. The ultimate strength of the connection may be reached either before yielding has occurred in the end plate (in which case the end plate is said to be “rigid”), or after yielding has occurred in the end plate (in which case the end plate is said to be “flexible”) as outlined by Nair et al. (1974). While the design of rigid end plate connections may be less difficult than those with flexible end plates due to the effects of prying in the latter, the flexible end plate provides a substantially more economical and ductile connection. The effects of prying have been studied extensively and various methods, such as the stub-tee (split tee) analogy (Agerskov, 1976; Kato and McGuire, 1973; Nair et al., 1974; and Kennedy et al., 1981), have been developed to predict the effect of prying on the connection strengths. These methods have primarily been associated with moment end plate connections in I-sections. While the behaviour of the end plate connection utilising rectangular hollow sections differs from that for I-sections, the stub tee analogy can be adapted to model the former connection. This is the approach followed in this report. The behaviour of the end plate may be divided into three distinct categories based on the plate thickness and extent of loading, similar to those suggested by Kennedy et al. (1981). The first mode is termed thick plate behaviour where there are no prying effects, resulting in a direct relationship between the bolt loads and the applied moment. The third mode is termed thin plate behaviour where the prying force is a maximum, with the resulting bolt load being the sum of the prying forces and the forces assigned to the bolt due to the applied moment. The second mode, termed intermediate plate behaviour, falls between the thick and thin plate behaviour and is characterised by the prying force ranging from zero to the maximum attainable. In this report, an analytical model to determine the moment capacity of end plate connections joining rectangular hollow sections is presented. The model is based on the modified stub-tee analogy which enables the effects of bolt prying forces to be incorporated. The model is further refined using yield line analysis to include the effect of the bolt positions along the tensile face of the end plate. The model described in this report is limited to the end plate connection containing two rows of bolts as shown in Figure 1. The predictions of the model are compared with the results obtained from the experimental program conducted at the University of Sydney (Wheeler, Clarke and Hancock, 1995a, 1995b, 1997).

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the failure load for the rigid end plate can be easily calculated by determining the tensile strength of the bolt group. while for the flexible end plate Q ranges from zero to Qmax. a model that effectively predicts the connection strength considering the prying forces can be developed for tubular end plate connections. P P (a) Rigid End Plate (b) Flexible End Plate Figure 2 . By modifying the stub tee analogy. deforms as shown when loaded. which contains a flexible end plate.End Plate Behaviour The study by Nair et al. For the flexible end plate.2. Pu = Bu − Qu (1) The magnitude of the prying force (Q) depends on the flexibility of the end plate. In the first connection. with the plate remaining virtually parallel to the connecting surface. 3 . where Qmax is the maximum attainable prying force which occurs at the formation of a plastic hinge through the line of the bolts. the reduced failure load (Pu) is defined as the ultimate tensile load in the bolts (Bu) minus the prying force at ultimate load (Qu). which comprises a rigid end plate. and the size and strength of the bolts. Prying Action The behaviour of a connection where tensile loads are transferred to fasteners through an end plate is highly dependent on the rigidity of this plate. generating compressive (prying) forces between the contacting surfaces which raises the tensile bolt forces correspondingly. The second connection. Q is zero for the rigid end plate. As seen previously. While the connections described in this report are not a stub tee. If it is assumed that the connection fails due to tensile fracture of the bolts. minimal deformation occurs when the tensile load (P) is applied. The factors found to govern the magnitude of this prying force include the geometry and material properties of the end plate. prying forces are considered important. This is demonstrated in Figure 2 where two stub tee connections are shown. (1974) into the effect of tension and prying forces found that the load capacity of bolted connections can be substantially reduced by prying action.

4 . one above and the other below the section. Clarke and Hancock. the section shape (square or rectangular). this report deals only with the Type B connection containing four bolts. 1995b. 1990). the plate thickness (tp). to AS 3678 (SA. ae c ae so Wp d ts Dp b Figure 3 . AS 4100 (SA. 1981b) with a nominal yield stress of 350 MPa. to a four point bending test. as shown in Figure 3. Each test contained two rows of bolts. all sections used were compact. and the position of the bolts with respect to the section flange (so) and the section web (c). 1991a). along with the measured ultimate moment capacities (Mus) for each type of section. with a nominal yield stress of 350 MPa. The connections were tested in pure bending by subjecting a beam. 1995a.End Plate Layout To eliminate the possibility of the connection strength being limited by local buckling within the beam. 1997). The measured static yield stress (fy) and ultimate tensile strength (fu) for the end plates obtained through coupon tests are listed in Table 2. The end plate material was 350 grade steel. The sections were manufactured to the requirements of AS 1163 (SA. The parameters varied in the experimental programme include the plate size (Wp. The dimensions of the end plates and the type of sections used for all Type B specimens in the experimental programme are given in Table 1. The distance from the edge of the plate to the centre of the bolts (ae) was constant for all tests and set at 30 mm according to the edge distance limits specified in the Australian Standard for Steel Structures. The nominal section sizes are shown in Table 3. Experimental Study While two types of end plate connections (termed Type A and Type B) were investigated experimentally at the University of Sydney (Wheeler. All holes were clearance holes (diameter 22mm) for M20 bolts. containing a beam splice connection (Figure 1) at mid span. Dp).3.

5 .1 (SA.1 72. with a nominal leg length of 8 mm for the fillet.6 58.8 assemblies (grade 8. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Type† SHS SHS SHS RHS RHS RHS SHS SHS SHS RHS RHS RHS SHS SHS RHS RHS tp 12 16 20 12 16 20 12 16 20 12 16 20 16 16 16 16 Plate Dimensions (mm) Wp 210 210 210 160 160 160 280 280 280 230 230 230 210 210 160 160 Dp 280 280 280 330 330 330 280 280 280 330 330 330 300 260 350 310 so 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 45 25 45 25 c 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 35 35 35 35 35 0 0 0 0 Mcu (kN. manufactured to AS 1252 (SA.Measured End Plate Material Properties Plate Thickness tp (mm) 12 16 20 (MPa) fy (MPa) fu 354 349 351 499 482 496 The connections were prefabricated to AS 4100 (SA.4 57.Table 1.6 62. Bolt Mode: Test ultimate load dictated by bolt fracture.5 71.6 38. Table 2 .8/T). with a combination fillet/butt weld joining the section to the end plate. † Section dimensions are given in Table 3.0 77.4 48.0 Failure Mode* Deformation Bolt Bolt Deformation Bolt Bolt Deformation Bolt Bolt Deformation Bolt Bolt Bolt Bolt Bolt Bolt * Deformation Mode: Tests terminated due to excessive end plate deformations.5 72. The bolt and nut assemblies were M20 structural grade 8.3 66. 1981a). 1992). End Plate Connection Details and Test Results Specimen Section No.6 69.6 59.5 86. Further details on these bolt assemblies can be found in the manufacturer’s catalogue (Ajax Fasteners. The measured yield and ultimate tensile loads of the bolts were 195 kN and 230 kN. 1990). respectively.3 79. This weld was SP category and qualified to AS 1554.m) 48.1 86. 1991c).

#15 and #16). these tests were stopped prior to the deformations becoming excessively large. more flexible. and #13. As the bolts were moved closer to the flange of the section. the loads in the tensile bolts were well below their ultimate values when a yield line mechanism formed in the plate. An incremental load was then applied to the connection by means of a stroke-controlled servo until failure occurred. and RHS specimens #25. the end plate deformations increased until either excessive deformations occurred or fracture of the tensile bolts was imminent. In practice.m) 119 138 Upon assembly of the connection. In all tests. 6 . and RHS specimens #15 and #21). An increase in the plate width (Wp) (corresponding to moving the position of the bolts away from the line of the webs as denoted by the parameter c in Table 1) reduced the stiffness and strength of the joint (compare SHS specimens #12 and #18. #12. with excessive deformations in the end plates only occurring in those specimens containing the thinner. the ultimate load of the specimen was limited to connection failure. #15 and #26). As the sections were not susceptible to local buckling. end plates. The ultimate moment (Mcu) and the failure mode for each test are listed in Table 1. the formation of yield lines was evident well before the ultimate load was reached.Nominal Section Details Section SHS RHS Depth d (mm) 150 200 Width b (mm) 150 100 Thickness ts (mm) 9 9 Mus (kN. which occurred either when the tensile bolts fractured. #14. This mechanism was such that the load transfer to the bolts was minimal. As each test continued. In most cases the ultimate failure mode for the tests was tensile bolt failure. the bolts were tensioned to 145 kN (60% proof stress). Changes in the end plate width (Wp) and thickness (tp) resulted in significant changes in the ultimate load. #17 and #20). or when the longitudinal deformations of the end plate were deemed excessive. the connection stiffness and strength also increased (compare SHS specimens #23. An increase in plate thickness (tp) increased the strength of the joint (compare SHS specimens #11.Table 3 . #12 and #24. For the test specimens with the 12 mm end plate (specimens #11. and fracture of the bolts would only have occurred if the test was continued until very high rotations were experienced. The effect of the position of the bolts was further demonstrated through their proximity to the section flange (parameter so in Table 1). and RHS specimens #14.

