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PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY
PERSPECTIVES ON SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY
M. RAFIQUL ISLAM
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Copyright © 2008 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, electrostatic, magnetic, tape, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise without the written permission of the Publisher. For permission to use material from this book please contact us: Telephone 631-231-7269; Fax 631-231-8175 Web Site: http://www.novapublishers.com NOTICE TO THE READER The Publisher has taken reasonable care in the preparation of this book, but makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for any errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of information contained in this book. The Publisher shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting, in whole or in part, from the readers’ use of, or reliance upon, this material. Independent verification should be sought for any data, advice or recommendations contained in this book. In addition, no responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any methods, products, instructions, ideas or otherwise contained in this publication. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered herein. It is sold with the clear understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering legal or any other professional services. If legal or any other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent person should be sought. FROM A DECLARATION OF PARTICIPANTS JOINTLY ADOPTED BY A COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION AND A COMMITTEE OF PUBLISHERS. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Islam, M. Rafiqul. Perspectives on sustainable technology / M. Rafiqul Islam. p. cm. ISBN 978-1-60692-451-8 1. Environmental engineering. b2. Sustainable development. I. Title. TA170.I74 2008 628--dc22 2007039926
Published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Preface Introduction Chapter 1 If Nature Is Perfect, What Is ‘Denaturing’? M. R. Islam Truth, Consequences and Intentions: Engineering Researchers Investigate Natural and Anti-Natural Starting Points and Their Implications G. M. Zatzman and M. R. Islam A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product M. I. Khan, A. B. Chettri and S. Y. Lakhal A Numerical Solution of Reaction-Diffusion Brusselator System by A.D.M. J. Biazar and Z. Ayati Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies M. M. Khan, D. Prior and M. R. Islam Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water M. Y. Mehedi and H. Mann Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena S. H. Mousavizadegan, S. Mustafiz and M. R. Islam vii 1
Chapter 4 Chapter 5
131 157 177
Chapter 6 Index
gaining strength from heterogeneity. whereas the quest for homogeneity seems to motivate much of modern engineering. . Nature is nonlinear and inherently promotes multiplicity of solutions. This new and important book presents recent research on true sustainability and technology development from around the globe.PREFACE Nature thrives on diversity and flexibility.
. 1-7 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. R. bible – the (only) Book). Inspired by the Qu’ran that cites the root word ilm (science) second most frequently (only second to the word. he considered the Qu’ran as the only available. scientifically. For Averröes.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. that Aristotelian logic of ‘either with us or against us’ cannot lead to increasing knowledge unless the first premise is true. then you've made a discovery.” – Enrico Fermi How well do we know nature? In the words of Aristotle (384-322 BC): “The chief forms of beauty are orderly arrangement (taxis). there is no such thing as ‘orderly’. Halifax. Nearly a millennium ago. Dalhousie University. WHAT IS ‘DENATURING’? M. Canada “There's two possible outcomes: if the result confirms the hypothesis. Inc. it was purely scientific. untainted communication with the creator and linked the first premise to the existence of such a communication. proportion (symmetria). It was not a theological sermon. Rafiqul Islam. Thomas Aquinas took the logic of Averröes and introduced it to Europe with a simple yet fatal modification: he would color the (only) creator as God and define the collection of Catholic church documentation on what took place in the neighborhood of Jerusalem some millennium ago as the only communication of God to mankind (hence the title. pp. and definiteness (horismenon)”. INTRODUCTION IF NATURE IS PERFECT. ‘symmetrical’. The difficulty. the first premise was the existence of the (only) creator. we must have an ugly God. . long before renaissance hit Europe. Islam Civil and Resource Engineering Dept. Yet. Allah). it wasn’t even a philosophical discourse. If the result is contrary to the hypothesis. Nova Scotia. all the way to the present modern age. or ‘definite’ in nature. has been our inability to identify the first premise. If Aristotle is right along with all who say “God created us in His image”. Averröes (known as Ibn Rushid outside of the Eurocentric world) pointed out. then you've made a measurement.
we continue avoid challenging the first premise and even in the information age this it continues to be hazardous. In Carl Sagan’s words (Hawkings. “Verily unto Us is the first and the last (of everything)”. How can an intention be real or false? This paper talks at length about what is real and equates reality with natural. Averröes called the (only) creator as ‘The Truth’ (In Qu’ranic Arabic. His first premise pertained to the book (Qur’an) that said. Averröes’ ‘the creator’ and Thomas Aquinas’s ‘God’ both are used to denominate monotheist faith. if not fatal. “This is also a book about God…or perhaps about the absence of God. this act of Thomas Aquinas indeed became the bifurcation point between two pathways. Today. this opens a Pandora’s box for creating ‘us vs them’. 3) consequence (end). no beginning or end in time. ethnicity. Each action would have three components: 1) origin (intention). The intrinsic features of both God and bible were equally dissimilar to the (only) creator and Qu’ran. R. it talks about individual acts. Rather than basing the first premise on the Truth à la Averröes. this paper talks about intention that is real. Unfortunately for Europe and the rest of the world that Europe would eventually dominate. Hawking is attempting. The word God fills these pages. (89. Because. the Corporation has been added to this array of the most powerful gatekeepers of spurious assumptions. Islam It is unfortunate because the new doctrine introduced by Thomas Aquinas was diametrically opposite to the science introduced by Averröes. as demonstrated by Galileo. consequent logic. Even challenging some of the cursory premises has been hazardous. the word ‘the Truth’ and ‘the Creator’ refer to the same entity). 2004). Averröes talked about origin being the truth. and science continues. the other must be false. as he explicitly states. It has been possible to keep this modus operandi because new “laws” have been passed to protect ‘freedom of religion’ and. something either is or is not: if one is ‘true’. Hawking embarks on a quest to answer Einstein’s famous question about whether God had any choice in creating the universe. And this makes all the more unexpected the conclusion of the effort. The first paper avoids the discussion of the theological nature but does manage to challenge the first premise. 2002). ‘freedom of speech’. the concept of science and religion became a matter of conflicting paradox (Pickover.” What a demented way to describe the creator and His job description! Why do we fail to see the divergence of these two pathways? Historically. For special-interest groups. and nothing for a Creator to do. it was the Church and the Government to worry about. Church and Imperialism after the Renaissance).13) Contrast this to a “modern” view of a creator. of late. now keeping up with the culture of The Trinity. The paper shows Aristotle’s logic of anything being ‘either A or not-A’ is useful only to discern . 1988). with origin. at least so far: a universe with no edge in space. challenging the first premise.2 M. ‘clash of civilizations’ and every aphenomenal model now in evidence (Zatzman and Islam. With Aristotle’s logic. After the Renaissance. the confusion between religion. where the divergence is set. 2) pathway. The paper outlines fundamental features of nature and shows there can be only two options: natural (true) or artificial (false). and the end being starkly opposite. 2007). As long as no one dares ask: "What relevance does something that eventuated centuries ago in Palestine have for the religion that was re-invented during the late Middle Ages to suit the circumstances of European descendants of tribes from the Caucusus?”. to challenge the first premise or secondary premises. respectively (Armstrong. to understand the mind of God. has become such a taboo that there is no documented case of anyone challenging it and surviving the wrath of the Establishment (Church alone in the past.
for Averröes. artificial vitamin C gives cancer. To the authors’ credit. they were not aware of these verses while writing the paper. In order to ensure the end being real. What is being said in the paper is not new. it might mean. Averröes couldn’t have commented about this criterion nor did he report any link between the end criterion. the paper argues. The paper shows with example that artificial products follow a very different (in fact: opposite) pathway as a function of time. The Nobel Prize may . Because the time criterion was not used. offers ample of that. In philosophy. and the list continues for all 4. natural chromium increases metabolic activities. The first paper continues the discussion of nature and what is natural and shows with a number of very recent examples how currently practiced research protocols violate fundamental traits of nature. This paper shows the reason behind the apparent success of artificial chemicals. did not. but Khan (2007). In fact. What Is ‘Denaturing’? 3 between true (real) and false (artificial). natural fertilizers increase food value. The second paper uses a previously developed criterion and demonstrates that unless this criterion is fulfilled. Even with the same origin. If something is convergent when time is extended to infinity.16). artificial chromium decreases them. Most of them are natural. During the review process of this paper. the end is assured to be real. 2007). artificial fertilizers decrease it. what we claimed to have created will act exactly the opposite way as to what we claimed it would do. but for this paper. The paper shows the entire pathway has to be real: without that. and virtually all 4. the pathway would be different. this might well mean the creator is perfect. based only on their compositions. This is not a matter of proof. He quoted. all artificially. the natural one blocks it. if this criterion is used. all chemicals were thought to be the same. who introduced the criterion of time going to infinity (to determine the fate of a technology). With this mode. In the modern age. the difference would be even more stark. both in process and ingredient. The fact that natural process has been violated.000 artificial chemicals. 2006). If the claim of the first paper needed any physical evidence. It is possible Averröes knew about these verses in the context of origin. they become inherently toxic. an MIT PhD (in Engineering) pointed out serveral verses of the Qu’ran.If Nature Is Perfect. The first premise of this paper is: Nature is perfect. If any doubt. The fate of all these 4000 chemicals shows that we do not need to wait an infinite period to discover we had no business ‘creating’ them (Globe and Mail. vitamin C from organic source and vitamin C artificial source. meaning nature has to fight them throughout their pathways extending to an infinite time period. one can be spared of questioning the ‘intention’ of an action. it is not sustainable. the intention and technology development (Zatzman and Islam. this simply is a matter left to the reader. it is a reality. beeswax and paraffin wax. the second paper by Khan et al. honey and saccharine. and with different origins. the paper introduces the recently developed criterion of Khan (2007) and Khan and Islam (2007). it might mean ‘the Creator is the only creator and is the one who defines perfection’. in theology. “God is perfect”. one should simply investigate where the activity will end up if time. t goes to infinity. Only recently has it become clear that artificial products do the opposite of the natural ones. For instance. There are no less than 20 million known chemicals. The most important conclusion of the paper is: if it is not real.000 synthetic chemicals would appear to be the same as their natural counterpart. “Are the who creates and the one who doesn’t the same?” (17. and thus couldn’t be inspired by them while developing this criterion. the aphenomenon will set in and the research results will be harmful to the inventor as well as those who follow him/her (blindly or deliberately). we have managed to create some 4000 of them.
The non-linear character of any equation that attempts to describe any natural process has been a failure in ‘new science’. How can we predict behavior with foresight rather than hindsight? How long will it take to predict that if plastic containers are unacceptable for hot beverages. namely. Tatiana. and the potent venom. such as. it is not perfect. the United Arab Emirates banned the use of plastic containers for serving hot beverages. Years of research finally discovered that plastic containers leach out toxic chemicals at hot temperatures. it would implode this very moment. but this did not detoxify its environmental impacts. yet pragmatism in new science calls it ‘the modus operandi’. Linearization changes the very nature of the problem and suits the problem to satisfy the solution. we have understood that nature is balanced. poisonous hemlock. mass balance and energy balance. that ‘something’ is imperfect. it really implies if something does not advance the short-term gains of someone and this someone is in a position of calling the shots. This concept comes from the first premise that matter (and. If nature wasn’t perfect. This paper personifies the pro-nature technology that satisfies the three fundamental criteria. an engineering professor in Canada questioned the balanced nature of nature. If one takes this argument further. real pathway. This also dictates that any natural (real) phenomenon be also 100% efficient. Of course. Conventional wisdom would consider this modus operandi preposterous. We can barely solve any meaningful non-linear problem without linearizing it first. should we through away everything we learned in the past? Indeed. might have made a fortune. albeit with a myopic vision. real origin. he cites the fact that there are deadly bacteria. showing reaction rate as a continuous function of temperature? The first paper of this issue claims that the modern age has been hopeless in making use of the modern analytical mind. we can make use of the past experience if we focus on failures and investigate why things did not work rather than being obsessed with measuring success and pragmatic results. we have accepted concepts. similarly. The paper does not recover all the essential features of nature. energy) cannot be created or destroyed. Even during the ‘new science’ era. What does this line of argument imply? If it is deadly to human beings. they are also not acceptable for cold ones? When will we be able to use the knowledge of Arrhenius’ equation. such as multiple solutions. Nature is perfect because. DDT was a ‘miracle powder’ for decades before it was banned. and . This failure to see the obvious outcome of the fundamental premise of nature needed slanting of zero-waste engineering as ‘blue sky’ research. One doesn’t need Aristotle to see where this argument is leading. Practically all the theories and ‘laws’ are based on some spurious first premise that conflicts with natural traits. with ease. but it advances knowledge by producing one solution domain that was not known before. “Nature isn’t really perfect. even as it accommodates changes evolved within it and even as it overcomes insults inflicted on the environment by ‘development’. Islam have been awarded to the inventor of DDT. The new science that has claimed ‘nature can be improved (through engineering)’ has not disputed mass and energy balance but it has failed to see mass and energy balance also means nature is 100% efficient and 100% zero-waste. R. He asked. So. singing “Things happen because they should”. Recently. is it?” It would be considered blasphemy if it wasn’t for the fact that the professor is also an ordained minister of a church. The third paper by Biazar and Hyati attempts to solve a highly non-linear problem without linearizing it first. In support of his argument. The ‘Pop Princess’. it remains balanced. therefore. The fourth paper by Khan et al. Throughout human history.4 M. points out this absurdity of Eurocentric engineering and proposes a zero-waste process.
Einstein demonstrated that nature is four-dimensional. To Albert Einstein. the fifth paper (by Mehedi et al. within these limitations without giving them much further thought. the leap from three dimensions to four dimensions was a matter of visualizing n dimensions with a value n=4 put in it. but also by the depth of that research.e. it is necessary. For instance. Using the example of Turkish tea (Turkey is one of the world’s biggest consumers and producers of a specific brand of black tea). i. In and of themselves.If Nature Is Perfect. today no criterion exists that would call converting solar energy into electric energy a waste. Our knowledge is conditioned not only by the quantity of information gathered in the process of conducting research. What Is ‘Denaturing’? 5 real end. Implicit in this arrangement is the idea that. “Readily” here implies characteristic time frame of a process (Zatzman and Islam. In this respect. our own brains. Paper 6 introduces the knowledge dimension and shows such dimension is not only possible. The paper refines previous work of Khan and Islam (2007) to show how ‘good’ (real) intention will be beneficial continuously and ‘ill’ (artificial) intention will do the opposite.) shows how even organic waste (which is not really waste) can be rendered valuable. or the extent of that consciousness. It defines waste (both in energy and mass) as something that is not ‘readily’ usable by nature. neither can it be affirmed that we arrive at knowledge directly or merely through perception. since it delivers current flow in discrete pulses). Hence. The rest we organize according to the level to which we have trained. although spatial dimensions may vary in linear independence of. the facts of nature’s existence and of our existence within it do neither guarantee nor demonstrate our consciousness of either. We normally live and work. If the direction is wrong.. lightning is neither ‘direct’ nor ‘alternating’. one another. it does propose a natural pathway that would leave our waste products in a state amenable to natural processing. time does not or shall not. nor can we affirm being in possession at any point in time of a reliable proof or guarantee that our knowledge of anything in nature is complete. This paper also explains how a pro-nature process can be confused with an anti-nature one and vice versa. After all. and-or come to use. This definition is scientific. consider the simple problem of determining either the maximum volume of perfect cube possible . how good speed of a movement is if the direction is wrong? Continuing with the zero waste theme. While this technique cannot undo the damage chemical fertilizers or pesticides may have caused to the tea. how can we be said to differ significantly from the residents of Flatland (Abbott. 2007. the paper shows how tea waste can be used to first remove metallic containments from an aqueous stream. 1884)? Their existence in two dimensions carried on perfectly comfortably and they developed their own rationalizations to account for phenomena intervening in their existence that arose from a third dimension of whose very existence they knew nothing. yet we carry on almost all scientific research and daily life according to an assumption that the world is three-dimensional and time is something that varies independently of anything taking place within those three dimensions. the intensity of our participation in finding things out. Much of this information we organize naturally and indeed unconsciously. or in linear dependence upon. the whole concept of efficiency and speed is perverted. depending on perception. To help demonstrate the consequences of this anomaly. including conduct research. also see Paper 1 of this issue). Yet. then to grow bacteria that would ferment the tea into organic fertilizers and valuable nutrients. electricity (AC or DC) does not exist in nature (no. Our perceptual apparatus enables us to record a large number of discrete items of data about the surrounding environment. yet it has eluded even the most pro-environment enthusiasts.
True Sustainability in Technological Development and Natural Resource Management. 211 pp. neither is time’s relationship as a dimension relative to length. Among others. UK. In reality.. yxz and zxy. pp. 1. However. no. The book provides one with a guideline for developing technologies that environmentally beneficial and socially responsible. the book shows with concrete examples how pro-nature techniques are not only possible. C. Armstrong. 2004. every two-dimensional plane or surface is simply a collection of points. N. 2006. 496 pp. and ∂z. Random House. or like that of two-dimensional Flatlanders’ experiencing of phenomena intervene from a third dimension outside their ‘natural’ experience. 381 pp. If we are examining this as a transformation taking place over some period of time t. Nature Science and Sustainable Technology. would we even think of examining xyzt.. In other words: we have to accept the prospect that changes in any of the linear dimensions may not be independent of one another. . Islam. the two most important features of nature. M. 1994. London. 1884. If this is the case.R. zxyt and txyz? Why not? Perhaps. 288 pp. The Paradox of God and the Science of Omniscience. Palgrave MacMillan. Pickover. A History of God. The temporal dimension incorporates points in the past and the future along with all points in the present. we would likely add consideration of a ∂/∂t operation on each of x. Bantam books. Flatland – A Romance in Many Dimensions London: Macmillan. however.. orthogonality is more of a convenient assumption for purposes of a certain kind of mathematical manipulation. In fact. as distinct from mere recording and cataloguing of perceptions? This gap between conscious knowledge and catalogues of recorded perception seems very like that between time as an actual dimension and any of the spatial dimensions taken singly or in combination.. including all their possible first-degree combinations xyz. a book review is presented.A. vol. width or height. requiring the fewest linearizing exogenous assumptions. REFERENCES Abbott. 1. Edwin. time-less. but an absolute necessity for achieving and maintaining sustainability. literally. 2007. For the most general case. A Brief History of Time. M. R. Khan. It feels like a dimensional gap: can we consider the knowledge domain as perhaps a fifth dimension? Its relationship to the other dimensions is not orthogonal like that of length. any and every plane or surface. K. S. y and z. that may also enclose any other line of that plane or surface. 1-34. Khan. yxzt. J. Nova Science Publishers. 2007. Islam inside a sphere of a given radius r. ∂y. treating time as the independent variable is a rationalization akin to Flatlanders’ treatment of evidence of the third dimension in their two-dimensional universe. 2007). beyond those on a line.I. The awareness of these points-in-themselves and their interrelationship(s) forms the fifth dimension we call the “knowledge domain” (Zatzman and Islam. NY. width or height to each other. as well as and in between. we have to consider ∂x.6 M. Hawking.Y. 1988.I. Globe and Mail. Finally. Ballantine Books. than a proper description. or the maximum spherical volume possible inside a given cube of side-length l. every three-dimensional space is a collection of points on. and M. All three of these dimensions are.. a series on synthetic chemicals. Toxic Shock. then what is the accomplishment of conscious knowledge.
Nova Science Publishers. . G.R. New York.If Nature Is Perfect. M. What Is ‘Denaturing’? 7 Zatzman. Economics of Intangibles.M and Islam. 2007.. 400 pp.
9-66 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. If you can fake that. you've got it made. Canada ABSTRACT The contemporary scene is rife with the howling contradiction of an unprecedented number of scientific tools at Humanity’s disposal for sorting out a vast range of problems alongside a looming and growing “technological disaster” – a seemingly endless catalogue of system failures. . Dep’t of Civil and Resource Engineering. The secret of life is honesty and fair dealing. an entire multi-billion-dollar sub-industry has emerged in the field of what is known as “product liability” law to handle compensation claims by individuals for all manner of conditions.” Especially in the civil courts of the United States. arising most often either from some identifiable “human error” in deploying a key technology or from what are widely reported as “unintended consequences. Zatzmana and M. Halifax. Chapter 1 TRUTH. ranging from the contracting of malignant cancers (from exposures to everything from asbestos to cigarettes) to death or acute pain from faulty pacemakers and heart-valve replacements. suggesting a way out of the present conundrum. Islamb b a EEC Research Organisation-6373470 Canada Inc.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. from airplane crashes to oil-rig sinkings. Dalhousie University. Rafiqul Islam. CONSEQUENCES AND INTENTIONS: ENGINEERING RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATE NATURAL AND ANTI-NATURAL STARTING POINTS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS G. Inc. This article refocuses on a number of the issues of how science is conducted in the Information Age. R.Groucho Marx . pp. The resultant widespread focus on critical-point failure has distracted attention away from addressing more fundamental questions about how the science that is supposed to underlie the technologies implicated in these disasters was conducted in the first place. M.
possessing definite historical origins and direction. M. an entire multi-billion-dollar sub-industry has emerged in the field of what is known as “product liability” law to handle compensation claims by individuals for all manner of conditions. the effects of faked science have been increasingly apparent.”1 The resultant widespread focus on critical-point failure has distracted attention away from addressing more fundamental questions about how the science that is supposed to underlie the technologies implicated in these disasters was conducted in the first place. which threatens the present and future of the scientific research enterprise and needs urgently to be addressed. see http://www. Disinformation has become the norm rather than the exception in all fields of scientific endeavour.10 G. other than to remark that there is also a lot more science about.html. little headway has been made in specifying anything particularly significant about the rise of faked science. and therefore such an increase in fakery can be statistically anticipated. Zatzman and M. ranging from the contracting of malignant cancers (from exposures to everything from asbestos to cigarettes) to death or acute pain from faulty pacemakers and heart-valve replacements. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW: HOW THE QUESTION OF “INTENTION” POSED ITSELF DURING EARLY MODERN ERA PRE-WW1 The true wellsprings of modern science are to be found neither in the hushed hallways of Cal Tech or the Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton. Much of this discourse centres on a looming and growing sense of what Nobel Chemistry Laureate Robert F. The starting-point of the present article is that the widespread focus on critical-point failure has distracted attention away from addressing more fundamental questions about how the science that is supposed to underlie the technologies implicated in these disasters was conducted in the first place. Curl has called “our technological disaster” – a seemingly endless catalogue of system failures. .rice.owlnet. And underlying this development is a deeper systematic problem. nor in the lushly-outfitted laboratories of star researchers at private-sector foundations or public-sector institutions. and wringing of hands and crackdowns in security against the relatively easy and widespread practice of using the World Wide Web as a screen on which to misrepresent work results or effort to a potentially global audience. from airplane crashes to oil-rig sinkings. One of the most critical of critical points in the arc of the story-line of modern science’s development emerged about 350 years ago. in Renaissance Italy. at the University of Padua. however. Galileo Galilei demonstrated not only the evidence for his proposition that the Earth and other 1 Especially in the civil courts of the United States. Unfortunately much of this concern has expressed itself in the form of campaigns against rising plagiarism in academia. as the very wide range of items included in the Appendix of this article illustrate. There has been a lot of discussion and analysis of the effects of technological failures stemming from science poorly-conceived or badly-done. What had been less prominent until recently was much public expression of concern that anything be done about this problem. Dr Curl teaches a course on this theme at Rice University. As fraud is not a new story within the human condition. arising most often either from some identifiable “human error” in deploying a key technology or from what are widely reported as “unintended consequences. Islam INTRODUCTION For some time. R.edu/~univ113/contact.
The importance for the development of science lay in Galileo’s approach. During the 17th.2 The economic system that grew and expanded on the basis of the scientific revolution launched by Galileo treated the factory labourer as the extension of the machinery to which his creative labouring power was harnessed. 2 See infra Appendix C. however. People eventually developed a nose for sniffing out signs of the presence of such arbitrary authority lurking anywhere. Increasingly they became merged as the scale of factory production and its associated systems of distribution and exchange expanded to include the commodification of many wants that had never before been packaged as “products” for sale in the market. life and letters. The underlying material reason why this particular historic moment cannot be eradicated from people’s consciousness lies in the event’s significance for all subsequent human development: knowledge could no longer be retained as the private property of a self-appointed priesthood. That was his great crime. especially in the scholarly literature of Westernised / Christianised societies. he is reported (apocryphally) to have muttered under his breath: “E per si muove!” (“And yet it [i. Indeed: the international mass media marked the moment at which Pope John Paul II in 1984 “rehabilitated” Galileo. The line between the labourer’s humanity and the thing-ness of the raw materials and machinery became blurred as both were now in the factory-owner’s power. for which the Inquisition was to punish him. such lurkers frequently gave themselves away by introducing talk of “intentions” – meaning: the intentions of the Deity in human affairs – in opposition to scientific findings that offended or otherwise triggered them to react. but also why the authoritative doctrine approved for the previous 14 centuries or so and still defended at that time by the Roman Catholic Church throughout the Western Christian world – that the Sun revolves around the Earth – must be wrong. Consequences and Intentions 11 known planets must revolve around the Sun. This established as general for all science a method already being used by others.e. “Creationism” and other challenges to Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection as the mechanism of speciation in the animal kingdom. None of these things. the Earth] moves!”) Many other far more dramatic tales of great scientific accomplishment or failure never entered.. yet threatened or affected the scientific research undertaken to develop and prove the technologies applied in industry. 18th and 19th centuries.Truth. Even as he submitted humiliatingly to the Church’s decision to ban his writings while permitting him to live but only in a state of virtual house arrest. Echoes of this openly anti-scientific manipulation of the notion of intentions continue in our own day in the discussions and battles over “intelligent design”. or have long since lapsed from. 1984). . yet this anecdote lives on hundreds of years since the events it describes. The method was: to elucidate the facts and features of a phenomenon and draw warranted conclusions without reference to what any established or officially-approved authority might have to say for or against those conclusions. This clear-cut rejection of arbitrary authority was crucial for the further explosive development of science in European. Item 1. public consciousness. effectively lifting the moral taint that still operated to enforce the Church’s ban on Catholics reading and disseminating Galileo’s work (Golden and Wynn. and eventually also American and global.
the non-religious theory and practice of Monopoly seems to rest on just this one pillar alone. and he must therefore submit to an imposed alien intention or not expect to eat. a great deal of the science itself increasingly incorporated and regurgitated as scientific these monopolising intentions. R. “proving” the safety and reliability of a new drug by massive clinical trials (which only the wealthiest manufacturers can afford in the first place) and random sampling of the resulting datasets indicates nothing whatsoever about the safety or reliability of the underlying science. On top of the well-known examples of the corrupting of science by deceptive advertising messages was added a far profounder corrupting of the mission and purpose of the research scientist-engineer. Certain essential characteristic features of this transformed order of social production were unprecedented. The modern monopoly group’s obsession with guaranteeing a rate of return premised on continuing to grow riveted its attention on going for the maximum profit in every single undertaking. And here is also the point at which an idea actually as old as the earliest emergence of the human species on the face of the earth. CONT’D: SINCE WW1 – “THERE IS NO GOD BUT MONOPOLY…” By the time of the First World War. has emerged in strikingly modern form as the pointer to real solutions: intervention (by humans or any other agency) that preserves the primacy of the surrounding environment vis-à-vis any of its constituent elements will follow the natural path and sustain 3 4 For example.12 G. Whereas the insistence upon authority over science by the Papal Index and Inquisition threatened individuals with torture and worse. Eventually and inevitably. based on denying rivals’ access to comparable technological means for as long as possible. states that “There is no God but God and Muhammad is his Prophet. whose instinct to resist was challenged by the fact that all sources of his present or future employment and livelihood lay with these giant monopolies. dressed up as modern scientific norms. Islam HISTORICAL OVERVIEW. The old-style individual factory owner’s obsession with remaining in business riveted his attention on maintaining whatever was necessary for garnering the average rate of profit in his industry. however. these mandates inserted an intention that had not played a role before.” By contrast. These ownership groups included one or more banks or financial institutions possessing detailed knowledge of existing competitors. . Their capital base was increasingly detached from any previous notions of the individual capitalist’s risk and repositioned as the investment decision of a collective. viz. One of the most crucial weapons of competition at this level was the development and deployment of technologies not yet possessed or used by others. The enterprises were monopolistic and manipulated market competition to destroy and absorb competitors. M. or profession of faith that is one of Islam's five pillars. the primacy of the natural environment over anything fabricated by any of its participants. the shahadah of modern monopoly – “there is no god but Monopoly and maximum is Its profit” 4 – threatens entire societies with destruction. competing markets and competing products as well as other sources of investment capital prepared to forego any say in management in exchange for a guaranteed rate of return. this expansion had already followed in the wake of the increasing concentration of the means of production on the largest possible scale as well as concentration of the ownership of such giant systems in fewer and fewer hands. Into the development of the science underlying such technologies.3 The intentions underpinning monopoly dictation of scientific and technological development increasingly threaten Humanity’s future on this planet.. Item 3. The shahadah. See infra Appendix D. Zatzman and M.
Consequences and Intentions 13 the environment for the long term. but the pillars of its logic are completely hollow. the larger the organisation. APHENOMENALITY AND ANTI-NATURE OUTCOMES Intervention in anything – as a citizen or official in some social. When it fails disastrously. Among other reasons for considering these pathways crucial is the fact that a struggle is waged inside these pathways between that which is natural and that which is anti-Nature. the more it may – indeed: must. Back in the 19th century. which is where aphenomenality unleashes its greatest destruction. the very first check to be carried out when investigating failure besetting any complex system is the system’s underlying logic. As is well known. the last thing anyone dares hint at examining is the underlying assumption(s) that produced the unwanted result. characteristics or features 5 In this particular regard. the expression was popularised that “idle hands are the Devil’s playground. If the logical or technological imperative is satisfied in the short term. the Unchecked Assumption has really taken over that role.Truth. are a frequent culprit. That which is anti-Nature takes the form of an unverified assumption. when the maximum exploitation of people’s labouring power was the main aim of the entire social and economic order. In fact. whether for sale in the market or as the input to a further stage of processing – entails a process of formulating and taking decisions. Any and every situation where the operational logic is one or another version of the following syllogism is certain to become beset by aphenomenality: • • • All Americans speak French Jacques Chirac is an American Therefore. about what the investigator wishes existed. economic or political situation. “expected values” arising from a projection of the probability measure taken on some random variable and then accepted as outcomes on the authority of the mathematical theory without further verification. the phenomenon purportedly encapsulated in the (unverified) assumption or assertion does not exist – either fully or verifiably or even at all – and may more properly be described as aphenomenal. whereas intervening according to any other intention in the short-term will have deleterious anti-Nature.5 The extreme technological complexity of modern systems. INTERVENTION. anti-environmental consequences. masked as a positive assertion.” In the Information Age of our own time. Jacques Chirac speaks French The short-term pragmatic conclusion is true and appears logical. . long-term or short-term. The pathway on which such a decision is formulated and taken is crucial. no one questions its premises. coupled to the widespread and unquestioned acceptance of the fundamental pragmatic principle that “truth is whatever works”. Today. as career futures could be at stake – resist modeling how something actually failed. vulnerable and false. “Aphenomenality” is a term that has been coined to describe in general the non-existence of any purported phenomenon or of any collection of properties. or as an engineer transforming a natural process and-or raw materials into some kind of finished product. has rendered Humanity highly vulnerable to aphenomenal modeling of solutions.
Not surprisingly. some will say: if what you are saying is true. why has no one hit on it before? Essentially the answer must be that the truth is assailed by error and falsehood everywhere. Aphenomenal Model of Decision-Making. proceeding from the top down (Figure 1). Figure 1. The inverted representation stresses the inherent instability of the model. The source data from which a decision eventually emerges already incorporates their own justifications. and-or applying the investigation’s result. and it is so simple. social science and physical and social engineering has identified an “aphenomenal model”. R. which are then massaged by layers of opacity and disinformation. what's the “secret”? There must be some practical way(s) to avoid an anti-Nature path in the first place. Of course. Islam ascribed to such a purported but otherwise unverified or unverifiable phenomenon..14 G. and data from unverified or untested observations on the other. we do not advocate that one must acquire membership in any special priesthood in order to grasp the truth. therefore. Research work undertaken by members of the EEC Research Group into a number of phenomena of natural science. This process of selection obscures any distinctions between the data coming from nature or from any all-natural pathway. The process of aphenomenal decision-making is illustrated by the inverted triangle. M. This describes an approach to investigating phenomena. or to break with such a path when one detects that s/he has gone that way and find a proNature path instead. Zatzman and M. .and anti-Nature approaches. the aphenomenal model of decision-making necessarily gives rise to an anti-Nature result. so. without disclosing either the fact of such selection or the criteria guiding the selection. on the one hand. The methods of this disinformation achieve their effect by presenting evidence or raw data selectively. according to criteria that assume or circumscribe conclusions in the assumptions and hypotheses that sparked the investigation. It has been a big advance to detect and make explicit the bifurcation between pro.. At the same time. The disinformation referred to here (Figure 1) is what results when information is presented or recapitulated in the service of unstated or unacknowledged ulterior intentions.
One of the hazards of the Information Age derives nevertheless from the sheer surfeit of “data” on any topic. this seems like impossibly petty caviling: surely. Bains entitled Necessity for Change (London. Many confuse this notion with the notion of “bias”. First: there is intention. compared to the number and depth of questioning needed in order to cull. bias is not one of them. for example.. A knowledge-based model.7 The sequence of questions posed must serve to establish the direction of the inquiry. viz. there are three (3) things to check if one is concerned not to be intervening on a path that is anti-Nature. or on the basis of.Truth. locations and other “data sources”. or collected from sources that are unbiased and otherwise reliable – and the warranted conclusions collected from. disconnected from any framework. necessarily also be dynamic. At the same time it should by no means be assumed that such sequencing is arbitrary.org/privacy/profiling/tia/ Any model that predicts contrary to the truth is a model based on ignorance. not a matter of perception or blind faith8 – and we are seeking a knowledge-based model of this phenomenon. “understanding requires conscious participation of the individual in acts of finding out.epic.S. The source and content of this knowledge base must be conscious observation – either by oneself directly. Within its own work . for example. In this regard. visas or citizenship. since knowledge is infinite (at what time can it ever be asserted that all current information is available and the description of a process is complete?). the reliability of perception in and of itself. however. Every phenomenon. Such a model will. or its source. but although data may be filtered for analysis in any number of acceptable ways. to predict something based on the earth being flat cannot pass. such observations. or viceversa. Intention means direction. Imagine an electric fan rotating clockwise – the clockwise rotation is actual: the truth. For an insightful critique of TIA. group and analyse what these data mean.”6 Data in and of themselves actually disclose nothing… until operated on by an investigator asking questions and then seeking answers in the data. If the entire source and content of this knowledge base is perception alone. by contrast.and anti-Nature approaches in various circumstances. The perpetration of the “Terrorism Information Awareness” (TIA) database project headed by Adm. the EEC Research Group has taken this in a definite direction.) . It doesn’t matter is everything else seems “alright”: this lack is a decisive indicator. If one lacks a conscious intention. Thus. “data are data”. That would be an example of an aphenomenal model.S. the character of this knowledge base will be faulty and deficient. see for example Islam (2003) and Zatzman and Islam (2006). As various works published by members of the EEC Research Group have stressed. Poindexter (an individual publicly discredited in the 1980s for abetting the illegal “Iran-Contra” arms deal) and intended to “detect patterns that predict potential future outbursts of Islamic extremism” from applications filed for U. including this apparently trivially simple 6 7 8 This injunction was first stated this way 40 years ago in a powerful pamphlet by Hardial S. At first glance. changes dramatically once the circuit’s state is altered from open to closed. what is most crucial is also to elaborate some of these practical ways of guarding against or countering an erroneous choice of pathway. Consequences and Intentions 15 In addition to detecting and making explicit the bifurcation between pro. logs of transoceanic cell-phone calls to or from U. 1967). See Zatzman & Islam (ibid. without worrying either about nailing bias or even first making explicit the questions that are to be asked. regardless of its observer. Second: there is the matter of the character of the knowledge forming the basis of one's intervention. see http://www. should predict the truth. The line of questions an engineer asks about an electric circuit. recorder or investigator? Precisely what this approach overlooks is something that is not a petty matter at all. was and is possible only because some people bought the argument that data would provide answers. this itself should serve as a warning sign.
the problem compounds. then knowledge about the actual. perception has been rendered the opposite of reality. The starting point was quite explicit: the fan rotates clockwise. Two things were observed that directly conflicted: clockwise and counterclockwise rotation. Using a strobe light. or otherwise serve an anti-Nature intention. are aphenomenal. are inherently aphenomenal. i. and no other information is necessary to describe the motion of the electric fan. As long as the direction of the investigation is correct – something ascertainable from the intention of the investigator – further facts about the truth will continue to reveal themselves. Zatzman and M. such investigation takes on a different meaning as the observed phenomenon is constantly changing. R. what was true could readily be differentiated from what was false. Their most important features are their tangibility and the confinement of their operating range to time t = ‘right now’. Frequency is the inverse of time. Such models. however. tangible. Over time. and therefore also all tangible models. For instance. How can it be ensured that any prediction of counter-clockwise fan rotation is discarded? If mention of the frequency of the light under which the observation was being made is included. so any model that would proclaim that the fan appears rotating counter-clockwise would do nothing for the truth. All steady-state models. insides which is what we are probably actually intending when we refer to “banana”. by knowing the time-dependence (frequency). the motion of the electric fan can be shown to have reversed. Despite the appearance. The key to sorting everything out is conscious observation of the phenomenon – engineered or natural – in its characteristic mode of operation. if observation with the naked eye is assumed to be complete. but as this example serves to make more than clear: time is the single most important parameter in revealing the truth. true motion of the fan would be obscured (to say the least). an aphenomenal result would be validated. However. although steady-state models.e. since only sunlight can guarantee an image closest to the truth. As the ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus was probably the first European to point out. yet which “come with the territory” – like the skin of a banana with its edible.. Time is the fourth dimension in which everything in the social or natural environment is acted out. by including the phenomenon in its natural state. Third: the temporal element of the observations collected must be made conscious. Simply by changing the frequency. necessarily also incorporate information and facts that no observer may yet have sorted out. and depending on the applied frequency of the strobe. necessarily incorporates some room for further investigation.16 G. intangible models are inherently knowledge-based. motion is . Islam phenomenon of a clockwise-rotating fan. This is the case even for phenomenon that is deliberately human-engineered in every aspect – no part of this fan or its operation is reproduced anywhere in the natural environment. models based on a central equilibrium. However. such a proclamation would in fact simply falsify perception. however. Any other light distorts what the human brain will process as the image. If the information is omitted that the observation of the electric fan was carried out under a strobe light. Even the frequency of the light would be insufficient to re-create the correct image. Intangible models are what can be found everywhere and anywhere in their normal habitat in the natural environment. The intervention must be arranged in the light of such consciousness is the result is to not to take people down an anti-Nature path. M. Now. it becomes obvious that the frequency of the strobe is responsible for perceiving the fan as rotating counter-clockwise.
e. As Einstein demonstrated.. survives. tr. Truth becomes… “whatever works”. sometimes encountered serious contradictions. The notion that motion is the mode of existence of matter in all forms incorporates the temporal dimension – in this definition. but also promotes long-term thinking. or as duration (i. time is truly “of the essence”. Note that this generalisation applies to matter in sub-atomic forms. It follows that.gr/presocratics/heracln. Misconceptions and 9 10 No complete original of his one known book. once time is restored to its proper place as an entire fourth dimension of the material universe and ceases to be treated as a mere independent variable.htm These and many other aspects of time are discussed at greater length in Chapter 2. Newtonian science’s “steady state” is utterly aphenomenal because it eliminates any role for time. which is the reciprocal of frequency). the short-term vision of the conventional thoughtprocess --. then… that becomes the truth. for which the following solution is proposed --.) . and if the proposed solution “works”.Truth. Plato and others cited the most famous phrase everywhere attributed to him: “All things are in flux. in the Newtonian universe.itself promotes a certain indifference about the urgency and necessity to eliminate misconceptions or isolate false perceptions. Hegel (1821 [1952 Eng.10 FUNDAMENTAL MISCONCEPTIONS IN TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Any meaningful discourse about what constitutes sustainable technology development.forthnet. time. an act which in itself is anti-Nature. for those interested in retaining a healthy scientific discourse. The physics of Heraclitus was rendered in modern European philosophy by G. frequency). The conventional thought process throughout all fields of engineering science is based on short-term vision that gives rise to numerous misconceptions.we now have something that “works”.F. In the Newtonian worldview. the locating of a source of alleged “external force” supposedly responsible for the undoubted and extensive motion of particulate matter at the sub-atomic level of any object-mass becomes seriously problematic. Consequences and Intentions 17 the mode of existence of all matter. the applicability of Newton’s Laws of Motion undergoes serious modification. By contrast. whether observed (and measured) as energetic oscillation (i. the steadystate is timeless.there is this immediate problem posing itself in finite time and space. not only fortifies and clarifies what is true.” See http://www2. The sub-atomic arena is one in which Newton’s famous Laws of Motion. For example. long-term thinking should be promoted instead of short-term vision. Unfortunately. On Nature. The atoms of any object are at rest at no time. According to any of these. The very success of such a pragmatic approach in the short term --.W. Therefore. must first be informed by a tour d’horizon of the present state of what constitutes “knowledge”.retains a tenacious grip. The elimination of misconceptions. time is an independent variable that can be disregarded when object-masses of interest are not in motion.9 Such is the content of the temporal existence of matter in all its forms. which is a permanent standing aim of all scientific work. Newton’s First Law of Motion speaks of “objects” remaining at rest unless acted on by an external force.]) as well as in the religion and philosophy of nonBuddhist civilisations of ancient India. “A Delinearised History of Time”. in Zatzman & Islam (ibid.. which contemplated matter in the form of object-masses. who cares how or why? --.e. since (as we now know) electrons and protons are not spherical “object-masses” whirring about inside a given object-mass.
we are relying on people’s memory as the time has already lapsed. even a second later. By tracking the first assumptions of all engineering and natural science ‘laws’. The same applies to ‘verification’. The necessity and significance of this prerequisite is obscured the moment a truth is accepted that was based on findings tied to some finite time period. So. which is nothing but ascertaining the truth. of science based on that which actually exists in nature. Zatzman and M. to glamorize making of synthetic products. Figure 2 shows how the difficulty of verifying the first assumption. if at all. and knowledge can only be clarified and fortified in the process of eliminating misconceptions and false perceptions from the very processes of thought. Pauling (1968) justified using artificial products no differently than natural products of the same chemical structure and functions. R. Sustainability. M. That does not verify that his name is Sam Smith. Every theory has a first assumption attached to it.. the following misconceptions are identified. Because. was in . in chemistry and peace). when length scale is zero. Islam falsified perception have always led to downplaying. The only way we can proceed to verify without any doubt is if we witnessed the naming ceremony and the statement was made at the time of the ceremony. nor just three with time t as an independent variable or not at all. or characteristic environment. ignoring or even eliminating altogether any long-term considerations such that --. only as an independent variable. so there is an underlying assumption that he is speaking the truth.e. or of two linear-spatial dimensions. not a second later. inspired by the work of Linus Pauling (a two-time Nobel prize winner. on the other hand. it must exist respect to mass or energy or both). This very old misconception got a new life. i. They are not constructed as superpositions of things that are true of some abstract construct such as a single linear-spatial dimension. A fundamental requirement of any scientific definition of truth is that it be “phenomenal” throughout time and space yet independent and regardless of any particular time or space. credited with inventing dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and awarded a Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology. This misconception allowed Paul Hermann Müller. Another way to state this is that the truth must exist in all four dimensions of nature – not just one dimension with time t as an independent variable or not at all. there can be numerous proofs of many corollaries and theories.18 G. because we are depending on his testimony. claiming any differences as to whether their operational setting. a) Truth is whatever works: This pragmatic approach is the most important misconception that has prevailed over last 350 years. an abstraction that does not exist. b) Chemicals are chemicals. Consider this statement: a linear structure exists. This statement that starts a circular logic and inherently falsifies the first assertion (that is. The truths of naturescience. nor just two with time t as an independent variable or not at all. can only be done once it is given a tangible meaning (Islam and Zatzman. Consider verifying that someone’s name is “Sam Smith”. as long as they are confined to aphenomenal meanings. nor only in time without regard to space (i.depending on how much information has been hidden --. the fourth dimension. incorporate all three spatial dimensions and time. or of three linear-spatial dimensions but with time appearing.e. 2006b). Can anything be proven “true” in any absolute sense outside space and time? Imagine trying to prove 1+1=2: our recent work shows proving 1+1=2. can only come through knowledge. We can ask Sam Smith and he can testify that he is indeed Sam Smith..any scheme looks appealing. such structure exists).
