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Find out moreTransmission Line

Engr. Allan Jay L. Baco

March 3, 2011

2

Contents

1 Introduction 7

1.1 History of Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2 Parameters 9

2.1 Terms and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2.3.1 Solid: 1φ, 3φ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.3.2 Bundled: 1φ, 3φ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4.1 Solid: 1φ, 3φ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4.2 Eﬀect of Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.4.3 Bundled: 1φ, 3φ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3 Module 2: Line Model 13

3.1 Terms and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.2 Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.3 Nominal-π Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3.4 Exact-π Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

4 Networks 19

4.1 Terms and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.2 Single-Line Diagram and Per-unit Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.3 Bus Admittance Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.4 Direct Determination of Bus Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.5 Symmetrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.6 Introduction to Fault Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.6.1 Single-Line-to-Ground Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.6.2 Three-Phase Fault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.7 Introduction to Load Flow Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.7.1 Newton-Rhapson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3

4 CONTENTS

Preface

5

6 CONTENTS

Chapter 1

Introduction

Fundamental element of transmission line are the

parameters and it consists of series impedance and

shunt capacitance. A line can be modeled in π or T

equivalent and it can be exact or lumped. Lumped

model are short and medium transmission model

and the model is referred to as nominal equivalent.

Whereas, the exact equivalent is long transmission

line derived from diﬀerential solutions.

1.1 History of Power System

7

8 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2

Parameters

Transmission line parameters.

2.1 Terms and Objectives

• To solve for the resistance of a line.

• To solve for the inductance and capacitance of

the line with solid conductor.

• To solve for the inductance and capacitance of

the line with bundled conductors.

• To be able to solve double-circuit lines.

Series Impedance Impedance consisting of resis-

tance and inductance connected in series of the

transmission line.

2.2 Resistance

Resistance aﬀects the power transmission loss.

R

dc

=

ρl

A

2.3 Inductance

Solid, 1φ

L

1

= L

1,int

+L

1,ext

Due to internal ﬂux, L

1,int

Let, s = arc length at distance x from the center;

dx = diﬀerential enclosed area where the ﬂux ﬂows;

ds = diﬀerential arc length.

H · ds = I

enc

At distance x from the center of the conductor, let,

I

x

= current enclosed; H

x

= magnetic ﬁeld intensity

and is constant for symmetrically radial form. Then,

the arc length for 1 revolution is the equal to the

circumference with radius x, 2πx.

2πx

0

H

x

· ds = I

x

H

x

s

2πx

0

= I

x

H

x

2πx = I

x

Solving for H

x

,

H

x

=

1

2πx

I

x

Internal to the conductor, the current I

x

is a frac-

tion of the total current enclosed I and proportional

to the cross-sectional area. Assuming I = I

enc

, then

I

x

πx

2

=

I

πr

2

9

10 CHAPTER 2. PARAMETERS

Solving for I

x

,

I

x

=

πx

2

πr

2

I

I

x

=

x

2

r

2

I

Substituting I

x

into H

x

equation,

H

x

=

1

2πx

x

2

r

2

I

=

x

2πr

2

I

Next, solving for magnetic ﬂux density at distance

x,

B

x

= µH

x

where µ = µ

r

µ

0

and µ

0

= 4π ×10

−7

H/m.

Substituting H

x

into B

x

,

B

x

= µ

x

2πr

2

I

**Solving for magnetic ﬂux at distance x, φ
**

x

,

φ

x

= B

x

A

c

At diﬀerential element,

dφ = B

x

· dA

c

where dA

c

the diﬀerential area where the ﬂux ﬂows.

Solving for dA

c

,

dA

c

= l · dx

and the diﬀerential area per axial length is

dA

c

l

= dx

Solving for the diﬀerential ﬂux per axial length,

dφ

l

= B

x

·

dA

c

l

Assuming ﬂux be the ﬂux per axial length and ex-

pressing the ﬁnal result in per axial length,

dφ =

dφ

l

= B

x

dx

Substituting B

x

,

dφ =

µxI

2πr

2

dx

Solving for the ﬂux linkage,

∆λ = (fractionalpart)∆φ

The fractional part is the ratio betweeen the area

at radius x and the total cross-sectional area. Solving

for the diﬀerential ﬂux linkage,

dλ =

πx

2

πr

2

dφ

=

x

2

r

2

µxI

2πr

2

Integrating,

λ =

µI

2πr

4

r

0

x

3

dx

=

µI

2πr

4

x

4

4

r

0

Evaluating to,

λ =

µI

2πr

4

r

4

4

Simplifying into,

λ =

µI

8π

At free space, µ

r

= 1, µ = µ

0

,

λ =

µ

0

I

8π

=

4π ×10

−7

8π

I

Simplifying into,

λ =

1

2

×10

−7

I

Finally, solving for the inductance,

L =

(1/2) ×10

−7

I

I

Simplifying into,

L =

1

2

×10

−7

H/m

Therefore,

L

1,int

=

1

2

×10

−7

2.5. SUMMARY 11

Due to external points

Due to the other conductor, L

1,ext

Total inductance of one conductor

2.3.1 Solid: 1φ, 3φ

2.3.2 Bundled: 1φ, 3φ

2.4 Capacitance

Solid, 1φ

Due to external points

Due to the other conductor

Total capacitance of one conductor

2.4.1 Solid: 1φ, 3φ

2.4.2 Eﬀect of Earth

2.4.3 Bundled: 1φ, 3φ

2.5 Summary

12 CHAPTER 2. PARAMETERS

Chapter 3

Module 2: Line Model

Note: This is a draft version. There might be some

typographical errors or grammatical error on some parts.