Prying action is not considered in the yield line analysis. As defined here.Typical Connection Moment-Rotation Curve The theoretical model based on the stub tee analogy considers the effects of prying action and aims to predict the experimental ultimate strength of the connection (Mcu) (see Figure 4). which is defined by the intersection of the initial connection stiffness and the strain hardening stiffness (see Figure 4).3. Ultimate Moment. A generalised connection model for predicting the ultimate capacity of the connection involving the integration of both the yield line and stub-tee analysis is subsequently derived in Section 4.4. respectively. the connection yield moment may be considered to correspond to the serviceability limit state of the connection.2 and 4. 7 . Since the yield lines invariably 1 The yield moment (Mcy) as defined here should not be confused with the moment to cause first yield of the connection. Kato & McGuire. Mcy Moment (kN) Connection Rotation (rad) Figure 4 . This model is limited by the assumption that the end plate behaves in a one-dimensional fashion due to the formation of yield lines across the width of the end plate (Modes 1 and 2 shown in Figure 5) (Agerskov.1 General Theoretical models for the bolted tubular moment end-plate connection based on yield line analysis and the stub tee analogy are presented in Sections 4.4. Mcu Yield Moment. 1976. At the connection yield moment. The yield line analysis serves to provide an estimate of the experimental yield moment of the connection1 (Mcy). Theoretical Formulation 4. 1973). the end plate is assumed to contain a plastic mechanism characterised by yield lines which form when the end plate crosssection becomes fully plastic at the yield stress fy.

2 Yield Line Analysis The analysis of stub tee flange or end plate connections generally assumes that yield lines form transversely across the end plate (Agerskov. Mode 3 comprises a more complex arrangement of yield lines as shown in Figure 5c. In Mode 2.4 constitutes a modification of the stub tee analogy to cater for the Mode 3 plastic mechanism (see Figure 5) whereby yield lines form diagonally across the tensile corners of the end plate. Conversely. the yield lines pass through the tensile bolts and no additional loads are transferred to the bolts following the yield line formation. the effect of the end plate deformations on the work done by the tensile bolts in Mode 1 is approximated by the displacement of a constant load. As for Mode 2. the position of the bolts was varied and other yield line mechanisms were observed.Yield Line Modes of Failure The three yield line mechanisms observed experimentally are shown in Figure 5. M M M (a) Mode 1 (b) Mode 2 (c) Mode 3 Figure 5 . much of the material is stressed into the strain-hardening range. It should be noted that in the yield line analysis presented hereafter. The generalised connection model discussed in Section 4. this assumption is valid if the bolts are positioned such that the yield lines form in this manner. an additional yield line forms through the line of bolts on the tension side of the connection (Figure 5b). it is therefore appropriate to assume the yield lines are fully plastic and stressed to a level denoted fp which is greater than the yield stress fy but less than the ultimate tensile strength fu. no additional load is transferred to the tensile bolts. Mode 1 consists of yield lines forming at the top and bottom of the section. 1973). 4. In the experimental program described in Section 3. in Modes 2 and 3 the yield lines 8 . For the purpose of predicting the connection ultimate moment. In the present work. Once the Mode 2 mechanism has formed. Kato and McGuire. 1976. coupled with elongation and yielding of the tensile bolts (Figure 5a).undergo significant rotation prior to the connection ultimate strength being reached.

Thus the effects of prying are not considered in the yield line analysis. The position of the yield lines is assumed to be influenced by the size of the weld fillet.pass through the bolt holes with no displacement of the bolts. 9 . Virtual work principles are used to obtain the analytical expressions for the yield moment Myl for each of the mechanisms shown in Figure 5. By1 is taken as the yield load per bolt which was measured to be 190 kN. The variables used are defined in Figure 3. In the yield line analysis for Mode 1. For Mode 3. the yield moment Myl must be minimised with respect to the variable u (see Appendix A) to obtain the correct lower bound solution. It is also assumed that the section is perfectly rectangular (neglecting the rounding of the corners). where s is the leg length of the fillet weld. Mode 2 and Mode 3 are respectively Mode 1 n ⋅ By1 ⋅ ae (d' +2 ⋅ (so ' + ae )) ⋅ w ⋅ (d − ts ) M yl = ⋅ mp + (so' + ae ) ⋅ d' so ' + a e Mode 2 2 ⋅ (d' + so ' ) ⋅ w n ⋅ d f M yl = − so ' ⋅d' so ' Mode 3 v⋅w 2 ⋅ (b + 4 ⋅ q 2 ) + r 2 + 4 ⋅ v 2 ⋅ q 2 ⋅ d 34 + 4 ⋅ u ⋅ q ⋅ v w ⋅ (d − ts ) ⋅ mp (4) M yl = + b (2 ⋅ q ⋅ c + so' ⋅b ) ⋅ d' d' (2) ⋅ mp ⋅ (d − ts ) (3) ( ) where w = b + 2 ⋅ ae + 2 ⋅ c = Wp v = d ' + so ' q = ae + so ' −u r = 2 ⋅ q ⋅ c − b ⋅ d' a ⋅ (2 ⋅ q ⋅ v − r ) d 34 = e ⋅ r 2 + 4 ⋅ q 2 ⋅ v 2 − 2 ⋅ df q⋅v⋅r The derivation of the above expressions is given in Appendix A. for this reason the depth of the section (d) and distance from the line of bolts to the section flange (so) are corrected to d ' = d + s 2 and so ' = so − s 2 respectively. with n being the number of tensile bolts. The yield moments for Mode 1.

9 36.9 79. Of all possible mechanisms.4 66.0 94.65 0.2 29.1 56.2 42.65 0.3 45.96 1.1 45.7 46.m) (kN.1 103.77 0.7 32.74 0.04 1.2 39.Yield line Results Experimental Yield Line Moment Yield Line Yield Moment Myl Mcy Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Failure (kN.696 0.2 69. Thicker (stiffer) end plates tend to result in failure of the bolts.6 66.23 0.2 110.2 66.5 27.68 0.14 1.8 68.4 46.7 57.69 0.9 49.9 Mode 2 Mode 1 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 2 Mode 1 Mode 3 Mode 3 Mode 1 Mode 3 Mode 3 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 1 Mean S.5 37.The plastic moment per unit length (mp) for yield line analysis is given by 1 2 mp = ⋅ tp ⋅ f y 4 where fy is the yield stress of the end plate and tp is the end plate thickness.7 63.m) Mode (5) Test # Myl/ Mcy Myl/ Mcu 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 31.0 49.0 47.90 0.59 0.5 52.7 67. while for thinner plates the failure mechanism tends to be confined to the end plate itself.0 39.0 70.84 0. 10 .91 1.1 44.2 53.13 1. 0.9 46. Yield line analysis by its nature results in an upper bound solution for any given mechanism.9 49.9 81.01 1.5 38.9 59. The thickness (stiffness) of the end plate will also affect the mode of failure.77 0.8 40.8 45.88 1.8 42.78 0.m) (kN.2 22.5 48.9 37.7 35.2 30.15 0.71 0.2 52.76 0.8 90.60 0.0 50.03 0. The values of yield stress fy used in the various mechanism analyses are given in Table 2 for the end plate thickness considered.D.94 1.6 25. For each test specimen.9 57.1 66.2 55.2 56.9 73.86 0.0 38.79 1.9 104. the calculated yield moments for each mechanism and the governing failure mode are tabulated in Table 4.0 76.9 57.7 52.7 69.7 50.47 0.08 0.106 A comparison of yield moments for Modes 2 and 3 demonstrates that sufficient spacing of the tensile bolts away from the section perimeter will cause a reduction in the connection yield moment by approximately 30 percent.28 1.8 26.159 0.010 0.m) (kN.66 0.57 0. the one with the lowest yield moment is taken as the governing mode. Table 4 .1 56.