It was all the same as far as nature was concerned. The impact of the first assumption increases as the degree of difficulty goes up in verifying the first assumption. The issue of environment was finessed by asserting that since the individual chemicals could be found in the natural environment. This had the positive feature of challenging any latent notions that biological chemicals were mysterious or somehow other than chemical. so therefore. Scientists with DuPont claimed dioxins (from PVC being the same as from nature) existed in nature. Furthermore.Truth. when it is remembered that synthetic products are used up and dumped as waste in the environment without any consideration being given – at the time their introduction is being planned – to the consequences of their possible persistence or accumulation in the environment. All synthetic products “exist” (as long as the focus is on the most tangible aspect) in nature in a timeframe in which Δt=0. This is quite crucial. That is the mode of their existence and that is precisely where the problem lies. and since the same chemicals synthesised in a lab or a factory were structurally and functionally one and the same as the version found in raw form in nature. ran the argument. Consequences and Intentions 19 nature or a laboratory could be safely disregarded. it already existed somewhere in nature. synthetic PVC should not be harmful – even if the “naturally-occurring” version of the dioxin is utterly poisonous. the fact that almost none of the synthetic combinations of these otherwise natural-occurring individual elements had ever existed in nature was ignored. With this mode. Figure 2. since. then such synthesised chemicals could not pose any long term or fundamental threat to the natural environment. how they were synthesised was glossed over. one can justify the use . no matter which individual chemical constituent or element form the Periodic Table you chose. But the conclusion that this apparent tangible identity made it safe to disregard differences in chemicals’ characteristic operating environments or how they were produced in the first place was unwarranted. The mere fact something exists in nature tells us nothing about the mode of its existence.
and even ‘expensive’ fossil fuel. Absent these “conditions of state” being present in definite thresholds. all the way up to every pharmaceutical product promoted today. ‘toxic’. including Enrico Fermi. the use of toxic chemicals is more hazardous if the concentration is high and the reaction rate is accelerated (through combustion. it doesn’t exist. Here two implicitly spurious assumptions are invoked: 1): chlorine can and does exist as an element. however. is that if the natural state of some portion of matter. Richard Schrock was the first to produce an efficient metal-compound catalyst and Robert Grubbs developed an ‘even better catalyst’ that is ‘stable’ in the atmosphere. and are therefore not deemed to be participating in the reaction. ‘smarter’. and less hazardous. Consider in this regard the winners of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. as well as products. Accordingly. is applied to processes. just because there is chlorine in PVC doesn’t mean PVC is bad. the same focus. Of course. Three scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize for demonstrating a kind of naturebased catalysis that could presumably give rise to ‘green chemistry’. ‘environmentally friendlier’. In other words: ‘energy is energy’! This misconception can make nuclear energy appear clean and efficient in contrast to ‘dirty’. 2) the toxicity of chlorine arises from it being able to exist as an element. nuclear fission in an atomic weapon is the same as what is going on inside the sun (the common saying is that “there are trillions of nuclear bombs going off every second inside the sun”). Zatzman and M. After all. dioxins in baby bottles. To these breakthroughs is ascribed the possibility of creating processes and products that are ‘more efficient’. Yves Chauvin explained how metal compounds can act as catalysts in ‘organic synthesis’. yet ‘purified’ water can be very toxic and leach out minerals rather than nourishing living bodies. This ‘purification’ scheme would be used from oil refining to uranium enrichment. Temperature and pressure are themselves neither matter nor energy. The use of catalysts (always very toxic because they are truly denatured – i. for example). the process becomes anti-nature. Ernest Rutherford who won Nobel prizes in physics. Enzymes allegedly also don’t participate in reaction. chemical fertilizer and synthetic pesticides can increase the yield of a crop. but that crop would not be the crop that would provide nutrition similar to the one produced through organic fertilizer and natural pesticides. combined with ‘chemicals are chemicals’. is violated. concentrated) was justified by saying that catalysts by definition cannot do any harm because they only help the reaction but do not participate. they argue. The origin of this logic is that “catalyst” replaces “enzyme”. M. This misconception. Nuclear physicists seem generally to share this misconception. R. c) If you cannot see. the reaction itself cannot even take place. Another example relates to PVC. Islam of formaldehyde in beauty products. based on the science of tangible. it is a compound. or the characteristic time of a process.. Even the most militant environmental activists will admit. makes up an entire aphenomenal process of ‘purifying’ through concentration. Yet… because temperature and pressure are themselves neither matter nor energy undergoing a change they are deemed not to be part of the reaction. For instance. chlorine is bad as an element.e. The truth. Many chemical reactions are valid or operative only in some particular range of temperature and pressure. anti-oxidants in health products. The defenders of PVC often state. It is just as logical to separate the act of shooting someone from the intention of the individual who aimed the gun . ‘simpler’ to use.20 G. but PVC is not an element. Water is essential to life. yet concentrated H2S can kill. bleaches in toothpaste. The entire chemical industry became engaged in developing catalysts that are inherently toxic and anti-nature (through purposeful denaturing). H2S is essential for human brain activities.
Data outputs from some process are mapped to some function-like curve that includes discontinuities where data could not be obtained.e. synthetic plastics do not have a single positive impact on the environment. however. nature continues to improve matters in its quality. cellular phones. Nature is nonlinear and inherently promotes multiplicity of solutions. Instead of figuring. as modern technologies continue to degrade the same into baser qualities. cobra.). Today.Truth. every promise made at the onset of commercialisation proven to be opposite what actually happened: witness Prozac®. refrigeration cycles to combustion cycles. i. gaining strength from heterogeneity.. tangible) measures of indirect/oblique. the derivative of the function obtained from actual observation according only to the intervals in which the function “exists” is treated as definitive. It has been quite the opposite: observations of nature have rarely been translated into pro-nature technology development. 2006). This is clearly a fundamentally dishonest procedure (Islam et al. how to treat – as part of one and the same phenomenon – both the continuous areas and the discontinuities that have been detected. did not allow a single product to impact the long-term negatively.g. these things are obviously involved in the reaction in some way that is different from the ways in which the tangible components of the reaction are involved. Consequences and Intentions 21 and pressed the trigger. etc. The only sustainable model is that of Nature. This catalogue carries on in all directions: microwave cooking. whereas natural plastic materials do not have a single negative impact.e. computers process information exactly opposite to how the human brain does (Islam and Zatzman. first of all. one must identify an alternate model to replace the currently-used implosive model. logically. no modern technology truly emulates the science of nature. intangible. in the case of pressure). Calculus teaches that one cannot differentiate across the discontinuous bits because “the function doesn’t exist there”. indicators of energy (heat. .. on the other hand. In essence. in the case of temperature) or mass (per unit area. Instead of acknowledging that. promoting “single”-ness of solution. Vioxx®. Synthetic plastic materials look like natural plastic. we simply exclude them on the grounds of this intangibility. UNDERSTANDING NATURE AND SUSTAINABILITY In order to reverse Dr Curl’s aptly-labelled “technological disaster”. Even the deadliest venom (e.. Nature. Turbines produce electrical energy while polluting the environment beyond repair even as electric eels produce much higher-intensity electricity while cleaning the environment. for example. Modern applied science. Temperature and Pressure are but calibrated (i. Viagra®. Batteries store very little electricity while producing very toxic spent materials. It is the same story in mathematics.. continues to define problems as linearly as possible. some of the most important technological breakthroughs have been mere manifestations of the linearisation of nature science: nature linearised by focusing only on its external features (Islam. whereas the quest for homogeneity seems to motivate much of modern engineering. Furthermore. yet their syntheses follow an exactly opposite path. Nature thrives on diversity and flexibility. nuclear energy. In medical science. It is important to understand what nature is and how we can emulate nature. 2006). ibid. poisoned-arrow tree frog) has numerous beneficial effects in the long-term. fluorescent lighting. Even though many claims have been made about “emulating” nature. Today.
The ideal gas law is negated. This implies that they are only claims and are not true. let alone products. Nature is truly transient. waste). linear models necessarily emerge emerged. including intermolecular force.22 G. eccentricity. it becomes part of Nature. No components can be identical. The next step involves the substitution of these assumptions with assumptions that conform to nature. It is only a matter of time that the claims are proven to be false. Similarly. Boyles. This task of eliminating misconceptions and exposing falsified perceptions involves the examination of the first assumption of every ‘natural law’ that has been promoted in the energy sectors. symmetrical. Bernoulli. R. but… the “improved” version still fails to emulate what was most critical to capture. never showing any exact repeatability or steady state. This applies to every claim of the right hand side of Table 1. It is a necessary condition. a “steady state”. t = ‘right now’ (Δt = 0). The real gas law recognises that a so-called “ideal” gas does not and cannot exist. Table 1 shows the major differences between features of natural products and those of artificial products. Planck. it went . artificial products are created on the basis that they are identical (this is the first premise of mass production and the economics of volume). or isotropic. Kelvin. The sufficient conditions have not been met. with matter in gaseous phase. first and foremost. Charles. but it is insufficient. Each of their theories and laws had the first assumption that would not exist in nature. Helmholz. Similarly. Engineering today is obsessed with standards and replicability. This is equivalent to saying. Figure 3 demonstrates this point. Because of the first assumptions that are fitted to an aphenomenal entity. M. Lavoisier. Then there emerge Virial equations-of-state: these deny real gas laws. it is ultimately solved with a technique that can handle only linear equations (equally applicable to numerical solution techniques or statistical models). (At times. Islam while particularly avoiding non-linear problems. “You cannot create anything. Simply adding a non-linear term at a later stage does not make these models realistic. Of course. and other aspects of what is actually possible. it is only an analogy but already built into the analogy are assumptions that will produce conclusions that fit a mechanical system of rigid spherical balls but also violate or misrepresent the physical laws of operation governing. even after a non-linear equation emerges. offering a series of coefficients to include / account for other factors. Note that the features of artificial products are only valid for a time. The case in point can be derived from any theories or ‘laws’ advanced by Newton. and a number of others who serve as the pioneers of modern science. consider the ideal gas law. So. Engineering solutions today start with a “safety factor” while promoting an obsession with excess (hence. Gibbs. Nature is inherently sustainable and promotes zero-waste. There is not a single object that is truly homogeneous. already everything is created”. Consider more closely the ideal gas law model for a moment – and what happened with various attempts to render nature more realistically without touching any of the underlying assumptions of this law. Its first assumption is its metaphor that represents all gas molecules as rigid spherical balls. etc. therefore. As an example. Zatzman and M. For instance. all fundamental thermodynamic laws assume. Note that the moment an artificial product comes into existence. This model is based on a rigid spherical balls configuration of the molecules that are in steady state. z is still is a function only of pressure and temperature. Dalton. Indeed. All this follows from the simple fact that merely negating an aphenomenal model is not in and of itself a sufficient condition for reproducing a realistic emulation of anything in nature. always seeking “steady-state” solutions. it is subject to natural behavior. However. it adds a z-factor (gas compressibility factor) that makes the ideal gas law non-linear. there is no such state as steady state. both in mass and energy. either in content (tangible) or in process (intangible).
This is equivalent to comparing the effects in order to say that the cause and the process have both been emulated.Truth. Consequences and Intentions 23 up to 29 coefficients). 2006) Nature (Δt ∞) (Real) Complex Chaotic Unpredictable Unique (every component is different) Productive Non-symmetric Non-uniform Heterogeneous. Typical features of natural processes as compared to the claims of artificial processes (modified from Khan and Islam. This model is widely popular because it is simple (only two coefficients) and results are again closer than any other model. Once again. appears to overcome the excessive complexity of the Virial: has only two coefficients. this non-linear equation gives unique solutions. The most widely used equation in petroleum engineering. Table 1. one is quickly discarded as “spurious”. This needs to be replaced with realistic dynamic entities that have all the characteristic features of natural objects (see left hand side of Table 1). diverse Internal Anisotropic Bottom-up Multifunctional Dynamic Irreversible Open system True Self healing Nonlinear Multi-dimensional Infinite degree of freedom Non-trainable Infinite Intangible Open Flexible Artificial (Δt 0) (Aphenomenal) Simple Steady. self similar Reproductive Symmetric Uniform Homogeneous External Isotropic Top-down Single-functional Static Reversible Closed system False Self destructive Linear Unidimensional Finite degree of freedom Trainable Finite Tangible Closed Inflexible/rigid . periodic. the Peng-Robinson equation of state. This is accepted as science. when two solutions arise. occasionally. people always found a single solution to every problem – amazing! The solution that was preferred was the one nearest the experimental results – the only difference between this and a lottery being that the latter demands the exact number. however. or quasi-periodic Predictable Non-unique. Even with such a wide non-linearity. but would anyone accept the validity of a lottery that draws two winners and then declares one of them a loser? The only way these efforts to emulate the behaviour of matter in gaseous phase can be made realistic is by removing the first assumption of spherical rigid balls that are at a steady state.
Sustainable development starts with the source. M. See Islam et al. Islam Proceeding on this path should give rise to a number of fundamental governing equations that are inherently non-linear. thereby removing any credibility of the outcome.24 G. even if every once in a while the results may agree with experimental observation. Ketata et al. R. Table 2 shows how natural processes are. These equations will be solved with non-linear solvers. Current models essentially emulate the aphenomenal model.e. True difference between sustainable and unsustainable processes Sustainable (Natural) Progressive/youth measured by the rate of change Unlimited adaptability and flexibility Increasingly self evident with time 100% efficient Can never be proven to be unsustainable Unsustainable(Artificial) Non-progressive/resists change Zero-adaptability and inflexible Increasingly difficult to cover up aphenomenal source Efficiency approaches zero as processing is increased Unsustainability unravels itself with time Figure 4 shows how this pragmatic approach has lead to the promotion of perception manipulation tactics. Zatzman and M. a natural intention. i.11 Only with these solutions may one begin to emulate nature. and how they are opposite to aphenomenal processes. It is only a matter of time that the product or process based on the anti-nature premise will be exposed as untrue and will collapse. (2007) and Mousavizadegan et al. (2007). Figure 3. (2006). .. One cannot achieve an objective 11 Some non-linear solvers have been developed recently by our research group. The intended objective is achievable only if the source itself is natural. Table 2.
In predicting behavior and functionality of these techniques. For sustainability. A regulation that violates natural law has no chance to establish sustainable environment. Hence. but it is not sufficient for achieving sustainability. Having the correct intention is a necessary condition. The current model is based on conforming to regulations and reacting to events. a popular slogan in the environmental industry has been. or its source. This requires the elimination of toxic waste altogether. This is based on all three misconceptions in the previous section. honesty is not the best policy. it is the only policy. respectively. “We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was ‘legal’. Greening of technological practices must go beyond painting green with toxic chemicals (photo: R.” Environmental regulations and technology standards are such that fundamental misconceptions are embedded in them: they follow no natural laws. 2004). crude oil is considered to be toxic and undesirable in a water stream whereas the most toxic additives are not. such as the concentration. With today’s regulations. even the most simplified prediction can be made closer to reality. It means the features of natural processes as outlined above (in Tables 1 and 2) are not violated. Islam. Environmental impacts are not a matter of minimizing waste or increasing remedial activities. is considered – but not the intangible aspect. famously pointed out. By using non-linear mathematics. “Dilution is the solution to pollution”. Consequences and Intentions 25 that is anti-nature. It is important to screen current practices vis-à-vis natural processes and determine sustainability. The tangible aspect. Jr. is actually true law and false law. What was ‘good’ and ‘bad’ law for Martin Luther King. By using innovative tools. one must be equipped with innovative tools and non-linear mathematical models. That is the translation of “You cannot fight Nature”. Even non-toxic waste should be recycled 100%. a holistic approach to solving technical problems has been missing. Figure 4.Truth. the true picture of a physical system will emerge and the guesswork from engineering practices will be eliminated. yet all environmental regulations are based on this principle. even with oneself. The process has to be natural. ‘safe’ practices initiated on this basis are bound to be quite unsafe in the long run. Conforming to regulations and rules that may themselves not be based on any sustainable foundation can only increase longterm instability. Martin Luther King. but of humanising the environment. Nature never lies. It is reactionary because it is only reactive and not fundamentally pro-active. In the past. This involves not adding any anti- . This is the only management style and technology development mode that can assure sustainability.. Jr. such as the nature of the chemical. Here. it is important to be honest. Ecuador. It is equally important to check new technologies and ensure natural process is being followed. For instance.
the human brain as a biochemical . Emulations and emulators are a differernt story. the non-linear changes-of-state. people speak and write how the computer "emulates" the computational process of an educated human. Secondly from the computation side.26 G. But. This economic development model will make unsustainable practices exuberantly costly while making sustainable practices economically appealing. Instead. Zatzman and M. Then making sure each produced material is recycled. information. which attempts to brainwash people either into opposing technically feasible alternatives as demonic or into assuming the greening promise of industry or government is equivalent to their actually going green (see Figure 3). one would settle for waste materials or naturally available materials that are abundantly available and pose no threat to the eco-system. They are interested only in what they can take (away) from Nature. This is an abstraction. These models are based on very old accounting principles that the Information Age has rendered obsolete. or use toxic plastic paints to ‘green’. the role of human factors. and long-term implications (Zatzman and Islam. A zero-waste process has 100% global efficiency attached to it. or try to linearize/ smooth over. M. often with value addition. etc. these proposals are all technically feasible as well as an improvement on our human condition. That is why they are useless for planning the long-term. They start with what is available in Nature. such high efficiency is inevitable. from the computer side of this scenario. 2006). No one will inject synthetic and expensive chemicals to increase EOR production. SIMULATING VS EMULATING NATURE There are lots of simulators and simulations. so that a new approach to energy pricing is provided with a basis more solid and lasting that of some short-term policy objective. Hence they must inevitably leave a mess behind. Islam nature chemical to begin with. This process is the true equivalent of the greening of petroleum technologies. the scheme that converts waste into valuable materials can turn the economic onus of the petroleum industry to economic boon. The current economic development models lack the integration of intangibles. As opposed to the “greenwashing” approach common throughout much of government and industry. They routinely disregard. Great confusion about this distinction is widespread. In economic analysis. For example. first of all. which they then abstract. If a process emulates nature. such as environmental impact. intangible costs and benefits must be included. remove CO2 with toxic amides. Starting from understanding the true nature of energy pricing. rather than what they would like to take from Nature regardless of the mess this may leave behind. R. Simulators and simulations start from some structure or function of interest. These abstractions negate any consideration of the natural-whole in which the structure or function of interest resides/operates/thrives. and how to sustain that. the actual passage of historical time. With this mode. no one will attempt to clean water with toxic glycols. The principles of the computer's design mimic an abstraction of the principles of how computation is supposed to work. This points to the need for a thoroughgoing renovation of economic theory that takes into account the roles of intangible factors such as intention. the physical real-world arrangements actually implementing this abstraction of principles operates in reality according to the carefully-engineered limitations of semiconducting materials selected and refined to meet certain output criteria of the power supply and gate logic on circuit boards inside the computer.
spontaneous. nonlinearity is the norm (linearity would have to be non-linearly simulated) Unlimited µ-Volt. otherwise. etc. even fluid intelligence can grow with more research. Consequences and Intentions 27 complex incorporating matter-that-thinks does not actually compute according to the abstract principles of this process. emulation does not require selecting any particular function or set of functions and then abstracting them. but many steps of the process are mechanical / deliberate No two tasks at the same time. or uncovers. when worked long. observation of nature and thinking No correlation Fuzzy and Variable No 1:1 correspondence involved or required Result of the decision is conscious.degradable plastics. computations are 1:1 correspondence-based. quick decision Quantitative. brain cools as it works 100% bio-degradable Continuously regenerating according to overall state of the organism Never crashes. what would have to be present. rigidly serial processing of each task. from the chip overheating whereas the brain cools. This is a process that discovers. this is repeated too generally not to be reflecting some deeper underlying principle: Table 3. Decision Multitasks Computation/Math Limit Energy Supply Hardware Regeneration Time Functionality However. underlying this is massive parallelism of neural circuitry Qualitative (intangible. between 0 and 1 (linearisation of every calculation) Based on some number (series). ∆t =∞). Computer and Brain Compared Element Memory Computer Doubling every 12-18 months [“Moore’s Law”] Continuously degrading Size Thinking The bigger the better Does not think. but it certainly cannot be properly described as emulation of any kind. It might most generously be called an abstraction being analogised to another abstraction. any requisite computation is hi-speed electronic. As Table 3 suggests. never stops. i. We have already found many examples where the two processes are exactly the reverse of one another. crystallised intelligence grows continuously. restarts take time. Yet obviously: there exists as yet no such correspondence. hence it seems “spontaneous” Decision is made after fuzzy logical interpretation of the big picture.Truth. an insane computer is never found Brain Continuously renewing. Insane humans are those who do not make use of it. Entirely a function of power supply whether it is on or off. available or engendered in order to regenerate the . It requires a very different reasoning process that may be defined as “abstracting absence”. Emulation requires establishing a 1:1 correspondence between operation Xc of the computer and operation Xb of the human brain. non-linear problems are linearly simulated Limited by programmer 110-volts converted to 3 volts. in contrast to simulation. this category N/A (not applicable) Crashes.. it heats heavy metals non. batteries. to the division operator in the brain compared to the addition operator in the computer. uses glucose (biochemical energy).e. but not (yet) the process / pathway that precipitates it. Brain research is quite far from being capable of establishing such a thing.
Stephen Wolfram. for a wide range of purposes not previously thought about because… they 12 Among relatively accessible public sources. interacting according to “rules” that have been programmed for the given simulation. may not be or have anything to do with whatever is taking place in nature. A simulation that produces the same effect at its output as the process being investigated is deemed to be “true” if it is capable of recapitulating the truth at the outcome. tolerating neither surpluses nor shortages. and nothing has been substituted simply because it creates the same “effect”. creator of the popular Mathematica software package. These attempt to cure the serious deficiency of simulation theory with respect to establishing or taking into account necessary and sufficient conditions by starting from the simplest possible system. In cellular automata or any other simulation. while clever and fully exploiting the technology providing the vehicle for the simulation. Nature is in a state of zero net-waste. Closely related to this aspect of the theory of simulation is the notion of “functional groups”. it is also trivial. a massive number of extremely curious features of such models have been documented regularly in the recreational-mathematics section of Scientific American magazine. is an especially dedicated and serious investigator of modeling phenomena using cellular automata. visible or measurable in some form. whether it is wise to sort out how executive decision-making works among a grouping of polar bears by dressing one of them in a suit. However. See Wolfram (2002) and Gardner (1983). The fact is. by or through Nature. Indeed. but its emulation. if not precisely each and every one of its details. since the 1980s. For anything entirely artificial and not given to us first in. The philosophical outlook governing the modeling of phenomena by means of simulations is the theory of pragmatism – that the truth is “whatever works”. At the conclusion of the characteristic duration of any process. that we are repeatedly discovering that the microscopic scale is just as infinitely complex as the macroscopic. This provocative and absurd idea brings out the essence of the real problem: what is the pathway? One of the most advanced branches of the theory of simulations is the extensive work that has developed in modeling using what are known as “cellular automata”. Islam natural result. Thus generating and incorporating these necessary and sufficient conditions should render faithfully at least all the relevant stage(s) of the natural pathway. Most important: nothing has been concocted or inserted that is not definitely known.12 The premise common to all these modeling efforts assumes that what exists in simple countably finite terms at the microscopic level can be programmed to produce a credible pathway accounting for the infinite complexity observed at the macroscopic level. Simulations developed from the principles informing the modeling of cellular automata implicitly deny any possible dialectical relationships in which quantity is transformed into a new quality or vice-versa. proceeding step-wise by exhaustion. One case in point is the discovery that so-called “junk DNA” is likely highly functional after all. nothing that is incompletely understood has been excluded just because detailed knowledge of its precise role(s) may still be incomplete. This merits attention because many simulations rely on feedback loops and threshold triggers that. on the other hand. usually with only two or three elements. because why not simply duplicate the artificial original? Consider. . this can undoubtedly be accomplished. R. It is a method that relies on the principle of obliquity to reconstruct. Zatzman and M. after all. quantity can only grow into a greater quantity or decline to some lesser quantity. As is also well known.28 G. M. whatever would be necessary and sufficient. it should not be expected that the details would be duplicated: this is not Nature. The only difference is the technological means available to render it tangible. however.
“it is often observed that the presence of high proportions of truly nonfunctional ‘junk’ DNA would seem to defy evolutionary logic. However.. the entrance to the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. by starting from the premise that everything at a certain stage must either be “A” or else it is “not-A”. as [the discovery of identical lengthy DNA sequences. then reconstructing to maximise productivity and tangible features of the product. In every case. from the UK Medical Research Council's Functional Genetics Unit. 2006). media in general – in which he includes all technologies – are “the extensions of Man”. The Aristotelian law of the excluded middle is a fundamental feature of conventional mathematical logic: it is powerful for excluding a wide range of phenomena from consideration. Zatzman.13 Another related problem with the entirely transparent yet entirely mechanical modeling generated by most simulations is built into the internal logic of the simulation’s programming. is excluded from the definition of what “A” is “right now”. [but] these are all hypotheses for which the time . Consequences and Intentions 29 were not detectable before the techniques for mapping complete genomes were perfected (Kettlewell.Truth. and the invention of toxic chemicals and anti-nature processes are called chemical engineering. the question is: what is going on inside? What is the pathway? Are all technologies truly “the 13 According to Chris Ponting. “Amazingly. 2004). Replication of such a large amount of useless information each time a cell divides would waste energy. This takes on a life of its own. however. Bejerano et al. 2003. The consequences for the credibility of a model.” According to researcher Gill Bejerano. The Sugar Saccharine® chemical and pharmaceutical industries engage in denaturing first. across three distinct mammalian species] is showing. in areas dismissed as ‘junk’. THE “EXTENSIONS OF MAN” According to the communications theorist H. intensifying the process that converts real to artificial (Islam. People seriously thought sugar is concentrated sweetness… just like honey. Marshall McLuhan (1964). In conclusion: we may indeed proclaim that we emulate nature. as depicted in a world-famous iconic photograph. and over an evolutionary time scale. an all-natural pathway means that transitional states of energy or mass before or after time t = “right now” cannot be excluded or discarded: true emulation of nature must produce something that could only have been produced by a definite past evolution and that retains the same future potential. looks like… a railway station. Organisms with less nonfunctional DNA would thus enjoy a selective advantage. one discussed elsewhere as the “Honey Aspartame®” syndrome (Islam. there were calls from some sections to only map the bits of genome that coded for protein . of excluding potentially valid assumptions is just as fatal as the consequences of including unwarranted ones: either can contribute to generating unwarranted conclusions. then there are several hypotheses for why it has not been eliminated by evolution.mapping the rest was thought to be a waste of time. so the process must be the same: “we are emulating nature”! But then – because honey cannot be mass-produced (as sugar is) – we proceed to “improve” nature. If one assumes that most junk DNA is indeed nonfunctional. 2006). 2004. From a certain distance and angle. The fatal flaw inherent in the Aristotelian law of the excluded middle is that what something may become. It is very lucky that entire genomes were mapped. If what is sustainable is what is desired. or what it has been in some past state. nonfunctional DNA would tend to be eliminated. the pathway must be allnatural. It is frequently stated as a truism that engineering is based on natural science.
which was deemed “corrosive” Truth 97% of the nutrients destroyed. used as a pesticide in India Primary source of obesity and asthma Contains formaldehyde that causes Alzheimer Gives brain cancer. last accessed 17 December 2006). no side effect Refreshing. M. Promise Instant cooking (“bursting with nutrition”) Simulates the sunlight and can eliminate “cabin fever” 80% effective in reducing depression Reduces aging symptoms Best drug for arthritis pain. “Extensions of Man”? Product Microwave oven Fluorescent light (white light) Prozac (the wonder drug) Anti-oxidants Vioxx Coke Transfat Simulated wood. keep connected Keeps young. and Humanity’s place? The data of Table 4 suggest some answers to this question. rigorously. produces dioxin from baby bottles Used for torturing people. Now let us gallop ahead: the horse was an essential feature of Arab life for millennia. high-fiber diets Improve the appearance of wood Empowers. plastic gloss Cell phone Chemical hair colors Chemical fertilizer Chocolate and ‘refined’ sweets Pesticides. gives appeal Increases crop yield. revitalizing Should replace saturated fats. and the stirrup which was copied from Christian Crusaders’ Arab enemies and brought back to Europe. incl. aerosol. fixing nature or otherwise improving upon some existing process somewhere in nature. The stirrup was essentially the conversion of the rider’s legs into a thoroughly effective transmission for increasing or cutting back the speed of the horse. MTBE Desalination Wood paint/varnish Freon. decreases sperm count among men. Zatzman and M. Islam extensions of Man”. soil damaged Increases obesity epidemic and related diseases Damages the ecosystem Necessary minerals removed Numerous toxic chemicals released Global harms immeasurable and should be discarded Two examples of technology that did provide such an extension would be the leather saddle adapted from an Arab invention. its role. enabling point-to-point communications for tribal Arabs and community-to-community scales involved in evolution may make it difficult for humans to investigate (http://en. It examines what was promised and was accomplished by a number of technologies developed and promoted as helping nature. None of these technologies are truly “extensions of Man”: there is no content from the way people work or live expressed directly in the technology.wikipedia. causes severe depression Increases suicidal behavior Gives lung cancer Increases the chance of cancer Dehydrates. or are numbers of them shackles forged on the basis of a serious and fundamental misapprehension of Nature. Gives skin cancer Harmful crop.org/wiki/Junk_DNA#_note-Bejerano.” . Table 4. R. makes soil fertile Increases human body volume.30 G. increasing appeal Improves performance Purifies water Improves durability Replaced ammonia. etc.
if this problem is instead tackled from the most general level – what would be a pro-nature path on which to renovate social means of transport that are environmentally appealing as well as economically attractive? – then the possibilities become endless. It is indeed a considerable accomplishment that. Does this technology represent one of the extensions of Man. but meeting that threshold did not consume the remaining resources of these societies. we have learned a certain visual "grammar". horse or camel travel could not have acquired society-wide use. utilizing perspective and the projective plane implicit in its geometry. Among these obstacles are those that entail our un-learning much of what we thought we knew before we can begin to learn and appreciate the forms and content of nature-science.Truth.as in a snapshot – or (2) time is represented not as the fourth dimension but rather as something that varies independently of any phenomenon occurring within it. culture and education system to conceive and accept the metaphors and correspondences of engineered space and time represented. whether the context is the fine arts or engineered space and time. The stranglehold exercised by the demands of motorised transport. but its claim on society’s resources continues to grow at a rate that outstrips almost all other technologies. time itself. with all spatial visualization and representation. In fact. On the other hand. . what is actually a third spatial dimension can be represented to us convincingly within a two-dimensional plane. Consequences and Intentions 31 contacts for settled groups in the Arab world. The secret of why the horse or the camel were so well-adapted in Arab society was not a mark of backwardness. without the saddle or the stirrup. any hope for an alternative course seems impossible. so to speak. its maintenance and extension on energy production planning and other resource extraction activities throughout every allegedly modern. the price at which this is achieved is something remarked far less: the fourth dimension. Not only are none of these features true for the automobile. THE NEED FOR THE SCIENCE OF INTANGIBLES AS THE BASIS FOR ENGINEERING There are a number of obstacles inherent in the project to establish a science of intangibles based on Nature. in two dimensions (2-D). and without these means of communication and transport. essentially. However. We know no other "language" but that in which either: (1) time is frozen . Chief among this collection of problems is how we have already become trained by the society. Raising and keeping horses was associated with a certain maintenance threshold. is made to disappear. allegedly advanced Western society poses one of the most serious obstacles to instituting and spreading nature-based technologies. which was even more practicable in the desert regions of the Arab world. On the contrary. or one of the extensions of a yoke that blocks Humanity from approaching its real potential? If a breakdown is made that catalogues each of the individually bad and anti-nature aspects and consequences of technical developments associated with the maintenance or extension of motorised transport. the socialization possible in these societies would have been far more limited. The same principles applied to the camel.
and of the illusion of the moving picture . and the findings of anatomy regarding the movement and distribution of weight in the human frame manifested in Renaissance sculpture. incorporating perspective and immediately overthrowing in that same moment the centuries-long authority of the Holy Roman Catholic Church over the message we are to receive from works of art. production prior to the Industrial Revolution intended for finite. are the political-economic transitions that also developed within this historical tapestry: from privately-conducted individual. the encoding of information in digitized sequences (computers). Also interwoven are the stories of the unmodulated telegraphic signal whose information is contained in its sequencing to the modulated signal overlaid with an audio carrier (telephone and radio). however. to the readily-socialized mass production of our own time conducted under increasingly narrowly monopolized ownership. even as the new "grammar" of perspective-based representation of three-dimensional space. All these technological aspects have been exhaustively discussed and examined by many people. relatively small markets of certain individuals here or there. M. Any previouslyauthorized message already vetted carefully as to the acceptability of its content and the morality of its purpose would hereafter become extraneous and secondary to the information gathered by the visual cortex of the individual observer. the principles underlying representational art works of the early and high Middle Ages were reversed. Nevertheless. Over the next four centuries. a space that now appeared to be living rather than representing a purely imaginary phantasm or idea. what still remains unmentioned and uncommented anywhere in these historical recapitulations is whatever happened to the tangible-intangible nexus involved at each stage of any of these developments.an illusion created by overwhelming the visual cortex with 24 still frames per second and then of this same moving picture with a superimposed sound track (the talking motion picture). the Internet). further development of mass communications media and associated systems and technologies of information transfer wrestled with just about every imaginable and practical aspect of how to engineer the appropriate representation of time and space. We cannot hope seriously to make headway . and the digital encoding of information on a transmitted carrier signal (cell phones. the new visual canon served up another illusion of reality: the timeless snapshot-like image. or craftoriented. Zatzman and M. overwhelmed the previously accepted canons of visual arts. and overthrew with it the long-asserted timelessness of the Church's approved truths. to privately-owned but socially produced output for mass markets in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The new approach made the visual arts accessible at all levels of society for the first time. and later the live image. expressed as a struggle to capture the moving image. overthrew the centuries-long monopoly of Church authority with the bluntest directness. Less cogently commented. at least. but still mentioned. R. of the individual or limited-edition static-image to the massmarketed photographic static image. the modulated signal overlaid with visual and audio carrier signals (television). This was bracingly liberating and bound to provoke ever-deeper questioning of Church authority in other fields. Interwoven throughout this development are parts of the history of development of analog and then digital electronic media.32 G. Islam The modern history of communications media and information transfer really begins with those famous Canaletto landscapes. these transformations within mass communications media (turning art into a mass medium was itself the key to the transformation) unleashed a social and intellectual revolution. However. Perspective in Renaissance painting. of 16th century Italy. With the emergence of the new approach in art of the Renaissance. By enabling Humanity to reclaim from Nature something that Authority had denied.