Modeling is a big part of analysis. There are three

line models that varies on its distance of transmis-

sion, these are: short, medium and long transmission.

From the three line models, the equivalent circuit are

deduced to nominal and exact. These equivalent cir-

cuit have two forms, namely, π and T equivalent.

3.1 Terms and Objectives

• To be able to construct a circuit model for trans-

mission line.

• To distinguish nominal-π and exact-π equivalent

circuit.

Nominal Model An equivalent circuit model for

short and medium transmission line.

Exact Model An equivalent circuit model for long

transmission line.

Equivalent-π A representation of the line forming

a π symbol.

Equivalent-T A representation of the line forming

a T symbol.

Short-line A transmission of distance less than

80km.

Medium-line A transmission of distance betwee

xxxkm and xxxkm.

Long-line A transmission of distance greater than

xxxkm.

3.2 Representations

Two types of representation: equivalent-π and

equivalent-T. Both these representations are not nu-

merically equal to each other. Using star-delta trans-

formation will yield a diﬀerent result. Approxima-

tions on product YZ approaches zero makes the two

representation equal.

Equivalent-π consists of a series arm impedance

and a two shunt arm admittance in half.

Figure 3.1: Equivalent-π

While, equivalent-T consists of a two series arm

impedance in half and a shunt arm admittance.

Two types of model: nominal and exact model.

Nominal model is an approximate model that uses

a lumped parameters. Exact model is an equiva-

lent model for long transmission that considers a uni-

formly distributed parameters throughout the length.

Considering the equivalent-π circuit, the nominal-

π and the exact-π are shown in the ﬁgure. The

13

14 CHAPTER 3. MODULE 2: LINE MODEL

Figure 3.2: Equivalent-T

nominal-π has a series arm impedance consisting of

resistance and an inductive reactance, and the shunt

arm admittance consists of capacitive susceptance.

Figure 3.3: Nominal-π

For exact-π, it involves hyperbolic functions.

Figure 3.4: Exact-π

3.3 Nominal-π Equivalent

Assigning voltage and current quantities at the

sending-end and receiving-end of the line.

KVL around the loop,

−V

S

+ZI

X

+V

R

= 0

V

S

= ZI

X

+V

R

KCL at the receiving-end node,

I

X

=

Y

2

V

R

+I

R

Figure 3.5: Nominal-π

Substitute I

X

,

V

S

= Z

Y

2

V

R

+I

R

+V

R

=

Y Z

2

V

R

+V

R

+ZI

R

V

S

=

Y Z

2

+ 1

V

R

+ZI

R

KCL at the sending-end node,

I

S

=

Y

2

V

S

+I

X

Substitute I

X

and V

S

,

I

S

=

Y

2

Y Z

2

+ 1

V

R

+ZI

R

+

Y

2

V

R

+I

R

=

Y

2

Y Z

2

+ 1

V

R

+

Y

2

V

R

+

Y Z

2

I

R

+I

R

=

Y

2

Y Z

2

+ 1 + 1

V

R

+

Y Z

2

+ 1

I

R

=

Y

2

Y Z

2

+ 2

V

R

+

Y Z

2

+ 1

I

R

I

S

= Y

Y Z

4

+ 1

V

R

+

Y Z

2

+ 1

I

R

Expressing as

V

S

= AV

R

+BI

R

I

S

= CV

R

+DI

R

yields

3.4. EXACT-π EQUIVALENT 15

A =

Y Z

2

+ 1

B = Z

C = Y

Y Z

4

+ 1

D =

Y Z

2

+ 1

Clearly, A = D which means that the network is

symmetrical.

3.4 Exact-π Equivalent

Exact model does not consider a lumped parameter

but a uniformly distributed throughout the line.

Figure 3.6: Schematic diagram of a transmission line

with parameters uniformly distributed

The incremental part of the line between the bro-

ken lines is shown in the ﬁgure. Note that y and z

are in admittances and impedances per length, re-

spectively.

