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Submitted To: Mrs Bhavneet Kaur
Submitted By:Manu Hari Roll no: F05133
”The project is submitted to Jagan Institute of Management Studies, New Delhi, as a Final Year project for Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management 2005-2007.”
Submitted By: Manu Hari Roll No: F05133
Mrs Bhavneet Kaur
Any work of this magnitude requires the inputs, efforts and encouragement of people from all sides. In this project report I have been fortunate in having got the active cooperation of many people, whom I would like to thank. It gives me great pleasure to express my heartfelt gratitude to Mrs Bhavneet Kaur for guiding me through his efforts at each and every step. I humbly submit that without his efforts this project would have not been conceptualized nor materialized.
3(i) 5 6 8 14 21 26 27 51 59 61 62 63 64 3 (ii) Value chain 3(iii) Examples of food retail chains 4 5 5(i) 5(ii) 6 7 8 9 Research Methodology Analysis and Finding Alternate channels of distribution and their problems and advantages Consumer buying model Conclusion Recommendation Bibliography Appendix 4 . 2.Contents SERI AL NO TOPIC NAME Executive summary Introduction to problem Theoretical perspective Food retailing PAGE NO 1. 3.
where the influence of middlemen was higher thus result in increase in price of vegetable. thus the food chain has to lay more focus on attracting consumers toward shopping of vegetables. how it is different from traditional supply chain. The increasing number of nuclear families. stock and stores they will be able to attract more household. Hence the future of food retail is bright but they have to solve the problems what the buyer are facing form them and from other channels.Executive Summary Now a days there has been a mushrooming of food retail chains in India like Subhishka. There are also some examples of recent food chain and their specific model ( 4 ps). 5 . The project also analyzed what are the evaluating factors the consumer considers in buying vegetables like freshness. greater work pressure and increased commuting time have put the consumers under constant time pressure. With the increase in Variety. what are the influencing factors in buying vegetables like reference group. The average price of vegetables is also shown of different alternative channels which give a clear view of variation in prices. Reliance Fresh etc. The project also depict some light on the Value chain of food retail stores. size etc. double income households and working women. The study analysis the Consumer behaviour in buying vegetables. But still a question remain unanswered that household will prefer go to buy vegetables in these stores or buy from Local vendor or weekly Markets. No doubt the price is lower than other channels but they have to find a mechanism to tell it to every one. It was also found out that household would like to go to food retail for buying groceries and Fmcg products rather then vegetables. The main focus is on alternate distribution channels and their respective advantages and problems which help a food retailer to take benefit from its advantage and take cues from other failures. thus it attract them toward these food chain. family group or the attitude of buyer is itself the main motivational factor.
consumer motives in choosing particular stores and thus it will help in making a different positioning of food retail chain to attract the consumers to it stores. The study will help in identifying the evaluating factors the consumers consider while buying vegetables. 6 . food Bazaar etc. The concept of retailing though not new.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE PROBLEM Retailing is on the cusp of a transformation. A combination of increased consumer demand. Reliance. Are the consumers really interested in this food chain to buy vegetables or still they prefer their local vendors and weekly markets. ambience etc. The problems and advantages of alternative distribution channel. Most retail firms are companies from other industries that are now entering the food retail sector on account of it’s amazing market potential eg. Bharti . Retailing in India is still in nascent stage. but organized food retailing is a new concept. Vegetables are one of the essential commodities which these food retail chains are selling and are boasting of it low prices. Subhishka. Thus the study of my research is to find out consumer behaviour in buying vegetables. improved sourcing options and larger availability of real estate are creating the foundation for a significant growth in the organized retail sector.
7 . and whether buyer prefer to buy vegetables over groceries and other product in these stores. To identify the problems and advantages of different alternative channels.OBJECTIVES • • • • To find out consumer behavior in buying vegetables To find out evaluating factors consumers take into consideration while choosing a particular place for buying vegetables To find out the need and future of food retail in India.
. as the most populous in the world by 2050. This is particularly important for the agricultural sector. It’s also becoming a richer country: GDP per capita is expected to rise almost 4 percent per annum for the next 10 years. With more than one billion people. 5. Nilgris. retailing is done in a more organized way than it is done in India. Retailing in India is still in nascent stage. indicating significant increase in the purchasing power. Also we have Field Fresh of Bharti retail . Reliance and Bharti. A combination of increased consumer demand. A recent study by Assocham pegs the size of the Indian retail market at Rs. Food retailing-Indian scenario Retailing is on the cusp of a transformation. Retail Fresh those who have already entered into the organized food retailing and reaping the benefits from it. Food World. 49 percent of households are expected to be classified as middle-to-high income group. Globally. with 24 percent of the population within the age group of 20-34. India is a young country. This sector due to its tremendous growth opportunities has attracted many investors giving rise to many food retail chains. which is joint venture between Bharti and Rotchchild and they export the quality vegetables from India. Mother Diary. The concept of retailing though not new. Consumer spending will pick up even more as these more 8 . the third largest economy in Asia is on a track to overtake China. by 2010. Subhishka. According AT Kearney report.2 Theoretical Perspectives Food Retailing Organized retailing in the last decade has emerged as the sunrise industry in India. Most retail firms are companies from other industries that are now entering the retail sector on account of it’s amazing market potential eg. Trinethra. improved sourcing options and larger availability of real estate are creating the foundation for a significant growth in the organized retail sector. The live examples that can be quoted here are Food Bazaar. but organized food retailing is a new concept. The boom in retail sector started after the liberalization measures which were initiated in 1991 in the country. the farmers will get a better return and the consumers will get products at a reasonable price.88.000 Crores. We are the nation of budding shopoholics. Organized retailing will deliver an efficient farm-to fridge supply chain wherein.
