# INTRODUCTION

In 1820 Oersted discovered the magnetic effect of electric current, according to which an electric current produces a magnetic field. The converse effect was discovered and demonstrated by Michael Faraday in UK and Joseph Henry in USA in the year 1831.they showed that electric current can be produced in a coil of wire with the help of magnetic field. The phenomenon is known as electro magnetic induction. Many vital devices like generators and transformers work on the principle of electro magnetic induction.

Faradays laws of Electro Magnetic Induction:
I Law: When ever there is change in magnetic flux linked with the circuit an emf and hence a current induced in the circuit. The emf exists as long as the change in magnetic flux.

II Law: The magnitude of the induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit.

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Experiments on EMI 1) Magnet and Coil Experiment:

It consists of a cylindrical coil of several turns of wire (solenoid) whose ends are connected to a sensitive galvanometer. The experiment is performed with a magnet as follows: 1) If the magnet with its N pole is moved towards the coil, the galvanometer deflects in one direction Fig.1. 2) If the magnet is taken away from the coil, then also the galvanometer deflects but in the opposite to the previous direction. Fig.2. 3) When the magnet is moved quickly the deflection is large. 4) When moved slowly the deflection is small. 5) If the magnet is stationary, there is no deflection in the galvanometer. 6) Stronger magnetic bar more deflection.

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7) The defection in the galvanometer indicates a momentary current it is called induced current. The emf between ends of the coil which is responsible for current called induced emf. Similar observations are if the coil is moved keeping the magnet is stationary. Conclusion: i) A magnet is associated with a magnetic flux. Whenever there is a relative motion between the magnet and the coil there is a change in the magnetic flux which induces a momentary emf in the coil. ii) The magnitude of the induced emf depends upon the rate at which the magnetic flux changes.

2. Coil –Coil Experiment:
It consists of two coils P and S. the coil P is the primary coil having a small number of turns. A battery and a tapping key are connected across its ends. The coil S is a secondary coil having a large number of turns with a sensitive galvanometer in the circuit S and P are kept close together without touching each other.

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The experiment is performed as follows. i) ii) If the primary circuit is closed by pressing the key, the galvanometer shows deflection in one direction. If the primary circuit is opened by releasing the tapping key, then also the galvanometer shows deflection but in the opposite direction. iii) iv) v) vi) Deflection is large if the making and breaking of the circuit is fast. No deflection is observed if the primary circuit is either closed or opened continuously. Larger deflection is observed during break rather than that during make. Similar observations are noticed with the relative motion of the either coil with the primary circuit closed. Conclusions: i) When the primary circuit is made, the current rises from zero to maximum. The magnetic flux associated with the circuit also grows or changes. Similarly at the time of the break of the circuit, the current falls from maximum to zero and the magnetic flux also decreases. Thus change in the magnetic flux induces a momentary emf in the secondary. ii) Larger deflection is observed if the make and break are fast and

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iii)

The time taken for the current or magnetic flux to fall to zero is smaller than that taken to rise during make. So larger deflection is observed during the break of the circuit.

LENZ’S LAW: The direction of the induced emf is given by Lenz’s law It states that the direction of the induced emf is such that it opposes the change in the flux which is responsible for the emf. Explanation for Lenz’s law:

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Lenz’s law is in accordance with the law of conservation of energy. The induced emf is produced at the cost of mechanical work. Suppose N-pole of the magnet is moved towards the coil, the induced current flows in a direction so that the near face of the coil acts as North Pole. The repulsion between them opposes the motion of the magnet towards the coil. If the magnet is taken away, South Pole is developed on the near face of the coil. The attraction between theses poles opposes the motion of the magnet away from the magnet. In either case the work has to be done in moving the magnet. This mechanical work appears as the electrical energy in the coil. Hence the induced current is produced in accordance with the law of conservation of energy.

References:
1) Current electricity by N. Vasudev. 2) Current Electricity and Magnetism by K.K. Tiwari 3) Electrostatics and Electromagnetic Induction by B.B.Laud

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