Climate Change and GenderExperiences of IUCN

Saadullah Ayaz IUCN Pakistan
IUCN, IUCN, International for Conservation of NatureNature and Natural Resources International Union Union for Conservation of and Natural Resources, Pakistan

ABOUT IUCN
IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources is the world’s oldest and largest global environmental network- a democratic membership union with more than 1,000 government and NGO member organizations, and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more than 160 countries worldwide IUCN helps the world find pragmatic solutions to our most pressing environment and development challenges. It supports scientific research, manages field projects all over the world and brings governments, non-government organizations, United Nations agencies, companies and local communities together to develop and implement policy, laws and best practice Status of an ‘Observer’ in UN General Assembly

IUCN’s Headquarters
Gland, Switzerland

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

WHAT DOES IUCN DO?
Knowledge: IUCN develops and supports cutting edge conservation science, particularly in species, ecosystems, biodiversity, and the impact these have on human livelihoods IUCN runs thousands of field projects around the world to better manage natural environments IUCN supports governments, NGOs, international conventions, UN organizations, companies and communities to develop laws, policy and best-practice

Action: Influence:

Empowerment: IUCN helps implement laws, policy and best-practice by mobilizing organizations, providing resources, training people and monitoring results

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN- A GLOBAL UNION

Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

THE DRIVING FORCE

IUCN’s VISION
A just world that values and conserves nature

IUCN’s Mission
Influence, encourage and assist societies to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and ensure any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

OUR STRUCTURE

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN’s VALUE PROPOSITION
Knowledge Empowerment Governance

Research and data for sustainable resource management

Establishing a common standard for Building new approaches, services approaches and a and products that allow constituency that can Applying, and in for scaling-up, some cases tailoring, maintain, promote adaptation and quality and extend the knowledge to a control application of specific situation sustainability and/or the needs of partners at any level

Impact

Reach
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

CORE PROGRAMME AREAS

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN IN PAKISTAN

A long term commitment since 1985 Several offices, around 112 staff largest Country Programme of the Union in the World
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

MEMBERS IN PAKISTAN – 29

Gilgit-Baltistan Administration Pak Env. Protection Found Government of Balochistan

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

OFFICES AND WORK

MBP Murree Office Sarhad Office at Peshawar •FATA Environment Cell

BPSD Qila Saifullah Office

Juniper Ziarat Office

Islamabad Office • Programme Coordination • Constituency • NIAP • Murree Biodiversity Park • ESMA • EFR • PSDS • ADB-TPM • CC-TAP/Road to CPN • Clean Air Initiative • CKMP

Balochistan Office at Quetta • BPSD

BPSD Gwadar Office BPSD Lasbela Office

Country Office at Karachi • Coastal Ecosystem • Sindh Coastal project • Business & Biodiversity • Comm. & Outreach • Water Programme • Finance • HR • Admin

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN IN PAKISTAN
IUCN Pakistan is seen as an effective agent for; • • • • • • • Mainstreaming environment into policy-making, periodic reviews Building partnerships and encouraging dialogue with stakeholder Encouraging donor agencies to provide flexible but focused grants for the development of the environment sector in Pakistan Encouraging and supporting environmental impact assessments of all new development projects and policies Awareness and advocacy Enhancing capacity of its member organizations and government institutions in sustainable development Demonstrating/piloting in remote areas to provide replicable models for communities and member organizations
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GENDER

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

GENDER BALANCED APPROACH
…..Should not simply be about women. Men and boys are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, but often in different ways, and these need to be identified and communicated Furthermore, women and girls are involved in relationships with men and boys and it is at the level of these gender relations and the social expectations influencing them that research needs to be conducted and change needs to happen.” (Bridge, 2008)

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

WOMEN AT RISK
Climate change is not gender neutral Climate change impacts will be differently distributed among different regions, generations, age classes, income groups, occupations and genders The poor (of which 70% are women) will be disproportionately affected. Women are also powerful agents of change by playing a key role in energy consumption, deforestation, burning of vegetation, population growth and economic growth Gender Concerns and Ethics
– Principle of Individual Liberty – Utilitarian Principle – Principle of Justice
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