improvement of the Indian economy. provided levels of investment are high. Food and grocery (F&G) items account for more than 70 per cent of all retail sales. The F&G segment consists of fresh fruits and vegetables. speed and efficiency in processing. milk and milk products.8 trillion. the penetration of organised retail in the F&G segment is negligible at around 1 per cent. profusion of brands have been the main causal factor for the development of these modern formats. 9 . The increasing number of nuclear families.10 trillion in 2006. according to A. CRISIL Research estimates the retail value of these unprocessed items at approximately Rs. However. As the modern housewife starts shopping for herself she appreciates and welcomes: • • • • • • a pleasant shopping environment. About half of the total F&G retail comes from food grains and unprocessed fruits & vegetables . Organized retailing in India constitutes only around 3 percent of the country’s overall retailing business.affluent members of the middle class move in to urban areas and clamor for pricey products will further increase. India is the most attractive destination for retailers. is the second largest employer (after agriculture) and the second largest untapped market (after China). greater work pressure and increased commuting time have put the consumers under constant time pressure.items that are purchased from farmers. The other equally important factors in the changing Indian landscape are the increasing influence of children.T. gradual acceptance of frozen. fast moving consumer goods and food grains. India's retail industry is almost one-third the country's GDP. double income households and working women. Key Drivers for food retailing: The changes in the nation’s social structure like.Kearney’s Global Retail Development Index 2006 (GRDI). semi-processed and processed foods by the Indian consumer.. Indian food buying behaviour is gradually changing in response to the changing social structure. better quality and hygiene. both food and non-food. According to a study on the food and grocery retail market by CRISIL More than 70% of retailing in India comes from the largely unorganized food & grocery segment At an estimated Rs. Food and grocery retail offers the biggest opportunity for growth.3. convenience of one-stop shopping with wider product portfolio at a single location. consumerism. the growing influence of television in decision making and improvement in literacy rates. says KSA Study. more information. urbanisation. India’s retail industry.
• Discount too if possible. Information Technology is bound to open new vistas for food retailing. will bring down the lead time. thanks to its large 4-7 crore strong Indian middle class which is focused in specific regions and give critical mass to retailers. Use of ERP packages like Retail pro. and software packages like OCAP. will aid in analyzing consumer’s behavior which in turn will give the retailers to stay in the competitive market. CPFR. inventory size. India is quickly emerging on the radar of food retailing. Income and consumption growth. and gradual acceptance of frozen foods give enough indications that future of food retailing in India will be sanguine. At this juncture when the GOI is mulling to allow phased FDI in retail sector the opportunities for food retailing seems phenomenal. 10 . rise in literacy level. changing family structure.
A ii) Absence of adequate storage infrastructure: Ideally.Issues and challenges: Despite the fact that the Indian consumers spend most of their monthly income on food and grocery (48%). foreign retailers can operate in India through joint ventures. However. bulk purchases during the harvest season help operators leverage on lower prices. transportation of food across large distances still remains expensive. However. this kind of consolidation is almost non-existent. For instance. This would help the retailer to leverage the quality to price benefits to the fullest. The transport infrastructure has still not evolved to provide adequate support to enable safe food transportation. It is acting as hurdle to entry of global players and exposure to best practices. which ultimately leads to volume benefits. this becomes a non-viable option for chain retailers in the absence of well-designed affordable storage solutions. because of the following reasons: Ai) Inadequate transport infrastructure In spite of improvements in the road network. where basic staples dominate a major proportion of the food purchases. Eg Rotchild ( Farm Fresh) Franchising/ local manufacturing/ sourcing from small sector. In India. In addition to this. it also gives the retailers a competitive advantage during the remaining months. this does not happen. chain stores should ideally source commodities in bulk from major growing areas. in case of perishable commodities absence of an integrated cold chain can adversely affect product quality. where the Indian partner is an export house. cash and carry operations. 11 . The problem is further compounded due to the wastage that happens during mishandling. Some of the major implications and bottlenecks that have deterred a fast growth of food retailing are as follows: • FDI Restrictions: 100 % Foreign direct investment in retailing is not allowed per se. rodents and pests on route. • A) Problems in consolidation All the retail giants in the country believe that any good retail operation thrives on the consolidation of purchases. The constraints to food retailing in India are from many quarters. For this purpose. the development in this sector has been quite slow.
Further. One of the drivers of property prices is the high demand for space in the cities. There is a shortage of good quality retail space and rents are high for what is available. Land and Space restrictions In India. Legal Restrictions The legal structure in the country does not allow free consolidation of produce by private operators. which along with rigid building and zoning laws make it difficult for procurement of retail space. Construction/infrastructure There are no set standards or formats that exist in India for retail spaces.• B. Such policy implications combined with inter-state taxations do not create an encouraging environment for consolidated buying and bulk storage. thereby restricting the entry of foreign players D. Special licenses are required in order to purchase and store more than the adequate quantity of staple goods. • C. power deficits add to overhead cost. only Indians can own property in India. The initial urban planning of cities was done with smaller plots in mind. 12 . In addition. restrictive zonal laws post limitations on the use of land. This makes up a significant proportion of operating costs in retailing. which compliments the restrictions placed on FDI.
13 . mostly owner-operated. comfort facilities such as air conditioning. High cost for the organized sector arises from: higher labor cost. taxes etc. much bigger premises. retail chains have to hold large number of SKUs at store level. the challenges that lie ahead are: The first challenge facing the organized retail industry in India is: competition from the unorganized sector. high quality real estate. Traditional retailing has established in India for some centuries it is a low cost structure. back up power supply. In contrast.Though the current trends poise to transform traditional Indian retailing to more organized and globally competitive retail industry. Further to cater to a wide diversity of customer needs. social security to employees. has negligible real estate and labor costs and little or no taxes to pay. players in the organized sector have big expenses to meet and yet have to keep prices low enough to be able to compete with the traditional sector. consumer familiarity that runs from generation to generation is one big advantage for the traditional retailing sector.
But with the emergence of food Retail in India a new supply chain has been made by these retailers which lead to elimination of middlemen and proper utilization of resources which result in elimination of inefficiency of traditional supply chain Traditional Supply chain 14 . Supply chain plays a very important role as the whole distribution network and price mechanism depend upon it. Traditional Agri supply chain has many flaws and irregularity which lead to wastage. high cost of vegetables to end consumers and minimal price of goods to farmers.Value chain and Supply chain The Indian farming industry is dominated by small and marginal farmers and has suffered from lack of investment in the supply chain for years. inefficiency in distribution.