Incremental voltage,

∆V = Iz∆x

∆V

∆x

= Iz

Incremental current,

∆I = V y∆x

Figure 3.7: Incremental length of the line

∆I

∆x

= V y

As ∆x →0,

dV

dx

= Iz

dI

dx

= V y

Substitute dI/dx

d

2

V

dx

2

= z(V y)

Arrange

d

2

V

dx

2

−yzV = 0

Let D = d/dx

D

2

V −yzV = 0

Solving for diﬀerential solution

m

2

−yz = 0

m

1,2

= ±

√

yz

Therefore,

V = A

1

e

√

yzx

+A

2

e

−

√

yzx

From dV/dx = Iz,

16 CHAPTER 3. MODULE 2: LINE MODEL

I =

1

z

d

dx

A

1

e

√

yzx

+A

2

e

−

√

yzx

=

1

z

√

yzA

1

e

√

yzx

−

√

yzA

2

e

−

√

yzx

I =

√

yz

z

A

1

e

√

yzx

−

√

yz

z

A

2

e

−

√

yzx

Let Z

c

be the characteristic impedance of the line

equal to

Z

c

=

z

y

and γ be the propagation constant equal to

γ =

√

yz

Simplify

√

yz

z

=

y

1/2

z

1/2

z

=

y

1/2

z

1/2

=

y

z

=

1

Z

c

The equation is now simpliﬁed to

V = A

1

e

γx

+A

2

e

−γx

and

I =

1

Z

c

A

1

e

γx

−

1

Z

c

A

2

e

−γx

At x = 0, V = V

R

and I = I

R

. Substituting to the

equations,

V

R

= A

1

e

0

+A

2

e

0

V

R

= A

1

+A

2

I

R

=

1

Z

c

A

1

e

0

−

1

Z

c

A

2

e

0

I

R

=

A

1

−A

2

Z

c

In matrix form,

¸

V

R

I

R

=

1 1

1

Z

c

−

1

Z

c

¸

¸

¸

A

1

A

2

Solving for A

1

,

A

1

=

V

R

1

I

R

−1/Z

c

1 1

1/Z

c

−1/Z

c

A

1

=

−V

R

1

Z

c

−I

R

−

1

Z

c

−

1

Z

c

=

V

R

1

Z

c

+I

R

2

Z

c

A

1

=

V

R

+I

R

Z

c

2

Solving for A

2

,

A

2

=

1 V

R

1/Z

c

I

R

1 1

1/Z

c

−1/Z

c

**following the same pattern solution as A
**

1

, we get

A

2

=

V

R

−I

R

Z

c

2

Therefore, the solution now becomes

V =

V

R

+I

R

Z

c

2

e

γx

+

V

R

−I

R

Z

c

2

e

−γx

and

I =

V

R

/Z +I

R

2

e

γx

+

V

R

/Z

c

−I

R

2

e

−γx

Arrange

V = V

R

e

γx

+e

−γx

2

+I

R

Z

c

e

γx

−e

−γx

2

I = V

R

1

Z

c

e

γx

−e

−γx

2

+I

R

e

γx

+e

−γx

2

**Applying hyperbolic functions identity,
**

cosh γx =

e

γx

+e

−γx

2

sinh γx =

e

γx

−e

−γx

2

3.5. SUMMARY 17

The equation simpliﬁes to

V = V

R

cosh γx +I

R

Z

c

sinh γx

I = V

R

sinh γx

Z

c

+I

R

cosh γx

At x = l, V +V

S

and I = I

S

. Finally,

V

S

= V

R

cosh γl +I

R

Z

c

sinh γl

I

S

= V

R

sinh γl

Z

c

+I

R

cosh γl

Expressing as

V

S

= AV

R

+BI

R

I

S

= CV

R

+DI

R

yields

A = cosh γl, B = Z

c

sinh γl

C =

1

Z

c

sinh γl, D = cosh γl

Relating ABCD with Y and Z.

Recall from nominal-π,

A =

Y Z

2

+ 1

and

B = Z

Substituting B,

A =

Y B

2

+ 1

Solving for Y/2

Y

2

=

A−1

B

For exact equivalent,

Z

= B = Z

c

sinh γl

Since A = cosh γl,

Y

2

=

A−1

B

=

cosh γl −1

Z

c

sinh γl

Figure 3.8: Exact equivalent-π

3.5 Summary

In general, there is one exact equivalent circuit in a

transmission line having two representations, namely,

π and T. The exact model involves hyperbolic func-

tions and is quite complex in calculations. Approx-

imation arises when the distance l is not too long

that when the hyperbolic functions are dropped and

simply the basic lumped parameters are used the

answer would have been nearly equal. The trans-

mission model now are categorized into the distance

the power is transmitted and these are: short-line,

medium-line and long-line transmission.

18 CHAPTER 3. MODULE 2: LINE MODEL

Chapter 4

Networks

Transmission line networks.

4.1 Terms and Objectives

• To use single-line diagram and per-unit quanti-

ties to simplify a network model.

• To be able to solve bus impedance matrix.

Bus Impedance Matrix A matrix consisting of

Thevenins equivalent impedance.

4.2 Single-Line Diagram and

Per-unit Quantities

4.3 Bus Admittance Matrix

4.4 Direct Determination of

Bus Impedance

4.5 Symmetrical Components

4.6 Introduction to Fault Anal-

ysis

4.6.1 Single-Line-to-Ground Fault

4.6.2 Three-Phase Fault

4.7 Introduction to Load Flow

Analysis

4.7.1 Newton-Rhapson

4.8 Summary

19

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