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Training Ad Builders to Use Rich Media Advertising

Tools Through Fading Worked Examples


Mr. Glenn Sipin Dr. Jose Lloyd Espiritu Ms. Kiran Budhrani
Assistant Professor Associate Professor Instructional Designer
De La Salle University-Manila De La Salle University-Manila Wideout Technology Services, Inc.
2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila, Philippines Taguig City, Manila, Philippines
glenn.sipin@delasalle.ph espiritu.lloyd@gmail.com kiranbudhrani@gmail.com

Abstract— An Ad Builder is the person responsible for working ads appear as static images commonly in JPG or GIF
on rich media ads. As a prerequisite to this job role, this person format. These images could be clicked and directs target
must have in-depth training in Flash and Actionscript. On the customers to the advertiser’s website. Today, online
job, the Ad Builder must be trained to program Audience advertisements are more attractive, engaging,
Interaction Metrics (AIM) using additional rich media tools (e.g.
educational, and exciting for the online customer. These
DoubleClick Studio) provided by rich media vendors.
types of ads are referred to as Rich Media Ads. The
This paper aims describes the effectiveness of using a task-based Interactive Advertising Bureau defines a rich media
approach and fading worked examples as a strategy to train new advertisement as an ad with which users can interact (as
ad builders with skills to program rich media advertisements. A opposed to solely animation) in a webpage format.
training program for Ad Builders was designed, implemented,
and evaluated at a rich media ad development company. Rich media has developed into a popular format among
advertisers and companies. Instead of using standard ads
Trainee performance evaluations show that using a task-based where the consumers just observe the ad in the
approach to training with fading worked examples can indeed
background, rich media ads prompt the consumer to do
develop the necessary skills in ad builders within a span of 15
days. Using task-based approach provides trainees apt things like expand the ad, view a video, play a game, or
foundation skills to get them started on basic tasks progressing answer a question. Telecommunication advertisers like
to more difficult tasks on the job. Providing several related Smart and Globe are using rich media ads to show the
examples for each task gives trainees opportunity for more latest promos, or download ringtones and wallpapers.
practice, more feedback, more chances to ask questions and Automobile advertisers like Honda and Ford use rich
clarify errors – resulting to better understanding. An evaluation media ads to get target customers to play racing games,
survey and interviews reveal that trainees were satisfied with browse car brands and features, and even watch product
training, appreciated the role of the trainer, and believed that a commercials all in a single ad. Movie advertisers let
training manual helped guide their learning.
customers watch trailers and download movie
wallpapers. Food & beverage advertisers let customers
Keywords— Banner Advertising, Rich Media Advertising, download recipes, view slideshows of brands, and even
Fading Worked Examples, Task-Based Training, Training Design follow cooking tips. Rich media are more than just for
display; they are intended for user-interaction and
engagement.
INTRODUCTION
Online advertising, through the means of banner ads, has Table 1. Comparison of Content fitting to Rich Media
evolved since the Internet boom. Popular websites we Content Type Is it rich media?
Plain Text Non-Rich
visit everyday like Inquirer.Net, Gmanews.TV, GIF/JPEG Image Non-Rich
ClickTheCity.com, Ebay.ph, Jobstreet Philippines, Animated GIFs Non-Rich
sunstar.com.ph, and JobsDB allow companies to put ads Animation Plug-ins (Flash) with Rich
on their website. More often, we see advertisements control buttons (play, stop,
replay, pause)
pertaining to automobiles, telecommunications, finance,
Streaming Audio/Video Rich
food & beverage, travel, entertainment and movie brands Expandable / Floating Ad Rich
appearing on these popular websites. Advertisers
primarily use the online medium to create brand Rich media ads are mostly developed with the Flash
awareness, get messages directly across to the audience, technology, but can extend to Javascript, XML, DHTML,
and encourage product sales through banner ads. and HTML5. Initially, rich media ads were not favoured
because of compatibility issues between browsers and
There are generally two types of banner ads for online Flash players. Users had to download a plug-in to play
display: standard ads or rich media ads. Standard banner