Cooperatives are informal in nature. 3.Different Parties to supply chain: • Producers: 1. Small producers: These farmers have low produce and themselves go to the market to sell. They live in the villages near larger cities. They are located either near the city or live in distant states from where they hire agents to sell their goods in different places 15 . Informal groups of farmers get together and sell their produce in the market and share the transport cost. Big producers these farmers produce in large quantities mainly potatoes and onions. 2.
the vegetable market. Vegetable Market is a part of it. the retailers (who sell in the normal vegetable market). small and semi-medium farmers (about 107 million land-holdings). It comprises of Wholesale Dealers.4 hectares). The average land size per farmer is only 0. and the informal Cooperatives. They charge per trip to the market irrespective of the load. • Traditional Agri chain suffers from huge inefficiencies on the distribution side in terms of lack of organized pricing information.e. These farmers lack the bargaining power to deal with market intermediaries and hence are often exploited. or 9. The study revealed that there are four kinds of people who generally buy vegetables the housewives.8% of the agriculture component of GDP. as they are the ones who are responsible for reaching the vegetable in the market in time so that rest of the chain doesn’t get disturbed. The archaic infrastructure for transporting agricultural produce from farm gate to 16 . Some of the problems that are faced by this chain are: Fragmented structure of farm produce market: About 60% of the farm land area is with marginal. inadequate storage and transport infrastructure and a high level of intermediation. the office goers. Retailers: Retailers are those who are in direct contact with the consumer. This is the place that brings the producers and the retailer’s together strike a deal. This complex has different sections in the market dedicated to different kinds of agro products. To ensure this market has indigenously developed many middle men so that the deal happens smoothly. can be categorized in three different ways on the basis of their contact with the consumer. Preharvest contractors (This person buys the vegetables from the farmers in advance). They have a considerable share in the total costing of vegetables. some elderly member of the family or the servants.• Transporters: Transporters play in the whole system.005 square miles (1. the sub retailers (who sells door to door) and the exporters (packages and sells vegetables in the supermarkets). Cumulative wastage in this supply chain is estimated at about US$11 billion. Retailers in this segment i. • APMC market: APMC (Agricultural Produce Marketing Complex). Agents. • Consumers: The consumers are the last link in the chain.
APMCs are supposed to be formed through regular elections with farmer representation. which results in farmers realizing less than market value. recently. most states controlled the marketing of agricultural produce through the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Act. Outdated marketing structure and laws: Currently. primarily via government-mandated market yards (known locally as “mandis”). a very high radius of almost 459 square kms (177 square miles) – owing to which farmers have to travel long distances to sell their limited produce. There is considerable malpractice. frustrating the farmers. at an average. but in many states government machinery dominates the governance of these markets in practice. Until recently. The government’s effort to regulate the farm produce market through the APMC Act. the mandis also suffers from inefficiencies. the private sector was restricted from directly purchasing agricultural produce from farmers.consumers has meant huge losses in transit and large mark-ups in pricing due to extra layers of intermediation. The market yards serve. New Agri Retail(Organized) Chain formed by food Retails 17 . so as to ensure better realization to the farmer. Additionally. much agricultural produce is sold by farmers. is now effectively becoming a major hurdle to achieving that very objective. Until. Transactions tend to favor traders. The infrastructure of the marketplace is also lacking in terms of efficiency.
The private 18 .The emergence of organized sector retail chain stores and a rise in competition is encouraging Food Retailers to look towards improving efficiency in the agriculturerelated supply chain. Some of the large players are beginning to initiate efforts to improve efficiency in terms of how the produce is procured from farmers.
To cope up with the competition from unorganized retailers all the retail giants in the country believe that it is imperative to follow tight inventory.sector is influencing the government to liberalize regulations that constrict the operational environment. Structure of new Retail Chain: The large retailers directly take the produce from Market Yard where the small and middle level farmers send their agri produce. There is elimination of middle men and as result the farmers get the actual market price of their produce. Some of the initiatives taken in this direction include: • • • • • • Tight inventory control and logistics through the use of information technology. inventory control and prevention of theft etc. political pressure is also rising. In addition. The large retailers then distribute the produce to their super markets. which in effect was restricting the private sector from directly transacting with farmers. Procurement of raw ingredients from the places that are reputed for their production Maintaining very high quality standards right from procurement to sale Buy-back arrangement of leftovers Use of modern technology such as RFID for better tractability. hyper markets and stores and from their consumers purchase the goods at the less price form the near by vendors due to elimination of various middlemen. This Act forced farmers to use 19 . Control price by direct sourcing from manufacturer and farmers. To ensure this all the players in organized retailing are finetuning their supply chains. Below are the key changes in the farming-related business environment that should help bring about an improvement in agricultural output over the next three to four years. invoking a response from the government to change the regulations so as to enable farmers to operate more productively. Regulatory environment has already started changing: Many states have recently amended the APMC Act. ensure quality and restrict margins to the minimum.
The volumes of exchange-traded commodities have increased significantly and helped improve the efficiency of agricultural marketing in the country. 20 . allowing private sector participation in the direct purchase of agricultural produce from farmers. For instance. Indeed. the government removed the prohibition on futures trading in all commodities. Amendment of the APMC Act should provide the regulatory environment to allow private sector participation. The most important change in the amended AMPC Acts is encouragement to the private sector to transact directly with farmers. Price discovery is not transparent and commission agents take an unduly high share of the final price.5 million farmers to access information related to agriculture. All large companies intending to build a major network of chain stores are working on a plan to connect to farmers for sourcing their requirements at a reasonable cost and at the right quality.500 internet kiosks (called eChoupals) in the distant villages allowing 3. gauge local/global market prices of farm produce and order inputs such as fertilizers and seeds. Currently. the objective of these companies is to build a competitive advantage over other players by building a franchise with farmers. ITC has installed about 6. Changing price discovery mechanism The government has also encouraged exchange-trading in agricultural commodities. Information access is changing: Large consumer staple companies such as ITC and Hindustan Lever are making a significant effort to improve information access for farmers and help reduce malpractice in the farm produce trade. should help them reduce their farm produce procurement costs and increase the distribution reach for their products. in turn. which. . The new trading systems. Retail chain stores also beginning to change the environment: Food and beverages account for about 70% of the addressable market (relevant private final consumption expenditure) for the retail chain stores (supermarkets and hypermarkets). Thirteen states and three union territories have amended the APMC Act. due to malpractice and the high number of intermediaries. In yr 2004. The private sector has refrained from investing in agri-marketing infrastructure because of excessive government intervention and dominance of the unorganized sector. Each eChoupal helps the farming community come together and access information related to weather. the farmers’ share of the final price paid by consumers is lower than one-third.government-mandated markets (mandis) to market their produce.
better price dissemination to farmers. Food retail chains in India: Few Examples: 21 .which allow trading based on warehouse receipts. The National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange has also initiated pilot projects in a few states to help farmers start hedging their price risk by trading on the exchange. will help reduce price risk. Efficient price discovery. provision of a delivery platform. warehousing logistics support and provision of quality checks are some of the key advantages of full-fledged commodity exchanges.