This simple representation of the connection is shown in Figure 6. with the prying force on the tension side of the connection being simplified to a point load (Q) acting at a distance ap from the line of the tensile bolts. If the bolts are positioned such that a Mode 3 failure occurs.. or twice the end plate thickness (2·tp). Nair et al.Analytical Model The moment acting on the connection (M) is assumed to be applied to the end plate through equal and opposite flange forces F acting through the centre line of the flanges. is denoted Mb. The resultant of the contact forces acting on the compressive side of the end plate connection is denoted P. 11 . so that M = F ⋅ (d − t s ) (6) The bolt forces are assumed to act through the centre of the bolts and are denoted B and B’. The method involves a simple rigid plastic (yield line) analysis carried out on an analogous beam that represents the one-dimensional behaviour of the end plate with yield lines parallel to the axis of bending only.3 Modified Stub-Tee Method 4. 1981. The moment generated through bending of the bolts on the tensile side of the connection.4. F B Mb 3 ap so’ so s 2 d’ Dp 1 tp d-ts F B’ d P Q Figure 6 . 1974). The model assumes that the plastic hinges that form at Points 1. Other assumptions associated with this model are consistent with those of classical beam and rigid-plastic theory. and a depth equal to the plate thickness (tp). The quantity ap is defined as either the distance to the edge of the plate (ae).1 General Model The stub-tee analogy has been used in I-beam moment end plate connection models to quantitatively determine the prying forces (Kennedy et al.3.4.. whichever is the lesser. 2 and 3 (Figure 6) represent yield lines which form transversely across the end plate as demonstrated in Modes 1 and 2 (Figure 5). with the equivalent beam having a length equal to the plate depth (Dp). the model needs to be adjusted as discussed later in Section 4. resulting from the end plate deformation.

The plastic moment Mip for each of the “hinges” i shown in Figure 6 is given by 1 M ip = ⋅ tp2 ⋅ f p ⋅ li 4 (11) where tp is the end plate thickness. F = FR + FL (7) where FL is the shear force on the left and FR the shear force on the right side of the flange as shown in Figure 7. the prying force (Q) and the internal moments at Points 1 and 2 (M1. the yield line length li is simply the width of the end plate Wp. the general expression for the connection moment is obtained as M + M2 M = F ⋅ (d − ts ) = B − Q + 1 ⋅ (d − ts ) d' (10) As discussed previously.The tensile force (F) acting through the tensile flange of the section can be expressed in terms of the shear forces either side of the flange.9. Since the yield line at Point 3 forms 12 . fp is the stress along the yield line. In the case of Points 1 and 2.Definition of Forces on Free-Body Segment of Beam These shear forces can be expressed in terms of the bolt loads (B). Thin plate behaviour corresponds to the formation of yield lines at Points 1. M2) using FL = B − Q (8) (9) FR = M1 + M 2 d' Combining the Equations 6 . B Mb F FL M2 M2 FL ! FR Free Body Diagram FR FR M1 # Q " Figure 7 . the behaviour of the end plate is dependent on its thickness (tp). Thick plate behaviour occurs when the ultimate connection failure due to bolt fracture occurs subsequent to a yield line forming at Point 1 but prior to a yield line forming at Points 2 or 3. Intermediate plate behaviour occurs when the bolts fracture after the formation of yield lines at Points 1 and 2 (Mode 1 mechanism). 2 and 3 (Mode 2 mechanism) in the end plate without deformation of the bolts. and li is the length of the yield line.

the length of this yield line is assumed to be defined by l3 = Wp − n ⋅ d f (12) in which n is the number of bolts in the tensile zone and df is the diameter of the bolt holes. the resisting moment of the bolts (Mb) is neglected. (1989). each with a tensile strength of Bu1. the stress (fp) used to calculate the plastic moment capacity of the end plate is assumed to be intermediate in value between the yield stress (fy) and the ultimate tensile strength (fu) of the plate material. and following the approach of Packer et al. The ultimate bolt load Bu is the tensile resistance produced by n bolts. 13 . as calculated from (14). The mechanism forms through the combination of a yield line at Point 1.Thick Plate Behaviour For the thick plate. fp is termed the plate design stress.2 Thick Plate Behaviour The mechanism described as thick plate behaviour is shown in Figure 8. setting Q and Mb to zero. the moment for the connection can be expressed as M + Bu ⋅ (d' + so ' ) M thick = 1p ⋅ (d − ts ) d' (15) Thick end plate behaviour is considered to hold as long as the moment at Point 2. is less that the plastic moment (M2 ≤ M2p). Also.3. The moment at Point 2 (M2) is found by considering moment equilibrium for the left-hand segment of the beam and is expressed as M 2 = Bu ⋅ so ' (14) From (10) and (14).through the line of the bolts. Reflecting the influence of strain-hardening on the ultimate moment capacity of the connection. 4. fp = fy + 2 ⋅ fu 3 (13) In this report. and yielding of the tensile bolts. the prying force (Q) is zero. since there is little bending in the plate away from Point 1. and using the plastic moment at Point 1. Bu $ # so’ Fthick ! " d’ B’ P Figure 8 .

the yield lines characteristic of intermediate plate behaviour form at Points 1 and 2. the prying force (Q) is zero. As previously discussed. and setting the prying force to zero enables the minimum moment for the connection for intermediate behaviour to be expressed as 14 . At this stage. the bolt load (B) can be determined from Figure 10 by taking moments about Point 2. (16) The free body diagram pertinent to intermediate behaviour is shown in Figure 10. thus M1 = M1p and M2 = M2p. and is characterised by plastic hinges forming at Points 1 and 2.3.3 Intermediate Plate Behaviour The mechanism for intermediate plate behaviour is shown in Figure 9.Intermediate Plate Free Body Diagrams Case 1: Prying force Q = 0 When the prying force (Q) is zero. with the bolts on the tensile side of the connection also yielding. Fint Bu Mb ! $ ap Fint " B’ # so’ d’ Q P Figure 9 . B= M 2p + M b so ' (17) Substituting (17) into (10). The prying force will attain its maximum value (Qmax) at the point of transition to thin plate behaviour.4. As the intermediate plate behaviour commences.Intermediate Plate Behaviour The bolts are assumed to have attained their full plastic moment and so the resistance generated by the bending of n bolts is given by π ⋅ d b3 ⋅ f yb Mb = n⋅ 32 where db is the bolt diameter and fyb is the bolt yield stress. Bu Mb $ ap # so’ FL ! FR ! d’ " FR M1p M2p Q Figure 10 . the end plate is in the transition stage between thick and intermediate plate behaviour.

calculated from (14). These conditions can be expressed in the following equations: Bu ⋅ so ' ≥ M 2 p FL ⋅ so '− M 2p ≤ M 3p (22) (22) 4. exceeds the plastic moment. Once this yield line forms. M2p and M3p). Fthin B Mb $ Qmax ap ! # so’ d’ Fthin " B’ P Figure 11 . for thin plates an additional yield line forms at Point 3.3. The bolt load B must also be less than or equal to the ultimate bolt load (Bu). and while ever the moment at Point 3 is less than the plastic moment. 2 and 3 have reached their plastic limits (M1p.4 Thin Plate Behaviour Thin plate behaviour occurs when the moments at Points 1.Thin Plate Behaviour Compared to intermediate plate behaviour. M ⋅ (d' + so ' ) + M 1p ⋅ so' + M b ⋅ d' ⋅ (d − ts ) M int = 2p so ' ⋅d' Case 2: Prying force Q > 0 When the prying force is greater than zero it can be determined through Q= M 3 FL ⋅ so '− M 2p − M b = ap ap B ⋅ so '− M 2 p − M b a p + so ' (18) (19) Substituting (8) into (19) enables Q to be determined as Q= (20) Further substitution of (20) into (10) results in the expression for the moment acting on the connection during intermediate behaviour with Q > 0: B ⋅ ap ⋅ d' + M 2 p ⋅ (d' + so ' + ap ) + M 1p ⋅ (ap + so ' ) + M b ⋅ d' ⋅ (d − ts ) (21) M int = (ap + so' )⋅ d' The above exposition on intermediate behaviour is valid from the point when the moment at Point 2. the prying force attains its maximum value Qmax: 15 .