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ads that were using rich media technology. But with all A.1 Standard and Custom Metrics
browsers supporting the Flash format today, rich media
ads can easily be displayed on any website. Complex There are two types of AIM that an Ad Builder must be
interactivity is possible in rich media ads because these able to work with: standard metrics and custom metrics.
are ads are developed with Flash and its object-oriented The following tables list the standard and custom metrics
programming language, Actionscript. With the versatility available from DoubleClick Studio.
of Flash, anything is possible in a rich media ad.
Table 2. Standard Rich Media Advertising Metrics (DoubleClick, 2010)

Metric Description
TRAINING AN AD BUILDER Clicks Number of clicks and triggered exit links for
both the Rich Media ad and the backup
An Ad Builder is the person responsible for working on image.
rich media ads. As a prerequisite to this job role, this Average display The average time, in seconds, that each Rich
time Media ad is displayed to users.
person must have in-depth training in Flash, Actionscript Expanding time The average time, in seconds, that an
2.0, Actionscript 3.0, and preferably working experience Expanding ad is viewed in an expanded
with Javascript, HTML, and XML. Up till 2010, almost all state.
rich media ads were Flash-based. But as of 2011, few Full-screen The average time, in seconds, that a user
average full- views a Rich Media ad in full-screen mode.
advertisers are requiring rich media ads to be in HTML5
screen view time
to support mobile rich media advertising on mobile Interaction time The average time, in seconds, that a user
devices that do not support Flash (e.g. iPhone, iPads). It is interacts with a Rich Media ad. An
inevitable for that future ad builders will need both Flash interaction is any mouse movement that a
and HTML5 programming skills. user performs over an ad for more than one
second (for example, clicking an ad or
positioning the cursor over a specific part of
On the job, the Ad Builder must be trained for the an ad).
following skill competencies: Backup image The number of times that a backup image is
A. Programming Audience Interaction Metrics (AIM) served in place of a Rich Media ad.
A backup image can be shown under these
unto varying rich media ad formats and sizes circumstances:
using rich media tools • The user is using an unsupported
B. Programming Audience Interaction Metrics (AIM) browser or operating system
• The Flash application is not
unto rich media content and ad interactions installed on a user's browser
using rich media tools • The Flash-published version is
higher than what is installed on a
A. Programming Audience Interaction Metrics (AIM) user's browser
• The publisher implementation of
unto varying rich media ad formats and sizes using rich iframe is incorrect or invalid.
media tools Display time The time, in seconds, that the Rich Media ad
is displayed to users.
With static display ads, the measurement of ad
effectiveness was based on the click-through rate (CTR) or Expansions The unique number of impressions where an
“how many clicks” an ad received from users online. Expanding ad is viewed in an expanded
Rich media ads appealed to advertisers because of the state.
possibility of having advanced tracking abilities – Full-screen A metric that measures an impression only
impressions once when a user opens an ad in full-screen
measuring a variety user interactions beyond the “click”. mode.
Since rich media ads have more interactive features, new Full-screen The number of times that a Rich Media ad
metrics could be tracked such as display time, interaction video plays to completion in full-screen mode.
rate, expansion time, video playback, exit links, and other completions
Full-screen view The time, in seconds, that a Rich Media ad is
custom events (Table 2 and Table 3).
time viewed in full-screen mode.
Impressions The number of times that a Rich Media ad
Audience Interaction Metrics (AIM) is defined by measure is displayed
the performance of Rich Media ads by tracking Interaction rate The ratio of Rich Media ad interactions to the
information about how users interact with the ads number of times that the ad is displayed.
Video The number of times that a video plays to its
(DoubleClick, 2010). This provides advertisers exact completions completion. For example, a 30-second video
information on what works or does not work among their that plays for its full 30 seconds.
online ad campaigns. Research has consistently proven Video full screen The number of times that a video plays in
that rich media advertising produces better response full-screen mode.
Video The ratio of video interactions to video plays.
rates. According to the DoubleClick® Q1 2003 Ad interaction rate
Serving Trend Report, average click-through rates for rich Video The number of times that a user clicks on the
media ads were approximately five times higher than interactions graphical controls of a video player. This
click-through rates for non-rich media ads (snap2eyes, metric is recorded by measuring any
changes to the video play experience other
2010). than auto-play and auto-complete.
Video length The duration, in seconds, of a video ad.