Consequences and Intentions 33 towards.Truth. that time is considered so intangible as to merit being either ignored as a fourth dimension. Averröes identified the flaw in Aristotle’s logic. That which is natural can be neither defended nor sustained without first delimiting and then restricting the sphere of operation of everything that is anti-Nature. This absence of discussion of whatever happened to the tangible-intangible nexus involved at each stage of any of these developments is no merely accidental or random fact in the world. well beyond Europe and North America. Logically. which is the essence of intangibles. an authentic science of the tangibles-intangibles nexus. we identified this as had was identified by the argument of externality (aphenomenal concept) as well as lack of multiple solutions (contradicting natural traits). the gathering and summation of scientific knowledge everywhere. For instance. Averröes worked with the logic of Aristotle. Averröes argued that critical thinking is essential for increasing knowledge. Figure 5. or even within historical development. or conflated with tangible space as something varying independently of any process underway within any or all dimensions of three-dimensional space. much less accomplish. For this. This foundation can be the Truth as the original of any inspiration or it can be ‘true intention’. there is no need for a mentor or intermediary and the only condition he put was that the first . Certainly. serious nature-science of phenomena. or in the norms and demands of the scientific method per se. It flows directly from a Eurocentric bias that pervades. it is by no means a property inherent either in technology as such. the same action can be phenomenal or aphenomenal depending on the intention of the individual (the case in point being suicide and self sacrifice or publishing charity to promote competition in good deed or to promote self interest). an phenomenal basis is required as the first condition to sustainable technology development. In Economics of Intangibles (Zatzman and Islam. without filling in that part of the tapestry as well. 2007).
he argued. R. However. are all part of the HSSA syndrome (Zatzman. (5) Engineering was to emulate nature. all exactly opposite traits of tax). brain. our bird. or neutral [zero net impact] in their effects. philosophy. New medicine is to delay the symptom. Bolshevik revolution is a definite upward move. reformulated somewhat abstracty as the “rulews of arithmetic”. New Education is a corporation that promises bloated stomach. First premise for Averröes was the Quran. (1) Mathematics is the driver of Engineering. theology. On the other hand. 2006) in knowledge sense. for instance. Here. The modern-day view holds that knowledge and solutions developed from and within nature might be either good. “It is obligatory for every muslim male and female to increase their knowledge” also said. It also restricts access to non-elites. Marx’s recognition of intangibles is the same. accounting was for disbursing zakat (often wrongly translated as ‘Islamic tax’.34 G. New Science is the opposite. The same prophet Muhammad who said. (4) Education was to increase knowledge. The view of science in the period of Islam's rise was rather different. It was that. In modern Engineering. is the root of European mathematics. become important. The discovery of time as the fourth dimension. to be closer to nature and all natural traits. time itself being subjective was a great scientific move toward knowledge (Einstein’s relativity theory). etc. Zatzman and M. any knowledge and solutions developed according to how nature actually works will be ipso facto positive for humanity. (2) Science is the foundation of engineering. or bad – all depending on how developed and correct our initial information and assumptions are. one is hard pressed to find a single example that can be characterized as pro-nature. This replacement was aphenomenal adjustment to Averröes model as knowledge of the time and knowledge of today indicate that literally all features of Qur’an is opposite to those of bible. with only one revision: he replaced Qur’an with bible. In social science. This was an attractive model and Thomas Aquinas was so enamored with this model that he adopted the entire model. In the Averröes model. Accounting. In Science. Modern engineering and technology is to simulate nature. The downward graph shows continuous overall downward trend of the Aquinas model. The division into hard science. Darwin’s theory of natural selection is the one that goes upward in the knowledge dimension. M. “Knowledge cannot be with full stomach”. Nature possesses an inbuilt positive intention of which people have to become conscious in order to develop knowledge and solutions that enhance nature. He argued all logic should begin with Qur’an. The occasional upward trends in this graph indicate natural intervention. etc. This will make sure. one is assured of increasing knowledge with time. social science. The following discussion can explain why that is the case. The emergence of New Science as well as the transition to modern age and eventually to the Information age all make part of this graph. since nature is an integrated whole in which humanity also has its roles. Accounting in Europe was introduced for collecting tax. any . (3) Medicine was to cure. It literally means ‘purify’ (relating to long-term ‘increase’) and is given to poor and destitute. The original science was to increase knowledge. accounting is also the root of mathematics. that one travels continuously the path of knowledge. Islam assumption (first premise) be phenomenal. If this is the case. In socio-economical context.
something that does not exist in nature.especially -. the onset or progress of symptoms. i. and was. To get there. was notoriously incurious about humanthought and action in relation to nature. a three-dimensional PET-scan of a relic known as the ‘Antikythera Mechanism’ has demonstrated that it was actually a universal navigational computing device – with the difference being that our current-day versions rely on GPS. which is frequently cited in lists of "the best 10 Muslim inventions". that the INNER LOGIC of a conflict. very unlike Greek civilisation before or Arab-Muslim civilisation after. is far more likely to follow the pathways of a chess-game setting. delay. Today we would. in which many . is what is called "operations research" (OR). however. Consequences and Intentions 35 knowledge or solutions developed by taking away from nature or going away from nature would be unsustainable. Why is this the case? Because ignoring the original intention has got the world into a serious mess. What is the thinking underlying creation of such a game? It is. In practice it becomes a source of ex-post-facto justifications and excuses after some strategy has failed. Before Arab learning and culture reached Renaissance Europe. 2007) – with the difference being that our mathematics can only track symmetry. do Y? The Roman civilisation in which European Christianity emerged. freed of dependence on OR-type simulations. We would also be shocked to find out what Ibn Sina (‘Avicenna’) said regarding nature being the source of all cure still holds true (Grugg and Newman. Strategic calculation by a human leader-planner-strategist. But how is a "best strategy" selected in a simulation that has been "gamed" by means of "OR"? This selection is based on solving massive systems of simultaneous equations in some huge number of variables. Thus. This was developed during WW2 using the first electronic computing devices. but creative people's access and availability to that mass of reliable knowledge would have been far narrower. for example. chess made no headway in Christian European civilisation. and could.. This is supposed to be an "aid" to the human planner-strategist. and -. but by methods that precluded or did not include general or widespread publication.. but rather as the outcome of two guiding intelligences pitting themselves against each other.Truth. how it developed and was resolved can all be extracted and recaptured by reproducing the conflict NOT as a narrative of this or that victory. 2001) – with the proviso that not a single quality given by nature in the originating source material of. tracked and maintained by satellite (Freeth et al.e. The modern version of this chess-like idea of gaming. than people had 1500 years ago. Recently. People are interested in sustainability today as never before. as a form of simulation.more ways of collating everybody's data from all kinds of sources. some of the most advanced pharmaceuticals used to “treat” cancer remains intact after being subject to mass production and accordingly stripped of its powers actually to cure and not merely “treat”. Much of this was preserved. Consider the example of chess. do this with a great deal more data at our collective disposal. As we have glimpsed in the area of "ancient Indian mathematics". 2006). This unsustainability would mark such knowledge and solutions as inherently anti-nature. Why? Could it be because it provided no simple clearcut recipes: if your opponent does X. Only recently we would discover Islamic scholars were doing mathematics some 1000 years ago of the same order that we think we discovered in the 1970s (Lu and Steinhardt. there could well have been almost as much total reliable knowledge 1500 years ago as today. requires first taking an inventory of our existing first assumptions and then "starting all over again" on the path of nature itself. We say: there is a path that can take us away from repeating and-or deepening this mess.
G. M. Zatzman and M. R. Islam
decisions are taken on the basis of incomplete knowledge of surrounding conditions. An ORtype simulation considers this condition to be one of "uncertainty", and various probabilistic algorithms are incorporated to take it into account. However, the human planner-strategist leading a real battle is acting not out of uncertainty, but rather out of a certainty that his knowledge is incomplete and can only be increased by taking action. The OR approach is premised on the notion that less complete knowledge with an uncertainty measure is the same as more complete knowledge garnered from new acts of further-finding-out. Does lesscomplete knowledge, however, actually become more complete when its uncertainty is measured and assigned a number? In what way is this any different than the false promises of numerology? The very idea is utterly aphenomenal. As we now know, the invasion and occupation of Iraq was carried out after U.S. forces had tested a number of OR-backed wargame scenarios. At least one of these demonstrated, repeatedly, that there was no way the invader could not lose... but the high-ups were informed there was no way the invader could lose. This pattern of disinformation only came to light after documents were ferreted out by a Freedom of Information request. These showed the actual result of that particular scenario, including a protest from one of the military officers involved when his side, playing the Iraqi resistance, was ordered to "lose" the next run of the simulation, after in fact it had "won"!
The matter of the approach to science of any technology – is it pro-nature or anti-nature? – is decisive. It is also the indispensable part of the engineering development process that requires absolutely no engineering expertise whatsoever. What matters here are truth, consequences and intentions. Is the engineering researcher absolved of all responsibility for whatever choices are made simply because, “in the long run,” as Lord Keynes wrote, “we are all dead”? Accomplishing the best decision in the circumstances involves the greatest struggle of all for any human – between what one’s expertise and training, all focused on the short term, has taught and what one’s ongoing participation in the human family, not to mention the participation of one’s children and one’s children’s children, demands.
Funding for this study was possible through Emertec Research and Development Corporation and EEC Research Organization.
The following materials, reproduced with full credit below, provide factual examples and formal opinions that serve to illustrate themes elaborated in the preceding article.
A follow-up article will address the questions: what is the relationship between the pathway of a technical choice and a chosen technology? and: if all technologies can solve some problem(s) in the short term, is there any long-term solution that is ultimately technological?
Truth, Consequences and Intentions
The first four Appendices deal with disinformation. A key point to keep in mind is that disinformation is rife not only in political discourse and media reportage, but in all fields of social and natural sciences as well. What is most dangerous is precisely the spread of disinformation within the sciences, where knowledge is supposed to be rigorously tested and, as much as possible of any detected falsehood(s) removed before it circulates as part of the general knowledge of Humanity. This is precisely what has rendered so crucial and urgent the conscious and deliberate step of delineating a pro-Nature pathway before intervening in anything. Any and every pathway that is not consciously so delineated will be anti-Nature in its effects. The fifth Appendix is a document from the Six Nations Confederacy (also known as the Haudenosaunee), one of the last surviving groups of indigenous people on the North American continent – what they call “Turtle Island” – with its original systems of law and thought-material about Humanity’s relations with Nature still intact. The Haudenosaunee incorporate the Iroquois, the Mohawk and four other tribes that cross the Canadian and U.S. borders. This is about what is “natural”, and what is not. In the context of the present article, its content is utterly riveting and it is therefore presented here “as is”, on its own terms – without comment or other elaboration.
A. ANTI-TERRORIST AND RELATED IDEOPOLITICAL DISINFORMATION
The following article discusses Abu Musab al-Zarqawi as someone who lived and then died as a major force in international terrorism circles. However, there is no mention that there is an extensive case documented from various sources challenging precisely the assertion that Zarqawi was even alive in the last couple of years, and establishing also that his roles and links among the other known terrorist circles were marginal. “False-flag” and “black” operations using compromised individuals have become de rigeur among the intelligence agencies of big powers, enabling them to intervene undetected in the affairs of smaller, weaker states. The purpose of such interventions is to destroy individuals or groups opposed to commercial or financial predations by these powers in those countries. Zarqawi fits that kind of profile far more credibly than the profile of terrorist kingpin. In Zarqawi’s case, the only issue seems to be exactly how many intelligence agencies had him on a payroll. There are in today’s world doubtless quite a few armed opponents of the interests of the United States. However, what the article refers to as the “global jihad”, as though it were a self-evident fact that there is an international conspiracy operating with this aim, is asserted here without foundation. Agencies more credible than The New York Times have also failed to establish this premise, including the American Enterprise – Brookings Institute. None of the sources cited in the article as corroboration are themselves independent of U.S. government influence or control. It is therefore entirely credible, and more than likely, that the tactic attributed to “jihadists” and allegedly “pioneered” by Zarqawi was in fact developed and has long been used by the intelligence services of the leading big powers for some time as an Information Age “mail-drop” for mobilising their agents without having to risk personal
G. M. Zatzman and M. R. Islam
contact. Indeed, there seems to be little or nothing to distinguish such mail-drops, well documented in Cold War spy fictions by John Le Carré (among others), from the notions discussed in the article of posting things as briefly as possible on the Internet, just long enough for fellow followers around the world to download, and then removing the material and all its traces from the Web. This procedure echoes the opening of the 1960s television series Mission Impossible, in which the audience hears a taped a message left by “the Secretary” for Agent “Jim” warn that “this tape will self-destruct in five seconds.” (This spyas-American-hero epic was reprised as a series of movie vehicles beginning in 1996, and now up to Mission Impossible 3 in 2006, all starring Tom Cruise.) The aim of such a report is to place a large obstacle of totally paralysing doubt in the path of anyone seeking what the truth may actually be. Disguised as information, such a report is, functionally speaking, the purest disinformation. Its evident effect, consistent with its true aim, is to render rational articulation of a problem or its aspects impossible. In this case, the aim is to block people from getting to the bottom of modern-day terrorism by blurring any distinctions between state-organised terrorism and anti-imperialist political activities. Far from assisting people to sort out any aspect of the problem of modern-day terrorism, this “reporting” saddles them with an incoherence made even more burdensome by the impenetrability of the material and omission of any guideline for distinguishing what is or might be true from what is or might be false. Zarqawi Built Global Jihadist Network on Internet By SCOTT SHANE Published: Tuesday 9 June 2006 The New York Times WASHINGTON, Monday 8 June — Over the last two years, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi established the Web as a powerful tool of the global jihad, mobilizing computer-savvy allies who inspired extremists in Iraq and beyond with lurid video clips of the bombings and beheadings his group carried out. Mr. Zarqawi was killed in an air strike on an isolated house about 30 miles north of Baghdad. Iraqi officials announce the death the next morning, and Al Qaeda confirmed that he had died. On Thursday (4 June – Ed.) the electronic network that he helped to build was abuzz with commentary about his death, with supporters posting eulogies, praising what they called his martyrdom and vowing to continue his fight.
Under the guise of providing a quantitative and therefore “scientific” approach to analyzing — and thus being in a position to combat — terrorism and its effects, the following article describes situations in which intentions of a perpetrator, which are obviously crucial to establishing whether a phenomenon is terroristic, are denied any consideration. Instead, allegedly “objective facts” of terrorist incidents are asserted, and underlying tendencies of the
Truth, Consequences and Intentions
quantitative features of this dataset are plumbed for patterns and frequencies. Firstly, however, information about the frequency of a certain event is irrelevant if there is no way of establishing the size of the overall event-space. In this case, no total number, let alone any notion of such a total number, of the political and-or military actions in a given event-space is provided Secondly, the definition of what constitutes an event in this context is highly dependent on third-party reporting rather than the compiler’s first-hand observations. In this case, there is no objective or consistent definition of which actions are definably “terrorist”. The key notion discussed in this article is the recognition and isolation of so-called triggering events from other events. However, no objective foundation whatsoever is provided as to how such events can be distinguished. Hence, anyone reading or studying this material for possible insight is left with no guideline of the conditions in which one and the same event would indeed be a trigger or in fact not be a trigger. Far from being about science, this is about cooking up a justification for wholesale U.S. government interference with the fundraising and funds distribution activities of numerous Islamic and other charities whose money is going into countries of interest to U.S. intelligence. Quantitative Analysis Offers Tools to Predict Likely Terrorist Moves By Sharon Begley, Science Journal The Wall Street Journal February 17, 2006; Page B1 There are regular and even predictable sunspot cycles and lunar cycles and economic cycles, but terrorism cycles? Between 1968 and 2004 (the last year with complete data), the world’s news media reported 12,793 incidents of “transnational” terrorism, violence inspired by political, religious or social motives and involving targets or perpetrators from different countries. The attacks left a trail of horror and tragedy. But they also generated a wealth of quantitative data, putting the study of terrorism on a firm enough footing that researchers believe they can generate testable hypotheses -- the hallmark of science -- and predictions. Time was, analyzing terrorism meant focusing on its political roots and sociological or psychological motivations. But more and more scholars believe that quantitative analysis can add something crucial. “This kind of analysis has the potential to generate testable predictions, such as how terrorists will respond to countermeasures instituted after 9/11,” says Bruce Russett, professor of international relations at Yale University. One promising technique, called spectral analysis, is typically applied to cyclical events such as sunspots. A new application of it is now shedding light on terrorism, which, data show, waxes and wanes in regular, wavelike cycles.
The hair-raising spectre opened up by this approach is that of, once again, externally manipulating an individual human’s sensorium. Humans’ sense-perception apparatus, like that of all other vertebrates, is intimately connected to the proper functioning of the particular
Instead of holding and looking at compasses and bulky-hand-held sonar devices. In testing. "You are feeling the outline of this image. The device. The data gathered by the CIA’s experiments. blind people found doorways. However. Anil Raj." he said. Scientists Probe the Use of the Tongue By MELISSA NELSON. known as "Brain Port. By routing signals from helmet-mounted cameras. A narrow strip of red plastic connects the Brain Port to the tongue where 144 microelectrodes transmit information through nerve fibers to the brain. Bach-y-Rita began routing images from a camera through electrodes taped to people's backs and later discovered the tongue was a superior transmitter. a veteran Navy diver and director of Florida State University's Underwater Crime Scene Investigation School. Michael Zinszer. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). they hope to give elite soldiers superhuman senses similar to owls.S. the divers can processe the information through their tongues. The justification for the CIA’s “brainwashing” experiments was the U. noticed people walking in front of them and caught balls. He likened the feeling on his tongue to Pop Rocks candies. expected to be commercially marketed soon. This is just as degenerate as the schemes involving experiments on human subjects with LSD and other psychoactive drugs conducted by medical institutes financed by the U. Canada during the 1950s and 1960s. snakes and fish. has been used in dozens of countries around the world to refine techniques of torture applied to opponents of U.turning sci-fi into reality. Researchers at the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition envision their work giving Army Rangers 360-degree unobstructed vision at night and allowing Navy SEALs to sense sonar in their heads while maintaining normal vision underwater . "I was in the pool.40 G. R." . this research is obviously just as useful – indeed probably more useful – for planting mines as it is for detecting them. Zatzman and M. M.S. a University of Wisconsin neuroscientist. Paul Bach-y-Rita. they were directing me to a very small object and I was able to locate everything very easily." was pioneered more than 30 years ago by Dr. sonar and other equipment through the tongue to the brain. They're looking at tongues. meanwhile. some military researchers aren't focusing on organs like muscles or hearts. took part in testing using the tongue to transmit an electronic compass and an electronic depth sensor while in a swimming pool. Islam individual’s brain.S. government’s Cold War mission of reversing the dangerous effects of “communist ideology”. has restored balance to those whose vestibular systems in the inner ear were destroyed by antibiotics. Until its exposure in a celebrated lawsuit brought successfully against the CIA by the experiments’ victims and their families. A version of the device. one such was run by Dr Ewen Cameron at McGill University Medical School in Montreal. such that no physical scarring is left.-friendly regimes. The Associated Press Mon 24 Apr 2006 19:32 ET In their quest to create the super warrior of the future. the project's lead scientist. said Dr. The aim of this tongue research is allegedly to facilitate clearing of “terrorist” undersea mines by naval divers.
If the military screeners like what they see. Instead. Democracy Isn’t ‘Western’ By AMARTYA SEN A piece under this title was published in the 24 March 2006 editions of The Wall Street Journal . which is to look for those mines and see shapes that are coming out of the murk. it could be mounted on a helmet. Raj said the objective for the military is to keep Navy divers' hands and eyes free. just plain benighted." Raj said. However. the first to research military uses of sensory augmentation. Raj does the diving himself. Work on the infrared-tongue vision for Army Rangers isn't as far along. The research at the Florida institute. in fact. Consequences and Intentions 41 Underwater crime scene investigators might use the device to identify search patterns.Truth." he said. as odd as that sounds. then they could pan around on their heads and they could feel the sonar on their tongues with good registration to what they are seeing visually." Zinszer said. according to the norms of the new American imperium – sharply exposed by the satiric label “Pox Americana” coined by various writers – some cultures are receptive to “democracy” à la Washington and others are… well. "If they could get it small enough. is funded by the Defense Department. It would allow soldiers to work in the dark without cumbersome night-vision goggles and to "see out the back of their heads. The exact amount of the expenditure is unavailable. here there is no longer even a pretence of declaring certain peoples “unfitted for self-rule” (the British excuse for dominating Asia in the 19th century). signal each other and "see through our tongues. Item 4 The following extract brings to the surface the essential features of a standard line of argument which has created tremendous disinformation about the notion of “democracy” and the professed aims of the United States in what it considers “furthering” democracy. A lot depends on technological developments to make sonar smaller: hand-held sonar is now about the size of a lunch box. racism. it could be put on a "rapid response" to quickly get in the hands of military users within the next three to six months. or “racially inferior” (the Nazis’ excuse for putting Europe and the Soviet Union to the sword in the 20th). What the author calls “culture” is. "It will free up their eyes to do what those guys really want to. They plan to officially demonstrate the system to Navy and Marine Corps divers in May. But Raj said the potential usefulness of the night vision technology is tremendous. Raj and his research assistants spend hours at the University of West Florida's athletic complex testing the equipment at an indoor pool." Sonar is the next step.
42 G. In this way of looking at civilizational categories. Similarly. including religious freedom for all.” we are told). his large project of legally codifying minority rights. at the turn of the 16th century. not all of which are just religious or “Islamic” in any obvious sense. say. Indeed. The temptation of founding economic pessimism on cultural resistance is matched by the evident enchantment. but even in the history of voting there would be a classificatory arbitrariness in defining civilizations in largely racial terms. Hinduism. in Agra. despite the greater interest that the Greeks themselves showed in talking to Iranians. or Indians. For example. particularly about democracy. especially in Athens. but the temptation to put much of the blame on Ghanaian or African culture (as is done by as astute an observer as Samuel Huntington) calls for some resistance. Democracy involves more than balloting. R. taking it to be a quintessentially “Western” idea which has originated and flourished exclusively in the West. But there is reluctance in taking note of the Greek intellectual links with other civilizations to the east or south of Greece. had the superficial appearance of fitting well with the depressing predicament of the Irish economy when it was doing quite badly. a theory is born. or of a tolerant society. the heretic Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in Campo dei Fiori in Rome. even the language reflects a confusion centering on the idea of “imposition. the cultural stereotyping and its allegedly profound economic and social relevance were not junked as sheer rubbish. wherever these conditions do not already obtain. . cultural stereotyping can have great effectiveness in fixing our way of thinking. and it may refuse to die even after the chance correlation has vanished without trace. along with championing regular discussions between followers of Islam. This is a thoroughly misleading way of understanding the history and the contemporary prospects of democracy. labored jokes against the Irish. Zoroastrianism and other beliefs (including atheism). … When. the history of Muslims includes a variety of traditions.” since it implies a proprietary belief that democracy “belongs” to the West. for many years faster than any other European economy. or of a flourishing economy. on alleged cultural impossibilities. Judaism. When there is an accidental correlation between cultural prejudice and social observation (no matter how casual). the Great Mughal emperor Akbar (who was born a Muslim and died a Muslim) had just finished. which have had such currency in England. But when the Irish economy started growing astonishingly rapidly. Zatzman and M. Goths and Visigoths as proper inheritors of the Greek tradition (“they are all Europeans. Islam The determinism of culture is increasingly used in contemporary global discussions to generate pessimism about the feasibility of a democratic state. or Egyptians (rather than in chatting up the Ostrogoths). This comparative history is immensely important to study and causally analyze. of basing political pessimism. M. Many have observed that in the ‘60s South Korea and Ghana had similar income per head. When it is asked whether Western countries can “impose” democracy on the nonWestern world. even more common today. whereas within 30 years the former grew to be 15 times richer than the latter. Jainism. The belief in the allegedly “Western” nature of democracy is often linked to the early practice of voting and elections in Greece. no great difficulty is seen in considering the descendants of.
There is a deepening slowdown in housing construction and sales throughout the country. ‘You don’t know what interest rates are going to be.’ says Marc Savitt of the consumer protection committee for the National Association of Mortgage Brokers. according to LoanPerformance.and even 50-year mortgage. including consumer debt. A handful of lenders have begun offering 50-year adjustable-rate loans to buyers who need to keep payments low in the face of record home prices and rising rates. new “financial products” are being floated such as the 40. Most big banks already offer 40-year mortgages. which account for about 5% of all home loans. a real estate data firm. such that the interest rate is locked in for as long as possible: “Mortgage experts caution that the 50-year mortgage is best-suited for those who plan to stay in their home for about five years. regardless of the general conditions in which the surrounding economy is kept – and the single richest portion of that market is facing a crisis. 0654 ET Those struggling to afford a home may be wondering how long their mortgage payments can be stretched out. USA TODAY Wednesday 10 May. . Since new housing isn’t on the way (at least: not in the quantities it formerly was). … Statewide. while the loan’s interest rate remains fixed. To keep the merry-go-round circling. and housing is the largest investment most Americans make in their lifetime. I wouldn’t do it. DISINFORMATION AND/OR INCOHERENCE ON KEY ECONOMIC QUESTIONS Item 1 This article illustrates how that part of the society’s economic surplus taking the form of interest-bearing capital is harnessed to the most absurd forms of disinformation in order to further encumber the populace in massive and growing consumer debt even as the economy sinks.’ ” Need to keep house payments low? Try a 50-year mortgage By Noelle Knox and Mindy Fetterman. The United States has an enormous sector of its economy involved in consumer finance – the financing of ongoing high levels of consumption. But to accomplish this requires redesigning the hypothecation of capital to be borrowed to put down on a property. has received about 220 applications.. Consequences and Intentions 43 B. you’re gambling. “‘If you’re going to be there more than five years. Does this mean getting people actually to buy a house to live in for the next 40 or 50 years? Is the Pope Jewish?!?! No.. which introduced its 50-year loan in March. of course not. the idea is rather to stimulate the ever faster turnover of the existing housing stock.Truth.
Oil Sows Emancipation by Luciano Wexell Severo The data just released by the Banco Central de Venezuela (BCV) confirm that the Venezuelan economy grew at a cumulative 10.) Item 2 The following report discloses how. the longer-term loans are another option.” Mortgage experts caution that the 50-year mortgage is best-suited for those who plan to stay in their home for about five years. a borrower might not build any equity and could end up owing more than a home is worth . or that were dismissed as unprofitable. and to make oil riches their servant and the struggle to tame these oil riches their basic social school. you’re gambling. Still. M. In California.” says Sanchez. when the people are a factor in the equation of social progress.430. borrower’s monthly payments could rise. everything depends on the determination of the alliance backing Hugo Chàvez in power not to permit oil to re-enslave them. “If you’re going to be there more than five years. The 50-year mortgage also signals that the cooling real estate market is heating up competition among lenders. “You don’t know what interest rates are going to be. “I looked at a lot of different options.” (All emphases added – Ed. possibilities present themselves that could not previously be imagined. A borrower with a 50-year mortgage builds equity very slowly. Islam For cash-squeezed buyers. A new coherence that was not previously possible now becomes possible. the gross domestic product (GDP) grew at 9. “I didn’t want to be tempted with negative amortization.44 G. as this report brings out. 30. This is the ninth consecutive increase since the last quarter of 2003. I wouldn’t do it. when only the interests of big capital and the State were considered. Zatzman and M. Above all.called negative amortization. With those loans. when the median was $548. And because rates on the loans are adjustable. R.3 percent. if they had to put down 20%.2 percent between the fourth quarter of 2004 and the fourth quarter of 2005. . Overall.” says Marc Savitt of the consumer protection committee for the National Association of Mortgage Brokers. while the loan’s interest rate remains fixed. in 2005. only 14% of people could afford a median-priced home in December. the 50-year isn’t considered as risky as an interest-only loan or a mortgage that lets borrowers pay even less than the interest. In Venezuela. That’s why Anthony Sanchez applied for the 50-year loan to refinance his California home.
who insist on the idea of a “statistical rebound. The country and the people agonized as a result of the rampant corruption. and historical labor conquests were taken away. which hardly benefited from the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979. strategic sectors were privatized.” It has been shown that one of the legacies of the neoliberal period is the disdain for history: a shortsighted strategy that goes only as far as the horizon of the financial system. detached from reality. fictitious. disguised as economic technicalities. . the strong increase was fundamentally driven by activities not related to oil: civil construction (28. the inflation rate reached 14. Venezuela. That legacy could explain why the orthodox analysts view the Chávez government as responsible for the poor results in the economy between 1999 and 2003. physical capital was divested. The oil sector had an increase of only 2. social practice and some modest figures have falsified the ominous desires of the political opposition. Consequences and Intentions 45 Just like in the previous eight quarters. profligacy. and manufacturing (8. at a faster speed since the early 1980s. a period they are trying to label as the “lost five years. was sinking. Jorge Giordani. In absolute terms. the Venezolana Internacional de Aviación S. the Siderúrgica del Orinoco (Sidor).8 percent.2 percent rate in 2004. In a commentary on the economic expansion. tied and gagged.9 percent. These results bear out the expectations of the ministry of finance and belie the persistently pessimistic forecasts made by economic pundits of the opposition. this means 266. the economy was deindustrialized. According to Domingo Maza Zavala. but that was below the 19. two percentage points below the rate in the same period of 2004.” In the early 1990s. in defiance of the law of gravity.9 percent). institutional. Hugo Chávez won the presidential elections of December 1998 because Venezuela was facing its most catastrophic economic. . Among others.5 percent). and moral crisis.Truth. currently a director of the BCV. This illustrates well the dynamics of wastefulness and economic savagery of the so-called “Saudi Venezuela. domestic trade (19. According to a report by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE).7 percent.6 percent).000 additional jobs. social. and perversity of the Fourth Republic (1958-98).” The term was invented in June 2004 as an explanation for the growth in the economy: the increase in the GDP was supposed to be an arithmetic illusion due to the depth of the fall in the previous periods. the following companies were privatized and even de-nationalized: the Compañía Nacional de Teléfonos (Cantv). outside of time. between 1976 and 1995 alone. by now. the unemployment rate in December 2005 was 8.3 percent).” Contrary to their view. The nominal interest rate went down to 14. Last year. (Viasa). this would be a fantastic and unheard-of case of a ball dropping on the floor only to bounce back up and up. virtual. after 40 years of power sharing between the traditional parties Acción Democrática (the socialdemocrats) and COPEI (the Christian democrats). Their political judgments. with the “Great Turn” and the “Oil Opening” inaugurated by Carlos Andrés Pérez -. Yet. the country was awash with nearly 270 billion dollars in oil revenues. the national foreign debt owed by Venezuela doubled between 1978 and 1982. That was the beginning of an accelerated process of national destruction: the role of the public sector in the economy was reduced in size. without signs of slowing down.A. to the International Monetary Fund. political. equivalent to twenty times the Marshall Plan. But.continued by Rafael Caldera’s and Teodoro Petkoff’s “Agenda Venezuela” -the country was handed.4 percent. let us remember: to a large extent. transportation (10. said ironically: “The productive rebound continues . They extended a long list of financial . the minister of development and planning. have been exposed by the new reality.
the first one led by the then unknown commander Chávez. which led to an increase in credit. M. in each of these moments -.adopted a cautious stance. as well as the oil’s extremely low international price -.7 and 3. constrained to some extent the implementation of the neoliberal agenda. the consumer price index and the interest rate. land ownership. there were specific plans to submit PDVSA to the international cartels. Four Stages in the Economy during the Chávez Government Under the government of Hugo Chávez. when the government submitted a legislative package seeking to induce deep structural changes in the main sectors of the economy: the state company Petróleos de Venezuela S. Between the inauguration of Hugo Chávez in February 1999 and by midyear in 2002. attaining greater efficiency. whereas the oil GDP only rose 1. These insurrections. (PDVSA). Less than ten years later. . and companies in the construction sector. and foreign-exchange policies. reducing inflation. international entities like the UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC).connected to foreign interests in the oil sector -. remained in office during the first nine months of the new government. The contraction of the economy was a natural reflection of this period of adaptation.A. In 1999. The recovery of the prices of the crude -. Episodes of this uprising were the Caracazo in 1989 and the two civic-military rebellions in 1992 -. sometimes by the reactions of the opposition to the changes in progress -. the oligarchy -. The outbreak of discontent occurred by the end of 2001. Venezuela’s GDP fell 6 percent as a result of the extremely deteriorated condition of the economy and of the campaign of emotional blackmail against the recentlyelected president by the mass media which are historically connected to foreign interests. Everything was done. modernizing the national industry. the Venezuelan people had already raised up and pursued an alternative. unlike what happened in the other countries of our region.semantic trickery to sugarcoat the Washington Consensus and make it palatable.sometimes determined by the actions of the government itself. minister of finance under Caldera.close to 9 dollars per barrel at the time. naval shipyards. the World Bank.and the expansive fiscal and monetary policies put in place marked the beginning of a new stage. the financial system. R. monetary. Zatzman and M. respectively. and lowering unemployment -. In these eight quarters.4 percent.direct fruit of actions undertaken by the Chávez government -. and competitiveness. supposedly. the non-oil GDP grew 4 percent on average. long before their belated conclusions were made public. the IMF and even the Vatican recognized the spectacular failure of these policies. sugar mills. There were verifiable drops in unemployment. encouraging the inflow of foreign capital. combined with inertias that dated back to the third quarter of 1998. and the cooperatives.46 G. and laws encompassing liquid and gas hydrocarbons. Let us remember that Maritza Izaguirre. income taxation. However. the Venezuelan economy has gone through four different and clearly defined stages. In 1998. Islam institutions. consumption and GDP per capita. in the name of lowering the budget deficit.2 percent. During the years 2000 and 2001. As the continuous analysis that we have been conducting in the last four years demonstrates. productivity.the country has experienced sharp turns in the direction of its fiscal. the GDP increases of 3.
mostly from large domestic and transnational companies.2 percent of total GDP. Between the end of 2001 and February 2003.all accompanied by a rise of the unemployment rate to 20. as required by Arturo Uslar Pietri seventy years ago.7 percent in 2002 and 2003. approximately. After the coup d’etat failed. December 2005). it fell to 14. threatened as it felt by the nationalist actions of the government. the third quarter of 2003 ushered the beginning of the fourth and current phase of the Venezuelan economy in the administration of Hugo Chávez: the recovery. of the annual inflation rate to 27. Altogether. The conspiracy managed from Washington caused the collapse of oil production from 3 million barrels per day to 25. Consequences and Intentions 47 Then the third phase began: a battle that lasted a year and a half. respectively. historically the deadbeats and evaders.000. The sadistic attack against PDVSA demonstrated the anti-national and desperate nature of the privileged class. unproductive. (3) the new law governing the central bank and the creation of the Fondo de Desarrollo Nacional (FONDEN) with already a balance of almost 9 billion dollars. the economy. the SENIAT. the income per capita.a pillar of the economy. Today. Why Is the Economy Growing? This reinvigoration of the Venezuelan economy is direct -. The hydrocarbons are -. Venezuela is just starting to walk again. To understand the magnitude of this recovery. and of the interest rate to 22 percent. The surprising result: Hugo Chávez emerged stronger from the crisis. and importing economy already established by the 1920s.the additional accumulation of capital assets -reaches 24. A portion of the oil revenues is used as a funding source to structure and strengthen the domestic market (“endogenous development”) and jumpstart a sovereign process of industrialization and definitive economic independence. The foreseeable result: the Venezuelan economy fell 8. But. (2) the adoption of controls over the exchange rate in early 2003.7 percent. the coup participants in the armed forces were exposed and demoralized. the gross formation of fixed capital -.4 dollars per barrel (Brent blend. which doubled the international reserves (from 15 to 30 billion dollars) and made possible the implementation of further measures. that increased tax revenues in 60 percent this year -. The oil provides an instrument in overcoming the rentier. for seven consecutive quarters.9 percent and 7. (5) a broad plan of public . This was a collapse akin to a war economy.1 percent. In the middle of the 2003 conspiracies. the coup d’etat promoted by the CIA in April 2002. In particular. paralyzing production and triggering the bankruptcy of hundreds of companies. the GDP fell 15 percent and 25 percent.although nonexclusive -result of the increase in oil prices to an average of 57. everything happened in Venezuela: the bosses’ lockout in December 2001. consider the size of the disasters in 2002 and 2003. the sowing of oil is being made possible through seven mechanisms: (1) the amendment to the hydrocarbons law and the increase in royalties received by the government from the transnational oil companies. In the first and second quarters of 2003. (4) the new approaches by the tax collection authority. and the international reserves fell -. then. conspiracies and the “oil sabotage” between the last quarter of 2002 and February 2003. when the operations of the “devil’s excrement” began in the Lake Maracaibo. But.and will continue to be for years to come -. respectively.Truth.0 percent. for example. what else is news in Venezuela? The novel thing is that definitely the country is sowing or planting oil in the productive sectors of the economy.
Within these outlines. plants to produce pulp and paper. Islam investments in a platform of basic industries. durable products for civil construction. (7) the work conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Land (MAT) to rescue and reactivate the production of a million and a half hectares of unproductive large estates. These results will be improved upon when the full impact of the “Agreement/Framework for the Recovery of the Industry and Transformation of the Production Model” as well as the “Decree for the Provision of Inputs and Raw Materials to the National Manufacturing Sector” are felt. and aluminum.9 percent.for the first time since 1997. and equipment that make it possible for the process of sovereign industrialization to proceed.6 percent to 24. trailers. in this period. drinks. and semi-trailers (13.5 percent). starting year of this statistical series at the BCV. While in the second quarter of 1999 the share of non-oil GDP was 70. steel. M. parts. the branches that grew fastest are: automotive vehicles. factories to produce aluminum sheets. three new oil refineries. Zatzman and M. Altogether. And. and tobacco (10. rubbers and plastic products (10. Even more significant is the acceleration in the manufacturing industry between early 2003 and the present. In addition to that. food. partly as a result.5 percent of total GDP. transportation. plants to produce cement.7 percent of the total. cement. the non-oil GDP grew significantly faster than the oil GDP.6 percent). iron.0 percent.2 percent. gas. physical infrastructure. From early 2003. and housing.” is now reaching 16. These policy instruments seek to limit the exports of raw materials and to guarantee basic inputs -. the Inter-American Development Bank recently approved a credit of 750 million dollars for the construction of the hydroelectric power plant at Tocoma. These seven mechanisms account for the fact that. the share of final consumption goods in total imports has gone down from 37. automotive vehicle sales.0 percent). recently surpassing oil GDP -.1 percent to 14.like aluminum. a factory of “seamless” oil tubes.3 percent to 25.7 percent with a momentum to grow briskly. Within the manufacturing industry. ten sawmills. R.7 percent during the “oil sabotage. the share of the oil GDP in total GDP shrunk from 20. iron. (6) the contribution in 2005 of nearly 5 billion dollars to the Misiones Sociales. as an emergency mechanism to honor the immense accumulated social debt. plants to improve iron ore. Venezuela has invested its foreign exchange in purchasing machinery. the national power system will receive investments that approach 3 billion dollars in 2006. today it stands at 76. strengthening the 2006 Sowing Plan and incorporating thousands of farmers and workers into the productive process. and fight inflation. new companies are being created and new projects are unfolding like the new Venezuelan iron-and-steel plan for the production of special steels. just by itself. accompanied by an increase in the acquisition of goods devoted to gross capital formation from 12. which shrunk to 14. and machinery and equipment (7. since 2004 and in spite of the strong growth in oil prices. The share of manufacturing in total GDP. demonstrating the positive impact of oil exports on activities not directly related to crude extraction. lower unemployment. This dynamism can be verified especially by the consistent increases in electricity consumption. That is to say. and many others.to the Venezuelan producers. with their consequent multiplier and accelerator effects on private investment in industries that transform basic inputs into products of higher value added. The dollars at the FONDEN have been reserved to finance strategic development plans in such sectors as basic industries. .48 G.3 percent). oil. and wood -. Manufacturing was the sector that grew the fastest in the period.
which will control at least 51 percent of these initiatives. On the other hand. which has already turned out its first 400 units. It is possible that. sustained by raw oil wealth.S. Spain. the actions orchestrated by the U. and the continuous conspiracies against the country are back at it. and each aggression will only increase their consciousness and reinforce their participative and protagonistic democracy. agreed between PDVSA and Petrobrás. the Venezuelan economy will grow at nearly 6 percent.Truth.” is quite enlightening. due to the stagnation in the nonoil sector. the ministry of basic industries and mining (MIBAM) was created. This is the best moment the Chávez government has had since it was inaugurated and. the progress in income redistribution and social inclusion. in its increasing isolation. Venezuela is expanding its international relations with important countries and has made effective its membership to MERCOSUR. creating jobs and fostering the endogenous development. with parallel advances in an array of economic and social indicators. The anti-national sectors that brought us the bosses’ lockout. This is a reaction against the inroads made in the profound process of economic and social transformation the country is undergoing. All the predictions are that. the agreements with Argentina to build oil tankers at the Santiago River shipyards. The government initiatives to join forces with national entrepreneurs are many.as I have tried to explain. in the spirit of building an Alternativa Bolivariana para la América (ALBA) and contributing to creating a multi-polar world.” This is the exact opposite of what the statistics show -. India. . New Threats and Attempts at Destabilization A recent note published in the Venezuelan newspaper El Universal. The initiatives of the government to extend a hand to the nationalist entrepreneurs show the will to seek unity in working to activate industry and agriculture. but the creation of bases to abandon the rentier model. In March of 2005. with China.” the stage is set for a process of even more intense structural changes in the outlook. as it has happened before. and the prospects of another victory for the Bolivarian forces has disturbed the White House and its domestic allies. and Italy. Iran. commissioned to build the bases for a sovereign process of industrialization. endogenous model. and to establish a new productive.investors. the Bush administration will again resort to violence to disrupt democratic and popular governments. the oil sabotage. The next presidential elections will take place in December. in 2006. which had very positive effects in the economic activities and the country’s political life during 2005. The note says: “the Venezuelan economy is showing the first signs of an imminent recession.national or foreign -. with the president’s proposition to advance towards the “Socialism of the XXI Century. and the bi-national tractor factory Venirán Tractor. looking to reactivate the industrial and agricultural apparatus. in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. this year. The goal is to strengthen international relations. government will meet the resistance of the Venezuelan people. Consequences and Intentions 49 All these plans have been directed by the Venezuelan government. the coup d’etat. able to guarantee economic growth and national development. although many will involve strategic associations with other countries or private -. with internal dynamics and life. The goal is not solely the economic recovery. under the headline “The Economic Recession Looms. In addition to this. especially with other nations in Latin America. Instances of this are the recent initiative to build the oil refinery Abreu e Lima. with the government of Iran.
