# Texas A&M University 60th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers

Practical Considerations of CT Performance
Mehdi Yahyavi, Farshid Vahedian Brojeni, Mohammad Vaziri

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

3/27/2007

Practical Consideration of CT Performance - Texas A&M University

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Agenda
1) CT FOUNDAMENTALS (Steady State Analysis)

2) SECONDARY VOLTAGE AND CT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT Example 1 3) EXITATION CURVE AND CT ERRORS Example 2 4) CT PARAMETERS PER VARIOUS STANDARDS Example 3 5) CONCLUDING REMARKS
3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance - Texas A&M University 2

1.

CT FOUNDAMENTALS

• Basic Equations:
IS=IP / NR VS= 4.44 f. NR.B.S. 10-8
Where: • Ip=Primary current • IS= Secondary current • VS=Secondary voltage • f=Frequency • NR=Rated turn ratio • B=Flux density • S= Core area cross section
IP NR =IP/IS 1 : NR-turns IS

M
B S Vs

R

Current Transformer

3/27/2007

Practical Consideration of CT Performance - Texas A&M University

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SECONDARY VOLTAGE & CT EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT IP IS IE VS ZR • Circuit Equations IM = IS – IE VS= IM x ZT Where: IS= IP / NR IM= IP / NA ZT = ZCT + ZB ZB = ZL + ZR IE = ZE = ZCT = ZL = ZR = NR = NA = 3/27/2007 Secondary current Measuring current Total burden: Connected burden IM ZCT ZL ZE 1:NR (Ideal) ZB ZT TOTAL BURDEN CONNECTED BURDEN CT Equivalent Circuit Excitation path Impedance Excitation path Impedance CT winding burden Lead wire burden Relay & meters burden Rated turn ratio Effective ratio Practical Consideration of CT Performance .2.Texas A&M University 4 .

Main Concerns • Where is the calculated VS on the CT characteristic for a specific fault? Is the CT error acceptable for this case? • 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 5 .

Texas A&M University 6 .32) Milliohm/ft Where: G is the American Wire Gauge 3/27/2007 1:NR (Ideal) ZB CONNECTED ZT TOTAL BURDEN BURDEN CT Equivalent Circuit Practical Consideration of CT Performance . then: IM = IS= IP / NR IP IS IE VS ZR IM ZCT ZL 2) CT Winding Impedance ZCT – Calculate per manufacturer Ohm/turn values ZE 3) Wires Impedance ZL – Calculate by having the wire lengths and size Utilizing empirical formula: ZL= e(0.Calculate CT Secondary Voltage VS Seven Steps: 1) Secondary Fault Current IS – Assuming: IM ~IS .232 G -2.

5 Ohm including meters – Electromechanical relays: calculate ZR for connected tap as: ZR= Z0 (T0 / TR)2 In this formula.terminal Wye at Switchboard 3Ph or 2Ph Fault ZB = ZL + ZRP ZB = 2ZL + ZRP (2-Ph) Ph-to-Ground Fault ZB = 2ZL + (ZRP + ZRG) ZB = 2ZL + (ZRP + ZRG) 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . Z0 is relay burden at minimum tap and TR is the selected tap 5) CT Connected Burden ZB – Calculate for 3-phase system based on the table (IEEE/ANSIC.110) CT connection Wye at CT.37. T0 is minimum tap.) 4) Total meter & relay impedance ZR – Microprocessor relays: 0.Texas A&M University 7 .Calculate CT Secondary Voltage VS (Cont.

) 6) CT Total Burden ZT =ZCT + ZB IP IS IE IM ZCT ZL ZE VS ZR 1:NR ZB ZT TOTAL BURDEN CONNECTED BURDEN (Ideal) 7) Secondary Voltage VS= IM ZT CT Equivalent Circuit 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Calculate CT Secondary Voltage VS (cont.Texas A&M University 8 .

09 Ohm – CT connection= Wye.0016 Ohm/Feet) – Winding resistance=0.Texas A&M University 9 .at CT terminals – Primary fault current=16KA ZL+ ZRP ZM ZL ZRP ZM ZL ZRP ZM ZL ZRG CT connection in a 3Ph system with single phase fault 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .00171 Ohm/turn – Relay and meter burden ZR=1.Example 1: Calculate CT Secondary Voltage for phase to ground fault given the following: – CT Maximum tap=6000:5 – CT connected tap=1000:5 – CT Wires =140 Feet of 12 AWG (0.

CT Characteristics by Manufacturer • Manufacturer’s Data • Excitation Curve Secondary Voltage per Excitation Current 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 10 .