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Video mutes The number of times that a video is muted.
Video pauses The number of times that a video is paused. Over time, newer formats have been defined like the
Video plays The number of times that a video is played.
Instant Messenger format and the YouTube Masthead
Video replays The number of times that a video is
restarted. format. More ad formats are expected to arise as
Video stops The number of times that a video is stopped. advertisers integrate brands into newer digital platforms
Video unmutes The number of times that a video is unmuted beyond websites like mobile devices, digital TV, digital
after starting in the mute state. radio, online games, and digital displays. Ad builders will
Video view rate The number of times that a video is stopped.
Video view time The average time, in seconds, that a video is
have to be ready to learn these while on the job.
viewed per view.
Table 4. Descriptions of common Rich Media Ad formats
Video views The number of times that a video is watched.
(DoubleClick, 2010)
Table 3. Custom Rich Media Advertising Metrics (DoubleClick, 2010)
Ad Format Description
In-page An ad that is within a fixed position on a page.
Metric Description
Variations: In-page with Video, In-Page with
The number of times that a user interacts
Floating, In-Page You-Tube Masthead
with any part of a Rich Media ad in a
specified way (mouse-overs, mouse-outs,
Counters Expanding An ad that expands beyond its initial pixel
click-ins, data loading, keyboard entries,
dimensions. Expansion can take place upon user
etc.). Anything that can be captured by Flash
interaction (for example, by click or mouse-over)
can be recorded as a counter.
or automatically when the page loads (Auto-
The number of click-throughs generated by a
Exits Expand). An ad can be customized to expand in
Rich Media ad.
any direction, shape, or effect and to collapse on
The time during which a user views and
user interaction or automatically on mouse-out
interacts with a specified part of a Rich
Timers or based on a timer.
Media ad. A creative can have multiple timer
events, each timed independently.
Variations: Expanding with Video, Expanding
You-Tube Masthead, Push-down, IM Expanding

Floating An ad that floats on top of a page's content. A


Floating ad can move with content or maintain a
locked position on a page as a user scrolls.

Variation: Ad Take-Over

Peelback / An ad that shows a glimpse of your ad in the


Peel-Down corner of a web page. When the user
interacts, the rest of the ad peels down to
reveal the full message

Table 5. Expanding rich media ad sizes (DoubleClick, 2010)

Size when Size when


EXPANDING ADS not expanded
expanded
Figure 1. In-Page Ads in two sizes: 728x90 and 300x250 1
Expanding Horizontally 728x90 728x180
728x270
A.2 Ad Formats and Sizes 728x399
300x250 500x250
Audience Interaction Metrics and defined based on the ad 120x600 300x600
formats required by the client and the complexity of 160x600 300x600
Expanding Horizontally and 300x250 500x500
interactions that was designed for the ad. A person Vertically
training as an ad builder must be, at the very least,
familiar with the common ad formats that appear on Web
browsers which are the In-page, Expanding, Floating, and The Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) has defined
Peelback/Peel-Down Ads (Table 4). The ad builder must standard rich media guidelines for all ad formats to set a
also be familiar with the variety of shapes and sizes of the lowest common denominator for the advertising industry
different ad formats. The most common ads are 728x90, and creative agencies. Ad builders must comply with
300x250 (Figure 1), 120x600, and 160x600 pixels in these LCDs while working on rich media ads. All ad
width and height. These are typical for in-page ads and formats have predefined standards on the width, height,
expanding ads at their initial state (i.e. not yet expanded). maximum load file size, number of frames per second,
Expanding ads, however change size once triggered to audio settings, animation length, required button controls
expand (Table 5). and sometimes even the font size (Table 6).