Its complexity lacks precisely the irreducibility that is to be compared with natural organisms. After the evolutionary step is completed in a natural organism. some people will scruple at nothing to dogmatise the thinking and creative abilities of a new generation of students by serving up a disinformed “straw-man” misrepresentation of Darwin’s theory. The fact is. it . All we know is that. for example. The very first example. our own forbears seem familiar and recognisable to us going back a few aeons. This article was originally published in Spanish by Rebelión on 12 March 2006. Nevertheless. sufficient evidence from the fossil record and the living record of plant and animal life on earth exists to buttress the assertion that many life-forms came into existence most likely following some species differentiation developed and evolving out of some earlier form. The successor may share a huge SIMILARITY with the forbear. Yet. or as an asserted refutation of falsehoods purportedly decked out as scientific truths.50 G.5 billion years ago. It is meaningless to speak of how it could not work if this or that piece were missing. in the paragraph immediately below. The English translation was provided by Julio Huato. The fact that NOTHING in the mousetrap evolved into existence. If certain pieces were missing. Under the guise of “opening their minds to new possibilities”. one can prove just about anything if one is sufficiently slippery and careless in deploying self-serving analogies between organic nature and man-made artifice to bolster asserted beliefs – either as scientific fact. at some definite point. On the other hand. Islam Luciano Wexell Severo is a Brazilian economist. Darwin wrote about The Descent of Man (1870) and about The Origin of Species (1859) – but nowhere did he ever venture into the territory of speculating about the origins of Man as such. that the DNA of the chimpanzee is more than 99 percent identical to that of the human genome. as the following article illustrates. yet is sufficiently differentiated that successor and forbear are mutually unrecognisable to the other. that no previous species of the device developed new characteristics that became the modern mousetrap. the previous species is succeeded by another distinct species. even as we adduce evidence of humanoids walking upright on the face of the earth more the 2. Indeed. even as conscious as we humans are. elides the necessary and sufficient conditions of a human-engineered mechanical design into something supposedly comparable to the “irreducible complexity” of a natural organism. DISINFORMATION ABOUT SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND PURPOSE Item 1 On no question is disinformation more flagrant than that of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. means that all its complexity is entirely knowable and determinable in the present. M. C. R. Zatzman and M. There is an aspect of the complexity that is truly irreducible – irreducible in the sense that we are unable to extract any further information pertaining to our own existence as a distinct species. it can then be said that this or that aspect of it now works differently than before. neither would ever mistake the other as a member of its species. with organic life forms. Hence the mousetrap illustration of “intelligent design” turns out to be a total non sequitur.
Consequences and Intentions 51 would be a different species. meanwhile.’ ” It may thus be inferred from these statements that: 1. They’re concerned they’re going to be criticized by parents. Colbert says that isn’t always the case. Behind their apparent objections to Darwin’s interpretations and conclusions lurks a bedrock rejection of scientific method and its fundamental principle of remaining true to the fidelity of one’s own observations and of premising all real.’ he says. one-third of [Iowa State University] freshmen planning to major in biology agree with the statement that ‘God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10. The methods of the particular brand of proponents of intelligent design described in this article merit some elaboration. that they did not evolve from the apes and that they underwent no significant evolution since their appearance. most adherents agree with the prevailing scientific view that the earth is billions of years old. Mr. What conditions which pathway the organism eventually selects derives from the state of the surrounding environment at that particular time. an associate professor who teaches introductory biology at Iowa State. “ ‘I’ve had frequent conversations with freshmen who told me that their high-school biology teachers skipped the evolution chapter. many contemporary proponents of intelligent design render cosmetic obeisance to the undeniable facts of the geological record. grounded understanding of phenomena on one’s conscious participation in acts of finding out. although these other factors may have nothing whatever to do with the organism in question. ‘I would say that high-school teachers in many cases feel intimidated about teaching evolution. It should not come as a shock.000 years.” Meanwhile. falsely. students and school boards. and . Unlike traditional creationists. perhaps even a forbear if not a relative. but it is more a case of “reculer pour mieux sauter” than of submitting to the actual meaning and deeper implications of such facts: “Intelligent design does not demand a literal reading of the Bible. This itself is also conditioned by previously existing factors.Truth. that the individual pulling this stunt is not the bait-and-switch artist in a Barnum and Bailey Circus sideshow.hence the need to invoke “intelligent design” as the explanation. says no such thing. however: “According to an informal survey by James Colbert. it becomes easy to plant and advance arguments that assume. The classic argument is that Darwin’s theory ascribes to chance the elaboration of higher order development and functioning in natural organisms and that such an accomplishment is too harmonious to have evolved by chance . by exploiting the ignorance of the student body about the age of the earth and the various species groups including humans. that humans have only been around a relatively short time. Natural selection is above all natural: all the possible outcomes are already present in Nature. Darwin’s theory.’ Although it’s widely assumed that college-bound students learn about evolution in high school. According to this article. And they allow that the designer is not necessarily the Christian God. but it does. but an associate professor of molecular biology at Iowa State University.
All this would be hilarious were it no so tragic. i. Intelligent design does not demand a literal reading of the Bible. Iowa -. a junior biochemistry major wearing a cross around his neck. living cells are “irreducibly complex” -.With a magician’s flourish.either the spring. . Georgia and New Mexico. It is clear that there are forces and individuals in the United States who are quite prepared to follow science and even consider themselves scientific-minded albeit on a 50-per cent discounted basis. M. and at private institutions such as Wake Forest and Carnegie Mellon. the associate professor suggested. they removed one component -.e.they can’t fulfill their functions without all of their parts. they object to evolution. And they allow that the designer is not necessarily the Christian God. Page A1 AMES. Like a mousetrap. Islam 2. ‘Intelligent Design’ Doctrine Leaves Room for Creator. Unlike traditional creationists. Hence. Thomas Ingebritsen pulled six mousetraps from a shopping bag and handed them out to students in his “God and Science” seminar.” said Jason Mueller. definitely. they could not have evolved bit by bit through natural selection but must have been devised by a creator. That’s the answer Mr. which all failed to snap. They then tested the traps. if it can be established that humans could not have evolved. They like the part of the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy that points out how matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. hammer or holding bar -from each mousetrap. Doubtless many of these same individuals would be the first to insist that the truth must be 100% unalderatedly true. He was using the mousetrap to support the antievolution doctrine known as intelligent design. “Is the mousetrap irreducibly complex?” the Iowa State University molecular biologist asked the class.. When it comes to outlook. However. At his instruction. then the possibility that any other plant or animal life evolved is placed in doubt. they are prepared to admit utter nonsense on the same basis as the truth. Zatzman and M. Classes Questioning Evolution Take Hold. as well as Iowa State. In Iowa. Darwinian Struggle At Some Colleges. “Yes. they want to write off the other bit of this fundamental Law pointing out that matter and energy are converted continually one into the other. most adherents agree with the prevailing scientific view that the earth is billions of years old. Ingebritsen was looking for.52 G. R. however. Science on Defense A Professor Turns Heckler By DANIEL GOLDEN Staff Reporter of THE WALL STREET JOURNAL November 14. 2005. Intelligent-design courses have cropped up at the state universities of Minnesota.
000 and up for guest speakers. “I would say that high-school teachers in many cases feel intimidated about teaching evolution. This hints at a very important byproduct of seeking the all-natural pathway. when things don’t “add up”. They’re concerned they’re going to be criticized by parents. often with start-up funding from the John Templeton Foundation.com .” Templeton-funded proponents of intelligent design include Christopher Macosko. he’s taught a freshman seminar: “Life: By Chance or By Design?” According to Mr. A Universal Constant on the Move Is the proton losing weight. viz. Faith and Philosophy. a scientist at Sandia National Laboratories. Consequences and Intentions 53 Still. the foundation promotes exploring the boundary of theology and science. one must also be prepared to adjust one’s temporal conceptions. another intelligent-design advocate on the New Mexico faculty. an associate professor who teaches introductory biology at Iowa State. library materials. have initiated most of the courses and lectures. including some eminent scientists. I didn’t realize how shaky evolution is. one-third of ISU freshmen planning to major in biology agree with the statement that “God created human beings pretty much in their present form at one time within the last 10.” Although it’s widely assumed that college-bound students learn about evolution in high school. taught an honors seminar in 2003 and 2004 on “Origins: Science. a professor of psychology at the University of New Mexico. students and school boards. ‘Gee. Harold Delaney. Mr. These attempts suggest that the researchers themselves in this realm operate entirely unconscious of the implications of looking at time itself within nature as the fourth physically irreversible dimension rather that some independently-varying measure.. Colbert says that isn’t always the case. For eight years. According to an informal survey by James Colbert.000 years. research and conferences. It fostered the movement’s growth with grants of $10. in which. the course included readings on both sides as well as a guest lecture by David Keller. or has the fabric of the Universe changed? By Mark Peplow Nature. Mr. a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Established by famous stockpicker Sir John Templeton. “I’ve had frequent conversations with freshmen who told me that their high-school biology teachers skipped the evolution chapter. became a born-again Christian as an assistant professor after a falling-out with a business partner.” he says. professors with evangelical beliefs. a professor of chemical engineering at University of Minnesota.Truth.” Co-taught by Michael Kent. Item 2 These paradoxes about the constancy of physical constants are all removable once the timescale is appropriately adjusted. Macosko. Macosko. the temptation re-emerges to add dimensions that are not physically accessible ikn order to account for natural transformations over vast period of time.’” Another recipient of Templeton funding. “All the students who finish my course say. The most interesting remarks in this report are those in the last five paragraphs.
it is about 1. this value could theoretically vary more than does. depend on the relative masses of these constituent particles. they have said. In fact. Constant Craving Ubachs says that his team’s laser measurements are hundreds of times more accurate than previous laboratory data. Ubachs’ comparison suggests that over this vast timescale. Then they compared this result with observations of two clouds of hydrogen molecules about 12 billion light years away. for no apparent reason. have raged for years (see ‘The inconstant constant?’). which is made of two protons and two electrons. If confirmed. . This improves their detection of the mass ratio effect by a factor of two to three. M. The scientists report their research in Physical Review Letters . which physicists reckon is a little better than ‘evidence for’ but not nearly an ‘observation of’ the effect. Although the light changes frequency on its long journey through space. For most purposes. and his colleagues studied how a cool gas of hydrogen molecules in their lab absorbed ultraviolet laser light. Times they are a-changing To look for such variation. the proton-to-electron mass ratio has decreased by 0. Wim Ubachs. R. the Netherlands. researchers at the European Southern Observatory in Chile were able to unpick what the original frequencies absorbed by the hydrogen were. however. Some physicists have argued that the equations describing our Universe allow for variance in the relative masses of a proton and electron. which are illuminated from behind by distant quasars. Fickle Forces This is not the first time physicists have suspected physical constants of inconstancy. which is most of the lifetime of the Universe. the physicist Paul Dirac famously suggested that the strength of gravity could change over time. and so might be easier to pin down. The exact frequencies of light that are absorbed by each hydrogen molecule (H2). And arguments about the fine-structure constant. The researchers admit that they are only about 99. the discovery could rewrite our understanding of the forces that make our Universe tick. In 1937. The fine-structure constant measures the strength of the electromagnetic force that keeps electrons in place inside atoms and molecules. Zatzman and M. But dig down a few decimal places and the team claims that this value has changed over time. .54 20 April 2006 G.002%. The startling finding comes from a team of scientists who have calculated exactly how much heavier a proton is than an electron.7% sure of their result. Islam How heavy is a proton compared to an electron? The answer seems to have changed over the past 12 billion years. It seems that nothing stays the same: not even the ‘constants’ of physics. An experiment suggests that the mass ratio of two fundamental subatomic particles has decreased over the past 12 billion years.836 times heavier. a physicist from the Free University in Amsterdam.
 Webb J. Phys. are both very bad. Instead. BIOMEDICAL DISINFORMATION Item 1 Two obvious questions not asked in the following otherwise informative summary are: 1. 041301 (2005). what triggers the body to produce or stop producing its own vitamin supplies in the first place.. Lett. why should we assume that the body will treat a synthesised substitute for whatever vitamin-complex the body is not producing itself the same as it would treat that same vitamin-complex produced by the body itself? The logic of “chemicals are chemicals” dismisses out of hand the very idea of considering such questions seriously. Flambaum V. J. Firm it up If Ubachs’ finding is confirmed. Parodying a line made famous by the “winning-est” coach in U.” agrees John Webb. T. unwanted news for . But it could also remove the effect altogether. Rev.. REFERENCES  Reinhold E. it would be an “experimental foundation stone” for physics. Australia. et al. even though it is well understood. Phys.  Tzanavaris P. D.. So what could be causing the ratio to change? Both Ubachs and Webb say that it is unlikely that protons are losing weight.. professional football. Rev. Webb J. not a minor secondary matter. K. The fact that no two things anywhere in nature are identical and that their pathway in nature is a critical primary component. that the only Vitamin D the human body can use efficiently is that which it can obtain from sunlight-triggered photosynthesis. a physicist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. Rev. who has studied changes in both the proton-electron mass ratio and the fine-structure constant [2. “We just don’t know what the explanation is.” Webb admits. Lett. V. K. for example. some theories suggest that extra dimensions occupied by the particle might be changing shape. say.. 151101 (2006).. Phys. Consequences and Intentions 55 “They’ve done the best job of anyone so far. five years. 87. 96. but with a billion times greater precision. and 2. et al. Murphy M.and Curran S. Lett.. This remains the case. Ubachs says that the observations could be improved or confirmed by looking at hydrogen clouds in the lab over a time period of.Truth. 3].. or general relativity behaving in odd ways. 95. pathway isn’t everything: it’s the only thing.” suggests Ubachs. Or perhaps it’s a consequence of the speed of light slowing down.S. when it comes to natural processes. says Webb. “It may be that it was only in an early epoch of the Universe that the value changed. This would remove the difficulty of working out the precise wavelength of very dim light after it has passed through billions of light years of space. 091301 (2001).
the prestigious Medical Letter. based on mass production and sale of a uniform and homogenised product. The point about sunlight is that it includes UV as well as IR and all frequencies in between. clinical investigator for the National Institute on Aging and author of an analysis that showed a higher risk of death among vitamin E users in several studies. Sometimes it’s actually the opposite.S. but it appeared to promote lung cancer in a study of former smokers. according to industry figures. Page R1 Every day.” says Edgar R. B vitamins to protect their hearts. stressing the apparent risks that have emerged from recent studies.” Item 2 The following article. They may actually cause harm. may actually promote some cancer and interfere with treatments. “People hear that if they take vitamins they’ll feel better. But a troubling body of research is beginning to suggest that vitamin supplements may be doing more harm than good. but the evidence doesn’t support that. Beta carotene was seen as a cancer fighter. M.S. Annual spending on vitamins reached $7 billion last year. Islam proponents and exponents of the very business model into which ehemical engineering has been slotted. while highly informative about the true state of scientific understanding at the U. A study of whether vitamin E improved heart health showed higher rates of congestive heart failure among vitamin users. a nonprofit group that studies the evidence and develops consensus statements to advise doctors about important medical issues. Last summer. 20 March 2006. can increase a woman’s risk for hip fracture. It’s estimated that 70% of American households buy vitamins. the results are hugely disappointing and in some cases show harm. Over the past several years. long viewed as cancer fighters. The shortcoming of all . “But when you put [vitamins] to the test in clinical trials. issued a critical report on a number of different vitamins. Zatzman and M. Too much vitamin A. People think they are going to live longer. By TARA PARKER-POPE The Wall Street Journal. sometimes taken to boost the immune system. millions of Americans gobble down fistfuls of vitamins in a bid to ward off ill health. Miller. Food and Drug Administration. Prevention The Case Against Vitamins Recent studies show that many vitamins not only don’t help. and vitamin E. persists nevertheless in spreading the disinformation that associates sunlight with ultraviolet light.56 G. authority for nutritional recommendations -. They swallow megadoses of vitamin C in hopes of boosting their immune systems.the top U.has concluded that taking antioxidant supplements serves no purpose. R. beta carotene and other antioxidants to fight cancer. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences -. studies that were expected to prove dramatic benefits from vitamin use have instead shown the opposite. And there are growing concerns that antioxidants.
which is today the major fortified source of the important vitamin. Mushrooms Are Unlikely Source of Vitamin D By ANDREW BRIDGES. . suggests that brief exposure to ultraviolet light can zap even the blandest and whitest farmed mushrooms with a giant serving of the vitamin. The problem is especially acute in winter. prostate and other cancers. that would be more than what’s in two tablespoons of cod liver oil. Sunshine is a significant source of vitamin D. switching on fluorescent lights only at harvest time. which is being funded by industry. the sunshine vitamin that helps keep bones strong and fights disease. the soft-bone disease linked to vitamin D deficiency that was a scourge in decades past. Beelman said his research has shown that exposing growing mushrooms to three hours of artificial UV light increases their vitamin D content significantly. breast. Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in reducing the risk of osteoporosis. 02:17 ET WASHINGTON . according to the National Institutes of Health. Growers typically raise the mushrooms indoors in the dark. That could be easier than exposing fresh-picked mushrooms to light. Research. The ongoing work so far has found that a single serving of white button mushrooms — the most commonly sold mushroom — will contain 869 percent the daily value of vitamin D once exposed to just five minutes of UV light after being harvested. New research. he added. Beelman said. That worries health officials and not only because of rickets. scientists and growers said. Mushrooms also synthesize vitamin D. as well as in reducing mortality associated with colon. If confirmed.Truth. That means they now contain negligible amounts of vitamin D. consistently has shown that many adult Americans do not spend enough time outside to receive enough UV exposure needed to produce ample vitamin D. The Associated Press Tuesday 18 Apr 2006. one of the richest — and most detested — natural sources of the vitamin. through UV exposure. since natural UV rays trigger vitamin D synthesis in the skin. The only drawback is that the white button mushrooms — like people — tend to darken with increased UV exposure.Mushrooms may soon emerge from the dark as an unlikely but significant source of vitamin D. while preliminary. cardiovascular disease and tooth loss. albeit in a different form. Consequences and Intentions 57 artificial substitutes for sunlight is that they do not contain the entire visible spectrum. Selling increased exposure and use of various sources of artificial light began with planting the story that excessive exposure to sunlight – as opposed to reasonable. Exposing growing or just-picked mushrooms to UV light would be cheap and easy to do if it could mean turning the agricultural product into a unique plant source of vitamin D. The damage that correlates with reported excessive exposure of humans to some forms of artificial light is probably not unconnected to the wide gaps in frequency spectrum of the artificial forms. including new findings also being presented at the conference. That would be a boon especially for people who don’t eat fish or milk. interrupted and certainly not 16-hours-at-a-stretch exposure – “causes” cancers of the skin. The Food and Drug Administration proposed the study.
22-carat. “Before Plavix we rarely heard a mention of aspirin resistance. Then along came the Cox-2 inhibitor class of painkillers – utterly unnecessary since aspirin was readily available and much cheaper. “But reports and commentary on the subject often fail to point out that many of those raising alarms about aspirin resistance have financial ties with drug and test makers who stand to profit from the idea’s acceptance. as the following article points out. medical publications have become full of talk about “aspirin resistance” -. M. If that is true. Once some of these drugs became implicated in heart attacks – heart attacks that were predicted in the clinical research. What we have here is biomedical research and development as a 100-per-cent. Islam Item 3 Aspirin was well-established as a pain reliever. “over the past four years. multi-billion-dollar class-action “product liability” lawsuits followed in the wake of some of the heart attack deaths. “One has to wonder if the commercial implications of this phenomenon trump scientific reality.” Critical Dose Aspirin Dispute Is Fueled by Funds Of Industry Rivals A Cheap Remedy for Clotting Used by Millions of Patients Is Undermined by Research as Bayer's Friends Fight Back By DAVID ARMSTRONG The Wall Street Journal. Plavix. medical publications have become full of talk about ‘aspirin resistance’ -. while an enormous investment in utterly unnecessary research and development remains to be recouped… What to do? Sure enough. widespread testing might be needed to detect the condition and doctors might have to turn to aspirin substitutes costing $4 a day.58 G. Page A1 Over the past four years.” On this score. R.” the director of cardiology training at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles – who doesn’t test patients for aspirin resistance and accepts no industry funding or consulting work – told The Wall Street Journal reporter compiling this story. Its operative disinformation goes something like this: “if you don’t get tested for ‘aspirin resistance’. as well as a substance that could help heart disease sufferers keep down ongoing risks from clogged arteries.” he added.suggesting that millions who take an aspirin a day to prevent heart attacks are wasting their effort. one of the leading such “drugs” launched by Harvard University. it may turn out that your failure to eat or drink the poison we’re selling could be bad for you. gold-plated defrauding of the public. 24 April 2006. Furthermore.suggesting that millions who take an aspirin a day to prevent heart attacks are . Zatzman and M. but never mentioned to the US Food and Drug Administration by the companies developing them – the bloom was off the rose for Cox-2-inhibiting painkillers. has become especially notorious.
Last July. . Even some doctors who are trying to debunk aspirin resistance have financial ties -. the disinformation identified elsewhere in such notions as “chemicals are chemicals” takes the forms “biochemicals are biochemicals” and “neural pathways are neural pathways”. Scientists Probe the Use of the Tongue By MELISSA NELSON. widespread testing might be needed to detect the condition and doctors might have to turn to aspirin substitutes costing $4 a day. The Associated Press Mon 24 Apr 2006 19:32 ET See full text at Item 3 of Section A above E.. If that is true. But reports and commentary on the subject often fail to point out that many of those raising alarms about aspirin resistance have financial ties with drug and test makers who stand to profit from the idea’s acceptance. which sells a drug being tested as a potential benefit for patients deemed aspirin-resistant.to aspirin maker Bayer AG. the world’s second best-selling drug after cholesterol fighter Lipitor. Physician’s Weekly Managing Editor Keith D’Oria says he knew of the ties. … Item 4 In the context of biomedical science. Fears of aspirin resistance have boosted sales of the anticlotting pill Plavix. He said the publication never discloses possible conflicts and instead uses the information for other purposes. that these people are at higher risk for heart attacks and strokes and may need other anti-clotting drugs. THE NATURAL PATH AS THE BASIS OF THE LAW AND OUTLOOK OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE “Warriors – Why we stand up” Mohawk Nation News 5 November 2006. Simon receives research funding from Accumetrics Inc. He wrote in Physician’s Weekly. a privately held San Diego company that makes a test to measure aspirin resistance. and from pharmaceuticals maker Schering-Plough Corp.Truth. but didn’t disclose them. Harvard Medical School associate professor Daniel Simon warned that aspirin resistance may afflict as many as 30% of the 25 million Americans taking aspirin for their hearts. Consequences and Intentions 59 wasting their effort. The issue of aspirin resistance is a powerful example of how key academic researchers with a financial interest can influence the care Americans receive. such as contacting drug companies listed by doctors to see if they might place an ad near the doctor’s commentary. Such is the thinking underlying any and every attempt to replicate the sequencing of cognitive acts by remote control outside that of the host brain. The article didn’t mention that Dr. a trade publication. He is also a consultant and paid speaker for Schering-Plough..
its territories and everything that sustains its life. One of the first strategies was to use us for commerce and military allies. A warrior doesn’t have to ponder whether he should protect himself. At Six Nations at the beginning of the reclamation of “Kanenhstaton”. When we are attacked. 115 . Every creature on earth has this natural instinct to protect itself. efforts were made by a few to not fly the “warrior flag”. These were contrary to how we see life. Zatzman and M. After a while they successfully killed off 99% of us throughout the Western Hemisphere . Tekarontakeh. What Took Us off the Path? It Was the Genocide We Went Through The colonists came here to conquer. warriors in other Indigenous nations. our instincts tell us that we have to defend ourselves as fully and completely as possible. Our knowledge is based on our observation of natural ways. In the end. history of the warriors. its species. role of clans and women relatives. an elder Renskarakete. All Indigenous Nations Have Warriors The colonists are alarmed that our People are picking up this warrior image no matter what Indigenous nation we come from. his people. they wanted to pacify us. the Kaiannereh’ko:wa/Great Law of Peace. Our full understanding of the natural world is how we will survive. Even the non-natives depend on that too. Why? They thought they had destroyed us through colonization. He said. The colonists are trying to discourage our people from identifying with us. water and everything that helps to sustain his people. “It was always here because the people were always here. This confusion destroyed many of us. A lot of time and effort is spent trying to dissolve this positive image of the warrior. These invaders immediately tried to take over Turtle Island . We have no choice but to live according to the men’s duties as outlined in our constitution. More and more are coming to understand our position. Rather than relying on ourselves. outlined some of the historical background on how the “Warrior Society” was re-established. in the confusion of people rising up to defend the land. but the whole community put the flag in front of their homes and on their cars. Sa-o-ie-ra “Sa-o-ie-ra” means it’s a natural instinct instilled in us by creation. ganistensera. Islam Introduction Sa-o-ie-ra. R. They brought their strange religions and hierarchical institutions. his clan. fear and all the strategies that have been applied elsewhere in the world.60 G. M. criticisms. They attacked our spirit in many ways so we lost confidence and could no longer defend ourselves or what was ours. These are our sources of life. why we went off the path. For a time it just wasn’t visible”. We saw these as “man-made beliefs”. In the meantime they worked to kill us off. They wanted our decisions to be made by someone somewhere up on the hierarchical ladder. They did not want us to defend our lives that creation had prescribed for us. not only did one or two flags come out. That’s how Creation made us. To destroy us they destroy themselves. who was Karonhiaktajeh. Our will comes from nature. his land. our effect on non-indigenous society. the goal of peace. We do what we must do to survive. genocide. We argued that it signified that we want to fight for our survival as a people and to carry out our instructions.
Colonial society translates this to mean “warrior”. The designer of the flag. They are not a legend. On April 20th 2006 when the Ontario Provincial Police tried to invade Six Nations and beat up our women and children. the carriers of the soil of Turtle Island . Many of them are sensitive enough to understand that when you are in someone else’s land. As a matter of fact. We just have to look at what it does. They had to make some crucial decisions for us to be here today. at the Six Nations reclamation of our land and other sites of resistance. There is not only a lack of understanding but a deliberate misrepresentation of the warriors. This is the price we have to pay for carrying out our duties to our people. We must educate the settlers too. It was the Kaianereh’ko:wa – which is modeled on the ways of the natural world. White society is designed to control its people. Had they failed. If the Ongwehonwe are finally destroyed that is when the Rotisken’ra:kete are destroyed”. We have to educate ourselves about this past history and how we got through it. wanted posters over police wires. originally called it a “unity flag”. files. Those flags went up right across Canada . The time has come for the non-Indigenous people to learn why we are standing up as we do. Karonhiaktajeh. It was the settlers who called it “a warrior flag”. What happened to us is the guests came here and tried to kill of their hosts. high tech police surveillance techniques. At one time these non-natives had ancestors who were indigenous somewhere else once too. The “warriors” have been stereotyped to evoke fear in the non-native people. A parasite will die if it kills what it is living off of. Warriors are real. you have to tread carefully. You could disrupt something and not even know you’re doing it. . The warrior flag is flown in many part of the world by people who resist tyranny and totalitarianism. Maybe they have an instinctual desire to find a home. our men have had to cover their faces. The propaganda to destroy our spirit was lost. But we are still here and our flag is still flying. Because of this lack of understanding. Many non-native people are interested in who are the real Onkwehonwe? It means “the real people forever” because nature is here forever. Not one group. they awoke the lions. Consequences and Intentions 61 million of our people died off. we would not be here today. The Rotisken’ra:kete did not fail in their duties. Then we will find our answers. Currently the colonists are spending millions of dollars to discredit our Rotiskenrakete. Non-Indigenous Society Must Learn Too What brought us back? It was the minds of our ancestors who thought about how we were to survive in this news state of affairs. or phony charges to criminalize them into submission to the colonial system. This is bad manners and a violation of nature. The warriors of old did not have to deal with media manipulations. band council or anyone condemned it. There have been continuous weak attempts here and there to defame us. They need to understand the world view we are coming from.Truth. think about and discuss it. We can’t educate only ourselves. Our ancestors willed themselves so that we would be here today. We are the descendants of those few whose ancestors survived the biggest holocaust in all mankind. They knew that what we did was right. To do this they have to instill fear in everybody. Warriors are part of the Kaianereh’ko:wa/Great Law of Peace. Criticisms of the Warriors We hear a lot of provocative statements about the warriors by those who don’t know very much about “Rotiskenrakete”. they have been phenomenally successful.
No nation wanted that. We know that the place of the Rotisken’ra:kete is imbedded in the Great Law. “We will fight until we die”. Peace is Warrior goal We always look towards peace throughout any of our battles. It means that the nation we fight must understand that we will fight them until they agree to live peacefully with us under the Great Law. If the adversary did not want to make peace with us. This is because they had done so much harm to the Confederacy. “The Warrior’s Handbook”. In our minds. Both nations respected the specific rules of war as outlined in the Kaianereh’ko:wa/Great Law of Peace. government. Now he is revered and has become a legend because he adhered to the philosophy of the Great Law. Guerilla warfare was adopted by the Europeans. They were always there supporting the people who stood up for the Great Law. We never set out to destroy the other nation. Zatzman and M. The young Rotisken’ra:kete went to the traditional council in Kahnawake. Being a peaceful minded people . culture. In 1784 the United States sued the Confederacy for peace. Many had put our history aside. This meant that we would then fight until we won. Catharines Ontario . The warriors had become dormant for sometime. When the women resisted the imposition of the Indian Act in Kahnawake in 1889. He was vilified during his lifetime. so we continued to fight with the newly formed United States . For example. In our past the Rotisken’ra:kete were always respected. But they always existed underground. they would retain their language. M. Many had forgotten the traditional role of the men in Indigenous society. There are examples like the battle of Chateauguay where 250 Mohawks stood against 7000 Americans and repelled them. we always wanted to make peace. The war is not over until we win. Some adversaries would just give up and leave. has been read by many Rotisken’ra:kete everywhere. We found very few around to help us. the warriors were right there behind the women when they made objections to the government. This is only one aspect. There are many other instances such as when 80 stood against 2500 at Queenston Heights while the British ran away north to St. There is always a plan for peace. This does not mean making another nation subservient. Many make the mistake of saying. R. Historically Historically warriors have been outstanding soldiers. Many of our tactics were imitated by the settler society. “We will fight until we win”. They must agree to live in peace and equality. the elite covering themselves in black so as not be seen in the forest is one of our tactics. But it is really. Islam Karonhiaktajeh Karonhiaktajeh was a mentor to the Rotisken’ra:kete. If they agreed to the peace. We needed guidance from the older people. If not.62 G. Many colonists did not want to fight the Rotisken’ra:kete. The only real adversaries were other Indigenous nations. At Michilimakinac only a few canoe loads of warriors fought against thousands. then the black wampum string would be dropped. then we absorb them and they are no more. land and ways. His book. It all started back in Kahnawake in the 1950’s with the formation of the Singing Society. The Law states that the “war is not over until it is won”.
He carries the soil in his pouch which he hangs around his neck. their special qualities emerge and come to the surface. They learn how to separate things and identify the elements for what they are. The Rensken’ra:kete is not a soldier for the king.Truth. We looked for qualities in each child. Once he takes that position he must carry himself as though he has no clan because he is there for all the clans. The istenha is the one who carried him and gave him life. Some are found to be better than others in carrying out certain responsibilities. Our Clan Mothers Te-ha-ti-ka-on-ion are the people who observe these young people and find the ones with special qualities. Importance of the Clans The clans oversee the development of all the children. a brother. It is everyone’s responsibility to develop them. Both boys and girls are trained for basic responsibilities and for particular duties. The chiefs are trained and raised for certain titles. a father. Ganistensera All the warrior’s power begins with his mother – ganistensera. By observing them. He is connected to her through the onerista. The Tekarihoken family are the Turtle. This enables them to know the duties and responsibilities of the women. Each one has brought some qualities and gifts with them to help the people. That is who his “creator” is.is the continuation of life. They develop a profound . They must all learn the basic aspects of Indigenous life. a man. It reminds him what his duties are as a man. The clan mother of the Tekarihoken carries the title of the Tehatirihoken. His name comes from okenra tsi rokete – the soil that he carries in his pouch to remind him of who he is – a son.the male and female . We don’t know what these are. a husband. the navel. He is a soldier of all the People. They watch the children closely throughout their lives. If a Royaner/chief should die. This becomes clear to the community as to what talents this young person brought with him or her to help their people. So we must watch them and help them reveal their special gifts to us. Ayonwatha’s family is the record and wampum keeper. The young men learn all the rituals they need to have a strong memory. The two combined . Some might have knowledge but not the temperament. He must show utmost respect to the female. When he is away he touches this to remind himself of the land and the people he comes from. Consequences and Intentions 63 we agreed to enter into a peaceful agreement with them which we have lived up to and they continue to violate. the young males spend all their time with their women relatives. They examine everything totally. The War Chief comes out of the Wolf family. They are taught to be neutral and to look at all sides. Every clan has particular attributes. they can replace him immediately. The women are especially adept at finding the required qualities in a young person to be trained for certain duties. Our Women Relatives In their early years. a grandfather. The Wolf listens to both sides. This is how he is connected to all the women relatives on his mother’s side. For example. He is given the title of Ayonwes who interacts with the outside nations.
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pp. Khan* A. B3J 2X4. Chapter 2 A COMPARATIVE PATHWAY ANALYSIS OF A SUSTAINABLE AND AN UNSUSTAINABLE PRODUCT M. Moncton. In this research. however. NB. The pathways of these products (chemical for polyurethane and biochemical for wool) used to make these products were studied and the results show how they diverge.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. Halifax. They both appear to be the same and in terms of durability. E1A 3E9. two homologous products polyurethane fiber and wool fiber were selected for the sustainability assessment. In this paper. I. Canada a Faculty of Business Administration University of Moncton. . The degradation behavior both oxidation and photo degradation were also studied. B. NS. The main contentious issue is that most of them are misled as ‘sustainable’ due to improper sustainability assessment criteria. Y. a direct laboratory degradation experiment. Rafiqul Islam. and S. This experimental result further confirmed the sustainability status of non-synthetic wool fiber and polyurethane. 67-96 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. Chettri. application of microwave. Inc. oxidation and decomposition in order to demonstrate how a natural product is sustainable and the synthetic product is unsustainable. Lakhal a Faculty of Engineering Dalhousie University. With a recently developed sustainability criterion. on these products was also undertaken. a detailed pathway study is performed including its origin. degradation. Canada ABSTRACT Generally the idea of ‘sustainability’ implies a moral responsibility on the technological development to be accountable for effects relating to the natural environment and to future generations. However. most of the widely accepted technological developments are not sustainable. They suggested the sustainability of wool and nonsustainability of the other. one is of natural origin and the other is made of hydrocarbon products. Finally. it can be demonstrated that most of the technologies that belong to the ‘chemical approach’ are not sustainable.
2004). environmentally unacceptable. Made of alpha-karyotin. it can be demonstrated that most of the technologies belong to the ‘chemical approach’ are not sustainable. 2001. humidity. Complex process of synthesis very little is known so far. wool is heterogeneous compound vary from species to species even protein itself is different and complex in a single species. IChemE. most popular household items are plastics. and renewable resource which in turn reduce the dependency on foreign and domestic petroleum oil. it is hardly achieved in the present technological and other resource development (Khan. 2002. It protects itself and protects the organism where it grows. Khan (2006) developed a method to evaluate the sustainability considering its economic. which grows in most of the organism. 2006). I. Y. Khan. Table 1. Non-progressive. these products have been so widely accepted that no one asks the question weather it is sustainable or not. However. Highly diverse. such as temperature. It can adapt with the changes in different conditions. urethane Single-functional just as plastic It is non-adjustable and nonadoptable and can not change itself life the natural products do. Most of them are not environmentally friendly and cause numerous problems. However. Chettri and S. Khan (2006) proposed a new protocol for the technological as well as other developments. However. It does change with time Functionality Adaptability Time factor . In the last two decades especially after UN Conference of Economic Development sustainability and sustainable development has become a very commonly and loosely used term. 2002). Now a day. UNCSD. and is incontrovertibly harmful to the ecosystem. easy to process. These natural fibers are cost effective. Modern technological advancement brings many different products for the daily uses of human life. Basic Difference between Polyurethane and Wool Fiber Polyurethane Type Composition Artificial fiber. it’s completely humongous compound and same pattern Wool Natural Fiber. A. Natural fibers exhibit many advantageous properties having low density materials yielding light weight composites with high specific properties (O’Donnell. (2005). It’s different segments like different monomers Multifunctional such as for the protection of organisms. environmental and social impacts. It is regressive and changes according to time for example it degrades by time Diversity There is no diversity. Urethane -monomer. There are many guidelines or frameworks have been developed to achieve sustainability (GRI.68 M. supplies of nutrients. B. alien products to the nature. which are based on mainly socio-economic and narrowly environmental objectives. which is most valuable protein. which is completely unsustainable. light intensity. Lakhala INTRODUCTION With a recently developed sustainability criterion by Khan et al.
A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product Polyurethane Perfectness It creates all kind of problem. Further examination indicates that the similarity between wool and polyurethane fibers stops at t=’right now’. urethane linkages are in the backbone. they both are unbeatable. Detailed analyses of their pathways were carried out along with their comparative characteristics. Figure 1 shows simple polyurethane chain. SEM microphotography was also conducted to examine the structural differences between the two fibers. METHODOLOGY A scientific analysis of wool and polyurethane fiber was carried out based on its structure. Figure 1. 69 In this research Khan (2006) protocol is applied in finding out which technology is sustainable and which one is unsustainable. A more complex form will have any polymer containing the urethane linkage in its backbone chain. Instead solve the problem. They both appear to be the same and in terms of durability. Polyurethane polymeric fiber. Table 1 shows detailed differences between these two seeming similar fibers. Two products such as. Crystal can form in any object in which the molecules are arranged in a regular order and pattern. the recycling and waste management of polyurethane also was examined. A laboratory analysis of microwave degradation was also investigated. polyurethane and wool fiber were taken to study in this research. 2006) is applied for evaluating the sustainability of polyurethane and wool. A recently proposed sustainability model (Khan. The Samsung Mini-Chef MW101OC microwave was used for the microwave tests. In addition to manufacturing of these products. In a polyurethane molecule. However. The running frequency of this microwave generator is 60 Hz and the output power is 120V. From carcinogenic products to unknown product Wool It is perfect and does not create problem. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Chemical Composition of Polyurethane Fiber Polyurethanes fiber is a polymeric fiber. one is natural and other one synthetic. manufacturing and processing. .
15. Polyethylene or nylon fiber. Biochemical Composition of Wool Wool is an extremely complex.70 M. which is different from natural fiber (Khan and Islam. Chettri and S.6% hydrogen. polypropylene. Khan. 2005c).2a% sulphur. natural and biodegradable protein fiber which is both renewable and recyclable. Wool fiber is so resilient and elastic that it can be bent and twisted over 30. About 91 percent of the wool is made up . kevlar and nomex. A urethane linkage is chain that forms polyurethane is presented in Figure 2. Lakhala A polymeric fiber is a polymer whose chains are stretched out straight (or close to straight) and lined up next to each other. 2005). B.1% nitrogen and 5. and rope are made out of polymeric fibers. carpet. wool is mainly composed of 45. all along the same axis (Figure 1). Wool fibers grow in small bundles called ‘staples’ which contain thousands of fibers. Every wool fiber has a natural elasticity that allows it to be stretched by as much as one third and then to spring back into place. Y. which can be drawn into fibers are polyethylene. Figure 3. and polyacrylonitrile. Figure 2. Each fiber is linear and there is no scale or segment. The clothes. polyester. Polymers arranged in fibers can be spun into threads and used as textiles (Figures 3 and 4).9% oxygen. A. Figure 4 shows the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) microphotograph of polyurethane. 27.2 % carbon. 6. As a biological product. I.000 times without danger of breaking or being damaged (Canesis. Urethane linkage in polyurethane chain. Some other plastic polymers. It has an inbuilt environment advantage because it is a natural fiber grown without the use of any herbicides and fertilizers. nylon.
valine.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 71 of alpha keratins which are fibrous proteins. glutamic acid. Figure 5. serine. leucine. The polypeptide chains are intertwined around each other in a helix shape. Figure 7 indicates that the wool has several micro air pockets which retain air in it. Amino Acids Present in wool are: cysteine. isoleucine. aspartic acid. The molecular structure of wool fibers behaves like a helix that gives wool its flexibility and elasticity (Figure 6). The hydrogen bonds (dashed lines) that link adjacent coils of the helix provide a stiffening effect. The amino acids are joined to each other by chemical bonds called peptide bonds or end bonds. threonine. insoluble protein and it is made from eighteen amino acids. tyrosine. making wool fibers ideal for thermal protection (Rahbur et al. 2005). This is a twirled-like structure of the amino acid chain. The most abundant of these amino acids is cystine which gives hair much of its strength. The keratin found in wool is called "hard" keratin. The various amino acids in the keratin are bound to each other via special 'peptide' bonds to form a peptide chain. The wool is made up of alpha keratins which are fibrous proteins consisting of parallel chain of peptides. The long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide chain and is linked by peptide bonds (Figure 5). these bound amino acids also have a three-dimentional arrangement. Amino acids are the building blocks of the alpha keratins. glycine. Keratin is an important. SEM microphotograph of polyurethane fiber. However. arginine and methionine. histidine.. Figure 4. The secondary structure of 'alpha' keratin is that of an Alpha Helix and is due to the amino acid composition in the primary structure. Structural bond for amino acid chain. phenylalanine. alanine. praline. . Still air pockets have a excellent insulation qualities. This chain is depicted in Figure 5. This type of keratin does not dissolve in water and is quite resilient. The arrangement of neighboring amino acids is the secondary structure. The linear sequence of these amino acids is called the primary structure.