The generalised connection model discussed in this section constitutes a modification of the stub tee analogy to cater for the Mode 3 plastic mechanism (see Figure 5) which involves inclined yield lines. This equivalent width weq is determined using (3) and is expressed as 4 ⋅ M yl n ⋅ df weq = + (d − t )⋅ t 2 ⋅ f so ' s p p 16 ⋅ d '⋅so ' 2 ⋅ (d '+ s ') o (27) .2 demonstrated that this may not always be the case.Qmax = BL $ ap # M 3p ap FR " d’ (24) BR FL Mb so’ FR ! ! M1p where B=BL+BR M3p M2p Qmax Figure 12 .1 Ultimate Strength While the stub tee method assumes that the yield lines form in a onedimensional fashion across the section.4 Generalised Connection Model 4. the yield line analysis described in Section 4. there is an “equivalent” connection with an “equivalent” end plate width weq that fails by a Mode 2 mechanism (Figure 5b) with the onedimensional patterns of yield lines.4. it could be said that for a given connection with a plate of width wp failing in Mode 3 with inclined yield lines (Figure 5c).Thin Plate Free Body Diagrams The plate behaves as an intermediate plate prior to the yield line forming at Point 3. As yield line analysis is based on virtual work principles. 4. and is given by M ⋅ (d' + so' ) + M 3p ⋅ d' + M 1p ⋅ so' + M b ⋅ d' ⋅ (d − ts ) M thin = 2p d' ⋅so ' (26) Thin plate behaviour holds while the moment at Point 3 is equal to the plastic limit. (25) and (10). Using (20) and substituting Q = Qmax enables the bolt load B to be expressed as B= Qmax ⋅ (ap + so ') + M 2p + M b so ' (25) The resulting connection moment for thin plate behaviour is found using (24).

along with the ratio of the predicted ultimate moment to the experimental ultimate moment.95 62.54 53.29 62.67 85.00 160.84 60. These moments. Table 5 – Connection Ultimate Moments Predicted using the Modified Tee-Stub with Equivalent Width Test # Plate Equivalent Width weq (mm) Predicted Moment Based on Bolt Capacity Plate Capacity Mcu-th (kN.02 1.73 98.03 172.58 97. The predicted moments versus experimental moments are also presented in Figure 13.84 102.56 67.10 0.00 160.92 1.57 71.03 172.00 191. Bolt capacity (which may occur in conjunction with thick or intermediate plate behaviour) occurs when the tensile bolts fracture.58 yield line mechanism is noted in the brackets (see Figure 5) 0.m) Governing Failure Mode* Ratio Mcu-th/ Mcu End Plate (2) Bolt Bolt End Plate (2) End Plate (2) Bolt End Plate (3) Bolt Bolt End Plate (3) End Plate (3) Bolt End Plate (2) Bolt End Plate (2) Bolt Mean S.97 0.77 68.00 210.50 41.37 58.89 110.99 0.D.85 0.75 0.12 191.95 0. and the defined plate design stress (fp) (Equation 13).48 58.09 94. The plate capacity is independent of the bolt loads.00 210.12 46.83 59.39 87.where Myl is the yield moment corresponding to the Mode 3 mechanism.99 0.58 70.54 84. while plate capacity (thin plate behaviour) occurs when a plastic mechanism forms in the end plate.86 0.40 71.98 0.75 45.00 160.94 0.45 72.07 0. The modified stub tee method identified two failure modes which are bolt capacity and end plate capacity.41 42.94 1.18 104.98 0.03 210.088 17 .98 0.12 172. are given in Table 5.12 191.86 53.52 38. the predicted moment for both the bolt and plate capacities for the connections outlined in Table 1 can be determined.88 52. * For connections governed by end plate capacity the relevant 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 210.80 75.00 47.00 160.00 160. Utilising the modified stub tee method with appropriate equivalent widths (weq).88 0.45 73.00 210.m) Mcu-th (kN.

the estimated yield moments calculated using Equation 5 are larger than results obtained by a more precise yield line analysis. The mean and standard deviation of the predicted to test ratios for all the tests was 0.The statistical analysis shows a good correlation between the experimental and the predicted results. having a mean of 1. As a result.088 respectively.Predicted versus Experimental Moment The equivalent width is calculated assuming the section is square or rectangular (without rounded corners). for the 18 . These results can be further divided into two categories depending on whether the ultimate capacity was limited by plate capacity or bolt capacity. In these connections. the deformations of the end plates were not as severe as in the thin plates. The low average predicted strength of the connections with a thin end plate is thought to be a result of the fact that the model does not incorporate the tension stiffening effects which occur in practice when the end plates deform significantly.00 and a standard deviation of 0.088. having a mean ratio of predicted to experimental moments of 0. Since the yield line analysis for the Mode 3 mechanism is sensitive to the position of the section corners. and the assumption that the end plate behaves in the same manner as a wide beam is appropriate.066. and since the tested sections comprised rounded corners (of external radius 2. The connections characterised by an end plate failure mode showed a less accurate correlation with the experimental results. 100 90 +10% -10% Conservative Experimental Moment (kN.5 times the thickness). The connections with a tensile bolt failure mode demonstrated an excellent correlation with the test results.m) Figure 13 .m) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Unconservative Predicted Moment (kN.91 and a standard deviation of 0.95 and 0.

that for deeper sections the yield lines through Point 1 (Figure 6) may not form due to insufficient rotations at this point. As described in this report. #14. #18 and #22). The plate capacity. The thinner plates (#11. #16.2. For this reason. the latter being appropriate for ultimate strength calculations only. #17 and #20). 19 . 4. have experimental serviceability ratios (Mcs/Mcu) that are lower than those for the respective thicker plates (#13. or the end plate forms a plastic mechanism. for which the connection rotation capacity is high. bolt capacity and the serviceability limits are plotted on each experimental moment-rotation curve in Appendix B. The ratios of the predicted to experimental serviceability limit moments shown in Table 4 vary depending on the plate stiffness. The serviceability limit is defined as when either the tensile bolts commence to yield. as observed by Murray (1988). The experimental yield moments (Mcy) and ultimate moments (Mcu) are given in Tables 4 and 1 respectively. the calibration of the connection model is based on tests for which the sections are relatively shallow (d = 150 or 200 mm) compared to I-sections often used in moment end plate connections. The yield line moment capacity per unit length is assumed to be based on the plate yield stress (fy) rather than the plate design stress (fp).4. while the formation of a plastic mechanism in the end plate (without bolt deformation) is described by the Mode 2 and Mode 3 mechanism analyses. however.tests where the equivalent width concept was used (#17 to #22). The calculated serviceability limits and the relevant governing mode. Additionally. yield line analysis is utilised.2 Serviceability Limits To determine the serviceability limit moments (Mcs) of the connection. the predicted to experimental moment ratios are generally higher than for the other tests. an upper limit of 400 mm on the depth of the section has been applied to the design model described in this paper. It is recognised. which correspond precisely to the yield line analysis described in Section 4. The moment at which the bolts begin to yield (Mode 1 yield line failure) is determined from Equation 2. the “knee” in the moment-rotation curve (corresponding to the yield moment shown in Figure 4) for the thinner plates is accurately predicted by the serviceability limits. Mcs = Myl). are given in Table 4 (ie.

20 .