1
Source of Advertisement Banners: BBDO Proximity, 2010

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Table 6. IAB Guidelines for an In-page Ad (IAB, 2010) Studio lets ad builders create rich media interactivity
using their built-in Flash components (Figure 2). Ad
Max builders must know how to work with all these
Initial Maximum Web Site
Load
Flash Audio
Animation Controls Labeling components to track the basic rich media interactions
Specifics Initiation
File Length & Other Items such as playing videos, downloading content, viewing
Size
pictures to more complex interactions like streaming
• Control multiple videos in standard or HD, recording videos with
= “Close a webcam and sending it to a friend’s email or smart
User X”, Play, • Label = phone, viewing 3D environments, playing 3D multiplayer
Anything
40 Initiated Pause, “Advertiseme
KB
18 fps
(on
up to 15
Rewind, nt” games, connecting to social media, chatting, uploading
seconds pictures, viewing maps, listening to music from playlists,
click) Volume • Font = 16 pt
• Font = detecting user’s location, filling-up forms, answering
16 pt
polls, logging-in to Twitter, posting images or video to
Facebook, answering quizzes, viewing photo galleries,
B. Programming Audience Interaction Metrics (AIM) downloading files, and much, much more.
unto rich media content and ad interactions using rich
media tools

Making a rich media ad possible requires much more


complex technology than just Flash to ensure that all of
the ad behaviors function properly and all of the
interactions can be measured. A rich media technology
vendor provides add-ons to Flash in the form of
components to enable ads to be “rich”, such that they can
expand, have interactive features and buttons, play
multiple videos, have measureable clicks, timers, and
counters, etc. Popular vendors for rich media ads for the
web include DoubleClick, MediaMind, Pointroll, and
EyeWonder. Each vendor provides their own tools for rich
media advertising solutions. For this research,
DoubleClick Studio was explored.

Figure 3. DoubleClick Studio Ad Component Parameters

Ad builders must also know how to customize


component parameters according to the user
requirements. For example, an expanding component in
Figure 3 has four parameter options: to use the expanding
component as a button, to collapse on mouse-out, to
create an animated collapse, or to set the expanding
component as multi-directional. The ad builder decides
on parameters according to the ad behaviors required by
the client. If given parameters are not sufficient, ad
builders must use Flash Studio’s Actionscript APIs for
advanced interactive work on customizing components
for rich media ads.

Figure 2. DoubleClick Studio Ad Components

Rich media ads are a more complex form of ad -- from a


design and interaction perspective (Samadi and Paparo,
2009). Aside from having to work with different content
like text, images, flash animation, and videos, ad builders
must be able to develop any interactive feature required Figure 4. DoubleClick Studio Output Panel
of the client.

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Ad Builders must also be skilled in debugging errors and programming procedures, rather than resorting to
checking if all required audience interaction metrics trial-and-error / guessing strategies
required by the client have been programmed (Figure 4). • Job tasks are learned gradually (through fading), in
Studio presents the Output panel when a Flash ad is increasing level of difficulty and complexity;
tested to check if variables and interactions are being • Training is focused on transforming novice skills
tracked. to expert skills; and
• Examples for each task are designed to be related
to help trainees transfer learned skills.
STRATEGY FOR TRAINING PROGRAMMING TOOLS
This paper describes the effectiveness of using a task-
Programming with rich media tools like Double Click based approach and worked examples as a strategy to
Studio requires skill to work with built-in Flash train ad builders.
components, access code libraries, program in
Actionscript 2.0 / 3.0, and access external data sources
when required. The task-based training approach with RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
fading worked examples is recommended to support the This research paper aims to:
training of programming skills in the workplace. 1. Describe a model for using worked examples to
train programming procedures to Ad Builders; and
A. Task-Based Approach 2. Design, implement, and evaluate a training program
for Ad Builders.
A task-based model produces employees who can
perform the tasks needed to succeed at their job METHOD
(Hughes). In the context of training programming tools, The proponents went through the following phases to
the task-based training approach looks at the tasks that design, develop, and evaluate the training program for the
need to be done by the ad builder on the job, rather than ad builder job role:
looking in isolation at the way the software works
(McGuire). A. Training Design