72 M. Chettri and S. 2005). In wool. three to seven of these alpha helices can be curled around each other to form three-strand or seven-strand ropes. hoofs and horns. In keratin fibers. Insulating pockets of still air (source Canesis. B. 2004). This pattern is what gives natural wool fibers their stretchiness. I. It is also a member of a large family of intracellular keratins found in the cytoskeleton. Chemical bond of alpha helix (source Kaiser. Alpha helix wool structure (source Canesis. Trapped air 'particles' Skin surface Figure 7. the first 178 amino acids . A. 2004). Khan. In the keratin represented here. nails. wool. long stretches of alpha helix are interspersed with globular regions. Alpha keratin is one of the proteins in hair. Lakhala Figure 6. The alpha helix in wool is reinforced by weak hydrogen bonding between amino acids above and below other amino acids in the helix (Figure 8). Y. Figure 8.
oligomers and finally polymers. 2005c and 2007. 2006b). 2005a. The magnified wool fiber is shown in Figure 9(a). . the more hydrophobic amino acids of the 7-unit sequence meet to form an insoluble core. This product manufactured from hydrocarbon. while charged amino acids on opposing strands attract each other to stabilize the complex (Canesis. It shows that natural fiber wool has many scales around (Figure 10). Presently available hydrocarbon refinery process also uses toxic catalysts and heavy metals (Lakhal et al. The fibrous region itself is composed of three helical regions separated by shorter linkers.. Each steps of production especially. 2004). monomer to dimer. a repeating 7-unit sequence stabilizes the interaction between pairs of helices in two adjacent strands that wind around each other to form a duplex. Pathways of Polyurethane Details pathways of polyurethane are presented in Figure 11. 2004). Figure 9.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 73 and the last 155 form globular domains on either end of a 310 amino acid fibrous domain. Figure (b) and (c) are the staples from fine and course woolled sheep.. 2005). Khan et al. The exploration of hydrocarbon is environmentally very expensive and causes many environmental problems (Khan and Islam. The scanned electronic picture of wool is shown in Figure 10. In the formation of this coil. a) Magnified wool fiber b) Staples from fine woolled sheep c) Staples from coarse woolled sheep (source: Canesis. In the fibrous domain. which is used in polyurethane has many toxic catalysts and releases known and unknown toxic and carcinogenic compounds (Table 2 and Figures 11 and 13).
2]octane (DABCO) diol and diisocyanyte make polymer. SEM photomicrograph of wool fiber where it shows the presence of scales. Y. Chettri and S. Continuing the polymerization a brand new urethane dimmer is formed. When two monomers are stirred with DABCO then the polymerization take place. NAD PH Primary Monomer Di ol Amino Acids Urethane Diamer Highly toxic + carcinogens Poly-peptides Oligomers Highly toxic + carcinogens Alpha-karyotin Polyurethane Highly toxic + carcinogens Sheep’s wool Figure 11. B. In the presence of a small molecule called diazobicyclo[2. Lakhala Figure 10. Khan.2. Drilling mud. I. A. Pathways of unsustainable polyurethane and inherently sustainable product wool both of them have similar functions. heavy metal Hydrocarbon Exploration Toxic comp ound s Vegetab le Protein Enzyme Toxic catalysts Refining Toxic comp ound s Digestion Enzyme Benefi cial comp ounds Diol Dabcoo Diisocyanate Metabolism ATP.74 M. .
or even higher oligomers. The PBDEs is traced higher amount in human breast milk. When polyurethane degrades then the most toxic form of PBDEs (penta-BDE) escapes into the environment. This compound is commonly found in every consumer products (Table 2). or a trimer. Figure 12. so it can react with either a diol or a diisocyanate to form a trimer. 2003).A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 75 This urethane dimer has an alcohol group on one end. In this way. Chemical reaction urethane production by using diisociyanate and diol in presence of DABCO. cancer (Lunder. It is a highly toxic compound and exposure to it causes adverse health effects including thyroid hormone disruption. It is reported by Lunder and Sharp (2003) that exposure to PBDEs during infancy leads to more significant harm at a much lower level than exposure during adulthood. decreased sperm count. possibly. delayed puberty onset. permanent learning and memory impairment. hearing deficits.. Recently. behavioral changes. and Sharp. 2005) . Ethylene Glycol Oxidation Pathway in Alkaline Solution (After Matsuoka et al. Otherwise it can react with another dimer. fetal malformations and. and an isocyanate group on the other. reported breast milk contamination of PBDEs might create a disaster in the near future. Figure 13. monomers and oligomers combine and combine until we get high molecular weight polyurethane (Figures 11 and 12).
Matsuoka et al (2005) reported a study on electro oxidation of methanol and glycol and found that Electrooxidation of ethylene glycol at 400mV gave glycolate. industrial drapes. Matsuoka et al (2005) reported a study on electro oxidation of methanol and glycol and found that electro-oxidation of ethylene glycol at 400mV forme glycolate. ethylene glycol oxidation produced CO instead of CO2 and follows the poisoning path over 500 mV. underground junction boxes. printers. oxalate and formate (Figure 13). no further oxidation was seen and was termed as non poisoning path. carpet padding. bus. copy machines. diethylene glycol was found most effective to obtain high purity polyol phase. Khan. carpets. plastic automotive parts. Nitrosamine a byproduct of DEA is also considered a carcinogen. Oxalate was found stable. Deca. hair dryers. This study reported that glycolysis of flexible polyurethane foams is executed to chemically recycle the polyol. a constituent of the polyurethane manufacturing process. A. 2006). The polyurethane foam is thus contaminated by glycol which during oxidation produces toxic carbon monoxide. Deca. waste-water pipes.. lighting panels. and building insulations. PVC wire and cables. among which glycolate and formate produces toxic CO emission. Penta plane and train seating. sound insulation panels. Penta electrical connectors. Mother’s breast milk contaminated poly brominated (PBDEs) fire retardants are found in everyday consumer products Materials used in Polyurethane Fibers Types of PBDEs used Examples of consumer products Polyurethane foam Plastics Back coatings and impregnation of home and office furniture. Octa. Samuel and Steinman (1995) investigated that laboratory report on animals showed that diethanolamine (DEA) is a carcinogen with major impact in kidney. lamp sockets. packaging materials Computers. . which led to the further oxidation of glycolate.76 M. The other product of glycol oxidation is called formate which is termed as poisoning path or CO poisoning path. Lunder and Sharp (2003). and was an electrochemically active product even at 400mV. liver and brain. insulation in refrigerators. automotive seating. The glycolate formation decreased from 40-18 % and formate increased from 15-20% between 400 and 500mV. I. Thus. televisions. coffee makers. mattresses and mattress pads) automobile. imitation wood. housings. B. freezers. Penta aircraft and train seating. fax machines. oxalate and formate. fuses. curling irons. smoke detectors Source: WHO (1994). Various types of amines used in polyurethane manufacturing will have significant impact on the human health as well as in the environment. Home and office furniture (couches and chairs. Table 2. Among the various types. circuit boards. The glycolate was obtained by three-electron oxidation of ethylene glycol. The glycol oxidation produces glycol aldehyde as intermediate products. Y. Chettri and S. boxes and switches. Lakhala Scrap of flexible polyurethane foams from slabstock manufacturing leads to a serious environmental threat (Molero et al.
Generally. Some biological products/byproducts are generated that are actually essential for the sheep.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product Purified hydrocarbo ns Monomers 77 Hydrocarbo n deposition Dimers Plant decomposit on Polymers In complete cycle I Non degradable wastes Eur athane Figure 14. Incomplete lifecycle of polyurethane is shown in Figure 14. gases or products. The whole process takes place through biological activities. Incomplete of life cycle of polyurethane due to non-biodegradability. synthetic polymers are rarely biodegradable because of the fact that in a polymer chain. their structure and the plasticizers added during the manufacturing. the degradation rate of the polyurethane depends on the components of a polymer. apart from carbon atoms there are frequently N and O atoms where oxidation and enzymatic degradation should take place. Therefore. a sheep takes vegetable as food. One such component is adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP). Polyurethanes containing polyethers are reported to be highly resistant to biodegradation (Szostak-Kotowa. during the wool generation process there is no release of toxic elements. Pathways of Wool Wool is natural product and it follows completely natural path which does not have any negative environmental impacts. In the whole process. Sheep digest the plant leaf/grass and make the grass simple nutrients that are body can absorb readily. Degradation of Polyurethane Polyurethane and other plastic products are widely accepted for its non-degradability. 2004). poly-peptides and finally into alpha karyotin which is the composition of wool. This simple nutrient is converted into amino acid. . Synthetic polymers are only susceptible to microbial degradation if they have biodegradable constituents introduced into the technological process. the wool generation process is truly sustainable and it can run infinite time period without harming the environment. Figure 11 shows the pathways of sheep wools. It creates irreversible environmentally problems. Overall. As a result.
A. When a plastic products including polyurethane is burnt it releases 400 toxic products. due to low-temperature-oxidation (LTO) can release same amount of toxic products can be released in even home temperature. e. the point frequently overlooked here is that. cereus. The complete cycle shows the natural regeneration of wool. Several recent studies have also linked to plastic carpets to higher occurrences of asthma (Islam. which consists of billions of cells of the body. mesentericus. 2005c). Islam and Ali. Further investigations of the biodegradation of wool by fungi indicate that keratinolysis proceeds by denaturation of the substrate by disulphide bridges. B. little has been reported about the LTO of polyurethane in the human health context. Chaetomium. and B.. However. which under alkaline conditions causes green coloration of wool and in acid conditions red coloration. Y. and some actinomycetes. Microorganisms attach wool at various stages from acquisition to utilization. B. molecular structure as well as the degree of substrate polymerization (Agarwal and Puvathingal. It is due to the entrance of small particulates in human lung and enters in the human oxidation cycle. It is a bio-based polymer which is synthesized by bacteria and is an integral part of ecosystem function. and biological wastewater treatment (Narayan. B. as the raw material contains many impurities. Trichophyton. Biopolymers thus are capable of being utilized (biodegraded) by living matter and so can be disposed safely and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management) like composting. Fusarium. oxidation products are released even when the oxidation takes place at the relatively low temperature of the human respiration process. 1969).. 1969) have more influence in the degradation process. For example. Rhizopus. 2006). subtilis. Besides these. soil application. 1991. mycoides) and Pseudomonas. . 2004). Chettri and S. which are the source of the natural resistance of keratin by hydrolytic degradation of protein via extracellular proteinases. Lakhala Main uses of polyurethane fiber are for plastic carpets.78 M. Khan. keratin is basically degraded by fungi especially by those belonging to the genera Microsporum. In general the fatty acid in wool has high resistance to microbial attack. which make the wool highly susceptible to microbial degradation. McCarthy and Greaves (1988) reported that bacteria simultaneously degrade and stain the impure wool.g. According to Islam (2005a). I. Life Cycle Assessment (LCAs) of these biobased materials indicates reduced environmental impact and energy use when compared to petroleum based materials. To date. Aspergillus and Penicillium. 2001). Only recently. Figure 15 shows the life cycle of wool. in a manner likely analogous to LTO identified in petroleum combustion (Islam et al. The rate of bacterial degradation depends on the chemical composition. an epidemiological study has linked polyurethane to asthma (Jaakkola et al. keratinolytic bacteria species in the genera Bacillus (B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biobased materials such as wool offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation as it becomes a part of the biological carbon cycle. Streptomyces fradiae (Agarwal and Puvathingal. The degradation of wool is caused by both bacteria and fungi. Similarly. However. Degradation of Wools Wool is a natural product and microorganisms can decompose it.
This experimental result proves the natural wool resilience. Figure 16 A and B shows the before and after microwave degradation picture of the wool. but the polyurethane completely changed. Within the same time period the natural wool fiber did not change at all. Instead of burning. . Figure 16. Electronic microscopy (Figure 16 A and B) shows that the chemical composition and the presence of moisture enable the wool to resist burning. wool chars when it gets flame. A laboratory study of degradation of wool was carried out (Khan and Islam. Polyurethane on the other hand is inherently harmful to the environment. SEM photomicrograph of wool fiber before (A) and after (A) microwave oxidation. Complete lifecycle of wool where it shows natural regeneration process.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product Amino Ac id Protein Synthesis 79 Polypeptides Alpha keratins Food sources for sheep Sheep’s Wool Plant nutrients. 2005c). Both wool and polyurethane are treated in a microwave for similar condition parameters. a natural fiber wool does not changes structurally in compare to synthetic product polyurethane. A comparative characteristic of wool and polyurethane fiber is shown in Table 3. This quality makes wool an ideal fiber and naturally safer. Interestingly. It became completely liquid forms and then transfer to a solid ball by creating strong burning smell. nitrogen Polypeptides Micr obial Decomposit ion Figure 15. The wool was heated in microwave oven and the degradation was compared with the original structure. Figure 17 A and B show the change of polyurethane fiber due to microwave.
sophisticated techniques. Sorted plastic material is melted down directly and moulded into a new shape. monomers are broken down into its base components. or melted down after being shredded into flakes to process into granules. X-ray fluorescence. Most of the plastic waste consist not only polyurethane but fiber reinforced materials which cannot be easily recycled simply with conventional processes. where plastic is melt and pumped into a reactor and depolymerized at high temperatures and pressures using a catalysts and ammonia (NR Canada. the plastic waste is converted to distillate. such as. infrared and near infrared spectroscopy. coke and oil. further exposure to X-rays or infrared rays will make the products even more toxic. The recycling of any plastic waste is being done generally in three ways: mechanical. These reinforced plastics are thermoset and contain a significant fraction of glass or other fibre and heavy filler materials such as calcium carbonate. which are in the form of raw materials to make the monomers and then to polymers. the waste plastic is exposed to high pressure and temperature. Hydrolysis of pulverized polycarbonate in supercritical reactors produces . SEM photomicrograph of polyurethane before (A) and after microwave (B) treatment RECYCLING OF POLYURETHANE WASTE Polyurethane has been used in massive scales during manufacturing of appliances. usually more than 3500C. Even though. plastic is sorted manually. shredding. 1998). This process is highly energy and cost intensive and requires very large quantities of used plastic for reprocessing to be economically viable. Mechanical recycling consists of melting. or granulation of waste plastic. automobiles. Y. Figure 18 shows the overview of the plastic recycling process. Khan. Lakhala Figure 17. I. chemical and thermal recycling. Plastic wastes are highly toxic materials. petrochemicals and chemical processes. beddings. electrostatics and flotation have been introduced recently (Website 1). The industries are recovering and recycling polyurethane waste materials form discarded products as well as from manufacturing processes. Chettri and S. In chemical recycling. carpet cushion and upholstered furniture. The process produces solid carbon and toxic gases. The chemical or thermal recycling process for converting certain plastics back to raw materials is called depolymerization. Recycling of any plastic waste has several problems. One such method is the DuPont-patented process called “ammonolysis”. In case of thermal depolymerization. This process depolymerizes plastic by ammonolysis process. A.80 M. Chemical recycling process breaks down the polymer into their constituent monomers which are again reused in the refineries. Under such conditions. B.
only about 7% of the total plastic is recycled today and rest of the plastic are either disposed to the environment or succeptible to oxidation. Today.55 89 4. It took 3 minutes and 45 seconds to oxidize 2gms of plastic. . plastic production itself consumes 8% of the world’s total oil production. Plastic products are difficult to degrade. Table 4 shows the decomposition rates for various plastics.2 30 Today’s industrial development has created such a crisis that life without platic is difficult to imagine. Some plastic such as glass bottles takes 500 years to completely decompose. Schematic of plastic recycling process.5 183 3.5 102 1. Coloring pigments used to color the finished products are highly toxic compounds. 1997). Recycling plastic has only single reuse unlike paper or glass materials. Studies indicate that plastics contribute 28 percent of all cadmium in municipal solid waste and about 2 percent of all lead (TSPE.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 81 Bisphenol A which is a very toxic compound. An experiment was carried out to determine the oxidation rate by burning the plastic in normal conditions. Various hazardous additives are added to the polymer to achieve the desired material quality. Approximately four million metric tons of plastics is produced from crude oil every day (Islam. stabilizers and plasticizers that include toxic components such as lead and cadmium. These additives include colorants. Huge amount of natural gas and other fossil fuels are used for depolymerization ammonolysis as energy source. Natural Gas/Oil Monomers Polymer Resins Fabricator Consumer products T hermal depolymerization to raw materials Chemical Depolymerizati on to Monomers Mechanical method (Pellet/Flake) Collection/ Sorting Figure 18. Phthalates are a group of chemicals which are hormone disrupters. Dioxins are produced when plastics are incinerated. 80 of them are know carcinogens. 2005). Burning the plastics will produce more than 4000 toxic fumes. Plastic oxidation experimental data Time in minutes Temperature C o 0 25 0.45 122 3. Plastic toys made out of PVC are often softened with phthalates and their burning produces toxic fumes. Table 3 is the summary of the lab data for plastic oxidation. Table 3. there are talks on recycling. but Maske (2001) reported as 4% of total oil production (Website 2). Though. Some plastic products such Styrofoam never degrades and emits lots of toxic compounds all the time.
B. A. Until some 50 years ago. the culture of . Charles Goodyear that the property of natural rubber can be altered with the addition of inorganic additives in 1839. The only problem with natural plastics. dating back to the time of the Pharaohs and the old Chinese civilization.) The first plastic sandwich bags were introduced in 1957. Department stores started using plastic bags in the late 1970s and supermarket chains introduced the bags in the early 1980s. founder of reuseablebags. animal shells. small cases. from toys and combs to plastic wraps and drum diaphragms. horns and other products were more flexible than cotton and more rigid than stone and have been in use for household products. Plastic technology is one of the examples of an unsustainable technology. it seemed. Ever since the accidental discovery of American inventor. knobs. mirror frames. Y. Natural plastics have been in use for thousands of years. scientists began trying to produce these materials in the laboratory. was they could not be mass-produced or at least mass production of these natural plastics was not known to humankind. and many coating applications worldwide. About 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are used worldwide every year (Source: Vincent Cobb. It is reported that daily. we are considering plastic as a case study. which brings benefits to human beings for the long-term. temp in C UNSUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES At present. it is hard to find any technology. phonograph records.com. Natural resins. natural plastics were being used for making buttons. Khan. I. In order to find more efficient ways to produce plastics and rubbers. Chettri and S. Lakhala 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time in minutes Figure 19. Plastic oxidation (Time in minute vs Temperature in Celsius). In this study. There was no evidence that these materials posed any environmental threat. millions of tons plastic products are produced.82 M.
the focus was to make sure the final products had homogeneity.com/recycling. the . for instance. What has happened after this phase of mass production is what can be characterized as the plastic revolution. without regard to the actual process of reaching this status. It is true that crude oil is easily decomposed by common bacteria. During this development. consistency.html). Table 4.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 83 adding unnatural materials to manufacture plastic began. 1999). motor oil. even if it contains trace elements that are individually toxic. The original ingredient of crude oil is not harmful to living objects and it is not likely that the older form of the same would be harmful.solcomhouse. Crude oil is nothing but plants and other living objects. some 90 million barrels of crude oil is produced in order to sustain our lifestyle. and durability in macroscopic features. Even when some toxic chemicals are added to the fractionated crude oil. Decomposition rate for Plastic Plastic decomposition rates 2-4 weeks 1-3 months 6 months 5 years 10-20 years 50-80 years 80 years 100 years 450 years 500 years Never Paper Leaves Orange peels Milk cartoon Plastic bags Plastic container Aluminum can Tin can Plastic soda bottle Glass bottle Styrofoam Source: Penn State University (http://www. Table 5. Characteristics comparison of polyurethane and wool Polyurethane Artificial fiber Non-biological polymers composed of urethane monomer Simple (same segments and same monomers) Homogenous Photooxidation releases toxic compounds Non-biodegradable Non-adjustable and non-adoptable Incomplete lifecycle and not regenerate Creates environmental problem Wool Natural Fiber Alph-protein based biological polymer Complex (different segments like different monomers in Heterogeneous Natural no toxic gases biodegradable Adjustable ( flexible by conditions . processed over millions of years.it can change itself in different conditions ) Complete lifecycle in case of regeneration No environmental problem Today. at a rate comparable to the degradation of biological waste (Livingston and Islam.
three million tons of plastic is disposed every year (Waste Online. This modern age is synonymous with plastic in exactly the same way that it is synonymous with cancer. and other modern diseases. This is the phase that becomes most harmful for the environment over the long term: suddenly. Figure 19 shows used plastics in a collecting center. The vast majority of shoe soles are plastic. Much of this solid residue is used for producing tar and related products.84 M. Households that boast ‘wall to wall carpets’ are in fact covered with plastic. 2005). Television sets.000 synthetic chemicals and metals are currently in commercial use in the U. Recently it was disclosed that food products are dipped in ‘edible’ plastic to give them the appearance of freshness and crispness. The liner that cookware boasting a non-sticky liner is non-sticky because of the plastic coating. Figure 20 shows the same plastics are packed for deliver to recycling factory.. or other injury. Y. 1996). Reproductive and developmental effects are of concern because of important consequences for couples attempting to conceive and because exposure to certain substances during critical periods of fetal or infant development may have lifelong and even intergenerational effects. exposure to some may cause mutation. Chettri and S. During this first phase of transformation. As long as bacteria are present in abundance. 2005). cancer. adverse neurological and immunological effects. It is reported that. More than 30% of this plastic is used by the packaging industry (Market development Plan. paints. In 2003. More than 70. The problem starts when the crude oil components are either turned into solid residues or burned to generate gaseous products. I. fridges. AIDS. Lakhala degradation rate is found to be rather high (Chaalal et al. Toxic Compounds from Plastic Plastic products and its production processes release numerous type of toxic compounds (Islam. reproductive and developmental disorders. and easily. any liquid will be degraded. thermal cracking prevails. Even though the talks for recycling is abound. Table 2 shows the release of toxic compounds from plastics and their related effects. 2005). The coating on hardwood is plastic. The material that makes virgin wool manageable is plastic.S. only in United Kingdom alone. Some of this residue is reinforced with metals to produce long-chain molecules in the name of soft plastic and hard plastic. Our lifestyle is awash in plastics. at the very least). The list goes on. 2003). B. 57% of the beach waste was identified to be from plastic materials (Islam and Zatzman. In humans. in which significant amounts of solid residue are produced. The material of medicinal capsule coatings is plastic. The feature most responsible for plastics’ broad popularity and ubiquity is also responsible for the most damaging long-term implications. and computer chassis – practically everything that ‘modern’ civilization has to offer is plastic. only 7% of the plastics produced are recycled and the rest of the plastic materials are either disposed to the environment and are susceptible to oxidation (low-temperature oxidation. A. Khan. LTO. 2005a). We currently produce more than four million metric tons of plastic every day from the 90 million barrels of crude oil produced. The toxicity of most of these is unknown or incompletely studied. Current daily production of plastics (from hydrocarbons) is greater than the consumption of carbohydrates by the entire human population (Islam. it seems. later which is will be processed for recycling. cars. crude oil components are turned into materials that will last practically forever. Most clothing is plastic. The industry .
Figure 20b. Waste plastic in a collecting center (Courtesy: Mann. toxic fumes almost as bad as cigarettes are released. reportedly using nearly 270 million pounds in 1993 alone. The biggest problem with plastics. 2005). 2005). accidental burning is always a possibility and most importantly are always emitting toxins due to low-temperature oxidations (Islam.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 85 responsible for creating raw plastic materials is by far the biggest user of listed chemicals. If disposed of out-ofdoors. Yet most plastics are flammable. Figure 20a. If incinerated. . Collected plastics are packed for recycling (Courtesy: Mann. plastic materials will produce some 400 toxic fumes. 2005a and 2005b). like that of nuclear waste from atomic power plants. including 80 known carcinogens. is the absence of any environmentally safe method of waste disposal. Typically. Plastic materials and resins are the top industrial users of these chemicals. the respiratory system in any ambient organic life form is threatened.
86 M. Y. Islam (2005a) reported potential impacts of plastic if they simply left inside the household. 2006b). polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In support of this conclusion. and plastic contains components in trace quantities small enough to “fool” the living organism in the process of replacing something essential. It should hardly be surprising that the human oxidation cycle (through the lungs and billions of cells of the body) can oxidize the plastic molecules that indeed give . prior to radiation exposure. 2004). During production. Emissions of concern include heavy metals. I. or the pacifier that the baby is constantly sucking. it does not exist” in fact represents the starting-point of the real problem. which are gradually becoming depleted. Khan. The current unavailability of tools capable of detecting and-or analyzing emissions on this scale can hardly be asserted or assumed to prove the harmlessness of these emissions. A. Lakhala Environmental Impacts Issues Today. be it the plastic on the household carpet. There are many different types of environmental impacts from the products. Human beings in particular constantly renew their body materials. human health and the physical environment. These emissions have effects. etc. emissions may occur in water. smog. Modern household uses of plastic continuously releases toxic compounds by a slower oxidation or photo-oxidation. which depend on the supply of a non-renewable resource. Each such defective replacement is likely to induce some long-term damage. workers and contributed nearly $400 million to the economy in 2002. sulfur oxides and dust. This unwarranted assumption that “if we cannot see (detect). In fact. for example. These products are released from industrial production process as well as during uses of the products. stabilizers) slowly release into the environment. according to The Society of the Plastics Industry (Lowy. the absence of detection of anything leaching into the environment from these plastics on a daily basis is ritually cited. Thus the production of plastic materials can have adverse effects on ecosystems. The main issue of plastic products is the air emissions of monomer and volatile solvent. such as ozone depletion. and from wet scrubbers enter in the food chain. the U. Chettri and S. and microwave exposure enhances molecular breakdown. Recently it was noticed that plastic baby bottles release dioxins when exposed to microwave (Mittelstaedt. releasing many highly toxic compounds. and so on. these plastic products are manufactured entirely from petroleum products. The production process itself involves energy consumption and further resource depletion. For instance. air or soil. lead can replace zinc. B. volatile organic compounds. When a plastic is burnt it is oxidized. some portion of the plastic is being released continuously into the atmosphere at a steady rate. hydrocarbon molecules can be treated as a replacement of carbohydrates (it is indeed fatal when it comes to lung diaphragms). two essential points may be inferred: plastics always release some toxins. plastics are generally produced from fossil fuels.. Several recent studies have also linked to plastic carpets to higher occurrences of asthma. From this.2 million U.S. For example. the computer chassis. by leaching slowly into water. chlorofluorocarbons. The conventional theory appears to suggest that nothing consequential happens because they are all so durable. M. In other words: something clearly unsafe following microwave irradiation was in fact already unsafe. carcinogenicity. The residual monomer in product and small molecules (plasticizers. Overall. acid rain. plastics and related industries employed about 2. Wastewater bearing solvent residues from separation processes.S.
S. The total emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). provides estimates based on fuel consumption information from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U. Based on those calculations. the plastics sector in 2000 was responsible for 68. Major emissions from plastic sector are shown in Figure 21. and the Inventory of U. 1991. The point frequently overlooked here is that. Another document in this series. Figure 21.9 Tg CO2 equivalent emissions (as nitrous oxide) from non-fuel sources (mostly for the production of adipic acid. but not explicitly on a sector-specific basis.. Air emissions data for certain key criteria pollutants (ozone precursors) are available from the National Emission Trends (NET) database (1999). nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are 40187.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 87 rise to the 400 toxic products that are identified when plastic is burnt. See the estimates document for details of how the calculation was carried out). oxidation products are released even when the oxidation takes place at the relatively low temperature of the human respiration process. issued by the EPA. 2001). while the EPA document provides emission data. for a total of . Little has been reported to date on the LTO of plastic materials in this human health context. a constituent of some forms of nylon). Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. in a manner likely analogous to low-temperature-oxidation (LTO) identified in petroleum combustion (Islam et al.1 teragrams (Tg) (million metric tons) of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions from fuel consumption. and hazardous air pollutant emissions data are available from the National Toxics Inventory (NTI) database (1996 is the most recent year for which final data are available). The plastics sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions from both fuel and non-fuel sources. but does not provide emission data. 31017 and 19493 tons per year (Figure 21). Department of Energy. Islam and Farouq Ali. and 9. NOx and HAPs released from plastic industry. (The EIA document is sectorspecific for energy intensive sectors. S. Greenhouse Gas Estimates for Selected Industry Sectors. Total amount of VOCs.
A. However. inflatable swimming pools Softened vinyl products manufactured with phthalates include vinyl clothing. foam and rigid plates. indigestion. used in acrylic resins and fibers. many other medical devices Adverse Health Effects Can cause cancer. hormonal changes. blood bags and tubing. foam packaging. cosmetics. printing inks. coffee stirrers. This was the subject of an FDA Safety Alert issued in 2002. product packaging and food wrap. kitchenware. water pipes. the negative impact of plastics becomes very high. DINP. IV containers and components. An example is the concern over the leaching of the plasticizer DEHP from polyvinyl chloride used in medical devices. methyl methacrylate. Can irritate eyes. A probable human carcinogen. the chemical sector as a whole (including plastics) accounted for 531. garden hoses. to greenhouse gas emissions compared with the entire chemical sector. footwear. and liver dysfunction Phthalates (DEHP. throw-away hot drink cups. birth defects. serving trays. Vinyl chloride is a confirmed carcinogen which is commonly used in PVC. A number of common monomers are known or suspect reproductive toxins or carcinogens. chewing gum.1 Tg CO2 equivalent. if one considers that CO2 and other greenhouse gases released from plastics are fall under the category of ‘bad gases’ (high isotope number) and cannot be recycled by the ecosystem. endometriosis. but not the dominant contributor. breathing tubes. plastic wrap. vision failure. Table 6. heat-sealed plastic packaging. containers for toiletries. ice buckets. including cancer. Chettri and S. yogurt. I. packaging "peanuts".0 Tg CO2 equivalent. building insulation. Elevated rates of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers for workers. disposable cutlery. A possible reproductive toxin. toys Water and soda bottles. Polystyrene Many food containers for meats. In comparison. audio cassette housings. including children's toys and food wrap. non-mouthing toys and children’s products. Known Adverse Health Effects of Commonly Used Plastics Plastic Polyvinyl chloride Common Uses Food packaging. ulcers. deafness. drinking glasses. acrylonitrile. chronic bronchitis. birth defects. used in acrylic resins and fibers. pacifiers. shower curtains. cheeses. Other phthalate plasticizers are found in a wide variety of consumer products. A special risk associated with products of the plastic sector is the leaching of plasticizers added to polymer formulations to improve material properties. nose and throat and can cause dizziness and unconsciousness. genetic changes. Medical waste with PVC and pthalates is regularly incinerated causing public health effects from the release of dioxins and mercury. and others) Endocrine disruption. flotation devices. known acute toxicity which is commonly used in making polyurethane. B. CD cases. and immune system impairment. Y. Since phthalates are soluble in fat. infertility. paints. general purpose labware. Migrates into food and stores in body fat. skin diseases. squeeze bottles. fish. floor tiles. Lakhala 78. vinyl flooring. crib bumpers. clear bakery containers. foam and clear clamshell containers. Toluene diisocyanate possible carcinogen. toys Polyethylene Suspected human carcinogen . food containers and wrappers. developmental and reproductive effects. declining sperm counts. plastics are a sizeable contributor. Thus. inhalation masks. auto upholstery. toys. linked to asthma. PVC wrap used for meat and cheese is of particular concern. surgical gloves.88 M. carpet fiber. Khan. wall tile. emulsion paint. plastic bags. Styrene is a possible carcinogen which is used in polystyrene.
it has health. Also. clothing. Note that these results rely only on measurable amounts that migrate from the plastic to the products contained within. clothes irons. It consumes fossil fuel. watery eyes. floor waxes. Can release toluene diisocyanate which can produce severe lung problems Polyurethane Foam Cushions. light weight. carpets made from acrylic fibers. persisting on land indefinitely as litter and . nausea. flexibility and low cost (Table 7). the possibility of contamination due to sustained exposure and/or low temperature oxidation is not identified. adhesives. Even the government funded research does not offer any hope because the topics are either screened by industry sponsors (the jointly funded projects) or the journals would find all the excuses not to publish the results in fear of repurcation. albeit without much elaboration or inference (CDC. fabric finishes Adverse Health Effects Can cause eye and respiratory-tract irritation and acute skin rashes 89 Urea-formaldehyde Formaldehyde is a suspected carcinogen and has been shown to cause birth defects and genetic changes. long-term implication is immeasurably devastating. mattresses. the focus in this study is short-term implications and safety issues. contact lenses. and environmental costs. swelling of the throat. Table 6 lists some of the findings that are readily available on the internet. Unfortunately. vomiting. plumbing and tools Can cause breathing difficulties. tiredness Bronchitis. Even the government sites have listed some cautious scientific results. Not to mention the hawkish reviewers who have vested interest in maintaining status quo. who is going to fight the propaganda machine? The website run by the ecological center as well as many others have long listed the hazards of plastic. For each item. headache and fatigue Tetrafluoro-ethylene Can irritate eyes. no research result is allowed to be published when it contradicts the expectation of the corporations that funded the research (Shapiro et al. ironing board covers. Inhaling formaldehyde can cause cough. skin and eye problems. dentures. pillows Acrylic Clothing. food packaging. disposable diapers. heavily polluting and disappearing commodity. sanitary napkins. tampons.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product Plastic Polyester Common Uses Bedding. upholstery Particle board. 2001). a non-sustainable. building insulation. In all reported studies. However. 2006). the discussion of how much is known seems to be futile. coughing. It accumulates nonbiodegradable waste plastic in the environment. diarrhea. breathing problems. weakness. paints Non-stick coating on cookware.. Therefore. headaches. Unsustainable plastic products have been promoted due to its non-degradability. plywood. Even if these facts are known. blankets. How Much of it is Known? The science that has developed the technologies of plastic also makes it available the dangers of using them. food preparation equipment. nose and throat and can cause breathing difficulties Sources: Plastic Task Force (1999). rashes. It produces pollution and utilizes high energy during manufacturing. disposable diapers.
different monomers in polymers. Phenomenal and sustainable 12. Breaks natural process 5. B. non-uniform) 2. Considering all these. any condition) Synthetic Materials 1. Every promise made to justify the making of plastic products has been a false one. Symmetric 8. Based on boundary conditions 14. Y. I. Progressive (dynamic.. Heterogeneous 4. youth marked by quicker change) 19. life cycle 6. Infinite 7. Enzyme 15. Table 7. Non symmetric 8. M. As evidenced from practically daily repeating of the mishaps by the plastic products. Disposable/one time use 6.90 M. Reproductive design 9. Zero-adaptability (controlled condition) CONCLUSION To achieve sustainability in technological development. Reversible 18. Reversible 10. Dynamic/chaotic 13. Catalyst 15. a fair. the plastic revolution epitomizes what modern technology development is all about. Has its own natural process 5. the time or temporal scale is considered as the prime selecting criterion for assuring inherent sustainability in technological development. No boundary 14. Irreversible 18. Non-progressive 19. In this study. consistent and scientifically acceptable criterion is needed. Chettri and S. A. Khan. Homogenous/uniform 4. Irreversible 10. parts. Finite 7. Ignorance or antiknowledge 11. ranging from non-stick cookware (Mittelstaedt. The released chemicals threaten human health and reproductive systems. Plastic releases toxic polymers and other chemicals and contaminate our food that they contain (Table 6). Productive design 9. It releases dioxin continuously to the atmosphere.Aphenomenal and unsustainable 12. Knowledge 11. Recycles. 2006b) to polyurethane tube for unborn. plastic products represent the mindset that allowed shortterm (as in ‘right now’) focus to obsessively dominate technology development. Multiple/flexible (different segments. Non-symmetric. This approach is particularly applicable to assess sustainable . Multifunctional 17. Exactness/simple (same monomers) 2. Non linear 3. Linear 3. Self similarity imposed 16. Single functional 17. Lakhala breaking up into pieces that choke and clog animal digestive systems. Self-similarity (fractal nature) is only a perception 16. Static 13. Unlimited adaptability (infinite adaptability. Differences between natural and synthetic materials Natural Materials 1. The proposed model shows it to be feasible and that it could be easily applied to achieve true sustainability.
J. Conventional technologies and management tools have been analyzed based on the proposed screening criterion. 2005. Brown. J. Christchurch. 29: 9-23.. S.R. and Islam. Agarwal. Natural fiber wool found to be truly sustainable while the polyurethane is completely unsustainable.. No. New Zealand. Mail Stop F-20. Tango. A. A new model of environmental communication from Consumption to use of information. M. Atlanta. Copenhagen.R. D. F. Paris: UNESCO.B. degradation. . Goodland (editor).. 38. no.. Andre. Zalko. A New Technique of Solar Bioremediation. 2004. Berrebi. 4770 Buford Highway. 1969. Jean-Philippe. Chaalal. of Petroleum Science and Technology.. Private Bag 4749. M. 2005. 2006.A Comparative Pathway Analysis of a Sustainable and an Unsustainable Product 91 technology and other management tools. 93-98. New multiresidue analytical method dedicated to trace level measurement of brominated flame retardants in human biological matrices. In this research. Textile Research Journal. 65 pp. while the straightforward flowchart model being proposed should facilitate sustainability evaluation. C. P. oxidation and decomposition. in order to demonstrate how a natural product is sustainable and a synthetic product unsustainable. Journal of Chromatography . From Growth To Sustainable Development. M. Marchand. P. and Bizec. REFERENCES Adrianto. 3. and Puvathingal.. A similar pathway analysis might well be applied to determine whether the development of an entire technology is sustainable or unsustainable. Division of Laboratory Sciences. 2006.. Vol. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sustainability: A practitioner’s reflection. Appleton. R. Georgia 30341-3724. Canesis Network Ltd. and Islam. Chhetri. Vol. 39. National Center for Environmental Health. Technology in Society: in press.F. European Environment Agency. Accepted. 1991. two similar products polyurethane fiber and wool fiber were selected for the sustainability study. L.. Vol. Postel.. Y and Sakuma. Canesis. For example. pp. A. 1100. Microbiological deterioration of woollen materials. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development.. Problems Associated with Conventional Natural Gas Processing and Some Innovative Solutions.. L. NE. A. they can be completely on opposite ends of the sustainability spectrum.N. NCEH Pub#: 05-0725. the detailed pathway study was performed. 27.M. B. Japan. 2: 144-152. Kagoshima prefecture. National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. It is shown that even when the two products have similar macroscopic characteristics. vol. Wool the natural fiber. including origin. O. Energy Sources.sherries system: a multi-criteria participatory approach with the case of Yoron Island. Cariou. A. CEIA (Centre d’Estudis d’Informaci Ambiental). 2001. 2001. Marine Policy. Matsuda.. R. and Flavin. Assessing local sustainability of . CDC (Centers for Disease Control) Report. 2005. Y.
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The system. J. pp. Iran ABSTRACT Adomian decomposition method has been applied to solve many functional equations so far. Faculty of science. Ayati Department of Mathematic. In this work.Jbiazar@dal. Reaction-diffusion Brusselator system has the following general form ∗ Corresponding autor: E-mail addresses:biazar@giulan. This system governs also in enzymatic reactions and in plasma and laser physics in multiple couplings between certain modes.D.Box 1914.ca. P. arises in the modeling of certain diffusion processes. Adomian decomposition method is applied for the numerical solution of a class two-dimentional initial or boundary value problems presented by a nonlinear system of partial differential equations. Biazar∗ and Z. Rafiqul Islam. Such as trimolecular reaction steps arises in the formation of ozone by atomic oxygen via a triple collision. Rasht. known as the reaction-diffusion Brusselator.ir. 97-104 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. University of Guilan. Numerical results are presented for some specific problems. Inc.M. INTRODUCTION Reaction-diffusion Brusselator prepares a useful model for study the cooperative processes in chemical kinetics. reaction-diffusion Brusselator.ac.O. Chapter 3 A NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF REACTION-DIFFUSION BRUSSELATOR SYSTEM BY A. system of partial differential equations. . Keywords: Decomposition method.