21 . 1990). If this condition is not met. the report suggests that the “ideal” failure mode should involve bolt capacity combined with intermediate plate behaviour.8/TB). b Compression ae so ts as d Dp df Tension so ae tp s n ap d’ so ’ c d = end plate thickness = weld leg length = number of tensile bolts = min(2·tp. ae) = d + s/√2 = so . a lower bound analysis such as the one carried out using yield line analysis (Section 4. It is recommended that the tensile bolts be positioned so that two or more bolts fall between the line of the webs (c=as-ae ≤ 0. which are tensioned to the minimum bolt tension as specified in AS 4100 (SA. with the depth of the beam section (d) assumed to be no greater than 400 mm. Design Model The design model presented here relates to a bolted moment end plate connection connecting square or rectangular hollow sections. Thus. The connection serviceability moment (Mcs). The strength limit state moment capacity of the connection (Mcu). will be the lower value of the ultimate moments computed on the basis of bolt capacity (Mcb) and plate capacity (Mcp). Following the philosophy of Murray (1990).a e ≤ 400 mm ae Wp ae Figure 14 -Model Parameters A major recommendation of this report is that the end plate in the bolted moment end plate connection should behave in an intermediate manner to achieve an economical and ductile design. The connection is assumed to consist of two rows of high strength structural grade bolts (8.s/√2 = as . it is assumed that the bolts in the compressive region resist all the shear loads. The layout of the end plate is shown in Figure 14. see Figure 14). The disadvantage of a thin end plate is that it exhibits low stiffness. On the other hand. causing large deformations which reduces the serviceability limit moment of the connection relative to the connection ultimate moment. a connection with an end plate classified as thick can fail in a brittle manner due to bolt fracture and may also be unnecessarily expensive.2) will be necessary to calculate the equivalent end plate width (weq).5.

the appropriate end plate thickness is given by M * ⋅(ap + so ' ) π ⋅ d b3 ⋅ f by ⋅ d' 4⋅ φ ⋅ (d − t ) − n ⋅ Bu1 ⋅ ap + 32 s b t bu = weq ⋅ (d' +2 ⋅ (so' + ap ))⋅ f p (29) The limits on the plate thickness for the capacity limited by bolt failure are 22 . The bolt load at failure is equal to the nominal tensile strength of all tensile bolts (Bu). and the stress in the end plate yield lines is equal to the plate design stress (fp) as defined by Equation 13. The corresponding material properties should be the nominal values obtained from the appropriate standards.1 Connection Capacity Limited by Bolt Failure Bolt failure is premised on intermediate plate behaviour (Section 4. it is appropriate that the capacity reduction factor for bolts in tension (φb) be used. The moment capacity of the connection will be the lower of these two values.2).1. Since it is assumed that tensile failure of the bolts govern in this case.will be the minimum of the moments that cause yielding of the bolts (Mcbs) or yielding of the end plate (Mcps). 5. The bolt load Bu1 is the tensile strength of an individual bolt.1 Strength Limit State Design The moment capacity of the connection is determined using the modified stubtee method which includes the effects of prying forces. the connection design moment capacity is given by π ⋅ d b3 ⋅ f yb 4 ⋅ n ⋅ Bu1 ⋅ ap + ⋅ d' + weq ⋅ (d' +2 ⋅ (so ' + ap ))⋅ t p2 ⋅ f p 32 φ b M cb = φ b ⋅ (d − ts ) (28) 4 ⋅ (ap + so ' )⋅ d' Design Thickness If the connection design moment M* is known. respectively. Equations to calculate the connection capacity based on bolt failure and end plate failure are presented. Moment Capacity From an adaptation of Equation 21.3. The resisting moment generated by the bolts (Mb) and the plate design stress in the end plate (fp) are defined by Equation 16 and Equation 13. 5.

Equations 33 and 34 following give the serviceability moments for connections whose plate parameters are known.3.3) using the plate design stress (fp) (Equation 13). with no significant contribution from the bolts.tp ≤ 4 ⋅ n ⋅ Bu1 ⋅ so ' weq ⋅ f p (30) 5. while Equations 35 and 36 enable the appropriate plate thickness to be calculated for a given serviceability moment Ms*. the connection design moment capacity is given by π ⋅ d b3 ⋅ f yb t p2 ⋅ f p ⋅ (weq ⋅ (d '+2 ⋅ so ') + (weq − n ⋅ d f )⋅ d ') + n ⋅ ⋅d' 8 ⋅ (d − t ) (31) φ p M cp = φ p s 4 ⋅ d '⋅so ' Design Thickness For a given connection design moment M*. it is appropriate that the capacity factor for the plate in bending (φp) be used. Serviceability Moments The serviceability limit moment based on bolt yielding (φ b Mcbs) is given by (d '+2 ⋅ (so '+ ae )) ⋅ weq ⋅ t p2 ⋅ f y n ⋅ By1 ⋅ ae ⋅ (d − ts ) = φb + so '+ ae 4 ⋅ (so '+ ae ) ⋅ d ' 23 φ b M cbs (33) . The bolt load By1 corresponds to the yield load of an individual bolt.1. Serviceability limits for the connection occur when either the bolts or the end plate begin to yield.2 Connection Capacity Limited by End Plate Failure The equations for end plate capacity are based on thin plate behaviour (Section 4. Moment Capacity From an adaptation of Equation 26. the appropriate end plate thickness is given by M * ⋅so ' π ⋅ d b3 ⋅ f by ⋅ d' φ ⋅ (d + t ) − n ⋅ 32 s p t pu = 2 ⋅ (weq ⋅ (d '+2 ⋅ so ') + (weq − n ⋅ d f )⋅ d ')⋅ f p (32) 5.2 Serviceability Limit State Design The serviceability moment is based on yield line analysis. Since the capacity of the plate is assumed to govern in this case.

(1981). Connections governed by plate capacity are also more influenced by tension stiffening effects in the end plate which are not considered in the design model described in this report. ultimate bolt loads and plate properties into Equations 29 and 31 to obtain tbu and tpu respectively. Otherwise the equivalent width is equal to the end plate width (Wp).The serviceability limit moment based on plate yielding ((φ p Mcps) is given by φ p M c ps ((d '+ so ') ⋅ weq − n ⋅ d f ⋅ d ')⋅ tp2 ⋅ f y ⋅ (d − ts ) = φp 2 ⋅ so '⋅d ' (34) Serviceability Thickness If the connection design serviceability moment Ms* is known. The recommended procedure for the design of the connection as described in Figure 14 is as follows: (1) Estimate the end plate dimensions for initial design based on section size. a well designed and efficient connection is governed by the bolt capacity (Equation 28-29). bolt size and number of bolts. 24 . (If plate thickness already determined go to (6)). (3) Solve for the strength limit state design thicknesses by substituting the design moment. the required plate thickness to satisfy the serviceability requirements based on bolt yielding and plate yielding are given respectively by M s* ⋅ (so '+ ae ) ⋅ d ' − n ⋅ By1 ⋅ ae ⋅ d ' φ b ⋅ (d − ts ) t bs = 2 ⋅ (d '+2 ⋅ (so '+ ae ))⋅ weq ⋅ f y t ps = 2 ⋅ M s* ⋅ so '⋅d ' φ p ⋅ (d − ts )⋅ ((d '+ so ')⋅ weq − n ⋅ d f ⋅ d ')⋅ f y (35) (36) 5. Connections governed by plate capacity are generally inefficient with the serviceability limit to strength limit ratio (Mcu/Mcs) being considerably lower than those governed by bolt capacity. yield line analysis is required to determine the equivalent width (weq). (2) If two or more bolts are not positioned within the webs of the section (c ≤ 0).3 Design Procedure As discussed by Kennedy et al.

tps) (5) The resulting thickness for the end plate (tp) must exceed both the serviceability and ultimate limit state thicknesses. For appropriate serviceability limit state design. tpu) (4) Solve for the serviceability design thickness by substituting the serviceability moment. that is max(tsv. the yield load of the bolt. but must be less than the maximum allowable plate thickness (tmax) given by Equation 30. while the connection design capacity for the strength limit state is the minimum moment from (6). or a thicker plate to increase the plate capacity. the required plate thickness is equal to the maximum of the thickness based on bolt and plate capacity (Equations 29 and 32). either select an alternative bolting arrangement to lower the bolt capacity. 25 . (7) Solve Equations 33 and 34 to ensure that the serviceability limit moments φ b Mcbs and φ p Mcps are greater than the serviceability design moment Ms*. and the plate yield stress into Equations 34 and 36 to obtain tbs and tps respectively.For appropriate ultimate strength limit state design. If φb Mcb > φp Mcp. (8) The serviceability limit moment is the minimum moment from (7). tu = max(tbu . tu) ≤ tp ≤ tmax (6) Solve Equations 28 and 31 using tp to obtain the design moment capacities of the connection (φb Mcb and φp Mcp). tsv = max(tbs . Similarly if φb Mcb < M* the bolt capacity must be increased. Recalculate moment capacities to ensure they exceed the design moment. the required plate thickness is equal to maximum of the serviceability thicknesses calculated (Equations 35 and 36).