KEY FACTS
Women are the main producers of the world‘s staple crops, providing up to 90% of food for the rural poor and producing 60–80% of the food in most developing countries Women already struggle to cope with year-to-year variability of maize, sorghum, millet and groundnut yields associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Crop productivity in extreme El Niño years is expected to drop a further 20–50% in southern Africa Women are already more vulnerable to nutritional problems. 50% of the women and children in developing countries are anaemic

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

KEY FACTS (contd.)
Climate variability plays an important role in initiating malaria epidemics in the East African highlands and accounts for 70% of variation of recent cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh. This increase has more severe impacts on women who often have less access to medical services than men. Women’s workloads also increase as they spend time caring for the sick There is decisive evidence that gender differences in deaths from natural disasters are directly linked to women’s economic and social rights. In societies that are more inequitable, men are likely to receive preferential treatment in rescue efforts and women are likely to suffer more from shortages of food andother resources in the aftermath of disasters

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

KEY FACTS (contd.)
Many key decision-making institutions related to climate change have a male-dominated hierarchical structure Women’s empowerment is now being linked to climate change solutions

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IMPACTS ON WOMEN
Impacts on women CROP FAILURE Household food provision; Increased agricultural work Household fuel provision; food-fuel conflicts Household water provision; exposure to contaminated sources Economic drawbacks; lack of land tenure; resource-dependent livelihoods; school dropouts, early marriage Greater incidence of mortality; reduction of life expectancy Lack of access to healthcare; increased burden of caring for young, sick and elderly Loss of livelihoods; lack of adequate shelter; conflicts Loss of livelihoods and lives; sexual violence and trauma

FUEL SHORTAGE SHORTAGE OF SAFE, CLEAN WATER

Climate Change

RESOURCE SCARCITY

NATURAL DISASTERS

DISEASE

DISPLACE-MENT

CIVIL WAR / CONFLICT

Adopted from WEDO (2008) IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

GLOBAL CONCERNS
Every major global agreement now includes a gender component: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. United Nations Charter (1945) Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (1979) Convention on Biodiversity (1992) Chapter 24 of Agenda 21 (UNCED 1992) World Conference on Human Rights (1993) International Conference on Population and Development (1994) Convention to Combat Desertification (1994) World Summit for Social Development (1995)

10. Beijing Platform for Action (1995) 11. Millennium Declaration (2000) 12. Johannesburg Plan of Action (2002) 13. Hyogo Framework for Action (2005) 14. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change/Kyoto Protocol (1992)- Exception!! IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

GENDER AT IUCN

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN’s DEFINITION OF GENDER
IUCN understands that gender refers to the attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the socio-cultural relationships In most societies there are differences and inequalities between women and men in activities undertaken, access to and control over resources as well as decision making opportunities Gender is part of the broader socio-cultural context which also takes into consideration factors such as class, race, economic status, ethnic group and age IUCN understands that adopting a gender perspective means focusing on both women and men and their relationships with each other and natural resources IUCN further understands that mainstreaming gender means creating an enabling working environment that in turn attracts and helps to retain gender sensitive staff

http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gender/ IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

IUCN' S GENDER POLICY STATEMENT
(Adopted in April 1998)

Submitted to the 48th meeting of the IUCN Council 27-29 April 1998 and was endorsed with subsequent modifications Calls for the promotion of equity and equality as a crucial factor for environmental sustainability and an integral part of all conservation efforts. It presents the goals of equity and equality in the context of IUCN's overall mission and provides a brief conceptual framework and the rationale for the consideration of equality issues Calls for an effective mainstreaming strategy to integrate a gender perspective in a broad socio-cultural context, into IUCN's Policies, Programmes and Projects

cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/gender_policy.pdf IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN IUCN’s WORK
IUCN realizes that gender is one of the most important determinants of a wholesome and meaningful development IUCN realizes that fundamental objectives of any development programme cannot be achieved without taking into account the role of gender and harmonizing gender relations IUCN realizes that human development, that often precedes its material effects and manifestations is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to actualize in the absence of gender equity and justice A long process of recognition of issues of gender, beginning in 1984 culminated in a resolution to the 1996 World Conservation Congress. This resolution called for, among other things, IUCN to “integrate gender perspectives across the IUCN Programme”
IUCN’s Gender Checklist and Guidelines (2006) http://www.iucn.org/about/union/secretariat/offices/asia/asia_where_work/pakistan/publications/pubs 2006/pubs_gender_checklist.cfm IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
Training Manual on Gender and Climate Change
(http://generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/651_english.pdf )