0) + ∫ ( Au − u 2 v + α ( Lxx v + L yy v))dt.)dt to both sides of (3). y ) + ∫ ( Au − u 2 v + α ( L xx v + L yy v))dt. y. y. t ) = g ( x. Ayati ⎧ ∂u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = B + u 2 v − ( A + 1)u + α ( 2 + 2 ) ⎪ ∂x ∂y ⎪ ∂t ⎨ 2 2 ⎪ ∂v = Au − u 2 v + α ( ∂ v + ∂ v ) ⎪ ∂t ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎩ where α . Lxx = 2 . y. A and B are constant (Adomian. y. xx yy ∫0 ⎪ ⎨ t ⎪v( x. xx yy ∫0 ⎪ ⎨ t ⎪v( x. y ) v( x. t ) = v( x. Let's have the following initial conditions u ( x.0) + Bt + t (u 2 v − ( A + 1)u + α ( L u + L u ))dt .0) = g ( x. t ) = f ( x. Lyy = 2 . Biazar and Z. we derive (4) ⎧u ( x. 0 ⎩ Considering initial conditions.98 J. we have 0 t ⎧u ( x. 0 ⎩ (5) . ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD APPLIED TO SYSTEM (1) Let's us consider the system (1) in an operator form ⎧ Lt u = B + u 2 v − ( A + 1)u + α ( Lxx u + L yy u ) ⎪ ⎨ 2 ⎪ Lt v = Au − u v + α ( Lxx v + L yy v) ⎩ where (3) Lt = ∂ ∂2 ∂2 . y ) (1) (2) To illustrate the method some examples are presented. t ) = u ( x. y. y . 1994). y ) + Bt + t (u 2 v − ( A + 1)u + α ( L u + L u ))dt . y .0) = f ( x. y. ∂t ∂x ∂y −1 By applying the inverse operator Lt = ∫ (.
… (9) v n +1 = A∫ u n − ∫ An + α ∫ ( L xx v n + L yy v n )dt 0 0 0 t t t n = 0.A Numerical Solution of Reaction-Diffusion Brusselator System by A. u1 ..1.. The ADM consists of representing the functions u ( x. (1). y. Substituting (6) and (7) into (5) leads to: ∞ t ∞ t ∞ t ⎧∞ ⎪∑un = f (x.. 99 Eq.M. u 2 . v0 = g ( x.. say u = ∑ u n .2. u 2 . y.2. u1 . … Using the maple program by the second author. u n ) are called Adomian polynomials and should be determined (Biazar. Babolian. y ) + Bt . based on the definition of Adomian polynomials. u n ) n=0 ∞ (7) Where An (u 0 . (5) is the canonical form of Eq.1.D.. Nouri and Islam. y ) u n+1 = ∫ An dt − ( A + 1) ∫ u n dt + α ∫ ( L xx u n + L yy u n )dt 0 0 0 t t t n = 0.. 2002) . t ) by as the summation of series. the first few Adomian polynomials for the nonlinear term u v will be derived as follows A0 := u0 v0 2 2 A1 := 2 u0 v0 u1 + u0 v1 A2 := u1 v0 + 2 u0 v1 u1 + 2 u0 v0 u2 + u0 v2 2 2 2 A3 := 2 u1 v0 u2 + u1 v1 + 2 u0 v2 u1 + 2 u0 v1 u2 + 2 u0 v0 u3 + u0 v3 A4 := u2 v0 + 2 u1 v 1 u2 + 2 u1 v0 u3 + u1 v2 + 2 u0 v3 u1 + 2 u0 v2 u2 + 2 u0 v1 u3 + 2 u 0 v 0 u4 + u 0 v 4 2 2 2 2 2 . t ) and v( x... y) + A ∑∫0 un dt − ∑∫0 An dt + α ∑∫0 (Lxxvn + Lyyvn )dt ⎪∑ n n=0 n=0 n=0 ⎩n=0 (8) Therefore from (8) the following procedure can be defined: u 0 = f ( x. v = ∑ vn n =0 n =0 ∞ ∞ (6) 2 And the nonlinear term u v is represented as: u 2 v = ∑ An (u 0 . y) + Bt + ∑ ∫0 An dt − ( A + 1)∑ ∫0 un dt + α ∑ ∫0 (Lxxun + Lyyun )dt ⎪n=0 n=0 n=0 n=0 ⎨∞ ∞ t ∞ t ∞ t ⎪ v = g(x.
Example 1 Consider the nonlinear system with the following initial condition: ⎧ ∂u 1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = u 2 v − 2u + ( 2 + 2 ) ⎪ 4 ∂x ∂y ⎪ ∂t ⎨ 2 2 ⎪ ∂v = u − u 2 v + 1 ( ∂ v + ∂ v ) ⎪ ∂t 4 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎩ (10) u ( x. v( x. y. u 2 . we have u 0 = e − x − y . t ) = e − x − y + ∫ (u 2 v − 2u + ( 2 + 2 ))dt ⎪ 0 4 ∂x ∂y ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 ⎪v( x. v1 .)dt to both sides of (10).0) = e x + y Applying the inverse operator Lt = −1 ∫ (. v0 = e x + y u n +1 = ∫ An dt − 2∫ u n dt + t t 0 t 0 1 t ∂ 2un ∂ 2un + ( )dt 4 ∫0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 (12) v n +1 = ∫ u n − ∫ An + t 0 0 1 t ∂ 2 vn ∂ 2 vn + ( )dt 4 ∫0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 . Ayati We can determine the components u 0 . y. Biazar and Z. u1 . y. v 2 . we get: 0 t t ⎧ 1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u u ( x. … as many as is necessary to the desired accuracy for the approximated solution.0) = e − x − y . i =0 i =0 n −1 n −1 NUMERICAL RESULTS Have two examples are presented to illustrated the method. t ) = e x + y + t (u − u 2 v + 1 ( ∂ v + ∂ v ))dt ∫0 ⎪ 4 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎩ (11) Using the model discussed as (9). y. … and v0 . So the approximations u ( n ) = ∑ u i and v ( n ) = ∑ vi can be used to approximate the solutions.100 J.
y. v( x.0) = x 2 . vn = n e x+ y e n 2 n! 2 n! n u = ∑ u n = ∑ (−1) n n=0 ∞ ∞ ∞ n=0 − − x− y − t n − x− y tn 2 e = e − x − y ∑ (−1) n n =e − x − y e 2 = e n 2 n! 2 n! t t t t v = ∑ vn = ∑ n =0 x+ y + t n x+ y tn 2 e = e x + y ∑ n =e x + y e 2 = e n 2 n! 2 n! n =0 ∞ Which are the exact solutions.D. y.0) = y 2 Applying the inverse operator Lt = −1 ∫ (.A Numerical Solution of Reaction-Diffusion Brusselator System by A.M. we get: 0 t . Example 2 Consider the following system with initial values ⎧ ∂u 3 1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u = 1 + u 2v − u + ( + ) ⎪ 2 500 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎪ ∂t ⎨ 2 2 ⎪ ∂u = 1 u − u 2 v + 1 ( ∂ v + ∂ v ) ⎪ ∂t 2 500 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎩ u ( x. First few terms are 101 1 (x + y) 1 ( −x − y ) v1 := t e u1 := − t e 2 2 1 2 ( −x − y ) (x + y) 1 t e v2 := t 2 e 8 8 ( −x − y ) 1 1 3 (x + y) u3 := − t 3 e t e v3 := 48 48 1 4 ( −x − y ) 1 4 (x + y) u4 := t e t e v4 := 384 384 u2 := Therefore the general terms would be derive as the following u n = (−1) n So t t n −x− y .)dt .
2.1. … n = 0. Adomian method leads to the following scheme.1. … v n +1 = t 1 t 1 t ∂ 2 vn ∂ 2 vn u n − ∫ An + ( + )dt 0 2 ∫0 500 ∫0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 and we will have 1 3 1 3 t − x2 t u1 := y 2 t 3 − t 2 + t 2 x 2 y 2 + x 4 y 2 t + 3 4 250 2 1 1 1 1 t − x4 y2 t v1 := − y 2 t 3 − t 2 x 2 y 2 + t 2 + x 2 t + 3 4 2 250 1 2 5 4 1 5 2 2 1 5 2 4 2 4 1 4 2 5 4 4 2 1 4 2 t y − t x y + t + t x y − t y − t x y + t x u2 := − y 2 t 6 + 18 15 3 20 3 2 6 4 1 4 1 2 3 5 3 4 3 6 2 1 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 t + y t − 2 t3 x2 y2 + t x −t x y + t x + t + t x y + 750 250 12 250 8 3 2 2 2 2 9 2 4 2 9 2 2 1 2 4 1 2 6 1 2 8 2 3 2 t x y − t x y + t x + t x + t x − t x y − t + t2 x6 y4 + 125 4 8 250 4 2 500 v 2 := 1 2 6 2 5 4 1 5 2 2 1 5 5 4 2 1 4 2 4 2 4 5 4 4 2 y t − t y + t x y − t + t y − t − t x y + t x y 18 15 3 20 12 750 3 6 1 4 2 1 3 5 3 2 2 4 3 4 4 1 2 3 1 3 2 5 3 4 y t − t x − t x + t3 x6 y2 − t x − t + t x y − t x y − 4 8 3 3 250 250 12 1 2 3 2 2 2 6 4 2 2 2 2 7 2 4 2 1 2 6 1 2 4 1 2 8 2 t − t x −t x y − t x y + t x y − t x − t x + t x y 500 8 125 4 4 250 2 + Three terms approximations to the solutions are as follows . Ayati t ⎧ 3 1 ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 2 2 ( ))dt + ⎪u ( x.2. y. t ) = y 2 + t ( 1 u − u 2 v + 1 ( ∂ v + ∂ v ))dt ∫0 2 ⎪ 500 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎩ Computing Adomian polynomial by same way as example one. t ) = x + t + ∫0 (u v − u + 2 500 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ⎪ ⎨ 2 2 ⎪v( x. v0 = y 2 u n +1 = ∫ An dt − 0 t 3 t 1 t ∂ 2u n ∂ 2u n ∫0 u n dt + 500 ∫0 ( ∂x 2 + ∂y 2 )dt 2 n = 0. u 0 = x 2 + t .102 J. Biazar and Z. y.
Second. > For i from 0 to n do > A[i] :=(( D@@i) (G) (0)/i!). The computations are done using Maple 9. N(u)): > G: =unapply (G[lambda].. APPENDIX Let’s consider G(u) as a nonlinear part of equation.i=0. then by using the following program in Maple we can compute Adomian polynomials: > restart: > With (student): > f:=G(u): > f:=unapply(f. First. We have achieved this goal by applying Adomian decomposition method. the decomposition method reduces the computational work.M.u): > n:=k.D. the decomposition method is an improvement with regard to its accuracy and rapid convergence. u := 103 3 3 189 2 253 2 3 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 4 1 2 6 5 3 4 t − t + y t − x t + x2 + t x + t x + t x + t x 8 250 750 2 250 250 4 12 1 5 1 4 1 2 6 2 5 4 1 4 2 1 4 2 251 − t 3 x6 y2 − 2 t3 x2 y2 + t + t − y t + t y − t y + t x + t 20 750 18 15 2 4 250 127 2 2 2 9 2 2 1 2 8 2 9 2 4 2 2 6 4 4 3 4 4 + x4 y2 t + t x y + t x − t x y − t x y +t x y + t x y 125 8 2 4 3 5 4 4 2 2 4 2 4 1 5 2 2 − t x y + t x y − t x y 6 3 3 v := t → y 2 − 3 2 2 253 2 3 1 2 1 2 6 2 5 4 5 4 2 1 4 2 5 3 4 t x − y t + x t+ y t − t y + t y − t x − t x 8 750 2 18 15 12 4 12 1 3 2 1 2 4 1 2 6 1 127 2 2 2 1 5 2 2 2 4 2 4 t x − t x − t x + t− t x y + t x y − t x y − 250 250 4 250 125 3 3 5 3 2 2 3 6 2 1 5 2 6 4 7 2 4 2 1 2 8 2 4 3 4 4 t x y +t x y − t − t x y + t x y + t x y − t x y − x4 y2 t 3 20 4 2 3 1 63 2 5 4 4 2 1 4 − t3 + t + t x y − t 8 250 6 750 + CONCLUSION The main goal of this work has been to derive an approximation for the solutions of reaction-diffusion Brusselator system. > u[lambda]:=sum(u[i]*lambda^i. The advantage of this article is twofold. > od.A Numerical Solution of Reaction-Diffusion Brusselator System by A. in comparison with existing numerical techniques.n). > G[lambda]:=subs (u=u[lambda]. . lambda).
Biazar and Z. The diffusion-Brusselator equation. Babolian. . J. Adomian. Lower Academic press. Applied Mathematics and Computation 38 (2-3) (2003) 523-529. G. Ayati REFERENCES G. A. Islam.29 (1995) 1-3. R. Nouri. An alternate algorithm for computing Adomian Decomposition method in special cases. Biazar. 1994.104 J. E. Math Appl. Adomian. computes. Solving Frontier problem of Physics: The Decomposition Method.
the mass balance alone does not guarantee zero waste. Canada ABSTRACT The modern age is synonymous with wasting habits. which can be used as fuel for heating and cooling as well as solar-absorption based refrigeration. Nature is perfect. Chapter 4 ZERO-WASTE LIVING WITH INHERENTLY SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES M. In this paper. Canada 2 Veridety Environmental. including biomass energy. Inc. whereas nature does not produce any waste. Nova Scotia. Halifax. The fundamental motion and the mass cannot be created or destroyed dictates that only transformation of materials from its one phase to another phase take place. only the imitation of nature can lead us towards truly sustainable lifestyle. That is why. However. Khan∗1. solar energy (refrigeration and other applications) and a desalination process. 105-130 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. Halifax. The process involves a number of novel designs. Prior2. The purification of the gas can also find suitable applications in fuel cells. M. Such process produces sufficient amount of methane gas.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. pp. Islam1 1 Civil and Resource Engineering Dept. the products and byproducts of one process is used for another process. R. The paper also includes mass balance equation.. Such a process will renew zero waste as long as each component of the overall process also operates at with the principle of zero waste. The system includes an anaerobic digester. which estimates methane production in biogas and ammonia production in the effluent. This paper is aimed at emulating a zero-waste living.. Calculations show a daily methane production of ∗ Corresponding author: Email: mmkhan@dal. A perfect system is 100% recyclable and therefore zero-waste. Dalhousie University. which is the key unit of the integrated process. which means it operates at 100% efficiency. In a desired zero-waste scheme. which is in turn would result into products that are suitable as an input to the process. Nova Scotia. which converts chemical energy to electricity.. D. This postulate necessitates that any product that is the outcome of a natural process must be entirely usable by some other process. an integrated loop system is investigated for a hundred apartment building with an approximate population of three hundred people. Rafiqul Islam.ca . and M.
free solar energy has a wide range of household applications.63 kg (approximately 14 m3) of CO2 can produce approximately 92 kg of fresh water from sea-water on a 100% conversion basis.435m3 and ammonia production of 1. it is already has been identified as the best source of energy. gas and nuclear correspond to a duration of the order of 230. gas.106 M. In this paper. These not only reduce the energy requirements supplied from fossil fuel but also contribute to a substantial cost-savings leading to a cleaner and more economical life style. sustainability. In this study.09 kg. INTRODUCTION Non-renewable energy sources are of predominantly used today. it is mandatory to depend on clean. respectively (Rubbia. desalination. However. This ammonia can also be used to run absorption refrigeration units.. various approaches are advanced that would reposition fossil fuel production in a zero-waste mode. beaming over the planet. Prior. abundant and free of cost. is squandered. But there is some possibility of expanding production and consumption for our own needs but on the basis of a net-zero waste of mass or energy. wind. 2006). either at the input or output of any process. the products and by products of one process is used for another process. the most devastating being plastics (Khan et al. D. Nearly 90% of today’s energy is supplied by oil. The burning of fossil fuel accounts for more than 100 times greater dependence than the energy generated through renewable sources (solar. 63 and 54 years. Islam 6. M. the maximum efficiency can be only 15% (Gupta et al. However. After the industrial revolution. According to present consumption level. Whereas. the mere fact that the most common usage is the use of photovoltaic. At present. the most-practiced energy and mass consumption options are possibly the most inefficient that the mankind has ever experienced. Keywords: Biogas. The process is shown in the following Figure 1. and coal (Salameh. today’s atmospheric pollution is derived from their combustion that produces many toxic by products. Considering these environmental concerns and limited resources. 2006). Any zero-waste scheme is considered as inherently sustainable process. This source is clean. known reserves for coal. the stoichiometry of chemical equations of desalination plant finds that 1 kg of ammonia and 2. Even when solar energy is utilized. liquid and gas. 2003). is proposed in order to develop both heating and cooling systems that can make modern household design independent of electrical supplies (Khan and Islam. Besides. biomass and geothermal energy). the method of utilizing solar energy is different from one application to another application. Even though solar energy. R. the sustainability of the processes has been confirmed with the help of pro-nature technology developed by Khan and Islam (2007). such as direct heating or cooling through absorption based refrigeration units. 2005). Most existing processes are energyinefficient and mass-wasteful. 45. The ammonia-enriched effluent along with CO2 (exhaust) from the digester can be used for desalination plants. and M. including processing and regeneration of solid. fossil fuels are limited. Moreover. it becomes feasible to propose approaches to zero-waste (mass) living in an urban setting. Khan. without intermediate conversion into electricity of solar energy. civilization has actually become synonymous with wasting habits.. However. direct use. 2007). Following on this. domestic and renewable sources of energy. . oil. solar energy. In a desired zero-waste scheme.
Schematic diagram of a bio-digester. Figure 3. .Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 107 Figure 1. Anaerobic bio-digester (Figures 2 and 3) is the principal unit of the above proposed model which is fed regularly with kitchen waste and sewage waste. Stir Opening Pressure Gauge Biogas storage Bio-waste Double Valve Opening Thermometer Double Valve Opening Solid Effluent Liquid Effluent Figure 2. Zero-waste mass utilization scheme. Experimental bio-digester in lab.
D. Since anaerobic destruction of organic matter is a reduction process. In addition.108 M. 4. Utilization of biogas in fuel cell. This study suggests the use of sewage water or urinated water as the necessary water source for the process. The products from bio-digester can be further used in different processes leading a zero-waste living. 3. Solar Aquatic process to purify desalinated/waste water. Later on. the coupling of solar energy utilization makes the whole concept economically and environmentally attractive. can be used. Prior. The odor problem is very little due to high water content. In this paper. Recently. 2. The use of sewage also facilitates biogas production due to increase amount of volatile solid load. interest is growing to the kitchen waste. Mandal and Mandal (1997) performed a comparative study of biogas production from different waste materials and found kitchen waste as promising source of biogas as shown in Figure 4. M. anaerobic digester is an air tight close system and that is why odor doesn’t come out during the degradation process. 2001). and M. interest was diversified to municipal organic waste. 5. Even odor is not a problem for anaerobic digester. R. 2000). such as water treatment plant. and is of no consequence in the utilization of the material as manure. cooking and heating the biogas can be utilized for different applications those have been discussed. the final solid product. takes place rapidly. So it is found if . the animal waste was the raw material for the biogas production. In the last decade. The aim of this study is to produce energy and valuable materials from waste. One significant advantage of the anaerobic composting is the generation of methane that can be stored for use as an energy source. The anaerobic biodigestion is the mechanism of converting waste into value added materials such as bio-gas. Energy from kitchen waste and sewage. as in an aerobic biological system (Ince et al. Even the uses liquid effluent (especially ammonia) is described here. is subjected to some aerobic oxidation. An estimation of biogas and ammonia production for a hundred apartment buildings with an approximate population size of three hundred people is shown here. Khan. The anaerobic treatment is an energy generating process rather than one which demands a regular high input of energy. The kitchen waste is characterized by high C/N ratio and high water contents (Sharma et al. (2001) has identified the requirement of huge volume of water as the problem of anaerobic process. Islam Even the solid waste from other sources. ammonia and manure. Besides lighting. This utilization increases the organics load and thereby increases the percentage ammonia in the digester liquid effluent. Direct/indirect use of solar energy ENERGY FROM KITCHEN WASTE AND SEWAGE There are two fundamentally distinct methods of composting: aerobic and anaerobic.. Ghanem et al. humus.. This oxidation is minor. a novel concept of zero-waste living with least fossil energy utilization is proposed and investigated by integrating different processes. Utilization of produced waste in desalination plant. The uses of biogas have been directed. In addition. The source of energy and the utilization of produced materials for other application and the utilization of direct solar energy are discussed here: 1.
5 1 0. Basis: 100 kg kitchen waste/day.. ESTIMATION OF THE BIOGAS AND AMMONIA PRODUCTION 100 two-bed room apartment building with approximately 300 persons.5 2 1.053kg (dry)/person/day basis). 2003.17 + 16 kg feces/day = 33 kg/day. volume% = 60-70 (Bouallagui et al. (2001) Calculation of Biogas Production Per Day Total Solid content Volatile solid content = 100kg kitchen waste/day ×0.. days = 30 (Bouallagui et al.5 0 Horse dung Banana Peels Modar flower Potato leaves Samples of various waste materials Figure 4. the digestion process gives more value and reduces the environmental problems. 1993.. Corresponding references are put in parenthesis against each assumption. Bouallagui et al. During the estimation of biogas production along with other effluents. 2004. 2004) Retention time for mesophilic digestion. 2004) Biogas yield.. 16 kg Feces/day (0.. a number of assumptions have been made which were taken from different research works.50 (Owens and Chynoweth. Assumptions : Total solids (TS).. . 2000 . Sadaka et al. = 33 kg TS/day × 0..Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 109 properly digested.75 = 24. 2004) Volatile solid (VS). Ammount of biogas produced (liter) 4 3. % of TS = 75-87 (Zupancic and Ros. Al-Masri. Bouallagui et al. 2003) Methane content. m3/kg VS = 0.75 kg/day.5 3 2. Biogas generation capacity of waste materials in the various groups (redrawn from Mandal and Mandal..25-0. % =11-20 (Sharma et al.1997).
63 kg/day × 0. and M. which can be removed by existing removal technology. R.9 MJ/m3.7225 kg/day Ammonia in the liquid effluent = 2. Khan.435 m3/ day.75 kg VS/day × 0.110 Biogas yield M.12) kg = 218.63kg/day.17 = 194. Direct utilization of sewage water can be used for making slurry as discussed earlier. Heating value (35. Conversation to ammonia = 3.75= 2.11 =3.465 m3 Ammonia Production Assume. This will be cost effective and again utilization of waste stream. Daily Water Requirement Assume 8% slurry as influent (Al-Masri. Nitrogen content in the waste is 11% of the dry solid.12 kg Daily water input = (412.38 kg = 0.9 m3×0. Islam = 24. ammonia etc.40 m3/kg VS = 9.40 = 1. The biogas content traces amount of other gases such as hydrogen sulfide.9 m3/day Methane (assume 65% in the biogas) = 6. M.09 kg/day This Ammonia is available for desalination plant and solar absorption cooling system. Prior.5 kg Wet weight of waste = 33 kg TS/ 0. 2004) = 9. D. The principal value-added outputs of bio-digester are biogas which content about 65% methane gas and the balance is carbon dioxide.7225 kg /day × 0. heating and all other applications those are known for methane.08 = 412.22 m3 No fresh water is required for making slurry. Biogas can directly be used for cooking.5 – 194.35 CO2 production = 3. (Bouallagui et al. LLV of Methane) = 231 MJ/ day. The economy of biodigester increases and approaches to zero waste living when the desalination and fuel cell technology are integrated with the system. Again assume 75% conversion and 40% recovery as liquid effluent. .. Nitrogen content in the influent = 33kg TS/ day × 0. 2001) The weight of slurry = 33kg TS / 0.
2006. and hotels Manufacturing and mining activities. is supplied by desalinated seawater while the balance is produced from ground water sources (Al-Muntaz and Ibrahim.022 0. over 97 percent of the earth’s water is found in the oceans as salt water. They fail to remove metals and synthetic organic compounds. lakes. Table 2. the modernization of the world is demanding more use water and is placing tremendous stress in the source of available fresh water.001 Fresh Water However. land filling. ponds etc) Atmosphere Percentage of Total Water 97. Water sources and distribution in the earth (EPA.397 0. The available fresh water is being depleted at an alarming rate due to agricultural. offices. Percentage of Usable Fresh Water 42 39 11 8 Most of the current practice of desalination is found expensive and energy intensive. the capital of Saudi Arabia. phosphorus and chlorine. US) Area of Fresh Water Utilization Agricultural Production of electricity urban and rural homes. desalination has become the most popular method of obtaining fresh water. river. urban and industrial water requirements (Table 2). especially in the arid countries. The currently used desalination technologies are generally classified into thermal and membrane processes (Abu-Arabi and Zurigat.g. spreading or incinerating.2 2. It is found that 66% of drinking water demand of Riyadh. exploration of alternative sources has become mandatory. the percentage of fresh water that we use for variety of purposes is less than 1%. Most of the waste water treatment plants are chemical in nature and they generate large amount of sludge which is often toxic and is thus environmentally stressful if disposed of by ocean dumping. Recently. Fresh water utilization (EPA. These activities are also polluting water which are not useable without treating them properly. 1997). 1996 and Alabdula’ali. Therefore.): . 2005.38 0.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 111 Utilization of Produced Waste in a Desalination Plant Even though the Earth is known as the “watery planet”. According to Table 1. US) Types of Water Salt Water Sources Ocean Ice caps/glaciers Ground water Surface water (e. Even after treating water properly. They employ environmentally damaging chemicals to precipitate out solids. Table 1. freshwater scarcity is a growing concern in many regions of the world..
and M. and water naturally transports across the membrane by osmosis.. The latest process (Rongved. Even though utilization of nuclear energy is encouraged today.112 • • M. Forward Osmosis (FO) However. 1997). high solubility and lower molecular weight. Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an expensive process. for which only 35-50% recovery is obtained leaving a concentrated brine to be dumped in the sea-shore again. McCutcheon et al. instead of using hydraulic pressure to create the driving force for water transport through the membrane. Improvement of Rivers Osmosis is the Forward Osmosis (FO). Humidification/dehumidification process is energy intensive. the FO process utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient. However. The stepwise reaction can be explained as follows (Ibrahim and Jibril. Humidification/dehumidification Membrane Technology: Reverse Osmosis (RO). A ‘draw’ solution is used to create an osmotic pressure gradient greater than hydraulic pressure gradient and thus higher recovery is obtained due to higher driving force for water transport through the membrane (McCutcheon et al.+ H2O NH3 +HCO3- . The processes and sources must be analysis to scrutinize the reliability. (2006) observed 75% recovery by FO. After studying a number of draw solutions. Osmotic driving forces in FO can be significantly greater than hydraulic driving forces in RO.9%) CO2 and highly concentrated and purified ammonium solution has placed sustainability constriction to this process. Khan. A "draw" solution having a significantly higher osmotic pressure than the saline feed water flows along the permeate side of the membrane. In Forward Osmosis. M.+ NH4+ Secondary reaction: NH2COO. R. (2006) found ammoniumbicarbonate (ammonia and CO2 mixture) as the best draw solution for its high osmotic efficiency. 2006). McCutcheon et al. 1997) of desalination is known as the process of chemical approach that proposed to use pure CO2 and Ammonia. D. 2006). Islam Thermal Process: Solar Still. Solar energy utilization is always encouraged as a renewable and non polluting source. Prior. However. the most recent process is known as the process of chemical approach which is derived from a recent patent (Rongved. it cannot be appreciated as nuclear energy is not naturally produced (Chhetri. potentially leading to higher water flux rates and recoveries. This process has drawn attention due to its several characteristics features. water transports across a semi-permeable membrane that is impermeable to salt as observed in Rivers Osmosis. environmentally friendliness and sustainability. 2005): Primary reactions: NH3 + CO2 NH2COOH NH3 + NH2COOH NH4+ + NH2COOThe overall primary reaction is 2NH3 + CO2 NH2COO. the use of highly pure (99.
5g NH4Cl The input and out of a desalination process both dry basis and wet basis are shown in Figure 5.5) 58.5%) to produce desalinated water. Omar Chaalal. Ammonium chloride can be recycled to produce NH3 for reuse in the process.93 unit. with Dr.5) + (14+3) + (12+2×16)+(2+16)=(23+1+12 + 3×16) + (14+4+35.5% NaCl and 96. So the fresh water production is (1612. Generally. Soda Ash is a valuable and saleable product. Soda Ash (Na2CO3).5% (3.5 unit of sodium chloride is associated with 1612. has demonstrated the desalination process as the natural gas cleaning method where 98% CO2 can be removed from natural gas (EnPro). EnPro AS.93 . Mass balance of desalination plant. According to this assumption. . 58.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies NH4+ + HCO3. Stoichiometry shows that 18 unit of water is consumed during reaction. Accordingly. sea water concentration is assumed 3. it can be calculated that 3.5 % water).+ NaCl NaHCO3 + NH4Cl 113 So the final overall reaction is as follows: NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2O = NaHCO3 + NH4Cl Stoichiometry of chemical equations: NaCl + NH3 + CO2 + H2O = NaHCO3 + NH4Cl (23+35. However. Hydrochloric acid is an important acid for many industries. the use of these industrial grade chemicals makes this process highly chemical in nature. Recently. Figure 5.5g NaCl + 17g NH3 + 44g CO2 + 18g H2O = 84g Na2CO3 + 53.5 unit of sodium chloride is associated with 96.18) = 1594.93 unit of water. Ibrahim and Jibril (2005) used ammonium hydroxide solution (28% by weight) and highly pure industrial grade Carbon dioxide (99. Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and Hydrochloric acid (HCL) are obtained as byproducts. In this process.5 unit of water.
The choice of raw materials from the natural process makes this whole process inherently sustainable. This research suggests the use of sewage and leachate of anaerobic digester instead of chemically obtained ammonia. R. This is a part of the Figure 1. those liquid contains significant amount of ammonia. Table 3 shows an overview of the process. especially where desalination has been introduced. This process. and M. Biogas has been chosen as the source of CO2 instead of natural gas or other source from non-natural processes. . Khan. M.114 M. sources and the uses. Block diagram of desalination plant. Figure 6 shows the block diagram of a desalination plant of zero-waste theme. If raw materials are obtained from the natural activities and those are used in an efficient manner. Prior. Figure 6. is termed as purification process of natural gas but cannot be said as the zero-waste process as it is also involved industrial grade chemicals and inorganic source of raw materials. the process can be operated in the zero-waste mode. The target of this study is to choose process that is pro-nature and operated in a zerowaste mode. This is the process of biogas purification as well as burner exhaust utilization in a loop system to make the process zero-waste operable. D. The supply of CO2 can be increased if the exhaust of methane burner is utilized. Islam This is very encouraging as it only absorbs CO2 leaving methane free. The exhaust generally contains CO2 and other trace gases and elements. however.
a number solar tanks are constructed in such a way so that each of the solar tanks can be served as a mini-ecosystem with preferred organisms. filtering out . Solar Aquatics Systems replicate and optimize natural wetlands processes to treat wastewater.37% 1 Sources Uses 115 Sea water Sea water Sewage. Canada known as Bear River solar aquatic that produces mineralized drinkable water from 100% waste material without using any chemicals. In a solar aquatic system. plants and many other aquatic habitats to break down waste and complex molecules. textiles.2 Percentage of total input or output 93 3. these systems are complex. Medicines and valuable chemical productions etc. Therefore.medicines.63 5 3. exhaust gas Food. dynamic. and animals to restore water to pure conditions. and resilient. bacteria. industrial use and Fish farming. Freshwater for Agriculture. Overview of desalination plant Reactants and products Water Salt(NaCl) Ammonia (NH3) INPUT CO2 Sodiumbicarbonate (NaHCO3) Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) OUTPUT Fresh water 2. Unlike mechanical treatment processes. glass. The solar aquatic system uses sunlight.8 SOLAR AQUATIC PROCESS TO PURIFY DESALINATED/ WASTE WATER The desalinated water obtained from desalination plant can be purified along with other waste water using a solar aquatic system. This paper suggests the solar aquatic waste water treatment process after reviewing the successful operation of a solar treatment facility which is operable at Annapolis valley. selforganizing. paper. so they can adapt to changing effluent quality better than mechanical/chemical systems. reducing biological oxygen demand (BOD).Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies Table 3. Each tank participates in treating wastewater that involves destroying pathogens. 2000). Each living thing is linked to many others in the chain of nature and thus a zerowaste living is operable. Solar UV degrades dissolved organic carbon photolytically so that they can readily be taken up by bacterioplankton (Hader. producing drinkable water by solar aquatic system is very attractive. 91. Lechate of biodigester Biogas. It is known that a natural process has the best adaptability with any system leaving no vulnerable. green plants. long term effect.
Figure 7. snails. After passing all the tanks. D. blue flag iris. pickerel weed. shrimp. R. cattail. Process Description Waste water is collected from sewage and desalination plant in a large fiberglass tanks for initial anaerobic digestion. the process then continues in a constructed marshland filled with coarse sand and gravel and planted with typical wetland species including alligator flag. to make the rest of water potable.1990). . arrowhead. the water is passed to a rotary drum filter to separate solids. The water is then treated with solar UV to make the water disinfected and aerated to get higher quality. M.116 M. willow and swamp lily that remove the last vestiges of nitrogen through the root systems and convert them to harmless nitrogen gas (Spencer. Then it is passed through a series of tanks each of which is vigorously aerated and copiously supplied with bacteria. which scrubs odor and reduces the level of organic waste matters. the bulk water is transported to a big solar tank with the same ecosystem. flush reuse. constructed ecosystems are also self-organizing and adaptive so they can handle inconsistency in waste water. and M. Part of this water can be used for irrigation. Here. green plants from algae to trees. clean effluent. insects. and fish. Others are open aerobic reactors. using up nitrogen and phosphorus. aerobic bacteria begin to dominate and convert ammonia to nitrates. Each one of the tank-series is capable of handling 75% of the maximum daily flow (Spencer. Islam particles. These plants have the ability to transfer oxygen to their root and support microbes surrounding their roots. However. Khan. Moreover. Only the first tank is a closed aerobic reactor. Block diagram of a solar aquatic waste water treatment plant. bulrush. This process eliminates sludge production as seen in the chemical treatment plant. Prior. and stabilizing or disposing of toxins. All of this happens faster in constructed ecosystems than in conventional treatment systems. chemically free. Water then flows into the last tank in which the water is pumped out of the top to the next step and any remaining sediment is pumped from the bottom back to the anaerobic tanks to begin the cycle again and be eliminated.1990). Finally.
trout are the other living habitats of solar aquatic system. During cloudy winter they can purify efficiently. enabling the growth and productivity of microorganisms. These algae can rapidly take up nitrogen. The plants are removed when they reach to a marketable size. desalination process reduces the ammonia load of the sewage and makes it easier for the next step of the water purification. Golebkinica spp. Within the marsh the algae are consumed by grazing snails. A variety of higher plants are used in the system such as willows. iris. including heavy metals and at polishing waster water. The green algae phase are seed with Scenedesmus spp..1988): Bacteria phase: The bacteria phase involves the bioaugmentation of the waste stream near the input with different bacterial types of culture.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 117 The number of solar tanks varies with the waste water volume to be handled and the aquatic habitat’s concentration. Chlorella spp. As plants cannot use elements in an organic state. Dictyospaerium spp. The activities of algae are particularly helpful during the cloudy period. when combined with biogas production facility. increases the fuel value of biogas and reduces the air pollution by absorbing green house gases of exhaust gas. and other rare species (Todd. dog woods. Todd (1988) identified Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas spp. eucalyptus. Sphaerocystis spp. The snails in turn are fed to trout after harvest. They consume algal and phytoplankton and maintain their abnormal growth in a system. The cumulative and chain effect of all the living habitats purify water. The aquatic habitat serves different purposes. Some are discussed below (Todd. that reduce BOD levels to those that will allow nitrifying bacteria to function efficiently to eliminate toxic ammonia from the waste stream. The integration of solar aquatic process with desalination process make it ideal source of fresh water from supply. Bulrush is specially found absorbing remaining organic and inorganic materials and cause colloidal substance to flocculate the settle out (Todd. Figure 3 shows the block diagram of a typical solar aquatic waste water plant. They are excellent water purifiers and their roots act as a substrate for beneficial micro-organism including thick masses of snails. This process also uses ammonia of liquid leachate of anaerobic digester and thereby reduces the treatment process of that liquid waste. Microbes are a vital component behind biological treatment systems. goldfish. tiny freshwater shrimp).. and phosphorus.. they also convert carbon and other nutrients from an organic to inorganic state. This is a process of converting waste into value added materials. and umbrella plants. Even when sewage is used as a source of ammonia. Micractinium spp. Plants provide oxygen to the upper water column (via photosynthesis and translocation). this conversion is necessary for plant production. Algal phase: The algal is unique to the solar aquatic facility.. including ammonia. snail. nitrates. Ankistrodesmus spp. Plant phase: Plant palettes for constructed ecosystems ideally include facultative plants that do not mind having their roots wet or dry. Aquatic plants are excellent at taking up toxic substances. . Not only do they degrade organic matter in the water (both dissolved and particulate). Even some plants are capable of removing toxic heavy metal and leave the water in safe drinkable form. The consume carbon gases and release oxygen during daylight conditions.. Other habitats: Fish (koi.1988).1988). A desalination process..
.118 M. A simple hydrogen fuel cell is shown in Figure 8 which uses costly DuPont patented electrolyte which is polymer based.. 2005). Islam UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS IN FUEL CELL Another possible application of biogas is in a fuel cell. Both hydrogen and methane are gaseous fuels and difficult to handle. 5 to 650 volts) (Aquarium of Niagara. Both methanol and ethanol are now successfully used as a fuel . Zhang et al.g.. liquid fuels have been promoted. Because it is already found that the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus). The breakthrough of fuel cell by biomembrane is realistic. M. D. 2006). especially PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) cell but the generation of pure hydrogen gas is very costly. and M. 2004). has the ability to produce powerful electric charges (e. Yamada and Honma (2006) have reported a proton conductive biomembrane that shows large anhydrous proton conductivity from room temperature to 160ºC. it produced a current under non-humidified H2/O2 condition at 160ºC when it was used in a fuel cell. upon removing the CO (if any) biogas can be a source of fuel for fuel cell. Recently. liquid alcohol has been chosen as an alternative fuel for fuel cell (Jiang et al. Instead. Khan. R. 1990. Hydrogen gas is the best fuel for these cells. A number of experiments have been launched to replace the costly and toxic materials to environmentally acceptable and low cost materials. It can be speculated that the biomembrane of the electric eel play the vital role in the production of electric charge like fuel cell. Fuel cell (Redrawn from Mills et al.. the use of natural gas has been utilized but the presence of CO in the natural gas limited the use as platinum anode which is easily contaminated by CO. 2004 and Xie et al. Figure 8. Fuel cells are highly efficient electro-chemical energy conversion devices that convert chemical energy directly into electricity (Mills et al. which is found in South American tropical regions. Prior. So. To overcome this difficulty. 2005). However the replacement of the polymer based electrolyte with the biomembrane would be the environmentally attractive option. Several researchers have emphasized the use of biogas for fuel cell (Lemons.. Even though the biomembrane was composed from entirely biomolecular materials (uracil molecules and chitin phosphate). Due to greater volumetric energy densities and portability. 2004).
2006).. Ethanol is safer and has higher energy density than methanol.. In the direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) the fuel cell reactions are as follows (Xie et al. However. However.. 2004 and Zhou et al. fuel alcohol can be obtained from the so-called lignocellulosic biomass that includes agricultural residues.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 119 source of fuel cells (Andreadis et al. 2005 and Cardona and Sanchez... According to the information provided by Cardona and Sanchez (2006). The use of waste material. complete oxidation of ethanol is found difficult so far with the current technology (Jiang et al.. 2004).+3O2 → 6H2O Overall reaction: CH3CH2OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O From the chemical reactions. it is found that both alcohols produce water and CO2 along with energy. 2006. 2005 and Xie et al. Cardona and Sanchez (2006) showed the following flowchart to produce ethanol from biological waste materials using microbial activities (Figure 9). and food processing and other industrial wastes (Murphy and McCarthy. Zhou et al. Moreover.. The waste water is very rich with volatile organic matter which can be sent to the . 2006. 2004). 2004 and Xie et al. 2005): Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Anode reaction: CH3OH + H2O → CO2 + 6H+ + 6eCathode reactions: 6H++ 6e. municipal solid waste. it is found that 10% of biomass converted to ethanol leaving significant amount of solid waste and liquid waste. forestry wastes. Most of the current technology is relied on industrial grade alcohol..+ ½ O2 → 3H2O Overall reaction: CH3OH + H2O + ½ O2 → CO2 + 3H2O Direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) Anode reaction: CH3CH2OH + 3H2O → 2CO2 + 12H+ + 12eCathode reactions: 12H++ 12e. especially biologically produced waste utilization increased the versatility of zero-waste living. agroindustrial wastes. That is why this CO2 would not be harmful to the environment if the source of the alcohol is obtained from biological process. CO2 is not harmful to the environment when it releases from the trees in their respiration process. Rousseau et al. recent studies reveal that the direct alcohol fuel cell can use the same membrane used by PEM fuel cell but the electrodes needs some modification (Jiang et al.. 2004).