224 Ohm 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .0016= 0.Texas A&M University 11 .000/200= 80A IP IS IM ZCT IE ZE ZL VS ZR 1:NR ZB ZT TOTAL BURDEN CONNECTED BURDEN (Ideal) 2) Winding impedance of the CT: ZCT =200×0.00171=0.Step by Step Solution 1) CT secondary current: NR=1000/5 =200 (secondary winding turns) IS ~=IM =IP/N=16.342 Ohm 3) CT Wire (leads) burden: ZL = 140 feet×0.

538 =1.880 Ohm IP IS IM ZCT IE ZE ZL VS ZR 7) CT secondary voltage for ground fault: VS= IM ZT = 80×1.88=150.090 Ohm ZL+ ZL ZL ZRP ZRP ZRP ZM ZM ZM 5) Connected Burden ZB =2ZL + ZR =2×0.Step by Step Solution (Continued) 4) Burdens for Phase relays ZRP .4V~150V 3/27/2007 1:NR ZT TOTAL BURDEN ZB CONNECTE D BURDEN Practical Consideration of CT Performance .342+1.538 Ohm ZL ZRG 6) Total Burden: ZT =ZCT + ZB =0.09=1.Texas A&M University 12 .224+1. Ground relays ZRG and any Meter ZM ZR = ZRP + ZRG+ ZM ZR =1.

1 1 10 100 Exciting Amperes IE CT Typical Excitation Curve 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 13 .01 0.3. EXITATION CURVE AND CT ERRORS VS Excitation Voltage (Secondary) CT Characteristic • • • Operating Region (linear) Knee point 1000 VA A Vk K 100 VS Point of 10% Error Knee Point Operating Point S 45O 10 Saturation Region beyond the knee point where errors increase 1 0 IA 0.

Texas A&M University 14 .CT Characteristic by Open Circuit Test CT characteristic can be generated by testing • • • CT primary is in open circuit configuration Variable voltage source applied at the secondary Plot IE verses the secondary voltage VS IE Z CT VS Variable AC-Voltage A Open Primary ZE V Test Circuit of the CT 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

Texas A&M University 15 .CT Characteristics by Manufacturer • Manufacturer’s Data • Excitation Curve Secondary Voltage per Excitation Current 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

Texas A&M University 16 .CT Ratio Error ER • • Difference between Measured secondary current IM and the primary current caused by IE Defined as Ratio of the excitation current IE to the measured secondary current IM : ER = (IE / IM ) or as percentage: ER % = (IE / IM )x100 • Can also be expressed as differences between effective ratio NA and rated ratio NR : ER=( NA -NR) / NR then: NA = (ER x NR ) +NR IP IS IM ZCT IE ZE ZL VS ZR Errors may be significant beyond the knee point 1:NR ZT TOTAL BURDEN ZB CONNECTED BURDEN 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

“b” • Ratio error varies as the CT tap changes • It is inversely proportional to the square of tap ratios ER-a / ER-b = (Nb / Na )2 or: ER-b = ER-a × (Na / Nb )2 Na are In these formulas. Nb and turn ratios.Ratio Error in different taps “a”.Texas A&M University 17 . ER-a and ER-b are ratio errors. both at taps “a” and “b” respectively 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

Texas A&M University 18 .Example 2: For the CT in the same circuit as example 1: a) b) c) d) Calculate CT ratio error ER Calculate effective CT ratio NA Determine knee point voltage VK from the curve Determine the Saturation Voltage VA at the 10% error limit e) Determine CT ratio error at the full tap (6000:5) 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

Example 2 (Continued): a) Calculate CT ratio error ER From the manufacturer’s CT curve for tap (1000:5).Texas A&M University 19 . IE = 1A corresponding to VS=150V and IM=80A calculated in example 1 ER1% = IE / IM ×100 =(1/80) x100= 1.25% 1000 V Vk=500 Vs=150 160 160 V Vk=82 8A 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

5 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 20 .Example 2 (Continued): b) Calculate effective CT ratio NA NA =(ER× NR)+ NR =(0.0125×200)+200= 202.

Texas A&M University 21 .Example 2 (Continue): c) Determine knee point voltage VK from the curve VK=82V < 150V 1000 V Vk=500 160 160 V Vs=150 Vk=82 8A 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

Texas A&M University 22 .Example 2 (Continue): d) Determine Saturation voltage VS at 10% error IE = 80A ×10%= 8A VA =160V (Max Allowable Voltage) >150V 1000 V Vk=500 Vs=150 160 160 V Vk=82 8A 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

035% <1.25%×(0.25% ratio error reduces significantly at higher taps 1000 V Vk=500 Vs=150 160 160 V Vk=82 8A 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .167)2 =0.0348~0.167 ER-2 = ER-1×(N1 / N2)2 =1.Texas A&M University 23 .Example 2 (Continue): e) Determine CT ratio error at the full tap (6000:5) N1 / N2 = 200/1200= 0.