Goal: Answering the urgent demand expressed by the Parties to UNFCCC and other stakeholders for a deeper understanding about the linkages between gender and climate change. Scope: including the latest data and information on the gender dimensions of climate change; offering participatory training methodologies for trainers to foster successful trainings in the topic at a national and/or regional levels.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
CBD’s Gender Plan of Action
http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/cop-09/information/cop-09-inf-12-rev1-en.doc

Defines the role that the CBD Convention Secretariat will play in stimulating and facilitating efforts to overcome constraints and take advantage of opportunities to promote gender equality It is also a reflection of the increasing awareness that gender equality and women’s empowerment are important prerequisites for environmental conservation and sustainable development

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
UNEP’s Gender Plan of Action
http://www.unep.ch/roe/gender/refdocs/Final%20POA%20for%20UNEP.pdf

The Plan of Action is a set of gender-equality criteria, gender sensitive strategies and guidelines for implementation of programmes

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
Gender Equality within the REDD and REDD-plus framework (UNFCCC)
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/500.pdf

Incorporation of gender considerations into the REDD and REDD-plus frameworks brings about increased efficiency and sustainability as it contributes to women’s involvement and commitment who are crucial players of local forest management

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
IUCN Factsheet Linking Gender and Biodiversity
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/494.pdf

IUCN Factsheet Gender and Agricultural Biodiversity
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/492.pdf

IUCN Factsheet Gender and National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/490.pdf

IUCN Factsheet "Gender and Bioenergy"
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/497.pdf

Putting Words into Action… Analysis of the Status of Gender Mainstreaming in the Main Multilateral Environmental Agreements
http://www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/488.pdf

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN
IUCN Pakistan recognises gender equity as an integral element for conservation and sustainable development and is committed to ensuring that gender is an inherent factor in all its programmes and projects Gender integration and sensitisation are important factors in its mandate IUCN’s Human Resource Manual contains a specific Gender Policy (Annexe 1), that aims at achieving a gender balance in staff The global IUCN Gender Policy adopted in 1998 has also been adopted in both Pakistan and the region (Annexe 2). The Policy statement calls for: the promotion of equity and equality as a crucial factor for environmental sustainability and an integral part of all conservation efforts. It presents the goals of equity and equality in the context of IUCN's overall mission and provides a brief conceptual framework and the rationale for the consideration of equality issues in environmental work Prepared Gender Checklist and Guidelines (IUCN, 2004)
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
Environmental Rehabilitation in NWFP and Punjab (ERNP 1997-2003)
- Gender an integrated component - Equal opportunities for managerial and technical skill building - Equal opportunities for natural resource management

Mountain Areas Conservation Programme (MACP 1999-2006) - Mainstreaming in programme activities - Equal opportunities for managerial and technical skill building - Enhanced role in local governance

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
Programme Support Northern Pakistan (PSNP)
- Development of gender checklists and guidelines - Gender sensitive monitoring with relevant indicators - Gender sensitization of staff and partners - Gender budgeting - Special focus on women in model projects - Specific programmes with women groups

Environmental Fiscal Reforms (EFR 2006-2010)
Gender considerations mainstreamed in project rationaleg Gender-related aspects (environmental investments), considered in all policy/advocacy activities Trainings and capacity building, management of resources
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
Balochistan Partnerships for Sustainable Development (BPSD 2007-2013)
- Gender equity as a key component, take affirmative action to involve women in programme activities - Measures to address existing gender disparities - Integrated into District Development Visions (Lasbela, Pishin, Mastung and Quetta)

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
Findings of Study on “Climate Change in District Quetta, BalochistanImplications and Recommendations” (Under publication, 2011)
Women make up a large number of the poor in communities in Quetta are disproportionately vulnerable to and affected Poor women are more vulnerable because of socially constructed gender roles and behaviors In Quetta, women’s informal rights to resources could decrease or disappear as access to land natural resources dwindle due to climate change Gender discrimination in the allocation of resources, including those relating to nutrition and medicines is putting females at greater risk than male
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Thanks

Saadullah Ayaz
Coordinator Climate Change/Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan Email: saad.ayaz@iucn.org
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

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