. R.120 M. Glucose (G). However. Main stream component: Cellulose (C). Islam anaerobic digester to produce biogas. Hemicellulose (H). The solid waste can be used as solid fuel or can be used as land filling as it has mineral value. and domestic hot water. Block diagram for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. A significant portion of the annual energy bill for any apartment building is for the costs of heating. M. Prior. Part of the cost can be reduced by utilization of solar energy. SSCF: Simultanious saccharification and cofermentation (Modied from Cardona and Sanchez. Khan. SSF: Simultanious saccharification and fermentation. Figures 10 and 11 show the pattern of electricity consumption of cold countries and hot countries. most of the industrial and household energy utilization is found in the form of electrical energy. cooling. Lignin (L). Figure 9. Inhibitor (I) and Ethanol (EtOH). These costs can be over 60% of the annual total utility costs. and M. DIRECT USE OF SOLAR ENERGY Energy is the driving force of today’s technology. D. Pentose (P). 2006). respectively.
The design of any system that operates under the direct use of solar energy has maximum energy conversion efficiency. solar radiation is practically constant. 2005). Household electricity usage in hot countries (Modified from Tso and Yau. There are two basic types for home heating: active and passive. 2006). indirect solar energy conversion does not give considerable efficiency. However. The active solar heating system generally consists of the following sub-systems: (1) a solar thermal collector area. (2) a water storage tank. Active systems are divided into liquid and air systems. (3) a secondary water circuit. 2003). Figure 11. Solar energy is essentially unlimited and its use is ecologically benign.8 and 1. Followings are some examples of direct use of solar energy: Space Heating Solar space heating is a proven effective method to reduce conventional energy requirements for domestic heating. (4) a domestic hot water (DHW) . on earth it varies with the time of the day and year as well as with the latitude and weather.7 W/m² which is defined as the quantity of solar energy (W/m²) at normal incidence outside the atmosphere (extraterrestrial) at the mean sun-earth distance (Mendoza. In space.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 121 Figure 10. The maximum value on earth is between 0.0 kW/ m² (The solarserver. Household electricity usage in cold countries (Redrawn from Nebraska Public Power District). The solar constant of solar energy is 1367.
Batch heaters do not work well in colder climates because they will freeze. Heat. One fluid acts as a refrigerant. 1997. Prior. butane acts as the refrigerant. ammonia as an inert gas. Active solar heating system relies on collectors to perform this task. The heated liquid warms the cooler water in the storage tank. Khan et al. In the Einstein cycle. 1980. Absorption cooling is already known as the heat dependent air conditioning system. Refrigeration and Air Cooling Recently. Passive systems use the building itself to collect and store solar heat. absorption refrigeration shows higher coefficient of performance (COP) compare to vapor compression refrigeration system. When the hot water tank falls below a preset temperature. and M. Only the single pressure refrigeration cycle is a thermally driven cycle that uses three fluids. and Delano. So passive solar heating is less efficient. Recent studies on Einstein single pressure refrigeration system (US Patent: 1. allowing absorption cooling systems to operate on natural gas or any other heat sources. located in front of the storage tank. 1998). The following features have made this refrigeration system unique: . then capturing it to warm the inside air and the structure. 2006). But this water heating system substantially reduces the cost of electrical water heating cost. However. A batch heater consists of one or more water storage tanks placed inside an insulated box. This is the same greenhouse effect that turns a car into an oven on a warm day. rather than electricity. A collector is typically 2 ft to 4 ft wide. 1985). the best option is to use both systems together. However. It is an insulated. and water as an absorbent. They use pumps and pipes (or fans and ducts) to carry heat from the collectors to storage and from storage to the rooms of the house. the backup energy source maintains the preferred water temperature. This warm water is then transferred into the backup storage tank. the second as a pressure-equalizing fluid.122 M. Water Heating Solar water heaters capture the sun’s thermal energy.781. 5 ft to 12 ft long and 4 inches in depth. The flat-plate collector is the most commonly used residential system collector (Jansen. 2006). Khan. M. weatherproofed box containing a dark absorber plate covered by one or more transparent or translucent covers. (2006) showed that if calculated from the base source of energy. Islam preparation system and (5) an air ventilation/heating system (Badescu and Staicovici. both dual and triple pressure refrigeration cycles are not solely heat dependent. the liquid is pumped through the tubes to the heat exchanger. R. The sun’s heat energy warms the stored water. This is known as the active solar heating to passive house. Dannen. Once heated. The most elementary passive heating concept is letting in sunshine through glass. Passive systems are found more efficient than the active system (Badescu and Staicovici. drives the system. This heat energy warms water that flows through the attached tubes. and a third as an absorbing fluid. This box contains a glazed side that faces the sun. A passive solar heating system generally uses storage tanks that are mounted on a buildings roof. Residential buildings typically require hot water temperatures below 95°C. The absorber plate gathers the sun’s heat energy. D.541) has generated a renewed interest and is being viewed as a viable alternative for economical refrigeration (Alefeld.
(2005) indicated that when this refrigeration system is coupled with the solar system. most of the solar collector fluids are found to be toxic and harmful to the environment. The fluid in the solar collector’s receiver is used as the energy carrier. it becomes the best choice among all other types of refrigerators because of its environmentally friendly and ecologically benign features. (2006b) used environmentally friendly vegetable oil as solar thermal oil and found successful as energy career. The parabolic solar collector can provide the necessary energy to run a absorption system. 2006b). Figure 12 shows a parabolic trough that uses vegetable oil to absorb solar energy and transfers to a preferred place. With some modifications. the same unit can be utilized as a solar cooler (Khan et al. Constructed parabolic trough. Solar collectors are required for this process.. To get rid of this toxicity. . A household kitchen based biogas production can enhance the operability of this refrigeration in the absence of sun. Khan et al. The required ammonia can be collected from the effluent of the anaerobic digester. Figure 12. The whole process will save fossil fuel and consume waste materials. Biogas can be burnt to get the necessary heat to operate the cooling system especially at night. However.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies Higher heating efficiency Inexpensive equipment No moving parts High Reliability Portability 123 Khan et al. which transfers energy from receiver to an area of interest.
SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS The concept ‘zero waste living’ has been generated from the undisturbed activities of nature. R. This engine can be operated both by solar energy and heat from any combustible materials such as field waste. The term ‘sustainable’ is very growing concept of today’s technology development. it is found that the world is becoming a container of toxic materials and loosing its healthy atmosphere continuously. 2005.. 2005. most of the assessment processes of sustainability are incomplete and because of the lack of appropriate assessment process. any product that resembles to a natural product does not guarantee its sustainability unless the natural pathway is followed (Khan. 2004). 2003 and Valdes. the common of all definitions of sustainability is the concern about the wellbeing of future generation (Krysiak and Krysiak.. rice husk or the like. 2005. it can be inferred that the word ‘sustainable’ implies the benefit from immediate to long term for the all living beings. Even after extensive development of different technologies from decade to decades. Kongtragool and Wongwises. the utilization of solar energy has been extended to Stirling engine. 2005). Simply. there are no problems with contamination and explosion (Abdullah et al. Immediate benefits are termed as tangibles and long term benefits are termed as intangibles. However. Mancini et al.. The Stirling technology can be used in any application where mechanical work is necessary. However. 2006). Due to environmental concerns and increase in energy cost. This study suggests the use of solar Stirling technology as part of zero waste process. biomass methane. generating tangible. To date a number of definitions of sustainability are found in the literature. The basic background and the chronological development of Stirling engine is found in the literature (Hutchinson. The development of low temperature differential (LTD) Stirling engine facilitates the use of Stirling technology in a wide range of temperature differences from various heat sources. 2005). it is necessary to test the sustainability of any process and the pathway of the process. The development of LTD Stirling technology has facilitated the use of any kind of receiver of solar collector such as flat panel collector. That is why any natural product or process is said to be inherently sustainable. focus only on tangible benefit might mislead the technological development unless intangible benefits are considered. Islam Solar Stirling Engine Recently. D. However.124 M. Prior. and M. The Stirling engine is a simple type of external heat engine that works on two heat reservoirs (hot and cold reservoirs) like Carnot engine and uses a compressible fluid as the working fluid (Kongtragool and Wongwises. 2006). the Stirling engine has received much attention in the last few decades. M. Khan and Islam (2007) developed a sustainability test model distinct from other as they emphasized on time factor and showed the direction of both new and existing . parabolic trough or dish collector in any country as the temperature is not the prime issue for LTD Stirling technology (Kongtragool and Wongwises. Recently. That is why. Kerdchang et al. Because the working fluid is fixed in a closed system. intangible and long term benefits for the whole world. 2005). there exists a tendency to claim a product or technology sustainable without proper analysis. Khan. Natural activities increase its orderliness on a path that converges at infinity after providing maximum benefits over time. Nature is operating in zero waste modes.
∆t→∞ (Khan and Islam 2007). According to the nature it can be said that the waste/exhaust from the bio-material is not harmful. the model would look like as follows (Figure 14). because natural process is already proved to be beneficial for long term. However. The exact difference between a chemical existed for millions of years and the same chemical existed for few years is not clearly revealed. as far as natural processes are concerned. the goal of banning still remains controversial (Toman and Palmer. there is no need to test natural products. In nature. such models are non-existent and. In other words. for that matter. It is found from the figure that perception does not influence the direction and the intensity of the process. In this study. otherwise the process must fall in a direction that is not beneficial in the long run. ‘time tends to Infinity’. Today’s regulatory organizations are banning lots of chemicals and synthetic materials from production and regular use. complex but shows unlimited adaptability (Islam. Burning of marsh gas is seen in the nature. thus. In nature. Khan et al (2006a) introduced a mathematical model to this concept and explained the role of intention in the sustainable development process. According to this model. However. The model has been developed observing the nature and by the analysis of human intervention in the past years. Intention is found as the key tool for any process to be sustainable. the direction of the process is explicit when the process advances with time. short term harm. “good” technologies can be developed following the principles of nature. It is very subjective and there is no way to prove if a perception is true or false. The most commonly used theme is to select technologies that are good for t=’right now’. efficient and functional for an unlimited time period. a process travels a path that is beneficial for an infinite span of time. Perception is completely one’s personal opinion developed from one’s experience without appropriate knowledge. The bio-digestion process is an adequate example of natural technology and that is why the technology is sustainable. The technology that exists in nature must be sustainable. This can be expressed as t or. however. The pro-nature technology is the long-term solution. It is assumed that the carbon dioxide production from the petroleum fuel (the old food) and the carbon dioxide from the renewable bio materials (new food) are not same. it is sustainable. if and only if. In this paper. So the burning of bio-gas would not be anti-nature. 1997). aphenomenal and cannot be placed on the graph (Figure 13). However. Perception varies from person to person. this model is further developed by analyzing the term ‘perception’ which was found important at the beginning of any process explained by Khan et al (2006a). long term adverse effects are allowed to continue.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 125 technologies. while anti-nature one is the result of ∆t approaching 0. Only the base is found shifted towards top or bottom. The vulnerable effect of products or processes that are tangible in nature are selected for ban. all functions or techniques are inherently sustainable. The same chemical with different isotope number must not be identical. The difference between natural and synthetic materials shows that natural materials are very non-linear. the proposed ‘zero-waste model’ has been tested for sustainability according to the above definition and details analysis has been presented here. or ∆t =0. Any process or product should be analyzed carefully to understand both tangible and intangible effect. the products or processes that have intangible. 2005). Only the synthetic products should be analysis carefully for . Khan et al (2006a) has shown that intangible and long term harm is more detrimental than tangible. In reality. if perception is used in the model. However. That is why perception cannot be used as the base of the model.
Khan..2006). So. R. Direction of sustainability/green technology (Redrawn from Khan et al. Sustainability model with perception (Modified from Khan et al. Islam sustainability. Figure 13. Figure 14. and M. D. M.2006).. . leachate ammonia and carbon dioxide (exhaust) are the best choice to make the desalination process sustainable.126 M. instead of pure materials. Prior.
Yousif. M. specially for those products or proceses. the use of biogas. Y. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of the Atlantic Innovation Fund (AIF). Some estimated calculation shows that the process is indeed viable. However. biomethanol or bioethanol in the fuel cell. 30 (12):1923-1941 Abu-Arabi. butane and water exist in nature.. Solar energy is non-toxic and free. Desalination. synthetic and toxic electrolyte and the ultra pure metallic electrode. and Sopian. This scheme is socially responsible.Zero-Waste Living with Inherently Sustainable Technologies 127 The problem of fuel cell is the use of highly pure fossil fuel.. B. K. Zero-waste living with efficient and maximum utilization of solar heating is found attractive. REFERENCES Abdullah. and Zurigat. Vol. So. Aquarium of Niagara. F. the replacement of synthetic membrane by biomembrane and the use of non toxic electrode can direct the fuel cell technology towards sustainability. [Accessed: August 25. It is a responsibility to all living human to save the future generation and to make this world livable in the long term. 2005). Sometimes it is too late to take any action.172 (2):137-143. The replacement of toxic thermal oil by vegetable oil makes the process sustainable. So the uses of these materials make the refrigeration process sustainable. This is a composite and integrated process. Vol. The whole process is sustainable. The dependence of one process to other process maximizes the utilization of waste leaving zero waste. Ammonia. environmentally attractive and economic.aquariumofniagara. However. Besides. CONCLUSION It is well-known that prevention is better than cure. ammonia must be collected from the biological process such as from biodigester or sewage. Design Consideration of Low Temperature Differential Double-Acting Stirling Engine for Solar Application. Renewable Energy. The utilization of solar energy must be sustainable. 2005.htm. It is important to activate sustainable assessment tool to prevent the detrimental technology development and to encourage sustainable technology.http://www. 2006]. 2004 and Al Darby et al. . Even any use of solar energy in turns reduces the dependency of fossil fuel and thereby saving the world from more air pollution. 2005. So this is also sustainable technology. Year-Round Comparative Study of Three Types of Solar Desalination Units.. S. which have long term and intangible effect. banning should not be the policy. the use of free sunlight shows the reduction of the dependency of the electricity or fuel cell.. The utilization of vegetable oil keeps the whole equipment corrosion free (Al-Darby.org/aquarium/electric_eel.
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It is primarily because of their severe toxicity that disrupts the ecosystem integrity and hinder sustainable management of the environment.000ppm of initial concentrations. About 97% of lead was removed by wet samples after 30 days at 10. wet and dry tea-waste.ca . 131-156 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. Canada 1 ABSTRACT Numerous engineering practices produce aqueous solutions that are high in heavy metal contents. Turkish black tea-waste was studied as an adsorbent to remove lead from the contaminated water. lead nitrate solution [Pb(NO3)2] of a wide rage of concentration (1010. most commonly used adsorbents themselves have some level of toxicity and are often expensive.000 ppm) was prepared to simulate the contaminant concentration in industrial waste water. Canada Dalhousie University. Industrial waste water is one of the major sources of lead (Pb) and is considered to be a toxic element. Email: Ibrah. Halifax. Nova Scotia. Alberta. Mann†2 2 University of Calgary. pp. Inc. Chapter 5 TEA-WASTES AS ADSORBENTS FOR THE REMOVAL OF LEAD FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER M. email: Henrietta. For this purpose. Wet tea-waste samples were also analyzed in 7 days intervals to find out if there is any microbial growth and its possible influence in the removal of lead. Canada. Y. the effect of pH on adsorption. The wet tea-waste samples (immediately after collection) also showed good performance and over time the removal efficiency of lead increases. Rafiqul Islam. The adsorptive capacity of the adsorbent. The samples had representation * † Corresponding author.Khan@ucalgary. Alberta. Industral waste water could cause severe environmental consequences and irreversible damage to the environment and its biota if it is not controlled through proper treatment. The initial analysis was carried out using 5 gm of fresh teas (as control). Mehedi1* and H. Adsorption technique is one of the most popular and effective technology to treat water contaminated by heavy metals. Results show that fresh tea and oven dried tea waste samples effectively removed lead cations in the range of 57-92% and 69-94% respectively.ca Corresponding author. University of Calgary. The microbial concentrations were also increased overtime. In this research.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M.mann@dal. However. the effect of initial concentration was investigated.
coagulation/flotation. Cd.8 did not demonstrate any significant increase or decrease in the adsorption process when compared to their results with almost neutral environment of pH 6. Today. membrane process. It is also revealed from the test that the adsorption capacity of wet samples can be as large as 387. 2001. But the process has not been used extensively for its high cost. diversity. and functions of microorganisms. Lead. heavy metals. squares or other groupings (Gazso.These metal ions in industrail waste water. Cr. sedimentation. 2000). Variation of pH in the range of 3. Mihova and Godjevargova. chemical oxidation or reduction. The dominant constituent of industraial waste water is water. The biosorption of heavy metals ions by microorganisms is an effective remediation measures (Chaalal et al. Y. 2005). with a favorable adsorption intensity value (>1).132 M. ion exchange. Some of the bacterial cells are single while others cluster together to form pairs. Khan and Islam 2006b). electrochemical techniques.7-10. Key Words: Tea-waste. Those include chemical precipitation. the adsorption process is attracted by many scientists because of the effectiveness for the removal of heavy metal from contaminated water.. and chemical reaction (CAPP. 2004). Zn. the uses of low cost materials as sorbent for metal removal from industrail waste water have been highlighted. ... distributions. and other components. The seperation of most of the heavy metals is very difficult due to their solubility in water that forms aqueous solutions (Hussein et al.44. Microorganisms could play a significant role in removing heavy metals (Chaalal et al. chains. with varying amounts of organic constituents. All the wet samples and the dry sample showed good performance and distinct capacity measurement either in Langmuir or in Freundlich Isotherm. There are several technologies to treat heavy metals in industrial water. Industrail Waste Water INTRODUCTION Industrial waste water contain heavy metals. 2005. 2005). which could pose several environmental threat .The bacteria are of mainly rod shaped (bacilli) and little ball shaped (cocci). Adsorbent. One of the major obstacles to remediate contaminated environments is the lack of our knowledge in understanding the behavior of microorganisms into an environmental context (Zhang et al. For that reason. fungus and yeasts. Mann of cocci. flotation. Ni finds their way to the aquatic environment (Azmal et al. can be harmful to aquatic life and human health. Mehedi and H. 2001). 1998). The discovery of novel microorganisms from natural environment is crucial for introducing alternative environmental tool to remediate contaminated environments.5 mg/gm.Through waters the major toxic metals such as Pb. Hg. rod shaped. The biogeochemical process in environment often relies on the origins.. prevent environmental degradation and enhance energy production. great effort has been contributed to develop new adsorbents and improve existing adsorbents.. Each method has its merits and limitations in application. filtration. More recently. Several industrial processes releases toxic metals and that ultimately turned as a hazrdous substances and enhance toxicity level to the fresh and marine biota and the environment as well. The concentration of the heavy metals in industrial waste water depends on the possible source and the quality of wastes. when present in sufficient quantity. biological process.
sodium . ZERO-WASTE LIVING ∞ ∆t HEAVY METALS (LEAD) Reduction of Amenities (-VE) TEA-WASTE Microbial Pollution (-VE) Nutrient enrichment (-VE) Biodegradation (-VE) Alteration of Habitats (-VE) Coastal erosion (-VE) Depletion of natural resources (-VE) Sedimentation (-VE) Environmentally appealing (+VE) Economically feasible (+VE) Socially responsible (+VE) Increase toxicity (-VE) Harmful for Aquatic organisms (-VE) Disruption of Food chain (-VE) Biomagnifications (-VE) Mortality of natural resources (-VE) Reduced fecundity (-VE) Jeopardize natural cycles (-VE) Figure 1. 2002) (+VE= Good. -VE=Bad) C HEMICAL C OMPOSITION OF B LACK T EA Tea is a popular beverage across the world due to the presence of polyphenols and methyl xanthenes. Turkish black tea-waste has been used as natural adsorbents to observe the growth of microganisms over time on its surface as well as any change in their quantity and quality. 2003 and Mustafiz et al.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 133 Lead is recognized and treated as highly toxic component that brings irreversible damage to humans and aquatic habitats (Ajmal et al. There has been increasing concern with regard to the treatment of lead from polluted water due to release of industrial wastes from different point and nonpoint sources. In addition. phosphorus. Fresh Turkish tea samples were analyzed as control. The influence of microbial diversity in removing lead from contaminated solution was also investigated over time. iron. The principle idea behind the rationales was to find out alternative natural means for the remediation of pollution from industrial waste water for the sustainable management of aquatic environment with broad view to achieve the principles of zero-waste living (Figure 1). Most of the treatment technologies use synthetic products as adsorbents that create secondary toxicity which are sometimes more toxic than original one and poses severe environmental consequences (Kim. 2003). The rationales embraced in the current paper are to develop inexpensive lead adsorbents for the treatment of industrail waste water. 1998). Black tea also contains minerals such as calcium.. Considering all the facts in to account in this paper. various compounds of tea aroma are used to enhance the temptation for a tea.. A step towards zero-waste living (Modified after Mustafiz.
The structure of black tea is shown in Fig.134 M. 2003). thearubigins. Mann potassium and vitamins such as A. and other oligomers. In manufacturing process. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and Epicatechin gallate (ECG) (UPASI. B1. Niacin & C besides the biochemical quality constituents such as amino acids and soluble sugars (Figure 2) (Chung and Wang 1996. The polyphenols work out to about 15-20% in the black tea and it comprises the catechin fractions such as Epigallo catechin (EGO). UPASI. thea-flavins. Major Constituents of Black Tea (Modified after Chung and Wang. 2003) (Figure 2). Chemical Structure of Black Tea (Chung and Wang 1996) . Y. B2. the monomeric flavan-3-ols undergo polyphenol oxidase-dependent oxidative polymerization leading to the formation of bisflavanols. 1996) Most of the chemicals are produced during processing of the tea leaves. Figure 3. Theaflavins constitutes benzotropolone rings with dihydroxy or trihydroxy substitution systems. 35 30 25 Theaf lavins Thearubigins Highploymerized substance Caf f eine 20 Total polyphenols A mino acids P rotein Lipid 15 Carbohydrates Moisture Gallic A cid E pigallo catechin 10 (+) Catechin E picatechin E pigallocatechin gallate E picatechin gallate 5 0 Units (%) Figure 2. +Catechin (+C). Epicatechin (EC). 3 (Chung and Wang 1996). that give the characteristic color and taste of black tea. Mehedi and H.
deionized water (DI) was used to wash the samples and dried at 55oC. The lead solution of each test-tube was measured for its equilibrium concentration after 24 hours.000 ppm. The lead solution was analyzed by a Spectra 55 B Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Hollw cathode lamps for lead were used in the atomic absorption spectrophotometer analysis in combination with air acetylene flame. The experiments were carried out at room temperature of 24°C. the stock solution was diluted using deionized water to prepare solutions of a wide range of initial concentrations. Fresh tea sample before used was also analyzed as controll to compare the results with tea-waste sample after use at different intervals. .Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 135 Tea flavanols may undergo oxidative condensation via either C-O or C-C bond formation in oxidative polymerization reactions during autoxidation or coupled oxidation. A stock-solution of 10. Also. oven dried tea-waste samples after use was treated as Run 3. The samples were collected and were stored in clean plastic bags. 1996). wet or dried. to note that. 20 ml of lead nitrate solution of different initial concentrations was placed in several test-tubes.000 ppm of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] was prepared in the laboratory. some tests were done at varying pH by using the buffer solutions (HCl or NaOH). samples of particular condition was placed in each testtube in the amount of 5 gm. Later. Plastic caps were used to cover the test-tube. a group of chemicals with large molecular weights and diverse structure (Chung and Wang. the test tubes were vigorously shaken in a reciprocating shaker to ensure the sample is well-mixed. which is assumed to be the period equilibrium has attained. Fresh tea samples were treated as Run 1. sometimes referred to as the bottle-point technique (Drostie. The wet tea-waste analyzed after 7. Some runs were duplicated to observe the reproducibility of the results. Tea-waste materials immediately after use was treated as Run 2. 22 and 30 days were treated as Run 4. One of the most important constituents of tea is tannin. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE Adsorbent The waste material of Turkish black tea was used as the adsorbent in the experiment. Run 5. the dry-wastes were grounded using a grinder and sieved thoroughly to make a homogeneous powder and stored into plastic bags. Adsorption Experiment The batch test. Then. depending on the state of the adsorbent. Run 6 and Run 7. 15. In every run. Tea-waste samples were dried in an oven after collection to measure its efficiency in dried conditions as well. fresh tea. Since the raw tea-waste samples collected were wet in nature. Later. they were used for the wet-tests at different intervals (7days). from 10 ppm to 10. The tea-waste samples were analyzed in 7 different states (Runs). 1997) was the method followed for all of the experiments. For the oven dried tea-waste experiment. According to Chung and Wang (1996) tea polyphenols have high affinity to metals.
the signal has to be processed by an analogue to digital converter. and a high resolution text monitor (Chaalal and Islam 2001) The image is visualized with the video camera though a microscopic lens. Then samples were spread over the surface of the slide with a glass rod as nonabsorbent sterile tool. 1999). With experience a user could perform all the image enhancements and make an accurate count as fast as or faster than using standard microbiological techniques. In addition. Their results show that numbers from the image analysis system match very closely with the microscopic enumeration. This method has several good points. Mann Preparation of Sample for Bacterial Analysis One drop of sample was put on a microscopic slide. threshold function. a high resolution image monitor. an Image Analysis System (IAS) was used. Na = (N1 + N2 + N3 + … + Nn) / n where. Axiovision software and KS300. a Pentium PC consists of two softwares. The signal from the video camera is in analogue from and must be digitized so the computer is able to store the image in the library. According to Livingston and Islam (1999) the image analysis system is one of the useful counting technique which can be used to count bacteria. edge detection. 2002). Counting was repeated for n points on the cover slide and the average there-of was used as the number of bacteria in each point. Therefore. In the analysis of bacterial concentrations 1 ml sample was used. The basic system consists of a high resolution video camera (Axio-Cam) mounted on an optical microscope with high magnification (1000x). the signal has to be converted into its analogue form in order for the image to be produced in the monitor. an image processor. Mehedi and H. Calculation the Concentration of Bacteria In order to count bacteria. The bacteria were then counted from the slide under glass cover slip. The imaging analyzer used in this research is a Zeiss 459310. However. Counting and Identifying Bacteria from Tea-Waste Samples In order to identify and count bacteria in this study. chord sizing. 1 drop of sample was placed on the glass slide and covered with a glass cover slip which is a rectangle with dimensions of 22 X 30 mm. Y. erosion and dilatation. transition filter.136 M. The image received from the area that covered by glass cover slip. a feature count is performed (Mustafiz. Na = Average bacteria count in each point Nn = Bacteria count in point n (by image analyzer) . 18 drop makes 1 ml of sample. The results can be reproduced at any time because the image analysis system stores the images and can be manipulated easily and stored indefinitely (Livingston and Islam. the IAS has the facility of sharpening. Once binary images are produced from an accepted microphotography.
10. Using such a pipette. As stated before. when necessary. The pipette used in this study is a Pasteur pipette. Therefore. each time. 20 and 25 points respectively (n = 5. bacteria count in each case was determined. Then according to the aforementioned method. Ncs = (Acs/Ap) Na Where. Finally. only 1 drop of sample is placed under the cover slide. . 15.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water n = Number of points in which bacteria have been counted 137 The average bacteria count in each point will then be multiplied by the ratio of the area of the cover slide to the area of the point (circle) to give the total bacteria count under the cover slide. N = Total bacteria count in the entire sample Vs = Total volume of the sample In order to determine the number of points (n) that correctly represent the total bacteria count under a cover slide. 15. Ncs = Number of bacteria under each cover slide Nml = 18 Ncs (1 ml = 18 drops of microbiology pipette) where. the total bacteria count in each cover slide will be converted to bacteria count per milliliter. 25). the following method was used: A 500 ml stock sample with tea-waste was stirred by a lab shaker for 10 hours. 1 ml of water will be 40 drops. Therefore: N = Vs . 10. The results are presented as of bacteria per ml of examined tea-waste sample. 1 drop of tea-waste sample was placed under a cover slide and 5 successive counts were done with 5. Ncs = Number of bacteria under each cover slide Acs = Area of the cover slide Ap = Area of each point. 20. the total bacteria count under each cover slide will be multiplied by 18 and then rounded to give the bacteria count in milliliter. Nml = Number of bacteria per ml Also. the total bacteria count in the entire sample could be determined and used by knowing the overall volume of the sample. Nml where.
if compared to other new adsorbents. Therefore.000 ppm initial lead nitrate solution (Figure 4). Removing efficiency increases as the initial concentrations increased. fly ash (Basu. the fresh tea showed better performance. The importance of this isotherm is it describes the relation between the amount of concentration of lead nitrate accumulated on tea-waste and the equilibrium concentration of dissolved lead nitrate. 2002). For this data range. where the coefficient of linear regression value (R2) was found as 0. Y. increases.138 M. 2005). The above mentioned waste materials have been reported to remove more than 80% of the contaminant such as lead and arsenic. the removal efficiency is found to be between 79% and 96%. the amount adsorbed was calculated 188. 1/Cf: . Typically. b a constant related to the affinity between the adsorbent and adsorbate and 1/b is known as the Langmuir adsorption factor (Figure 6). Therefore. When the equilibrium concentration was 5. such as fish scale (Mustafiz. Ci the initial concentration of the metal in the solution (mg/L).997. Mehedi and H. in recent years. the amount of contaminant adsorbed. In 10 ppm equilibrium concentration the amount adsorbed calculated was 0. The Langmuir model can also be expressed asQ = Q max Cf / (1/b+Cf) (2) Where Q max is the maximum metal uptake under the given conditions. Langmuir Isotherm The most important feature of conducting the batch test was to develop the adsorption isotherm graphs. Figure 5 presents the Langmuir isotherm for the fresh tea sample (Run 1). To draw the graph. Run 1: Fresh Tea before Use Fresh tea showed and excellent performance in removing lead from contaminated solutions. if dry or wet. of the sample in this section.40 mg/gm. Cf the final (equilibrium) concentration of the metal in the solution (mg/L) and m the amount of the added adsorbent (mg). About 96% of lead was removed in 10. Equation 2 is often re-expressed in linear form as by plotting 1/Q vs. it became easier to describe the trend by an equation.316mg/gm (Figure 5).000 ppm. the results of the fresh tea sample were analyzed according to the following equation: Q = v(Ci-Cf)/m (1) Where. Q is the metal uptake (mg metal per gm of adsorbent). with an increase in equilibrium concentration. v the liquid sample volume (ml).The initial concentration was varied from 10 ppm to 1000 ppm. Mann RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Batch Test The results from the experiments are described by the state. The removal efficiency increased as the initial concentrations increased.
which is common in case of best established adsorbents. Langmuir isotherm for Run 1 q .Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 1/Q= 1/Qmax [1/(b. The intercept of equation 3 represents the inverse of maximum adsorptive capacity (1/Qmax).Cf)+1] 139 (3) The advantage of such linear plot is that the adsorptive capacity and Langmuir adsorption factor can easily be measured. Removal of Lead (%) in Run 1 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 Ce 300 400 500 Figure 5. Therefore. the fresh tea sample showed an excellent adsorptive capacity in the test. Lead Removal (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial concentration (ppm) Figure 4. It is found that the intercept becomes favorable. The results from the Figure 6 showed a best-fitted data by a straight line similar to as described by Equation 3.
140 M.5 1 Log Ce 1.9265 R2 = 0. Equation 4 was linearized to determine the Freundlich parameters by plotting LogQ and LogCe.9544 Figure 7: Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm for Run 1 Freundlich isotherm Another commonly used adsorption isotherm is the Freundlich isotherm (Freundlich. Y.5 0 -1 -0.5 1 0. 1926)..3 0.4 0. which is expressed by the following empirical equationQ = KF.5 3 y = 0.1 0.5 0 0.5 1/q 2 1.7436x + 0.2 1/Ce y = 6.5 Figure 6.5 0 0 0.5 3 2.5 2 Log q 1.Ce 1/n where.9975 0. equation 4 appears as: (4) . In linear form. Mehedi and H. Mann 3. Ce=equilibrium concentration (mg/L) KF= a Freundlich constant. which can be shown in Figure 11.0196 R2 = 0. indicator of adsorption capacity KF and n are known to be the Freundlich constants that correlate to the maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity respectively (Hussein et al. Linearized form of Langmuir isotherm for Run 1 3 2.5 1 0.5 2 2.6485x + 0. Q= uptake of metal (mg/gm). 2004).
2919. Run 2: Wet Tea-Waste Sample Immediately after Use Figure 8 shows the effect of wet tea-waste in removing lead contaminant. The inverse of the slope of the straight line determines the intensity of adsorption (n). a best-fit straight line is drawn. so the adsorption appears to be favorable. wet tea-waste can be considered a significantly important and effective adsorbent as some well-known adsorbents are already proven to be more effective. 2005).Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water Log Q = Log kF +1/n Log Ce 141 (5) In Figure 7. a best-fit straight line is drawn. the value of n is larger than 1. KF is found favourable. and the Freundlich constant. This value is found to be very significant. Also. The removal efficiency increases as the initial concentration increases except in few instances like the initial concentration of 40 and 200 ppm (Figure 8). 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial Concentration (ppm) Figure 8: Lead Removal (%) for Run 2 Lead Removal (%) . which all together determines the adsorption process is very favorable. zeolite (154. which all together determines the adsorption process is very favorable. If such is the capacity. Also. the value of n is larger than 1. the value of KF is high. The inverse of the slope of the straight line determines the intensity of adsorption (n). For example. Typically. which is 1. so the adsorption appears to be also favorable in case of wet tea-waste samples (immediately after use).4 mg/gm) and fish scale (80 mg/gm) are reported to work effectively in removing lead cation( Basu. granular activated carbon (30 mg/gm). The removal efficiency varies between 57 and 92 %. and the Freundlich constant. which is 1. In langmuir isotherm graph (Figure 9) the wet-waste samples also showed good performance in removing heavy metals. At 10000 initial lead nitrate solution the maximum adsorptive capacity was 370 mg/gm. KF is found significant. Typically. About 92% of lead was removed at 10000 ppm initial concentrations of lead nitrate solutions. modified pit (90-130 mg/gm). the value of KF is high.3448. In Figure 11. The fresh tea showed better performance than wet tea-waste samples (Run 1).
1 1/Ce 0.5 0 y = 17.5 4 3.05 0.5 1 0.142 M.5 3 2.2013 R2 = 0.934x .5 1 0.2 0.7074x + 1.5 1 Log Ce 1.5 2 2.5 3 2.15 0. Y.0948 R2 = 0. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm for Run 2 .5 3 y = 0.5 2 1. Mehedi and H.5 0 0. Mann 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 Ce 600 800 q Figure 9: Langmuir isotherm for Run 2 5 4.5 0 -0.974 1/q 0.25 Figure 10.5 0 -1 -0.9787 Figure 11.0.5 Log q 2 1. Linearly rearranged Langmuir isotherm for Run 2 3.
4 mg/gm.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 143 Run 3. a linearized isotherm was plotted (Figure 14). The capacity. Figure 15 was used to estimate the adsorption intensity and Freundlich adsorption . which is often described as the Langmuir adsorption factor. 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial Concentration (ppm) Figure 12: Lead removal (%) for Run 3 q Lead Removal (%) 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 Ce 600 800 Figure 13. This value is found to be significant. the dry tea-waste can be considered a significantly important and effective adsorbent as some wellknown effective and proven adsorbents. This capacity is based on the the intercept in Figure 18. 94 % of lead was removed at 10000 ppm of lead nitrate solutions. which is displayed in Figure 13. The removal efficiency increases as the initial concentration of lead nitrate solutions increases (Figure 12). Several trials to best-fit the equation indicate that considering the intercept and R2 values result showed an excellent performance in removing lead. To measure the adsorptive capacity of the dried sample. The oven dried samples showed a better performance than the wet tea-waste samples. Similar to Figure 9. the Langmuir isotherm is also drawn for the dried sample. Langmuir isotherm for Run 3 Results show that the adsorptive capacity is 376. The removal efficiency varied between 68 and 94. Figure 13 shows the Langmuir Isotherm model for the dried tea-waste samples. Dry Tea-Waste Samples Immediately after Use In Run 3 the oven dried tea-waste samples showed that the effect of dry tea-waste in removing lead contaminant is significant. The graph also gives the value of 1/b. A comparison between Figure 13 and Figure 9 demonstrates that the dried sample adsorb little better than the wet samples.
05 0.5 1 0.5 3 y = 0.971 Figure 14.Linearly rearranged Langmuir isotherm for lead on wet tea-waste samples (after 7 days) were plotted (Figure 18).5 0 -0.0.5 1/q 2 1.9734 Figure 15.5 Log q 2 1. KF is found to be .35 y = 10. Mehedi and H. the value of n is higher than 1. In Langmuir isotherm graph (Figure 17) the wet tea-waste samples (after 7 days) also showed good performance in removing heavy metals.0185 R2 = 0.25 0.144 M. Y.5 2 2.5 0 -1 -0. With regard to removal efficiency in Run 4 the same trend was observed as the removal efficiency increases with the initial concentration of lead nitrate solutions increased.15 1/Ce 0.5 3 2.5 0 0.1 0. From the calculation of Freundlich isotherm.705x . Linearized form of Langmuir isotherm for Run 3 3. 4 3. Mann factor.5 1 0.384. The value of n was 1.5 1 Log Ce 1. However.0. oven dried sample indeed was found to be more effective. Since. The result showed favorable condition in the removal process. in compare to their respective values for the wet sample (immediately after use). it would be more appropriate to describe the adsorption process as favorable. (Figure 19) the intensity of adsorption (n).18 mg/gm). At 10000 initial lead nitrate solutions the maximum adsorptive capacity was observed (373. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm for Run 3 Run 4: Wet Samples after 7 Days Figure 16 shows the effect of wet tea-waste samples (7 days after collection) in removing lead contaminant.0473 R2 = 0. and the Freundlich constant.7222x + 1. The removal efficiency varied between 61 and 93 %. About 93 % of lead was removed at 10000 ppm of lead nitrate solutions (Figure 16).387. Result showed a little better performance than the wet tea-waste samples right after collection.5 3 2.3 0.5 0 0. which is 1.2 0.
5 1 0.1 0.2 0.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 145 favorable. the value of n is larger than 1.5 0 -0.5 2 1. the value of KF (>1) is high.15 1/Ce 0. Linearly rearranged Langmuir isotherm for Run 4 . which all together determines the adsorption process is favorable. Langmuir isotherm for Run 4 4. Typically.05 0. 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial Concentration (ppm) Figure 16. Also.25 0.9401 Figure 18.3 1/q Lead Removal (%) y = 14. so the adsorption appears to be also favorable in case of wet tea-waste samples (7 days after collection). Lead removal (%) for Run 4 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 Ce 600 800 q Figure 17.065x .0.0933 R2 = 0.5 3 2.5 0 0.5 4 3.
413) and the value of KF was very effective.000 ppm initial concentration the amount adsorbed was 200mg/gm.9734 Figure 19. The result showed the amount of lead adsorbed increased with the increase of equilibrium concentrations.146 M. The coefficient of linear regression value (R2) was found as 0. Y.28mg/gm).5 3 y = 0. Mehedi and H. At 10. Linearized form of Langmuir Isotherm was also plotted (Figure 22) to estimate the intercept.000 ppm initial concentrations (Figure 20). Figure 23 was plotted to estimate the adsorption intensity and Freundlich adsorption factor.7208x + 1. At 10.The result showed a favorable intercept value.5 2 2.5 1 Log Ce 1. therefore the adsorption process appears to be favorable. As the e value of n is greater than 1.5 1 0.1045 R2 = 0. About 95 % of lead was removed at 10.5 3 2.000 ppm initial concentrations the adsorption capacity was maximum (374mg/gm).949) value is also very significant. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm for Run 4 Run 5: Wet Samples after 15 Days Removal efficiency increases as usual with the increase of initial concentrations. The R2 (0. In 10 ppm initial concentration the adsorption capacity was minimum (0. The intensity value (n) of adsorption was found higher than 1 (1. So from the above graph we can easily say that the adsorption is very effective and favorable.949. L e a d R e m o v a l (% ) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial concentration (ppm) Figure 20.5 0 -1 -0. Mann 3.5 0 0. Removal efficiency (%) for Run 5 .5 Log q 2 1.