The approach is suggested to train ad builders for the Task-Based Approach. Common Ad Builder tasks were
following reasons: identified by the content expert. Tasks were then grouped
• Training is not only for developing software skills, as either basic or advanced level. Seven tasks were
but also developing techniques for real job tasks; identified as basic level and were included for this
• Training is modular, evolving from basic to training:
complex tasks;
• Essential information is presented just-in-time 1. Create In-Page Ads
according to the job task at hand; 2. Creating Expanding Ads
• Programming errors, problems, and logic is 3. Creating Expanding Ads with Animated
realized from actual job tasks rather than Expansion and Collapse
programming exercises; 4. Creating Video Ads
• Training time is reduced focused on job 5. Creating Floating Ads
proficiency; and 6. Creating Peelback Ads
• Remediation / feedback is given based on trainee 7. Creating YouTube In-Page Masthead Ads with
performance rather than objective measures of YVA Player
written exams.
Tasks and examples are simulated as real client
B. Fading Worked Examples requirements. Trainees are not just told what to do, but
rather trained to analyze client requirements as they
A worked example is a step-by-step demonstration of would do on the job.
how to solve a problem or complete a procedure. Many
researchers have investigated the efficacy of using worked Tasks are learned as a series of steps demonstrated by the
examples in the instruction in mathematics, computer trainer and training module provided. The trainee is
programming, and physics. (Silber and Foshay, 2009). encouraged to develop this “pattern of thinking and
working” for each task:
This strategy is suggested to train ad builders for the 1. Analyze client requirements before attempting to
following reasons: work on the task;
• When learning from a series of examples, trainees 2. Identify the rich media components required for
develop a pattern of thinking and working; the task;
• Trainees are given directed resources (i.e. trainer
demonstrations, learning guides) while learning

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3. Accomplish the programming procedures to The third example is slightly more difficult than the
make the components work in accordance to ad second example. The programming procedures are not
behaviors (i.e expand, collapse, play video, etc.); provided in the training manual. The trainees are
4. Set the parameters for component according to expected to complete the example task on their own
client requirements; and given a set time limit. This time, the trainees work are
5. Test if all required audience interaction metrics formally rated and they are expected to perfect the task
are in place and functional. (or maybe have just minimal a number of errors). After
the time limit is over, the trainer evaluates the trainees
Fading Worked Examples. The trainee learns each task work and provides a list of revisions to rework. Trainees
using the fading worked examples strategy. For each task, must be able to debug or locate programming errors on
the trainee will be gradually given three examples with their own. Solutions are no longer provided by the
varying conditions. The instructional design model is trainer. A second evaluation is done by the trainer to
presented in Table 7. ensure that revisions are accomplished by the trainee.

Table 7. Instructional Design Model B. The Training Program

Task EXAMPLE EXAMPLE EXAMPLE


The training program was piloted on August 9-27, 2010
Conditions 1 2 3
at Wideout Technology Services, a rich media ad
Difficulty Level OOO OO O
Given Programming Yes No No development company stationed as a BPO firm in the
Procedure Guides Philippines. There were 13 participants for the training.
Trainer Yes No No The training program spanned 15 days, with 8 hours
Demonstration
allotted to each training day. Training took place at the
Time Limit No Yes Yes
Feedback night shift, from 10PM to 7AM. Wideout designated a
Conditions training room and a trainer for this time period.
Given the Solution Yes Yes No
Trainer Yes Yes No
Demonstration
Scoring / Rating No No Yes
(expected to
be perfect)
Rework No Optional Required

The first example is “worked out” for the trainee in their


training manual such that the programming procedures
are written down step-by-step. The trainer further
demonstrates the process of how to analyse client
requirements, how to program ad components, how to set
the parameters, and how to test if interaction metrics are
in place and functional. It is expected that the trainee
follows the example in the training manual and
demonstration procedures of the trainer. Note that no Figure 5. Sample Training Manuals
time limit is allotted for this example and the trainee’s
work are not formally rated. During this example, the Training manuals were prepared and distributed on the
trainee is free to ask questions from the trainer to clarify first day of the training. They contained the basic ad
programming procedures, logic, or errors. Mistakes are builder tasks and a worked example for each task.
expected. The trainer can repeat the solution any number Evaluation measures on how trainee performance will be
of times to help the trainees work on the task. evaluated were also discussed on the first day.