2 kN. the design section plastic moment capacity (φ Ms) is 19.m and φp Mcp = 25.m 8.0 kN. From Equation (13). resulting in a design shear capacity of 118. nominal tensile strength and yield load of the bolts are determined from the Ajax Fasteners handbook (1992) as Bp = 91. thus for the connection described. Grade 350 265 x 135 x 16 end plate. Bu1 = 125 kN and By1 = 100 kN respectively. Grade 350 four M16 Grade 8.0 kN.m For the 125 × 75 × 4 RHS. The shear capacity of the connection is also determined by assuming that all shear is taken by the compressive bolts.2 kN. 6. The weld leg length is specified to be 4 mm.4 Design Examples 5.m (AS 4100).1 Example 1 Given the section size.2 mm.4.8 for the bolt failure and φp = 0. the resulting plate design stress is fp = 416 MPa. the ultimate strength is governed by the section capacity rather than the connection capacity.6 kN to AS 4100 (1990).6 kN. 1981) as fy = 350 MPa and fu = 450 MPa.m 7.9 for plate failure in plastic bending. 2. giving d’ = 127. Solve to obtain design capacities (Equations 28 and 31) φb Mcb = 22. the serviceability limit moment is 17. For the connection described. therefore go to (6).9 kN. end plate size. 26 . The bolts are in line with the web so weq = Wp. The plate dimensions and section sizes are given. the capacity factors are φb = 0.m and φp Mcps = 18. The proof load. Solve to obtain serviceability limits (Equation 34 and 35) φb Mcbs = 17.1 kN.8 mm and so’ = 37. Thickness of the end plate is known. and bolts details. Section End Plate Bolts 125 x 75 x 4 RHS. 1.8 The nominal yield stress and ultimate tensile strength for the end plate material are determined from AS 3678 (SA.6 kN.5.m. determine the design ultimate moment and shear capacities for the connection. with the bolts positioned 30 mm from the edge of the end plate. From AS 4100 (1990). and the design ultimate moment capacity is 22.

and the serviceability limit state moment is 29. 17. The design ultimate strength limit state moment capacities are φb Mcb = 37. 27 . Thus tu = 17.0 kN.8 kN. 5.5 mm.9 for the plate.8 bolts.0 kN. The maximum allowable end plate thickness (tmax) is 20.6 mm. 7. The bolts are positioned in line with the webs so weq = Wp.m. Substituting into Equations 29 and 32 gives tbu = 17. The weld leg length is 6 mm. The strength limit state design moment capacity for the connection is 37. Grade 350 Design moment (M*) of 35 kN. 8.2 mm. the capacity factors are φb = 0. Assume four M16 Grade 8. and that the bolts are in line with the webs of the section. design the connection plate thickness and number of bolts.m.2 Example 2 The section size and the design moment are given. From AS4100. The serviceability limit state moments are φb Mcbs = 29. the serviceability limit state is OK.2 Therefore. tu) ≤ tp ≤ tmax ie.m Since Ms* < φb Mcbs.2 ≤ tp ≤ 20.8 kN.5 kN. Since M* < φb Mcb < φp Mcp.2 mm and tpu = 13.8 for the bolts and φp = 0. the distance to the flange of the section is 40 mm. Thus ts = 13. assume tp = 18 mm. Bolt properties are tensile strength of 125 kN and yield load of 100 kN.m and φp Mcps = 45.m Serviceability limit (Ms*) of 21. the strength limit state is OK.5. Substituting into Equations 35 and 36 gives tbs = 13. plate width of 210 mm and depth of 290 mm. 1. 2. the distance from the edge to centre of bolt holes is 30 mm.8 bolts.8 kN.3 mm.m and φp Mcp = 60.4.m Assume 350 Grade end plate. Section size 150 x 150 x 6 SHS.2 mm.m. 4. 3. The required end plate thickness must be in the range max(ts.6 mm and tps = 12. The connection requires an 18 mm end plate with four M16 Grade 8. 6.7 kN.

3 mm.0 kN.m. for the end plate given below.3 mm.3 kN. 6. try 15 mm end plate with three tensile M16 bolts (five bolts in total). The bolts are positioned outside the line of the webs. End Plate Section 330 x 230 Grade 350 200 x 100 x 4 RHS (design section capacity to AS4100 is 51.m and φp Mcp = 56.8 kN.1 kN. The strength limit state design moment capacity for the connection is 52.5. The required end plate has a thickness of 15 mm and contains five M16 bolts. thus weq = 230 mm.m.3 Example 3 Suppose it is required that the design moment capacity of the end plate connection exceed the design section moment capacity.m. Substitution into Equations 30 and 32 gives tbu = 5. thus tu = 14.) It is assumed that the distance from the edge of the plate to the centre of the bolts is 30 mm. Find the end plate thickness and the maximum design serviceability moment. Since φb Mcb > φp Mcp.m.m. Assuming the end plate thickness is 15 mm with five M16 Grade 8. The bolts have a yield load of 233 kN and an ultimate load of 293 kN.m. Select tp =15 mm. and the serviceability limit moment is 41.4. 7.m and φp Mcp = 65. With a plate thickness (tp) of 15 mm. 4. the limit state moments are φb Mcb = 65.3 mm is determined. 28 .1 kN. the weld leg length is 4 mm. 2. using yield line analysis an equivalent width (weq) of 177. 1.m and φp Mcps = 45. Plate dimensions already specified. 3. This bolting arrangement results in a Mode 2 yield mechanism. Now φb Mcb < φp Mcp and the limit state strength is OK. 5. Serviceability limit thickness not required.8 kN.3 kN. Hence φb Mcb = 52. 8.5 kN. and 4 M24 bolts are used.9 kN.9 mm and tpu = 14.8 bolts gives serviceability limit moments of φb Mcbs = 41.

one row above the top flange and one row below the bottom flange. to predict both the ultimate moment capacity and maximum serviceability moment for the connection. The reason for this is that the use of additional bolts in the tensile row will tend to enforce a Mode 2 end plate failure. The model demonstrated a good correlation with the test results. for which the model presented in this paper is well suited. the addition of extra bolts in the tensile bolt row will not invalidate the model. including bolt fracture and plastic mechanism formation in the end plate. with an overall mean predicted to experimental ratio of 0.95. Conclusions This report presents a simple and accurate model to predict the strength of a moment end plate connection in rectangular hollow sections. coupled with yield line analysis.6. 29 . while connections exhibiting thick plate behaviour are very brittle. thin and intermediate). and a corresponding standard deviation of 0. The serviceability limit presented is based on first yield of the bolts or the formation of a yield mechanism in the end plate.088 for the range of connections tested. it is recommended that the end plate connections should be designed to behave according to the intermediate plate model. While the connections tested experimentally and used for model verification only contained two bolts in each row. The model is effective in its consideration of all relevant failure modes which can occur. The model uses a modified stub tee analogy. Comparisons of the predicted connection ultimate moments were made with the corresponding experimental results. The modified stub tee incorporates the effects of the prying forces on the connection strength. while the yield line analysis predicts the failure mechanism of the end plate to enable the calculation of an end plate “equivalent width” to be used in conjunction with the stub tee model. Thin plate behaviour results in connections that are very ductile and exhibit extremely high rotations. with connection strength being governed by bolt failure. The model is limited to square and rectangular sections with two rows of bolts. Of the three types of plate behaviour presented (thick.

30 .

References Agerskov. London-Toronto. 161-175. May 1991.” Joints in Structural Steelwork. Richmond. M.” Steel Design Guide 4. 2. H. Ajax Fasteners (1992). (1980). I. 163-177. M. and Mukai. Kato.. 111(5). Thomas. ASCE.Bolt Products. (1991). and McGuire. 31 . ASCE. Victoria. 102(1). and Sherbourne A. Kato. ASCE. N.7.” proceedings. Fasteners Handbook . R. A.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Vinnakota. pp 133-162. Kukreti. “Design Guide for Extended End Plate Moment Connections. (1981) “The Split-Tee Analogy in Bolted Splices and Beam-Column Connections...” Journal of Structural Engineering.138-2. “Recent Developments for the Design of Moment EndPlate Connections. (1990). B.157. “Beam-to-Column Moment Connections. (1985). “Analysis of T-Stub Flange-to-Column Connections. “Bolted Tension Flanges Joining Square Hollow Section Members. 116(3). T. “Behaviour and Design of Large-Capacity Moment End Plates. R. and Bennetts. M. R. International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures. B. John Wiley &sons..” Journal of Structural Engineering. A. and Murray T. S. and Hirose. I. 865-888. (1976). 106(1). 1981. Grundy.” Journal of Structural Division. N. American Institute of Steel Construction. Murray. (1988). (10). pp. 313-330. (1990). Kennedy.. W.” Journal of Structural Division. B.. ASCE. T. Kato. 99(5). D.. Australia.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research. Singapore. P. “High Strength Bolted Flanges Joints of SHS Stainless Steel Columns. 809-828. “High-Strength Bolted Connections Subject to Prying. Ghassemieh. Murray. (1973). ASCE. M. A..