Indian Made Foreign Liquor is also sold at certain outlets.5 million transactions per month. general merchandise required in homes like buckets. having Foreign Direct Investment to the extent of 49% that is permitted in India. ft. operates as a 51:49 joint venture with Dairy Farm International of the Jardine Matheson Group. They identified areas within the city with more than 4000 households in a 2-kilometer radius with an average monthly income more than Rs. The important variables considered while setting up an outlet are choosing the right location.5 billion\ retail giant operating in the Asia-Pacific markets with the requisite experience. pack and label the products in time for early morning dispatch to the stores. food that can be directly consumed. sourcing the merchandise and recruiting a trained workforce. The purchasing for each state is done collectively to reduce costs. in size and carries about 5500 items. which was a 2400 square feet store. Food World has decided to concentrate more on local areas rather than to go for a nationwide presence in its expansion plans at the beginning. The distribution to each outlet is done by Food World in such a way as to reduce the total handling costs. In addition there are also lots of schemes and offers to attract and retain customers. It is estimated that the chain serves more than three lakh families. 4000. Food World participates in the early morning auctions at the major wholesale markets and has a set of suppliers who then grade. These are generally the key necessary items or the items for which the customer attaches more value. cups. with focus on Bangalore and Chennai and later in Hyderabad.” To source its daily requirement of fruits and vegetables.1) Food World: Food World is one of the biggest retail chains in India. Food world handles on average 600 customers per day per store. the Fruit & Vegetable shelf in a Food World store stocks around 125 items. fresh foods viz. Their product portfolio includes grocery of all kinds. South India was chosen. Their Pricing strategy is to sell around 100-120 items at any point of time at below Maximum Retail Price (MRP) rates. which translates to 1. Now Food world. shelves etc.. At peak season. making it the widest range available under one roof in this category. A typical store is around 3000-3500 sq. The RPG group opened the first Food World outlet on May 9 1996 at Chennai. 22 . It is the only national chain. clean. fruits and vegetables in fresh/chilled/frozen form.” For procurement they follow a strategy of ‘Hub and Spoke”. food and non-food FMCG products. a US $ 4.
It is growing gradually to become the leader in organized retailing of fresh vegetables and fruits. Delhi. the company makes around 16. grows vegetables and fruits in its own fields and green houses. Bombay and Ahmedabad. a subsidiary of Namdhari seeds that is involved in the production. 4) Safal: The Fruit and Vegetables unit of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was set up in 1988 with the objective of ensuring a direct link between the farmers and the 23 . The chain expects to earn a total turnover of about Rs 1200 crore in 2008-09 as it plans to expand to other larger metros like Bangalore. Procured vegetables are transported in refrigerated trucks to the air conditioned grading halls where they are graded hygienically and packed in bulk and consumer packs and distributed through its own outlets spread all over the city of Bangalore. Namdhari’s Fresh. garden fresh and exports it to European countries.000 deliveries every month.2) Subhiksha: Chennai-based Subhiksha started its service in 1997. Namdhari’s Fresh.. Thus by amalgamating both self growing activities and outsourcing from large number of farmers Namdhari’s Fresh aspires to become a successful organized food retailer. The retail outlets under this chain are mainly organized on the concept of a discount store that meets all the monthly household needs of a family. 3) Namdhari’s fresh: Namdhari’s Fresh. The aim of Subhiksha is to setup an outlet every 2 km in residential areas. To meet the growing demand for fresh vegetables it also out sources produce from over 2000 growers. The retail food and pharmacy chain plans to have 550 stores in the next five years with an anticipated investment of about Rs 145 crore for the expansion plan. where the average monthly income is more than Rs 4000. distribution and export of fresh vegetables and fruits. also packs vegetables. Subhiksha not only serves its customers through its outlets alone but also meets their demands through the home delivery concept and currently.
consumers. The aim is to ensure that the customer gets the highest quality produce. The processed products of the unit are marketed with the brand name ‘SAFAL’. The Safal Group acts as the link between the farmer and the consumer in a procurement process that benefits both. The farmers get the most remunerative price and the consumers get the best produce at a reasonable price. A large and ultramodern central distribution facility was set up to handle fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables. Initial cleaning, grading, sorting is done followed by cooling to ensure the freshness till the product reaches the consumers. Specially designed modern retail outlets, the first of their kind in India, have been set up at various localities in Delhi and Mumbai to market good quality. fruit and vegetables at reasonable prices directly to the consumers. 279 specially designed modern retail outlets have been set up in and around Delhi to market fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables, directly to the consumers. Each shop caters to large number of customers, with a capacity to sell 1,600 kilos of fruit and vegetables a day. The shops are equipped with electronic machines that automatically weigh the produce and print item wise bills.
Department of Horticulture of the Government of Karnataka took an initiative in 1959 and formed The Horticulture Producer and Cooperative Marketing Society (HOPCOMS) with farmers as members. The prime objective of HOPCOMS is to promote and encourage the development of horticultural produce. This is achieved by selling horticultural produce through retailing and by providing cold storage and marketing assistance to its members. The Cooperative also provides training, technical advice and agricultural inputs to its members (farmers).The society has gradually grown big and presently it has 11,680 member farmers .HOPCOMS has set up retail outlets throughout Bangalore, Bangalore Rural, Mysore, Mangalore,Tumkur, Hassan and Kolar districts. There are around239 outlets in Bangalore. In addition there are around 150 outlets located in the other districts of Karnataka. These outlets are small, leased from the respective civic bodies at nominal rates and the average number of employees per outlet is four. HOPCOMS collects the horticultural produces directly from its member farmers as per the prefixed quota and sells them in these outlets. Direct procurement of vegetables eliminates the intermediaries, and consequently, a remunerative price is paid to the farmers. The farmer gets more than 70% of the consumer’s price when he sells his produce
to the HOPCOMS. Even when the price falls during the glut seasons, HOPCOMS assures a minimum price to its member farmers. It also pays the farmers on the day of transaction and thereby eliminates the need for credit, which is prevalent in private business. The selling price to the consumers’ too is also estimated to be about 10% less than the prevalent retailers’ price. It spends around Rs. 10 lakhs a day for the purchase of vegetables and fruits. Sales have steadily increased from around Rs 10 million in 1992-1993 to reach above Rs 400 million in 2000-2001. Sale of vegetable account for 91% of the total sales whereas chemicals formed 6% and the remaining is from sales of seeds and fertilizers. By its effective retailing business HOPCOMS earned a gross profit in each year of operations. It also has cold storages for preservation of vegetables during the peak season. To reduce its high overhead costs, HOPCOMS had decided to expand its operations by establishing more retail outlets and introducing new products.