The second example is slightly more difficult than the first C. Evaluation
example. Programming procedures are no longer
“worked out” in the training manual. The trainees are C.1. Training Evaluation
expected to complete the example task on their own
given a set time limit. Still for this example, the trainees The training program was evaluated with a survey form
work is not formally rated. After the time limit is over, the designed by the proponents with the intention of
trainer then demonstrates how to complete the example evaluating the training’s content, delivery, training
task. Only this time can the trainees ask questions from facilities, and overall evaluation. Statements were drawn
the trainer to clarify programming procedures, logic, or up for each category and respondents specified their level
errors. The trainer can still repeat the solution any of agreement by rating from a scale of 1 to 4; the value of
number of times to help the trainees understand the task 4 represented they strongly agreed to the statement while
better. the value of 1 represented they strongly disagreed to the
statement.

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Follow up interviews were also conducted with the • Training manual helps me refresh / review at
trainees to gather qualitative feedback on the content, home and before the next day’s training
delivery, and training facilities, and their overall • Training manual is a good reference
perception of the training. • Its good that the manuals were used
simultaneously while the trainer was
C.2. Trainee Performance demonstrating
• Helps me program better with an example
Trainee performance was evaluated with individual • Details on how to use codes are very helpful
evaluation forms (in excel format) to keep track of the
number of errors acquired and the revisions list per task. Recommended improvements:

The evaluation form is used to track how accurately • More time in doing our revisions in our exams
trainees are able to build ad tasks assigned to them. Only • Additional practice set should be given for
the third example of each task is recorded on the form. expanding video ads
Performance criteria are defined on the form for the • The trainer should still discuss the answers to the
trainees to know what is expected of them. For the first third example to further correct mistakes
evaluation, any errors acquired by the trainee are noted
on the form and are due for rework. A second evaluation Average
DELIVERY (N=17)
is conducted where the trainer checks if all revisions on The trainer communicated the subject matter 3.69
the form were accomplished by the trainee. During the clearly.
course of the training, trainees are expected to have The trainer is approachable and helpful. 3.94
minimal revisions, ranging from 1-2 revisions by the third The trainer encouraged participation among 3.75
example. trainees.
The trainer is able to clarify / attend to all 4.00
questions.
The trainer's explanations were easy to 3.81
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION understand.
The trainer showed in-depth knowledge / skill of 3.94
the subject matter.
A. Training Evaluation
The trainer exhibited exceptional skill and 3.88
technique during demonstrations.
The following results are gathered from the survey given
The trainer's overall performance was effective. 3.88
to the trainees (4-Strongly Agree; 1-Strongly Disagree): 3.86

CONTENT (N=13) Average


Objectives of the training were clearly explained 3.92 On the average, the training delivery also garnered a very
at the start. positive evaluation from the survey. Qualitative feedback
Practice sets or activities were well chosen and 3.58 revealed both positive and negative responses.
appropriate.
Quizzes were challenging, yet contained 3.44 Positive feedback:
manageable amount of work.
Training manuals were helpful and guided my 3.83
• It was great to have somebody to consult with
learning.
Training manuals were complete and accurate. 3.58 • The trainer was able to give tips beyond the
Training manuals and/or slide presentations 3.92 manual
enhanced my understanding of topics.
3.71 Negative feedback:

• I was shy to ask questions at first


On the average, the training content garnered a very • It is difficult to ask questions without asking for
positive evaluation from the survey. Qualitative feedback the answer
revealed mostly positive responses as well with some
noted recommendations for improvement.
TRAINING ROOM FACILITY (N=17) Average
Positive feedback: The arrangement of the training room 3.88
contributed to a good learning experience.
The temperature and lighting was conducive to 3.88
• The training was very helpful in letting me
learning.
understand the different components found in 3.88
Studio, how they work and behave
• Examples written in the manual are easy to
On the average, the training room facility was well
understand
appreciated by the trainees. However qualitative
• Examples are challenging
feedback from the interviews revealed that issues on
• I like the training process
cheating and network security that need to be looked into