. Clarke M. Wheeler A. A. (1996).. Fourth Pacific Structural Steel Conference.” Australian Institute of Steel Construction. S.. Sydney. and Munse. T. Sydney. Birkemoe. University of Tasmania. SA (1981a). Department of Civil Engineering.” Proceedings.. “High Strength Bolts Subject to Tension and Prying. (1997).1-1991: Structural Steel Welding . B. A. SA (1991c). 1995. J. Pergamon. T. W. SA (1981b). Standards Australia. Sydney. and Chapman. pp 331-336. Clarke M.. Tasmania. (1995a). SA (1991a). Sydney.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Sydney. Wheeler A.Part 1: Welding of Steel Structures. and Hancock G. Wheeler A. AS 1252-1981: High-strength Steel Structural Bolts with Associated Nuts and Washers for Structural Engineering. 100(2).. Singapore. J.Hot-rolled plates.. “Bending Tests of Bolted End Plate Connections in Cold Formed Rectangular Hollow Sections. 2226-2241. P.” Journal of the Structural Division. P. ASCE. L.. AS 4100-1990: Steel Structures. and Hancock G. (1974). Clarke M. (1995b). No.Nair. 351-372. J. and Hancock G. Syam. (1989). ASCE. “Tests of Bolted Flange Plate Connections Joining Square and Rectangular Hollow Sections. Sydney. “Limit Analysis of Bolted RHS Flange Plate Joints. Standards Australia.” Research Report. Birkemoe. “Design of Structural Steel Hollow Sections. AS 1554. Vol 2 pp 97-104. T. G. floorplates and slabs.” Proceedings. H. Bruno. R. J.. SA (1990). Standards Australia. J. Fourteenth Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials. R736. J. “Tests of bolted Moment End Plate Connections in Tubular Members. Hobart. 32 . Standards Australia. AS 1163-1981: Structural Steel Hollow Sections. C. University of Sydney.. Packer. J. 115(9). Standards Australia. A. C.. AS 3678-1981: Structural Steel .

9) distance from centre of bolt to edge of plate lever arm for prying action distance from section web to edge of plate total load generated by tensile bolts width of SHS or RHS individual bolt load ultimate tensile load in all tensile bolts measured tensile strength of individual bolt yield load of individual bolt distance from line of section webs to centre of bolt hole depth of SHS or RHS corrected section depth diameter of bolt bolt hole diameter depth of end plate force in flange of section left hand component of tensile flange force plate design stress used in connection design right hand component of tensile flange force tensile strength yield stress bolt yield stress moment applied to connection connection design moment connection serviceability design moment plastic moment resistance provided by all tensile bolts connection nominal moment capacity connection nominal moment capacity due to bolt failure connection serviceability moment due to bolt yielding connection nominal moment capacity due to end plate failure connection serviceability moment due to end plate failure connection serviceability limit moment of connection measured ultimate connection moment measured connection yield moment the moment at point i in the stub-tee model calculated moment for intermediate plate behaviour end plate plastic moment at the point i in the stub-tee model plastic moment of end plate per unit length predicted connection moment thick plate behaviour upper limit 33 .8) capacity reduction factor for plates in bending (= 0. Notation φb φp ae ap as B b B1 Bu Bu1 By1 c d d’ db df Dp F FL fp FR fu fy fyb M M* M*s Mb Mc Mcb Mcbs Mcp Mcps Mcs Mcu Mcy Mi Mint Mip mp Mpred Mthick capacity reduction factor for bolts in tension (= 0.8.

Mthin Mus Myl n P Pu Q Qmax s so so’ tbs tbu tp tps tpu ts tsv tu weq Wp thin plate behaviour lower limit ultimate moment capacity of the section connection yield moment based on yield line analysis number of tensile bolts load applied to tee stub failure load of tee stub prying force maximum prying force weld leg length distance from section flange to centre of bolt hole corrected distance from section flange to centre of bolt hole end plate thickness required for serviceability based on bolt yielding end plate thickness required to prevent bolt failure end plate thickness end plate thickness required for serviceability based on end plate yield line mechanism end plate thickness required to prevent end plate failure thickness of section required end plate thickness for serviceability required end plate thickness for ultimate strength equivalent end plate width width of end plate 34 .

by prescribing a virtual displacement (δ) at the bottom of the section. as is appropriate in virtual work calculations.APPENDIX A . u and v defined by the normal vectors nu and nv is defined by: tanθ uv = nu × nv nu • nv (A1) which for small angles θuv. n1 = 0i + 0 j + k n2 = 0i + δ j + d k n3 = 0i + δ j + (so + ae ) k The angle θuv between two planes.DERIVATION OF PLASTIC MECHANISMS YIELD LINE MECHANISM 1 Mechanism 1 consists of two yield lines forming across the width of the end plate as show in Figure A1. The bolts at the bottom of the section are displaced as shown.Mechanism 1 The connection moment for plastic collapse of the end plate is found using virtual work principles. w x y z b c ae d so ae δ ae δ ae + so Deflected Shape End Plate Details Figure A1 . Planes 1 to 3 can now be expressed in terms of their respective normal vectors. can be simplified to θ uv = nu × nv nu • nv 35 (A2) .

The internal work for this mechanism is therefore n ⋅ B ⋅ ae (d + 2 ⋅ so + 2 ⋅ ae ) ⋅ w ⋅δ ⋅ mp + ⋅δ wI = so + ae ( so + ae ) ⋅ d The corresponding external work is wE = M yl ⋅ δ d − ts in which Myl is the applied connection moment to cause plastic collapse Equating the internal and external work furnishes (d + 2 ⋅ so + 2 ⋅ ae ) n ⋅ B ⋅ ae ⋅ (d − ts ) ⋅ w ⋅ mp + M yl = (s + a ) ⋅ d s o + ae o e 36 . Byi is the yield strength of the bolt i and δi is the elongation of bolt i. l 23 = w The internal work (wI) performed during plastic collapse can be expressed wI = yield lines ∑ l uv ⋅ θ uv ⋅ mp + bolts byi ⋅ δ i ∑ (A3) In which l uv and θ uv are as defined previously. angles θuv between intersecting planes u and v along the yield lines can be expressed as: θ12 = θ 23 = The lengths of the yield lines are δ d δ ⋅ (d + so + ae ) d ⋅ ( so + ae ) l 12 = w.Using Equation A2. mp is the full plastic moment of the end plate per unit length.

w x y z { b c ae d δ so ae Deflected Shape End Plate Details Figure A2 . The number of bolts (n) in the row along the bottom of the section may be varied.YIELD LINE MECHANISM 2 This mechanism consists of three yield lines forming across the width of the end plate as show in Figure A2. Planes 1 to 4 can now be expressed in terms of their respective normal vectors. by placing a virtual displacement (δ) at the bottom of the section. n1 = 0i + 0 j + k n2 = 0i + δ j + d k n3 = 0i + δ j + so k n4 = 0i + 0 j + k Using Equation A2.Mechanism 2 The connection moment for the plastic collapse of the end plate is found using virtual work principles. the angles between intersecting planes along the yield lines are: θ12 = θ 23 = δ d δ ⋅ (d + s o ) d ⋅ so δ so θ 34 = 37 .

of bolts The resulting internal virtual work can be expressed as w − n ⋅ df (d + 2 ⋅ so ) wI = ⋅w+ ⋅ δ ⋅ mp so ⋅ d so The corresponding external work is: δ d − ts Equating the internal and external work yields the following expression for the applied connection moment to cause the plastic collapse according to Mechanism 2: wE = M yl ⋅ 2 ⋅ (d + so )⋅ w n ⋅ d f − M yl = (d − ts ) ⋅ so ⋅ d so ⋅ mp 38 . l 23 = w. where n = no. l 34 = w − n ⋅ d f .The length of the yield lines are defined by l 12 = w.