6) Rythu bazaar:
Farmers in India realize less profit due to middlemen intervention. To free the farmers from the clutches of middlemen, the Government of Andhra Pradesh had came out with a new concept of establishing farmers markets called “Rythu bazaar”. The concept of Rythu bazaar benefits both the producer and the consumer. Farmer brings the produce and sells directly to the consumers and realizes better profits. On the other hand consumers get fresh vegetables and other produces at reasonable prices as the market operations are free from middlemen who increase the prices to many folds. Rythu bazaar was first established in 1999. Presently there are 97 Rythu bazaars spread all over the state of Andhra Pradesh. The Government officials guide the farmers in forming the proposed bazaar. After studying the need of setting up a Rythu bazaar the State Government allots money to the Agricultural Produce Market Committees which in turn release money for building all the basic infrastructures like shops, electricity, parking and storage facilities required for the Rythu bazaar. Rythu bazaar is well organized from the district level to the individual market level. The farmers sell their produce directly to consumers at rates that are above the wholesaler’s rate and below the retailer’s rate in a particular area. Nominal cess is collected from the farmers who have their stalls in the Rythu bazaar. Every farmer in the bazaar sells his produce as a retailer and realize expected profit. 25
7) Choupal fresh:
lTC's International Business Division has plans to develop Choupal Fresh, a fresh food fruit and vegetable initiative for sophisticated metro dwellers. Choupal Fresh is a new and unique format. These stores operate as wholesale stores between 5 am and 7 am and are open for the retail customers for the rest of the day." lTC's vast experience in backward integration with farmers and managing supply chain dynamics, courtesy its e-Choupal rural initiative, will help it in making a grand success. Having already set up stores in Hyderabad, Pune and Chandigarh, the company is now looking at the other metros like Kolkata. And the model will be something akin to Choupal Saagar .
8) Food Bazzar: (Ab Ghar Chalaana Kitna Aasaan) Flagged off in April’02, Food Bazaar is a chain of large supermarkets with a difference, where the best of Western and Indian values have been put together to ensure your satisfaction and comfort while shopping. It is venture of Pantloon group At Food Bazaar consumer find a hitherto unseen blend of a typical Indian Bazaar and International supermarket atmosphere. It has a unique a shopping experience, unique by its ambience. The western values of convenience, cleanliness and hygiene are offered through pre packed commodities and the Indian values of "See-Touch-Feel" are offered through the “bazaar-like” atmosphere created by displaying staples out in the open, all at very economical and affordable prices without any compromise on quality
9) Reliance Fresh
In its current pilot form. 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • • • Data source: Primary data.survey research. staple foods and other products in a world-class ambience.000 to 5. Second. vegetables.000 sq feet. Reliance Fresh is a unique format. Reliance Fresh is very different from what modern retail has offered in India so far.000 families. Research instrument: . Reliance Fresh is selling vegetables and fruits sourced from farmers through the company’s agri hubs. Secondary data Research type: .Questionnaire (closed and Open ended questions) 27 . it has limited itself to a food and grocery convenience store.” The strategy is to open one Reliance Fresh store in a radius of three to four km to serve 1. Reliance Retail is looking at a fairly high-margin business model.000-2. unlike global retailers who operate on thin margins. will provide customers with a variety of fresh fruits. This means about 30-40 stores in the major metros. Rather. It has deliberately stopped short of being a full-fledged supermarket (a tried and tested model in India).These stores. ranging from 2.
13. • • • • Sample size: 60 Sampling area: Rohini Sec 9. Limitation of study: The survey is done only in rohini sec 9. 14 and for Subhishka food Chain as food retail outlet. 4 Analysis and Findings Qi) How often do you go to buy vegetables? 28 .14 Sampling procedure: Area sampling Contact method: Personal interview.13.SAMPLING PLAN SURVEY 1: To understand the consumer behavior in buying vegetables with respect to food retail in India.
It has been found out that onion. Q2) Where do you prefer to buy vegetables? 29 . also Most of the respondents purchase their vegetables weekly from the weekly markets as they buy the vegetables in bulk quantity and if they find out the stock is going to finish they go and buy from local vendors. so that the fresh can be purchased again and they have limited storage space.purchase of vegetable no of households 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 daily twice a week weekly others 10 28 22 Response collected suggested that most of the household prefer to buy vegetables twice a week as they buy the stock which can be kept maximum for 3 days. tommato and potato are the most favourite of household and they purchase it in the bulk from weekly markets. Some of the household prefer to buy daily as they want to eat vegetables fresh and most of them prefer to buy from mother diary at the time of morning walk as in morning the vegetables are fresh or from local vendors which are near the parks etc.
Q3) On scale of 1-5 rank the evaluating factors which you take in buying vegetables? 30 . Mother dairy are choosen by those people who buy vegetables in morning or at 4 pm when the vegetables are fresh. Very few people prefer t buy fron food retail outlet Subhishka as thier first choice as the outlet is not at the stone throw away distance from their homes and they feel that vegetables are no fresh at evening.preferance of place no. And they also don’t prefer to go to subhishka to buy vegetables only. of household 3 5 3 0 2 5 2 0 1 5 1 0 5 0 foo re d tail m other diary v endo rs w kly ee m arkets 2 6 3 0 22 Series1 Response collected from the respondents suggested that most of the households prefer to buy from the local vendors as it is convenient to their home. Consumer also likes to purchase from weekly markets as they get the cheapest price of vegetables and the working woman saves their time to purchase the vegetables once in bulk quantity.