4.Texas A&M University 24 . CT PARAMETERS PER VARIOUS STANDARDS Three basic CT parameters are defined by different standards for steady-state analysis: • Accuracy Classes • Knee point • Burden Let’s compare between ANSI/IEEE and IEC/BS standards 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

400 or 800 Volts) without exceeding 10% Ratio Error at 20 times nominal current when it is connected to an standard burden (1. 4 or 8 Ohm at 0. 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 25 . 2. 200.5-Power factor).CT PARAMETERS PER ANSI/IEEE Accuracy Classes A secondary terminal voltage rating which CT produces (100.

CT PARAMETERS PER ANSI/IEEE Knee Point 45O K Knee point IEEE – One method to determine knee point on the curve refers to the point where the tangent to the curve is at 45o to the abscissa – Another definition specifies the knee point as the cross section of continuation of the two linear sections of the CT curve 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 26 .

CT PARAMETERS PER ANSI/IEEE Knee Point (Continued) – manufacturer always defines the nominal knee point of the CT based on the highest tap – For the lower taps the knee point voltage should be proportionally lower than nominal knee point – knee point voltage varies almost linearly as a function of tap ratio 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 27 .

Texas A&M University 28 .CT PARAMETERS PER ANSI/IEEE • Burden Standard burden in “Ohms” refers to the value for which the voltage generated by 20-times the rated current is below a level where the Ratio Error is 10% 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

e.Texas A&M University 29 .CT Parameter per IEC/BS Accuracy Classes: Class-P accuracy expressed as “xPy” means that the CT may have “x” percent error for a secondary current equal to “y” times the rated secondary current. 5P20 means 5% error at 20 times secondary current ) 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . ( P stands for Protection) (i.

Texas A&M University 30 .CT Parameter per IEC/BS 1-5 K Knee Point (IEC) • Knee Point – The point on the magnetizing curve where a 10% increase in the voltage corresponds to a 50% increase in the magnetizing current 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

– According to IEC standard.CT Parameter per IEC/BS • Burden – Connected burden: sum of all the impedances ZB connected to the terminals of CT – Nominal burden: maximum connected burden without exceeding the error limit that creates an overload (or temperature rise) above the specified limit – The specified accuracy class is based on Nominal Burden of the CT. nominal burden is a CT design specification and maybe expressed in VA 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . Nominal burden is usually defined by the manufacturer and can be verified by temperature rise test.Texas A&M University 31 .

and the nominal burden of the CT at 1000/5 tap Determine the equivalent class of this CT per IEC/BS standards: b) 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . assuming ANSI/IEEE class = C800 a) Determine the equivalent accuracy class.Texas A&M University 32 .Example 3: For the same CT of examples 1 & 2. kneepoint voltage.

that is the standard “B-1” burden.Texas A&M University 33 .Example 3 (Continued): a) Determine the equivalent accuracy class. 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . knee-point voltage.0 Ohm.3 >100 => equivalent to C100 for this tap • Knee point: 500 (for max tap) × (1000/6000) =82 V (see next slide) • Nominal Burden at 100 V secondary is equal to: 1. and the nominal burden of the CT at 1000/5 tap • Accuracy class: 800 × (1000/6000)= 133.

1000 V Vk=500 160 V Vs=150 160 Vk=82 8A 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .Texas A&M University 34 .

Texas A&M University 35 .Example 3 (continued): b) Determine the equivalent class of this CT per IEC/BS standards: • • • x =10 percent error for 100A current y=100A/5=20 Equivalent IEC class= 10P20 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance .

A practical case (example 1) was considered for illustrations. • The "Ratio Error" in a CT was defined and a sample calculation was presented in example 2. 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . • It was discussed that the simplified model can be used to determine adequacy of CT performance for most practical cases. • It was shown that the generated voltage on the CT secondary can be approximated using a 7 step procedure.Texas A&M University 36 .CONCLUDING REMARKS In this paper: • Basic theory governing the operation of a CT and a simplified circuit model for Steady State analysis was reviewed.

and Total Burden. Knee Point.CONCLUDING REMARKS (Continued): • Despite some differences. • It was shown (example 3) that a CT with approximately equivalent accuracy designation in the IEC/BS standard maybe identified from the accuracy class its counter part in the ANSI/IEEE standard. the main parameters of concern affecting CT performance are. For additional information contact Mehdi Yahyavi at: mxyf@pge.Texas A&M University 37 . between ANSI/IEEE and IEC/BS standards.com 3/27/2007 Practical Consideration of CT Performance . Accuracy class.