w B A x y | B A d δ u z { c ae so ae Section A-A Section B-B b End Plate Details Deformed Shape Figure A3 . comprising the intersection of planes 2 and 3.Mechanism Three The moment to cause plastic collapse of the end plate is found using virtual work principles. A final yield line of length u extending from the lower edge of the plate lies along the vertical axis of symmetry of the connection. The planes 1 through to 5 are now be expressed in terms of their normal vectors as n1 = 0i + 0 j + k n2 = 0i + δ j + d k n3 = δ ⋅ vi + (2 ⋅ q ⋅ c − b ⋅ d ) ⋅ δ j + (2 ⋅ q ⋅ c + so ⋅ b ) ⋅ d k n4 = 0i + 0 j + k n5 = −δ ⋅ vi + (2 ⋅ q ⋅ c − b ⋅ d ) ⋅ δ j + (2 ⋅ q ⋅ c + so ⋅ b ) ⋅ d k where v = so + d q = ae + so − u 39 . The diagonal yield lines 23 and 25. The bolts are assumed to remain in position with no yielding. The yield line 12 formed by the intersection of Planes 1 and 2 lies adjacent to the top of the section across the width of the flange plate.YIELD LINE MECHANISM 3 The mechanism shown in Figure A3 consists of six yield lines. Two additional yield lines pass diagonally through the tensile bolts as shown in Figure A3. and planes 2 and 5 respectively. by placing a virtual displacement (δ) at the bottom of the section. pass through the lower corners of the section and intersect the vertical axis of symmetry of the connection a distance u from the lower plate edge.

2⋅b 1 2 1 − df . the angles between intersecting planes along the yield lines are expressed as: θ12 = δ d θ 23 = v ⋅ b2 + 4 ⋅ q 2 ⋅δ (2 ⋅ c ⋅ q + s o ⋅ b ) ⋅ d r 2 + 4 ⋅ v2q2 θ 34 = ⋅δ d ⋅ (2 ⋅ c ⋅ q + so ⋅ b ) θ 35 = 4 v⋅q ⋅δ d ⋅ (2 ⋅ c ⋅ q + so ⋅ b ) The lengths of the yield lines are defined as l 12 = w. wI 12 = w ⋅ δ ⋅ mp d 40 . l 34 = ae ⋅ (2 ⋅ v ⋅ q − r ) + 2 r q ⋅v l 35 = u where w = b + 2 ⋅ ae + 2 ⋅ c = Wp v = d + so q = a e + so − u r = 2⋅q⋅c −b⋅d 2 2 The contributions of each yield line to the total internal virtual work are. w ⋅ b 2 + 4q 2 l 23 = .Using Equation A2.

41 .wI 23 = v ⋅ (b 2 + 4 ⋅ q 2 )⋅ w ⋅ δ ⋅ mp 2 ⋅ b ⋅ (2 ⋅ c ⋅ q + so ⋅ b )⋅ d wI 34 = θ 34 ⋅ l 34 ⋅ mP wI 35 = 4 v ⋅q ⋅u ⋅ δ ⋅ mp (2 ⋅ c ⋅ q + so ⋅ b )⋅ d The corresponding external work is wE = M yl ⋅ δ d − ts The resulting expression for the connection moment to cause plastic collapse of the end plate according to Mechanism 3 is M = (wI 12 + 2 ⋅ (wI 23 + wI 34 ) + wI 35 ) ⋅ d − ts δ The expression must be minimised with respect to u to give the lower bound moment for the mechanism. and less than (so + ae). By physical considerations the value for u must be greater than or equal to zero.

EXPERIMENTAL MOMENT-ROTATION CURVES The moment-rotation behaviour of the connections tested experimentally and described in Wheeler. as governed by the formation of a plastic mechanism in the end plate. defined as the intersection of the initial stiffness and the strain hardening stiffness (Section 4. • The yield moment of the connection. determined by substituting the measured material properties into Equation 21 (termed “Bolt Capacity” in the figures). • The yield moment of the connection. • The computed ultimate moment capacity of the connection. Additional data presented includes: • The determination of the connection yield moment (Mcy). determined by substituting the measured material properties into Equation 3 or 4. determined by substituting the measured material properties into Equation 26 (termed “Plate Capacity” in the figures). 43 . as governed by yielding of the end plate. whichever results in the lower value (termed “Plate Yield” in the figures). as governed by bolt yielding. as governed by bolt capacity. determined by substituting the measured material properties into Equation 2 (termed “Bolt Yield” in the figures). • The computed ultimate moment capacity of the connection.APPENDIX B . Clarke and Hancock (1997) are presented in this appendix.1).

04 0.03 0.05 0.04 0. tp = 16 mm) 44 . Wp = 210 mm.01 0.01 0.03 0. tp = 12 mm) 90 80 70 Test 12 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. Wp = 210 mm.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B2 .05 0.06 0.02 0.90 80 70 Test 11 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.07 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B1 – Moment-rotation curve for Test 11 (SHS.02 0.07 0.06 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 12 (SHS.

01 0.06 0. RHS (Wp = 160 mm.03 0.08 Rotation (rad) FIGURE B4 . Wp = 210 mm.02 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (104.05 0.02 0.03 0.90 80 70 Test 13 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.07 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 14.06 0.05 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity 0.04 0. tp = 20 mm) 90 80 70 Test 14 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 13 (SHS.01 0.04 0.07 0.4 kNm) Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B3 . tp = 12 mm) 45 .

05 0. Wp = 160 mm.02 0. Wp = 160 mm.05 0.07 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B5 .04 0. tp = 20 mm) 46 .06 Test 16 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (102.4 kNm) Bolt Capacity 0.02 0.01 0. tp = 16 mm) 90 80 70 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.03 0.90 80 70 Test 15 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.08 Rotation (rad) FIGURE B6 .07 0.06 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 15 (RHS.04 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 16 (RHS.01 0.03 0.

90 80 70 Test 17 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. Wp = 280 mm.06 0.03 0.07 0. tp = 12 mm) 90 80 70 Test 18 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 18 (SHS.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B8 .Moment-rotation curve for Test 17 (SHS.01 0.08 Rotation (rad) FIGURE B7 .03 0.02 0. tp = 16 mm) 47 .04 0. Wp = 280 mm.07 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.

04 0.04 0. tp = 20 mm) 90 80 70 Test 20 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.07 0.8 kNm) Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B9 .08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B10 .01 0.07 0.01 0.05 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (94.02 0. tp = 12 mm) 48 .06 0. Wp = 230 mm.Moment-rotation curve for Test 19 (SHS.03 0.90 80 70 Test 19 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.05 0.06 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 20 (RHS. Wp = 280 mm.03 0.02 0.

07 0.07 0.02 0.08 Rotation (rad) FIGURE B12 .04 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B11 .03 0. Wp = 230 mm.06 0.90 80 70 Test 21 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.05 Test 22 Experimental Result Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (110.02 0.03 0.06 0.5 kNm) Bolt Capacity 0.05 0. tp = 16 mm) 90 80 70 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.Moment-rotation curve for Test 22 (RHS.01 0.04 0. Wp = 230 mm. tp = 20 mm) 49 .Moment-rotation curve for Test 21 (RHS.01 0.

Wp = 210 mm.04 0. tp = 16 mm.06 0.03 0.05 0. so = 45 mm) 90 80 70 Test 24 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.01 0. Wp = 210 mm.02 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.90 80 70 Test 23 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.05 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B13 .Moment-rotation curve for Test 24 (SHS.06 0.02 0.07 0. so = 25 mm) 50 .Moment-rotation curve for Test 23 (SHS.04 0.9 kNm) Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B14 . tp = 16 mm.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (97.

Moment-rotation curve for Test 25 (SHS.02 0.06 0.6 kNm) Bolt Capacity 0.02 0. tp = 16 mm.Moment-rotation curve for Test 26 (RHS. Wp = 160 mm.07 0.08 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity Bolt Capacity Rotation (rad) FIGURE B15 .90 80 70 Test 25 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0. tp = 16 mm. Wp = 160 mm.04 0.03 0. so = 45 mm) 90 80 70 Moment (kNm) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.05 0.01 0. so = 25 mm) 51 .05 0.06 Test 26 Experimental Bolt Yield End Plate Yield Plate Capacity (98.04 0.07 0.03 0.08 Rotation (rad) FIGURE B16 .01 0.

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