Potato should not be sweat etc. Thirdly they rank the specific properties of the vegetables i. of Veg. After that price is being taken into consideration.e.Evaluating Factor for buying vegetable 60 no. Size of the vegetable is the least evaluating criteria in choosing particular vegetable Q4) Rank on scale of 1-4 the factors which influence you in buying vegetables? 31 . of household 50 40 30 20 10 0 rank 1 rank2 rank3 rank rank4 rank5 price size availabilty freshness Sp prop. The response collected from the respondents suggested that freshness is the most important criteria in evaluating vegetables. availability of vegetables is one of the criteria as sometimes they buy what is available at a particular vendor.
After family next influencer is Culture as the buyers generally prefer to buy veg. which are in their tradition and culture. 50 no of households 40 refrence group 30 20 10 0 rank 1 rank2 rank rank3 rank4 Family Culture Attitude of buyer Response collected from the respondents suggested that Family members are the one who most influenced the buyer to buy the vegetables of their particular choice. Q5) Rank factors on scale of (1-5) which you consider while choosing a particular place? 32 . It is also been told by the woman that sometimes they have to made food of choice of each family members. Attitude of buyer is ranked third by the household because sometimes they generally buys what they prefer and last it is the reference group which generally influence them but it is not very motivational factor which influence them.Factors influencing in buying Veg.
33 .1) Local Vendors rank 1 10% 10% 3% 3% price conv enience freshness relationship 74% bargaining 74% of respondents has ranked convenience as the main factor in choosing Vendor ra k2 n p rice 1% 0 2% 7 1% 0 3 % 3 % 3 % v rie a ty co v n. a b n m ie ce fre n ss sh e 1% 0 3% 4 re tio sh la n ip b rg in g a a in fre . V g e e 34 % of respondents has given 2 rank to freshness.
a b n m ie ce fre n ss sh e 7 % 2% 0 2% 5 re tio sh la n ip b rg in g a a in fre .rn 3 ak p e ric 1% 9 5 % 1% 4 1% 0 2% 0 1% 9 1% 0 3 % v rie a ty c n. V g e e 34 . a b n m ie ce fre n ss sh e 1% 5 re tio sh la n ip b rg in g a a in fre . ov a b ne m ie c fre h e s s ns re tio s ip la n h b rg in g a a in fre . V g e e rank 4 p rice 2% 8 1% 0 30 % % v rie a ty 7 % co v n. V g e e ra k5 n p rice 2% 5 4 % 1% 5 1% 1 4 % 1% 7 9 % v rie a ty co v n.
Other reason is free home delivery by the vendors. After that second main reason is bargaining of prices as they can’t bargain in mother diary and subhishka. And rank fifth on relationship factor as they generally made a relation with the vendor and feel that they are giving fresh veg. Other intresting reason is free vegetables like Dhaniya. They feel that by bargaining they are getting psycocological feeling that they are buying at reasonable price. chillies etc which they get with other purchases. 35 . Thirdly freshness is the main consideration for going to vendors as they prefer to buy in the morning from these vendors.Respose collected from the respondents suggested that the main reason to go to vendor is convenience as these vendors are near to their house and it saves time of working woman too.
2) Mother Diary ran 1 k 9 % 1% 9 4 % p rice v rie a ty co v n n n e ie ce 6% 0 a b n m ie ce fre n ss sh e 8 % ran 2 k 0 % 2% 6 7 % 2% 6 p rice v rie a ty co v n n n e ie ce a b n m ie ce fre n ss sh e 4% 1 rank 3 27% 13% 11% price variety convenience ambience freshness 21% 28% 36 .
rank 4 5% 26% 46% price variety convenience am bience 10% 13% freshness rank 5 0% 37% 16% 0% price variety convenience am bience freshness 47% 37 .
And convenience is ranked third as mother diaries are there in every locality. Ambience is fifth factor which made them buy from mother diary.Response collected from the respondents suggested that Price is the main motive to go to mother diary as the price of it is cheaper than local vendor. And in second shift of fresh veg. Freshness is the fourth and most interesting factor in case of mother diary as in Mother diary vegetables came at 6. no doubt people generally have to go a long distance than local vendors. 38 .30 am so buyer who goes for morning walk or prefer to buy from M. diary normally go and buy vegetables at that time and rest shy away as they feel that it is not fresh after that. Also one of the reason is regarding Frozen vegetables ( SAFAL) for which they go to Mother diary.30 pm working people cant buy at this time. Variety is ranked second by the buyers. that came at 3.00 am and good/ fresh last till 8.
freshness 9% 41% bargaining rank 3 21% 12% 12% price v ariety conv . freshness 38% bargaining 17% 39 .3) Weekly Markets rank 1 4% 7% 0% price 41% v ariety conv . freshness 48% bargaining rank 2 4% 23% 23% price v ariety conv .
rank 4 4% 15% 0% price variety conv. freshness 68% bargaining 40 . freshness 44% 37% bargaining rank 5 8% 0% 8% 16% price variety conv.
mother diary and equivalent to food retail. Secondly price is the reason to choose weekly markets as the price of vegetable is cheap as compared to local vendor. 41 . Lastly bargaining is also one of the factor as generally people bargain for prices of vegetable at night as after 10 pm they get the vegetables at dirt cheap price.Response collected from the respondents suggested that Variety is the main motivator for people to purchase vegetable from weekly markets.
am bience freshness 49% 42 . nv a b ce m ien fre ne sh ss 3 8% rank 3 9% 5% 9% 28% price v ariety conv .4) Food retail ( Subhishka) rank 1 4% 17% 12% price v ariety conv . ambience freshness 63% 4% rank 2 % 0 % 5 2 3% 3% 4 p rice v ty arie co .
6% ambience freshness 11% 26% rank 5 11% 11% price variety conv. 56% 22% 0% ambience freshness 43 .rank 4 34% 23% price variety conv.
44 . The price of Subhishka is cheapest as compare to other channels but still people does not go their as it is far from their places.30 pm in afternoon.Response collected from the respondents suggested that Ambience is the most imp motivator for going to food retail. Those people generally prefer to go to Subhiska who lives near to it. Problem of freshness is same as of Mother dairy as timing for arrival of vegetables is at 6 and 3. Secondly the variety of vegetables is good which attract the household to go to foods retail.
of households 50 40 Series1 30 20 10 0 no yes 60 Respondents were asked whether they go to food retail to buy vegetables only . Response clearly suggests that none of them go to food chain to buy vegetables only 45 .Q7) Do you go to Food retail like subhishka to buy vegetables only? 70 60 no .