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by the training coordinator or trainer. According to one Looking at the graph in Figure 6, high peaks are apparent
trainee, some form of cheating could occur such that one on examples 1, 3 and 5. This indicates more errors
trainee could load another trainees Flash file to peek. incurred on these tasks compared to examples 2, 4 and 6.
Given this, the network needs better security to make the Interestingly, most of the trainees acquired the same
trainees’ working files private. number of errors in all examples, except for a little
discrepancy in example 3. So with the high peaks
Another issue presented by some trainees is their occurring simultaneously for all trainees, there is an
difficulty adjusting to the night shift. Since this is their first inconsistency in the level of difficulty among the
job, they have to adjust to the new schedule of 10pm to examples. Examples 1, 3 and 5 are probably more
7am. They cannot help but feel sleepy sometimes during difficult than examples 2, 4 and 6.
the training.

25  
GENERAL EVALUATION (N=17) Average
The training met or exceeded my expectations. 3.49
20  
The duration of the training is appropriate. 3.19
The training was well organized and delivered. 3.44
15  
3.37

On the average, the general evaluation of the training is 10  


positive. The trainees well appreciated the training and
enjoyed the training environment. Some trainees 5  
mentioned in the interview that they were happy to meet
new friends and have fun. 0  
1   2   3   4   5   6   7  
Note: The list under positive feedback / recommended
improvements / negative feedback have been interpreted Figure 7. Number of errors that occurred per task on the second revision
from the interview feedback and further translated to
English if conveyed in the local language, Filipino. The trainees experienced most difficulty in Example 3. It
is likely that example 3 was given to early in the learning
process. Perhaps, it could be moved towards the last
B. Trainee Performance example of the training set.

Seven tasks were given to the trainees to work on. Only


the third example was evaluated by the trainer, formally, CONCLUSION
as a measure of performance.
A. Worked examples as a strategy
Analysing the performance rating of the trainees (Figure 6
and 7), it is seen that trainees had still incurred errors on Effectiveness of the training depends on how well the
the third example. Providing a revisions list as feedback tasks are sequenced and how well worked examples are
from the first evaluation is deemed very helpful towards selected. In designing tasks, worked examples helps in
improving the trainees’ performance since the number of prioritizing which tasks should be learned first.
errors that occurred on the first evaluation significantly
decreased on the second evaluation. Using worked examples with the support of training
manuals and trainer demonstrations aided the learning
process. Trainees benefitted from constant feedback from
25  
the trainer and this is best done for all examples, whether
20   “worked out” or not.

15   B. Effectiveness of Training Approach

10   Trainee performance evaluations show that using a task-


based approach to training with fading worked examples
5   can indeed develop programming skills for ad builders
within the training period of 15 days.
0  
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   Using task-based approach provides trainees apt
foundation skills to get them started on basic tasks
Figure 6. Number of errors that occurred per task on the first revision
progressing to more difficult tasks on the job. Providing
several related examples for each task gives trainees

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opportunity for more practice, more feedback, more
chances to ask questions and clarify errors – resulting to DoubleClick. (2010). DoubleClick Rich Media Help-
better understanding. Custom Metrics. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/
support/richmedia/bin/answer.py?answer=117680
LIMITATION
DoubleClick. (2010). DoubleClick Rich Media Help-
The case study describes the competencies and job tasks Google Display Network expandable ad specs. Retrieved
of an ad builder from one company, Wideout Technology from http://www.google.com/support/richmedia/bin/
Services. answer.py?hl=en&answer=159751

RECOMMENDATIONS Gluck, M. & Bruner, R. (2005). The Evolution of Rich


The following are recommended for future steps to this Media Advertising: Current Market Trends, Success
research: Metrics and Best Practices. Retrieved from
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