Q7a) If no then rank (1-4) for which items you normally go for buying in these stores? preferance for subhishka 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 rank 1 rank2 rank rank3 rank4 no. Secondly they like to buy Fmcg products as all these things are little cheaper than market price and they too have a discount on it Thirdly they rank Vegetables as they buy vegetables when they go to buy groceries or occasionally go to purchase vegetable only They also go to buy Medicines. Thus it clearly reflect that subhishka is more popular for Groceries and fmcg products 46 . mobile phones etc from Subhishka or food Bazaar. of household vegetable grocerry fmcg others Above bar chart clearly depicts that household prefer to go to food retail to buy groceries as their first preference.
of households Series1 13 no yes Response collected from the respondents suggested that majority of them don’t go to same place to buy vegetables if they have any bad experience and rest will go to same place as they have no other alternative left.? postpurchase behaviour 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 47 no. 47 .Q8) If you face any Bad experience regarding purchase from above places then still you purchase from these places.
q) In future will you buy from Food retail like Subhishka. Food Bazzar etc? Response collected from respondents suggested that all of them want and will go to food retail outlet and they will be a regular customer if their problems can be solved. 48 .
The prices of the vegetables are generally high while compare to other channels due to lot of intermediateries in the buying process. Inaccuracy of weights Advantages 1. Generally consumers buy vegetables from multiple channels at their own purchasing factors like convenience. price etc. • Hawkers/ local vendorsThey sold vegetables door to door and are generally near the societies at large. Limited variety of vegetables 4. Every channel has its own pros and cons and thus it depend upon the consumers to choose from the best ones. Saves time and effort 3. Behavior of vendors is not good. but the convenience to consumer make it a favorite buy. The hawker sells at higher prices 2. fresh vegetables can be purchased every day 49 . No method to find the market prices 3. Bargaining on the terms of the vendors 6. Problems 1. Some of the vendors have also started free home delivery.Channels of distributions There are different channels of distribution where the consumers can purchase the vegetables. They buy the vegetables from the local mandis. Vegetables can be purchased any time. 5. 4. Quality to choose from becomes narrow 5. 7. Also it is seen that hawkers maintain a good relationship with the consumers and thus it reduce the buying risk of consumers. The vegetable is at your door step thus there is lot of convenience 2. No need to buy in bulk.
Lack of convenience of door to door shopping. vegetables arrive at these stores at 6.00 am and 3. As these stores are generally far away so the vegetables have to purchase in bulk 4. Retail Fresh etc. Crowd is not a problem 4. Consumers can’t bargain 3. 2. 2. 8. long ques for billing Advantages 1. The main reason for lower price is economies of scale and efficient management of demand and supply Problems 1. Accuracy in weights 50 .Food retail outlet: They are the branded retail outlet which purchase the vegetables in bulk from farmers and then distribute to consumers at cheaper price than local hawkers. These stores do not give fee vegetables like Dhaniya and green chillies 5. Good ambience of Shopping 6.30 pm in afternoon thus the stock remain fresh for only limited period of time. They stock large assortments and hence offer more variety of merchandise and produce. 5. Subhishka. Some of the retail outlets are food world. Vegetables are quality checked. billing problem 7. No bargain so less hassles 3. and at evening the working woman cant find the fresh stock. there is only one machine for billing purpose and if it breaks up buyer have to wait for too long 6. Variety of vegetables under one roof. They are the combination of food and general merchandise retailer. They offer variety of promotional schemes to shoppers. They offer a clean hygienic and bright environment for shopping.
Consumers can’t bargain 3. It is now a subsidiary company of a wholly owned company of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB). Limited variety 5. 51 . Advantages: 1.Mother Diary: Mother Dairy – Delhi was set up in 1974 under the Operation Flood Programme. Availability of vegetables in non season too. Cheaper prices than hawkers 2. Problems: Frozen vegetables: 1. The company markets an array of fresh and frozen fruit and vegetable products under the brand name SAFAL through a chain of 295 owned Fruit and Vegetable shops and more than 20. Mother diary stores are in vicinity to every household. Variety of vegetables under one roof 4. Don’t give free vegetables like dhaniya etc. 2. Don’t gave polybags 4. Pricing of frozen foods are very high compared to market 2. Lack of convenience of door to door shopping. 3. Freshness of vegetables 3.000 retail outlets in various parts of the country. Quantity is fixed Unfrozen vegetables: 1. Quality seems good but no facility of choosing 4.
Need a helper to purchase vegetables in Bulk. 3. Weighing of vegetables is not done properly 3. Convenience to purchase 52 . Threat of theft 6. Vegetables to be purchased in bulk. The place become very crowdy 5. Prices vary with time. Advantages: 1. lack of storage space 2. Generally most of the household buy the vegetables from these markets in bulk quantity as they are getting at cheaper rate. Prices are lower than market price.Weekly Markets: This type of market operates once in a week on a fixed day in a particular area. Lot of variety to choose from 2. In these markets there are lots of hawkers selling vegetables at a price lower than the market price. Problems: 1. price lowered at night 4.
30 10.after 10.30 4) Onion: price of onion 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 14. mkt mkt ( bef.30. 10.10.5 5 4 Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday mkt ths.23 jan 2007) 4) Potato price of pottato 9 8 7 price per kg 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 5.75 16 16 16 12 Series1 price per kg Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday thurs. 3) Tomato 53 . mkt after ( bef.Average price of Vegetable ( 17 jan 2007.30.
ths. mkt after 11 4) Reddish price of reddish 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7.price of tommato 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 13 14 15 14 12 price per kg Series1 Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday mkt ( bef11.5 8 7 5 Series1 6. mkt after 11 54 . ths.75 price per kg Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday mkt ( bef11.
ths.5 price per kg Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday mkt ( bef11. ths.5 15 14 10 Series1 12. mkt after 11 6) Bell pepper price of bell pepper 30 25 price per kg 20 15 10 5 0 Subhishka Mother Diary Local vendor Thusday mkt ( bef11. mkt after 11 17 22 28 20 18 Series1 55 .5) Peas price of peas 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 13.
Average price per kg of 6 vegetables were taken from Subhishka. Local Vendor. 56 . local vendor. After that price of Subhishka is cheaper than Mother diary. Mother diary. weekly market ( before 10. weekly Markets.30) and after 10.30 in weekly markets are cheaper than any other place as the vendor want to finish its inventory.30 It has been found that prices after 10. The prices of local vendor are highest in comparison to others.
In case of vegetables following reasons can their which recognize the need for buying vegetables • • • • • • In adequate stock of vegetable Influence from family members Reference group or a society where a household live as it can identify a need for a particular vegetable Marketing activities of companies which made customers to buy specific vegetables to remain health conscious Health reasons Festivals. In internal search it will be an ongoing search for him as he is seeing advertisement. reference group. health reason etc then he can do internal as well as external search.Consumer buying Behaviour (5 stage model) There are 5 stage in consumer buying behaviour: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Need recognition Search Evaluation Purchase Post purchase Stage 1 – Need Recognition: Need is recognized when there is a discrepancy between desired need and actual need. 57 . If it is from any reference group.2: Information Search: After recognizing the need next stage is information search. cookery shows or remember the particular vegetable dish at a party or at some of his friend house. parties etc Stage. In external search the buyer can ask from doctors. opinion leaders etc . If it IS inadequate stock then it is routinised problem then it will be low involvement decision for the buyer and he will not go for search process.
Mother diary. As the consumer limits the quantity of vegetable if the price is too high. food retail chain .Stage – 3: Evaluation: In evaluating a vegetable household generally look at the following factors in this chronological order ( by survey) • Freshness • Price • Specific properties of vegetables • Availability at particular counter • Size Normally buyer look for freshness in vegetable and then price is also a major factor. If he is satisfied with the quality. Stage – 5 Post purchase Behaviour: After the vegetable is purchased from a particular store/ place the buyer can be satisfied or dissastisfied with the purchase he made. In choosing a particular store there are different factors which induce the household to go at particular store ( which is covered earlier ). weekly markets. Stage -4 purchase: To purchase a particular product he/ she can go to Local vendor.and it is found out that local vendor and weekly markets are most prefersed ones due to their convenience and price respectively. Conclusion 58 . but if he is dissatisfied from the purchase than he stop purchasing from that place unless he does not other alternative and also he/ she complaint and discourage other to buy from that place. price etc then he regularly purchase from that particular place and recommend other.
Food retail stores give a different experience to buy a vegetable as they provide a ambience and variety of items under one place to the buyer which he can’t get at any other place. They prefer to buy vegetable either from local vendor or at weekly markets. It has been found out in the study that people go to this place to buy groceries and fmcg products more often than to buy vegetables. A household normally lives near food retail outlet likes to visit the place or in morning when the fresh vegetables arrive. Family is the most influencing factor which made a buyer to buy a particular vegetable. A household normally look at the freshness of vegetable and thus made his decision to purchase a vegetable and a particular store accordingly. People would like to go to food retail chain if it is convenient to buy at these stores. The future of food chains are bright because the demand of vegetables are more than the supply by these outlets. bargaining and free vegetables while weekly market are preferred for price. Household also like to go to these chains to find a particular veg. No doubt Freshness is also a main reason. Culture also plays a very imp role as people generally likes to buy vegetable belonging to their culture and to buy these veg. Local vendor is preferred for the convenience. and if the problems are solved ( stated earlier ) people will likely to buy from these stores. they get a variety to choose from as many people complaint they don’t get variety in subhishka because most of the time the veg. which they cant find at local vendor at particular period of time. Vegetable buying is a high involvement decision for a household and the decision is influenced by many factors and motives. working woman prefers to purchase from weekly mkt or from local vendor as it saves time and the stock is not fresh in evening in mother diary and subhishka. but apart from freshness he look at prices and specific prop. It is also been found out that people who go for morning walk prefer to purchase from mother diary or food retail as the stock is fresh in morning and those who cant access to these places prefer to buy from local vendors. they don’t mind going at particular distance it has been found out that Food retail like subhishka does not offer much variety in States veg. 59 . Of vegetable therefore he does not order the vegetables on phone from food retail chain which can be more convenient than going to local vendor.as the variety of veg. is out of stock . and variety. is more than local vendor.
chillies etc to attract customers They should stress on giving their phone nos. rajasthani etc They should keep seasonal vegetables of their own brand name thus they can easily give competition to “Safal” They should increase the stock as people normally don’t find it when they come for shopping and they felt dissatisfied and resist coming again to Subhishka There should be proper billing arrangement and if required should have two billing machine so that people should not stay in que for long time. to people so that people can enquire about daily prices of vegetables which can be comparable to others channels They should increase the variety of the vegetables. • • • • • 60 . They should give cut vegetables ( palak etc) as it save time of woman at home. must keep cultural vegetables like south Indian.Recommendation • • They should give free vegetables like Dhaniya.
gov.com AT Kearny research on Retail in India 2006 Morgan Stanley research on Agri Retail.ficci.manage.org www.in www.Bibliography • • • • • www.ibef. 61 .
*********************************************************************** * Name: Address: Sex: Working Status: 1. All the information will be kept fully confidential. Availability Freshness Size 4. Rank on scale of 1-5 the factors which influence you in buying vegetables? Reference group Family Social class 62 . How often do you go to buy vegetables? Daily Twice a week weekly others 2.Appendix *********************************************************************** * This Questionnaire will be used only for academic purpose. On scale of 1-5 rank the evaluating factors which you take in buying Vegetables? Price Specific properties of veg. Where do you prefer to buy vegetables? Local vendors Weekly markets Mother diary Food retail 3.
Attitude of buyer. Rank the factors on scale of (1-5) which you consider while choosing a particular place? COMPARISON Multiplexes Local Vendor Parameters Price Variety Convenience Ambience freshness relationship bargaining Free veg. Culture. 5. others Mother Diary Weekly Market Food Chain 63 .
List five problem you faced in buying vegetables from particular place? Mother Diary Food retail store Local vendor Weekly Markets 7) Do you go to food retail store to buy vegetables only? YES NO 7a) If no then rank (1-4) for which items you normally go for buying in these stores? Vegetables groceries Fmcg products Others 8) If you face any bad experience regarding purchase from above places then still you go for same place? YES NO 9) In future will you buy from food retail like Subishka. Food bazaar etc? YES No 10) Any recommendation you want to give for to food Retail stores like Subishka etc? 64 .6.
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