0551 R2 = 0.5 3 2.5 4 3.5 1 Log Ce 1. Linearized form of Langmuir isotherm for for Run 5 3.15 1/Ce 0. Except 200 ppm initial concentration the removal efficiency increases as the concentration increased (Figure 24).5 3 y = 0.5 3 2.0.5 0 -1 -0. 95% of lead was removed at 10000 ppm of initial concentrations.2 0.25 0. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm Model for Run 5 Run 6: Wet Tea-Waste Samples after 22 Days The removal efficiency increases after 22 days within the range between 72-95%.7077x + 1.35 1/q y = 11.5 0 0.5 0 -0.9628 .0706 R2 = 0. Figure 23.5 1 0.3 0.5 Log q 2 1.5 2 1. Langmuir isotherm Model for Run 5 4.9494 Figure 22.712x . The maximum adsorption capacity was 382.5 1 0.1 0.5 2 2.5 0 0.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 147 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 Ce 400 500 600 q Figure 21.31 mg/gm (Figure 25).05 0. The adsorption capacity is .
The value was found to be suitable for effective adsorption. The adsorption capacity was found to be increased with the increase initial concentrations (Figure 25). From the interpretation of the graph the R2 value was found as 0. The samples analyzed after 22 days also showed good results in Freundlich isotherm model.354. The value of n is 1. Lead Removal (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial Concentration (ppm) Figure 24: Lead removal (%) for Run 6 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 Ce 300 400 500 Figure 25. The R2 value is 0. Y. Mann considered to be very effective.9502.To calculate the R2 and the intercept value Linearized form of Langmuir Isotherm was also plotted (Figure 26). Like the value of n the KF value was also significant.148 M. So considering the values it can be mentioned that the adsorption process is favorable (Figure 27). Langmuir isotherm for Run 6 q . Mehedi and H.9599.
.0.5x . Linearized form of langmuir isotherm Model for Run 6 3 2. The adsorption capacity varied between 0. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm for Run 6 Run 7: Wet Tea-Waste Samples after 30 Days With the increase concentration of bacteria after 30 days the removal efficiency also increased.5 3 y = 0.3124 and 387.5 0 0. The result showed the value of n (1.5 2 2.945 R2 = 0.3 0.5 1 Log Ce 1.948. Similar to other runs the removal efficiency increased as the initial concentration increased (Figure 28).05 0.5 2 Log q 1. Result showed an excellent performance in Langmuir.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 149 4 3.Figure 29 shows the Langmuir isotherm model for the wet samples after 30 days.0503 R2 = 0.25 0.5 0 0.5 1 0.5 1/q 2 1.Figure 30 shows linearized form of Langmuir isotherm R2 value is 0.35 0. Again highest removal efficiency has occurred at 10000 ppm of initial concentration.15 0.4 y = 8. The intercept value is significant that means the adsorption efficiency is favorable (Figure 30).2 1/Ce 0. This graph was used to calculate the adsorption intensity and Freundlich adsorption factor.5 mg/gm.9599 Figure 27. The removal efficiency varied between 78 and 97%.5 1 0. The highest adsorption capacity occurred during 10000 ppm of initial concentrations.359) is higher than 1 (Figure 31).5 0 -1 -0. Figure 31 shows the linearized form of Freundlich isotherm.7382x + 0.1 0. Similar to all Freundlich Isotherm runs.9502 Figure 26.5 0 -0.5 3 2.
Mehedi and H.5 y = 6.5 0 0 0. Y.2 1/Ce 0. Removal of lead (%)for Run 7 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 Ce 300 400 Figure 29.0151 R2 = 0.5 1/q 2 1.0.150 M. Linearized form of Langmuir isotherm for Run 7 q .1624x .4 0.5 1 0.3 0.1 0. Langmuir isotherm model for Run 7 3.5 3 2. Mann Lead Removal (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 Initial Concentration (ppm) Figure 28.948 Figure 30.
for the initial condition of 30 ppm.5 2 Log q 1. basic environment: 10. the adsorption of lead on tea-waste at different pH was measured. Equilibrium c onc e ntration.5 3 Figure 31. The acidity is found to reduce the performance of the tea-waste in adsorbing the cations.Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 151 3 2. However. the difference in results was not significant.44.5 1 Log Ce y = 0.8622 R2 = 0.7.5 1 0.5 0 0. Figure 32 shows the results at different pH condition.5M hydrochloric acid (HCl) depending on if acidic or basic of the solution was desired. Only one set having an initial concentration of 30 ppm was investigated in this research. Linearized form of Freundlich isotherm Model Run 7 Effect of pH To observe the effect of pH. Effect of pH on lead adsorption on wet tea-waste . The mixture was adjusted to various pH values by using 0. It is observed that a basic environment worked better than the normal environment in removing lead cations.9445 1.5M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or 0. The following pH prevailed during the experiment: acidic environment: 3.7368x + 0.5 0 -1 -0.5 2 2. C e (ppm ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 normal acid Contaminant environment basic Figure 32.8 and neutral environment: 6.
Mann Microbial Influence Types of Microorganisms Mostly cocci shaped bacteria was observed in the study. paecilomyces. syncephalastrum has been observed. fusarium.152 M. Sometime chains of joint bacteria have been reported. Appearance of some common molds such as alternaria. molds and yeasts could be observed. Rod shaped bacteria found adhered to the tea leaves (Fig 33). cunninghamella. Some bacilli are curved into a form resembling a comma (Figure 33c). In few runs the samples contain hyphae. (Continued) (d) Yeast. penicilium. helminthosporium. In most samples rod and bacilli bacteria are almost common. filamentous and rods Figure 33. In some cases clusters of bacteria has been observed (Fig 33c). Y. In few analysis diploid cells and protozoa (Heteronema ) are found. Mehedi and H. filamentous bacteria . aspergillus. (a)Filamentous bacteria (b)Rods and cocci (c) Cocci.
There are hyphae on the surface of tea-waste indicating that mold is presnt. They are single cells. Molds: Woolly. they are relatively large. branching. .Tea-Wastes as Adsorbents for the Removal of Lead from Industrial Waste Water 153 (e) Rods bacteria (f) Rods and filamentous bacteria Figure 33. Cell Count At Different Intervals Concentrations of microorganisms were increased over the period of experiment (Figure 34). Bacterial concentration in wet tea-waste samples. The hyphae of mold colony grows as an intertwined mass of filaments collectively called a mycelium (Figure 33f). During the whole period of investigation concentration increases with time. in the shape of filaments (Figure 33d). Concentrations of bacteria (Bacterial 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 S am pl e 1 S am pl e 2 S am pl e 3 S am pl e 4 S am pl e 5 S am pl e 6 S am pl e 7 colonies/ml) Samples Figure 34. As compared with bacteria. Microphotographs of bacterial colonies (1000 magnification) Yeast cells: Some cells are bigger than bacteria and had been observed during the experiment. hair-like filaments called hyphae observed in most of the samples.
Different species of microorganisms that adheres to the surface of tea leaves proves that it is indeed a potential surface for bacterial growth and it plays a significant influence in enhancing the adsorption efficiency in removing heavy metals from polluted water (Figure 35). we should consider this . Result showed after 30 days 97% of lead was removed with the increased microbial concentrations. Furthermore. Bacteria played an additional role in the removal process. The removal efficiency increases in wet tea-waste samples over times. considering the low cost and better adsorptive capacity of tea-waste.154 M. Microbial concentration was increased over the time which showed that the microbial activities influences the removal process.dried tea-waste and wet tea-waste) had different removal rate. Tea leaves provided essential surface for the bacterial growth. Mann Concentration of Bacteria and its Influence in Lead Removal The Turkish black tea-waste samples were analyzed simultaneously to measure its efficiency in removing lead from contaminated water and to find out additional bacterial influence along with tea-waste in removing lead from contaminated solutions. The adsorption of lead ions on tea-waste in different conditions (fresh tea. depending on the concentration of initial lead nitrate solutions and the presence of bacteria. Mehedi and H. Lead removal efficiency (%) in different Run CONCLUSION From the above results and discussions we can conclude that Turkish black tea-waste is an effective adsorbent and provides potential implications to treat industrial waste water. Result showed that over time with the increase in microbial concentrations adsorption efficiency increases. Lead Removal (%) 98 96 94 92 90 88 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Run 5 Run 6 Run 7 Samples Figure 35. Dried tea-waste performed efficiently in removing lead ion compared to wet tea-waste samples. discharged from land based and other sources with regard to removal of lead ions. Results showed there is a little influence of pH during the process of adsorption. Y.
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com/Contents/Issue_1/6/6_2001. M. Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions. Rahman. Zhao. S and Godievargova. M. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-HighPressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.. Available on < http://www. Mann Kim. T. The removal by crab shell of mixed heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. M. 21. 2003. D.156 M.6 p 3213-3227 ..A. and Zhang. Xu. D.S Thesis Faculty of Engineering.. Y. Mihova. The application of the fish scales in removing heavy metals from energy-produced waster streams: the role of microbes.S. Available on < http://www. UPASI. Tango. Dalhousie University 150pp. 2003. 2006).. 2000/1. v 24. India . No. Technical Report UPASI Tea Research Foundation Niar Dam BPO. Energy Source. Mustafiz. Valparai. and Numerical Simulation of Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminants.. R. R. A Novel Method for Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Streams. . J. 113-129.. Issue 1 . Z. Zhang. Laboratory Modeling.ejournalnet.htm>.. (1999). Mehedi and H. Vol.(accessed on April 30. D. S. Islam. Dong.upasitearesearch. pp 355-357.2007). pp. G. and Islam.. Livingston R. p 905-916. 2003. 2002. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. v 87. n 3. vol. May. Kelly. (accessed on August 26. M. C. S. Field Study. 2005.. Journal of International Research Publications. Energy Sources. S. Bioresource Technology. H. Mustafiz. 2000. M.org>. 71.
in which the other parameters are kept constant. Dalhousie University. even if they are not realistic with current knowledge. ∗ Corresponding author: Tel. The parameters involved in a natural phenomenon are not independent of each other and the variation of each of them causes others to be affected. Islam Department of Civil and Resource Engineering. pp. therefore. In this paper. This poses the problem of inherently wrong formulation of a problem. This is because time is a space and time is also irreversible. Mousavizadegan. Adomian Decomposition method. From the study it can be inferred that a phenomenon with only two variables produces more than one solution and. The natural phenomena are chaotic-not in conventional sense of being arbitrary and/or unpredictable. Fax: +1-902-494-6526. knowledge dimension. we are unaware of the equations that truly govern natural phenomena and also the procedures to obtain multiple solutions. Often several key simplifications are posed to eliminate nonlinearities and find a numerical description of a natural phenomenon. polynomials.ca (S. Inc. imaginary roots. At present. Email address: mustafiz@dal. Keywords: Nonlinearity. Rafiqul Islam. Mustafiz∗ and M. 157-175 ISBN: 978-1-60456-069-5 © 2008 Nova Science Publishers. The number of solutions depends on the degree of nonlinearity of the equation. R. Mustafiz) .:+1-902-494-3217. Chapter 6 MULTIPLE SOLUTIONS IN NATURAL PHENOMENA S. It is shown that they produce multiple solutions. several polynomials and simultaneous equations of two variables are applied as a model for a natural phenomenon. S. but in the sense that they always produce multiple solutions and show no reproducibility.In: Perspectives on Sustainable Technology Editor: M. H. a multi-variable phenomenon surely has multiple solutions. Canada ABSTRACT Nature is nonlinear and all natural phenomena are multidimensional.
the term. The mathematical conditions are usually referred to as the constitutive relationships. Mustafiz and M. . The most general equations in fluid mechanics are the Navier-Stokes equations. the above requirement of zero size must apply. We are unaware of the mathematical model that truly simulates a natural phenomenon. For any variable to be continuous in space. The general development of the set of governing equations always proceeds the same way for any material. and very strong. For a variable to be continuous in time. The assumption of linear stress-rate of strain relationship is as aphenomenal (Zatzman and Islam. restriction used is a linear stressrate of strain relationship. a further. density. Mousavizadegan. are piecewise continuous functions of space and time. Khan and Islam. a problem is forced to have a single solution ignoring the possibility of having multiple solutions. not all of the available methods are capable of predicting multiple solutions. 2006) as the steady state assumption. The assumptions in derivation the Navier-Stokes equation are: • • • The fluid is a continuum. temperature etc. The combination of these two sets of relationships is called the field equations which are the differential equations. In addition. there is not a single Newtonian fluid. The last step is to combine these constitutive relations with the local form of the balance equations. Both space and time domains are continuous and must extend to infinity for ‘conservation of mass’ to hold true. The fields of interest such as pressure. For instance. It is asserted that the ‘laws’ are true and the problems become that of solving the constitutive relationship of the ‘law’. there cannot be any continuity. The nonlinearity is related to the interaction and inclusion of different parameters involved in a physical problem. In fact. a systematic method for determining multiple solutions is limited to three variables. For examples. there are many models that describe different fluid flows. The available models are based on several assumptions. A set of conservation laws is usually applied in integral form to a finite mass of material. the notion of ‘piecewise’ is absurd. In this way. These equations are then converted to a local form and are cast in the form of partial differential equations. governing the material of interest. 2006. the next step is to specify the material response. In reality. mathematical tools available today cannot solve non-linear problems beyond trivial ones. there should be no boundary. momentum. H. it has been a common practice to linearize the problems in order to render them ‘solvable’. in which the time dimension is eliminated.. There is not a single linear object in nature. R. and energy. Islam INTRODUCTION All mathematical models of the real physical problems are nonlinear. let alone a linear relationship. it indicates that we deal with a continuous matter. In fact. until now. Because. S. The fluid is Newtonian. In the above. ‘continuous’ means. velocity. In order to close the system. non-linear power-law equations do not undo the information imbedded in Newtonian fluids equations. Typical ‘laws’ express the conservation of mass. unless the size of the constitutive particles is zero. These differential equations cannot be solved in a general way for the details of the material motion. Note that none of the above assumptions can be remediated by invoking non-linear form to an equation. Even quarks are not continuous.158 S.
. The existence of multiple roots in isothermal ternary alloys was discovered by Coates and Kirkaldy (1971) and was further explored by (Maugis et Al. The solution for a turbulent flow is usually obtained based on the Navier-Stokes equations that are not developed for such a flow. followed by solutins of a linear matrix. was analogous to the isothermal ternary system. The existence of multiple solutions in natural processes has been recognized by Islam and Nandakumar (1986) and later expanded by Islam and Nandakumar (1990). which involved only the composition of the feed and the permeability of the membrane. Recently. the conditions turned to be simpler and were expressed through equations. The author discussed conditions of the occurrence of multiple solutions when the mole fraction of a component with intermediate permeability was specified as a design variable. in material processing operations. The existence of multiple solutions was investigated in separation technology using membrane separators by Tiscareno-Lechuga (1999). on the other hand. These results corresponded to significantly different temperature and composition profiles. except that the phases were then solid and liquid and temperature played the role of one of the components of the ternary. The equation was transferred to an ordinary differential equation using the similarity technique and the existence of multiple similarity solutions for the solidification/melting problem was noticed. The number of solutions depends on the degree of the . Numerical techniques. Coriell et Al. (1998) continued investigation of one-dimensional similarity solutions during solidification/melting of a binary alloy. (1996). which depend on the pathway. Nixon (1989) also found that a vorticity flux on the airfoil surface can enhance the appearance of multiple solutions. The occurrence of multiple solutions in solving the TSD-Euler equation was examined by Nixon (1989) and it was found that such solutions exist for a small range of Mach numbers and airfoil thicknesses. These led the researchers to find a population of solutions and search for and obtain multiple set of input variable. to some extent. All analytical methods impose linearization by dropping nonlinear terms. We also observe the presence of multiple solutions. the conventional method of numerical solution was combined with a real number genetic algorithm (GA). impose linearization through discretization (Taylor series expansion). which is most often accomplished by neglecting terms or by imposing a fictitious boundary condition. Their study.Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 159 A general model that explains completely the fluid motion and describes the nonlinearity due to the turbulence and chaotic motion of a fluid flow has not been developed so far. all of which gave the desired specific output. We take into account some bivariate polynomials of different degree as a token-model for a natural phenomenon. The numerical description is also found based on some simplification and linearization during the solution process. In this approach. Islam et al. The diffusivity equation was used to express the variation of temperature and concentration of fluid and solid in time and space. It is assumed that the other contributing parameters of the model of the bivariate polynomial are constant. and others. further linearization is involved during solution schemes (Mustafiz et al. After the first linearization of the process itself by imposing ‘laws’ to forcibly describe natural phenomena. The existence of multiple solutions can be found in numerous problems. (1992). 2006). When the pressure in the permeate chamber was significantly lower than that of the rententate. a computational procedure to find the multiple solutions of convective heat transfer was proposed by Mishra and DebRoy (2005).
opinions. It is understandable that as we reduce the number of assumptions. The mathematical simulation is obtained by finding the governing equation and the internal relationship between the parameters involved. any attempt to find the truth greatly relies on how closely these factors are addressed. KNOWLEDGE DIMENSION Dimensions provide the existence and imagination of the universe. which exist in objects. It may be considered as the second dimension of the knowledge dimension.160 S. theories. space. If we consider a pure material and plot the curve for melting or freezing of it in a certain pressure. . The multi-dimensionality is another aspect of the knowledge dimension. it may let that independent knowledge to enter. We also proposed a new scheme to show the feasibility of generating multiple solutions. Knowledge is a dimension for phenomena and may be possible to measure it by bits of information. It does not have time. which is a very powerful method for solution of nonlinear equations can not produce multiple solutions. Islam nonlinearity of the polynomial. It may be defined as the elements or factors making up a complete personality or entity. Knowledge can be obtained through the physical and/or mathematical simulation of a phenomenon. H. Each dimension is naturally independent and. it is not possible to obtain a complete physical simulation and. However. The solutions are obtained using the Newton’s method and presented in graphical form for a limited region. therefore. Because any phenomenon is affected by a number of factors. we reach closer to the truth. knowledge is increased if the pathway of nature is followed. date. In many cases. Knowledge explains the physical properties (which are observable and measurable). This multi-dimensionality of the knowledge dimension indicate that there may be also be a range of solutions for a specific phenomenon due to the fact that there are different factors contribute to that phenomenon. It is observed that the description of any physical phenomenon involves a number of assumptions. as knowledge cannot be retracted and it cannot regress. R. kinematical and dynamical scaling up or down of a problem. These indicate that there is no limitation or beginning and end for the knowledge dimension. there is a constant temperature during the freezing or melting process. history. the experimental results are based on several assumptions. As the time is passed. for instance. S. The physical simulation is carried out by geometrical. Information can be lead to increasing knowledge if proper science (science of nature) is used. Mustafiz and M. This process is onedimensional. Some nonlinear simultaneous equations are also taken into account and the solutions of them are obtained with the Newton and Adomian decomposition methods (ADM). mass and energy. The dimensions are unique (each dimension has unique properties that makes it different from others). events or facts. codependent (the dimensions are equally dependent to each other for their existence) and transcendence (dimensions have the ability of extending or lying beyond what would otherwise be able to do). etc. The next step is the consciousness. Mousavizadegan. which is knowledge of the knowledge. Our objective is to show that conventional techniques do not generate multiple solution. Knowledge is synonymous to truth and reflects information about the properties. therefore. ADM.
2005. Another interesting point is that during the freezing and melting process the concentrations of the equilibrium liquid or solid phases are changing and varying in a certain range dependent on the final concentration of liquid or solid state. The number of solution for such a function depends on the nonlinearity of that function. Temperature Weight percent of component B Figure 1. Example 1 The first polynomial is a third degree bivariate polynomial. 2002. the freezing or melting process is take place in a range of temperature that is depend on the composition of the alloy and the pressure. These polynomiald are a third. This is because we do not know the governing equation for that phenomenon. The phase diagram for an isomorphous alloy.. dependent on the number and the behavior of involved parameters. Thus. when we refer to 100% pure. is taken into account. which consists of an arbitrary composition of components A and B.. In fact. It also indicates that if we can represent the natural data as a polynomial function at any given time. Bjorndalen et al. we can determine the roots. This is more pronounced for an alloy of more components. 2006). as shown in Figure 1. it refers to detectionable limit of the analytical method used. There are many situations that the variation of parameters involved in a natural phenomenon is approximated with a polynomial function (Bjorndalen. we are dealing with a range of temperature instead of a constant temperature. There are also roots that are not real. We take into account three bivariate polynomials and solve them for all possible roots. all of which should be considered for reporting some natural phenomena. roots including the imaginary ones are considered as the multiple solutions. two forth and a fifth degree polynomials with two variables x and y. There should be a population of solutions for a problem related to a natural phenomenon. Therefore. If an isomorphous alloy. 4 y 3 − 3 y 2 − 2 y + 2 = −5 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 3 x + 1 (1) .Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 161 there is no pure substance. All of the roots of such a polynomial indicate that we should expect different solutions regardless of the physical significance of them. Mustafiz et al.
while in Figure 4. These are depicted in Figures 3 when the variable y is a fixed real number. At most two real roots for the variable y can be obtained if x has a real value. H. A complex number consists of a real part and an imaginary part. It does not have four real roots for the variable y for a fixed real value of x. . The graph of a third degree polynomial. Figure 2. some of which may not be tangible. this polynomial should have four roots for each constant value of the variables. 5 to 7. it was understood that the only real part describing the real world.162 S. it is plotted for a fixed real value of x. the polynomial has three complex roots at each constant real value of x and y. R. It does not mean that the intangible solutions are not natural. In general. The real roots of the bivariate polynomial are depicted in Figure 2. Islam The solution of this third degree polynomial is shown in Figures 2 to 4. In general. This polynomial gives three real roots in a limited range of x and y. S. control theory. Example 2 The second example is a fourth degree polynomial. However. The later applications of the complex number in different brunch of sciences such as quantum mechanics. Four real roots for x can be found four real roots in a limited range of the variable y. Mustafiz and M. 5 y 4 + 4 y 3 − 3 y 2 − 2 y + 2 = 6 x 4 − 5x3 − 4 x 2 + 3x − 2 (2) The roots of the fourth degree polynomial are given in Figs. This figure indicates that with such a simple nonlinear problem we are dealing with a population of solutions. fluid dynamics and signal analysis reveal that nature has no preference for the real number and the imaginary part being just as physical as the real part. These roots can not be shown in a single graph. Mousavizadegan. In many cases.
6 4 2 Imag. The roots of the third degree polynomial for a fixed real value of γ. part 0 -2 Real part 6 4 2 0 -2 Imag. part 6 4 2 0 -2 "a" -4 -6 -6 -4 -6 -6 "b" -4 . 6 4 2 Imag. The roots of the third polynomial for a fixed real value of χ. .66 - -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 4. part 6 4 2 0 -2 "a" -4 -6 -6 -4 -6 -6 "b" -4 -6 -6 "c" -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 3. part 0 -2 Real part 6 4 2 0 -2 Imag.
This indicates that all of the contributing parameters in a natural phenomenon are dependent on each other.±4. Example 3 The next example is a fifth degree polynomial.±5. The solution for these systems of nonlinear function is obtained mostly by the numerical methods. These may be explained with some nonlinear simultaneous equations. 6 y 6 + 5 y 4 + 4 y 3 + 3 y 2 + 2 y + 1 = 7 x 5 + 6 x 4 + 5 x3 + 4 x 2 + 3x + 2 (3) The real roots of this polynomial are depicted in Figures 8 to 10.±1. The graph of the real value of the first fourth degree polynomial.±1.±3.±4. the restriction of the applied method may limit in obtaining all of the solutions possible. The same graphs are shown for the roots of the forth degree polynomial in Figure 7. respectively. All of the imaginary roots for y = 0. The variation of a parameter causes other parameters to be affected and prescribes some changes during the process. in many cases. R. H. We also applied . S. This fifth degree polynomial has a real root for every real value of x and y.±2. The main restriction of this method is that the initial value for starting the iteration should be near the exact solution. Islam Figure 5. If the initial guess is far from the exact solution it may result in a divergent iterations.±2.±5.±3.±5 are given in Figure 6. Mustafiz and M. Mousavizadegan. All roots of the polynomial are shown in the complex planes in Figures 9-a and 10-a for y.±2. The figures show that each two of the four complex roots are complex conjugate. However.164 S. for which x = 0.±4.±3.±1. x = 0. The well known method in solution of nonlinear algebraic and simultaneous equations is the Newton method.
part 6 4 2 0 -2 "a" -4 -66 -4 -6 -6 "b" -4 -6 -6 "c" -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 6. The roots of the first fourth degree polynomial for a fixed real value of γ.6 4 2 Imag. 6 4 2 Imag. part 6 4 2 0 -2 "a" -4 -66 -4 -6 -6 "b" -4 -6 -6 "c" -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 7. . The roots of the first fourth degree polynomial for a fixed real value of χ. part Real part 0 -2 6 4 2 0 -2 Imag. part Real part 0 -2 6 4 2 0 -2 Imag.
.2.. Mustafiz and M.  to discuss the limitations of ADM for partial differential equations and Mustafiz et al.. Adomian (1923-1996). j i =0 ∞ and i = 1..2. x n ) = 0 and i = 1.. The graph of the real roots of the fifth degree polynomial.166 S.....  to solve the Buckley-Leverett equation with the effect of the capillary pressure.. A simultaneous algebraic equation with n independent variables is taken into account. n (4) Each equation can be solved for an independent variable as xi = ai + g i ( x1 . x n ) and i = 1. It may written that f i ( x1 . THE ADOMIAN DECOMPOSITION METHOD IN SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR SIMULATANEOUS EQUATIONS The Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) is a powerful method that can be used to obtain the solutions of systems of nonlinear simultaneous equations.. Mousavizadegan.. R. x 2 . G.. H...2... Islam Figure 8.. The ADM solution is obtained in a series form while the nonlinear term is decomposed into a series in which the terms are calculated recursively using Adomian polynomials. n (5) The solution may be expressed as a series solution as xi = ∑ xi ... S. The method is well addressed in Mousavizadegan et al. ADM was first proposed by a North American physicist. x 2 . n (6) .
The roots of the fifth degree polynomial for a fixed real value ofχ. part "b" -4 -6 -6 0 -2 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -6 "c" -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 10. 6 4 2 Imag.6 4 2 Imag.66 - "b" -4 -6 -6 "c" -4 -2 0 Real part 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Figure 9. part 0 -2 6 4 2 0 -2 "a" -4 -66 -4 . part Real part 0 -2 6 4 2 Imag. The roots of the fifth degree polynomial for a fixed real value of γ. . part Real part 0 -2 "a" -4 -6 -6 6 4 2 Imag.
0 . MATLAB is used to compute the elements of Ai . Mousavizadegan. + x n−1.0 .0 .0 .0 2 2 ∂x n ∂ x1 x1. ∞ for These are the first three elements of the Adomian polynomials...0 ..0 ) + ∂x 1 x 2 ∂x 1 x n ∂2 ∂2 g i (x1... 2 g i (x1.0 ) + . .m is obtained by using the Adomian polynomial that is given in the following form... x 2....0 .. x 2.0 .0 .. x 2.0 ) + .. 2 = Ai .1 2 2 i 1. x n.k . Mustafiz and M. (8) The term Ai ..1 g i (x1.. x 2.. ∂2 ∂2 g i (x1.. x n.. x n... Ai ..0 ) + .0 ... x 2 ...0 .k ⎟⎥ ⎟ k =0 ∞ ∞ ⎞⎤ ⎠⎥ λ =0 ⎦ i = 1.. xi .0 ) + x1..0 ....1 .... x n. S. + x 2.0 . + x n. x ..0 ) + .1 g i (x1..0 .. The elements of the series solution xi are obtained according to (6).... + x1...1 x n.1 x n.. xi . j = a i + ∑ Ai. x 2.0 .1 ∂2 g i (x1. .2.. x n.1 Ai ..1 g i (x1.k .....0 .0 . x n..168 S.m = Ai . x n.... x 2.0 ) + ∂x 2 x 3 ∂x 2 x n + .0 .....1 = x1. x 2..1 x n. H. x 2.0 . Islam The components of the series solution are obtained using the Adomian decomposition method in the form ∑ xi. x n...0 2 . .0 ..1 .0 ...0 ) ∂x n ∂x 1 ∂ ∂ g i (x1. 2 ∂ ∂ g i (x1.0 ) + ∂x n ∂x 1 1 2 ∂2 1 2 ∂2 g (x ....m = ⎛ ∞ k 1 ⎡ dm ⎢ m g i ⎜ ∑ λ x1.. Ai . xi .1 x 2. x 2.0 ) Ai ..m +1 = Ai .. + x n. x 2 . x n .. n (9) m = 1.0 . R..0 ......... x n... + x n .1 x 2.0 = a i .. 2 = x1.1 = Ai .k i =0 k =0 ∞ ∞ (7) where xi .0 ) + ..m . x n .0 ) ∂x 2 x 3 (10) The rest is lengthy and more complicated.2....1 x 3. x n.. .0 ..m −1 .1 g i (x1.0 = g i (x1.. xi . j . ∑ λk xn.... ⎜ m! ⎢ dλ ⎝ k =0 ⎣ and k =0 ∑ λk x2..
it gives a good approximation for the solution of this system of simultaneous equations.680857 if i = 12 E1 = 0.669277 if i = 4 x = 1. However. We use the ADM to find the solution for (11). The deficiency of the ADM is that it is not able to give the second solution as seen from the Figure 13.0223 & E 2 = 0. The series solutions are obtained using the equations (4) to (10) with different numbers of the elements.0011 & E 2 = 0. ⎨ 2 ⎪ xy + x − 10 y + 5 = 0 ⎩ (11) The real solutions can be obtained by plotting the equations as given in Figure 11. Figure 11. The computations are carried on using MATLAB.0006 x = 1.1373 & E 2 = 0. The solutions and the errors with different umber of elements are x = 1. The graphs of the simultaneous equations (11).681396 if i = 16 E1 = 0.Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 169 Example 4 The first nonlinear system of equation is ⎧ x 2 − 10 x + 4 y 2 + 9 = 0 ⎪ .0003 & E 2 = 0.0108 x = 1.0023 x = 1.679418 if i = 8 E1 = 0. The plot indicates that there are two common real roots for this nonlinear SAE. The other restriction is that the Adomian polynomial does not always give a .23491 & y = 0.23802 & y = 0.681474 if i = 20 E1 = 0.0046 & E 2 = 0.0001 where E1 and E2 are the deviation of the first and second equation from zero.21244 & y = 0.0627 E1 = 0.23933 & y = 0.23916 & y = 0.
. R. Figure 12. H. S. It is necessary sometimes to change the form of the equations to a get a convergent series solution for the problem. It depends on the type of the equations and the first term of the series solution. Islam convergent series solution. Figure 13. The graphs of the simultaneous equations (12). Mousavizadegan. Mustafiz and M. The graphs of the simultaneous equations (14).170 S.
. It is assumed that x = ∞ ∞ (13) ∑ xi and y = ∑ yi .Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 171 Example 5 The second nonlinear SAE is ⎧ x 2 + 4 y 2 − 16 = 0 ⎪ ⎨ ⎪− 2 x 2 + xy − 3 y + 10 = 0 ⎩ (12) This system of simultaneous equations has four real common roots as shown in Figure 14.5( xy − 3 y + 10) ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ y = ±0. The elements of the series solutions are obtained using the adomian polynomial as given in (9). Using ADM. These roots are computed with ADM. Figure 14. it is set i =0 i =0 that x0 = 0 and y0 = 0 . The graphs of the simultaneous equations (16).5 16 − x 2 ⎩ for each of the variables. The system of equations is written in the form ⎧ x = ± 0.
Mustafiz and M. A proper arrangement should be selected to obtain a convergent result as well as the multiple solutions if there are.7144 .1( x 3 + y 3 ) ⎪ ⎨ 1 (2 + x 3 − y 3 ) ⎪y = ± 15 ⎩ (15) .6235 . S.. ⎧ x 3 + y 3 − 10 x − 5 = 0 ⎪ ⎨ 3 ⎪ x − y 3 − 15 y 2 + 2 = 0 ⎩ (14) The equations are plotted in Figure 13... The computation are carried out and the solution are obtained when the series solution are truncated to i = 10 . Example 6 The third example is a third degree system of two simultaneous equations of the variables x and y. Islam xm = ⎧ 1 ⎪ ∂ m−1 ⎨ m! ⎪ ∂λm−1 ⎩ ⎡ ∞ ∞ ⎛ ∞ ⎞ ⎤⎫ ⎢± 0. which are very accurate. It can be considered as one of the most challenging tasks in application of ADM..3193 . ym ⎧ 1 ⎪ ∂ m−1 = ⎨ m−1 m! ⎪ ∂λ ⎩ ( ) 2 ⎤⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎥⎬ ⎥⎪ ⎦ ⎭ λ =0 for m = 1. x = −1. The solutions are x = 2.5 ⎜ ∑ λk x m ∑ λk y k − 3 ∑ λk y k + 10 ⎟ ⎥ ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎥⎬ ⎢ k =0 k =0 ⎝ k =0 ⎠ ⎦⎪ ⎣ ⎭ λ =0 ⎡ ∞ ⎢± 0. The multiple solutions can be found if the solution is arranged in proper form.172 S.0426 & y = 1. The solution for the variables may be arranged in the form ⎧ x = −0.3554 & y = −1.2. It is realized that there are four real solution for this system of nonlinear equations.5 16 − ∑ λk x k ⎢ k =0 ⎢ ⎣ for m = 1.... x = −2. H. and x = 2.0435 & y = 1.9794 & y = −1. The more accurate result can be found with increasing the number of the series solution elements.2 + 0..9316 . Mousavizadegan.2. R.
19995 & y = 0.5089 & y = 0. The solutions of this nonlinear SAE are obtained by some linearization during the process of computations. We explained about several bivariate polynomials of different degrees and show a population of solutions in the complex plane. The other objective is to show the limitation of the methods in finding the complete solutions of a given nonlinear problem. This arrangement in the form of (15) does not give all the common real roots of the SAE (14). This nonlinear polynomial has multiple solutions which depends on nonlinearity and number of variables. The elements of the series solution for x and y are computed by taking into account that x0 = −0. The only solution that can be obtained with the ADM and the arrangement (17) is x = −0.5 and y0 = 0 the rest are computed using Adomian polynomial (9).5185 & y = 0. the solutions are expressed in the series form as (6). . 1 1 4 1 4 ⎧ 3 ⎪ x = − 5 + 15 ( x + x y + 5 y ) ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ y = 3 + 1 (2 x 4 − y 4 ) ⎪ 10 10 ⎩ (17) CONCLUSIONS Our objective in this paper is to discuss the possibility of multiple solutions in natural phenomena.3565 ). In most of the cases. We try different arrangement for the variables but almost all of them result in a divergent series.Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 173 Using ADM. In many cases. This system of equations are rearranged in the form for x and y variables. the solution of these PDEs are obtained by the numerical methods.29952 where the series solution is truncated to i = 5 . Example 7 The next example is a fourth degree system of simultaneous equations. This may affect the quality as well as the quantity of the solutions. 1 4 ⎧ 4 3 ⎪ x + x y + y − 15 x − 3 = 0 5 ⎨ 4 4 ⎪2 x − y − 10 y + 3 = 0 ⎩ (16) There are four common real roots for this system of equations as shown in Figure (14). it is possible to express or approximate a natural phenomenon by a nonlinear polynomial.3489 ) and ( x = −0. The arrangement of the SAE in the form of (15) gives two of the common real roots that are ( x = −0. The mathematical model for many real problems are given in the form of partial differential equations. The other solutions may be obtained with another arrangement for x and y. The normal procedure is to recast the PDE in the form of nonlinear simultaneous algebraic equations (SAE).
J. and Kirkaldy. November..S. 1990. 1996. and Nandakumar.R.. NY. two-phase diffusion couples..! phase interfaces in the Cu. J. Coates. December. Dalhousie University. S...R. N. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the research grant provided through the Atlantic Innovation Fund (AIF).Ni system at 775 C . 2002.R. M. vol. and DebRoy. 33 (1). vol. 2005.. and Nandakumar. Nova Science Publishers. R. Such investigation will enable us getting the complete picture of knowledge dimension. Kirkaldy. S. T.Zn. MASC Thesis. 1990. Journal of Crystal Growth. 75927596. Chakma. A computational procedure for finding multiple solutions of convective heat transfer equations.. Morphological stability of !.. and Islam. The real roots of these bivariate SAEs can be obtained graphically as shown in in the previous sections. Islam We introduce several bivariate nonlinear SAEs with different degrees of nonlinearity. Bjorndalen. Hopfe. J.J.. USA. . J. Mustafiz.R. M. J. D.I. Multiple similarity solutions for solidification and melting. Int. "Flow Transition in Mixed Convection in a Porous Medium Saturated With Water Near 4 C". 151-161. Mousavizadegan.E. If the number of variables are increased.F. 68. True sustainability in technological development and natural resources management. vol. Met. Coriell. REFERENCES Bjorndalen. no. Journal of Applied Physics. However.R. 1971. Sekerka. Halifax. vol. Orlando. K. Mishra. K. Maugis. Islam. "Multiple Solution for Buoyancy-Induced Flow in Saturated Porous Media for Large Peclet Numbers". G. USA. Morral. Islam. other methods such as Newton’s method may give all probable solutions but it it necessary to know the region of each solution to start a convergent iteration and find the roots. 79. 38.R. A. M. 573-585.. vol. 3467-77. Phys. S. Heat and Mass Transfer. Chem. Florida. Canada.and Boettinger W. 12. no. which may be useful in decision making.. 2006. D: Appl. 777785.B. 191..D. Canada for its financial support. 2. H. W. The effect of irradiation on immiscible fluids for increased oil production with horizontal wells. ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE). 866-871. Degeneracy of diffusion paths in ternary. it will be a challenging task to find the region of all roots. Eng. vol. Mustafiz and M. Can. Mustafiz would also like to thank the Killam Foundation. 1998. "Transient Convection in Saturated Porous Layers With Internal Heat Sources". E. 1986. and Nandakumar. P. S. J. Khan. 2977–2985. Irradiation techniques for improved performance of horizontal wells. M. 2005. M. vol. and Islam. R. which is used as a sample method. Trans.108 (4). Trans.. S. ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. M. Islam.174 S. Phys. 10. K. All of the SAEs are solved with Adomain decomposition method (ADM) and show the limitation of the ADM method. McFadden. N.
. A sufficient condition for multiple solutions in gas membrane separators with perfect mixing.R. M. Occurence of multiple solutions for the TSD-Euler equation Source: Acta Mechanica. F.M. 80.H.R.. Economics of intangibles: Nova Science Publisher. M. Nixon. G. 1999. 2006. The effects of linearization on solutions of reservoir engineering problems. Zatzman. 3-4.Multiple Solutions in Natural Phenomena 175 Mustafiz. D. Petroleum Science and Technology. USA. in press. 17 pg. 23. Tiscareno-Lechuga. and Islam. accepted for publication. 1989. vol. and Islam. no. no. Computers and Chemical Engineering. S. S. 2006. Mousavizadegan. 191-199. vol. NY. 3: 391-394.
138. 41. 118. 116 age. 48. 30 agriculture. 28. 25. 24. 104. 71 . 34. 90. 73. 127 Al Qaeda. 49 Adomian Decomposition method. 130 anatomy. 134 amino acid(s). 114. 34. 26. 78. 77. 2. 110. 131. 35 accounting. 49 arginine. 71. 48 access. 76. 83 amines. 126. 122. 71. 45 armed forces. 77. 117. 31 Arabs. 19. 146. 93. 119 algae. 30. 135 acid. 133 aluminum. 56 aquatic habitats. 76 amino. 100. 1. 154 adulthood. 132. 113. 1. 115. 112. 34. 123. 72. 89 adjustment. 87 air pollution. 75 advertising. 49 aging. 151 acidic. 5 alcohol(s). 47 aromatic hydrocarbons. 64. 54 anaerobic sludge. 58 A abatement. 33 arithmetic. 46 additives. 3. 51. 92. 105. 151 acrylonitrile. 86 air pollutants. 108 animals. 141. 115. 72. 49 AIDS. 149. 140. 26. 78. 147. 132 aqueous solutions. 2. 134 ammonia. 77 adhesives. 155 Abdullah. 94 Allah. 1 alloys. 104. 12 aerobic bacteria. 4. Thomas. 131. 127 ammonium. 111. 118. 34 Arab world. 34 administration. 84 air emissions. 31. 127 accelerator. 143. 82 adenosine. 124. 71. 4. 44 Amsterdam. 33. 132. 116. 71 argument. 15. 117 algorithm. 108. 11 arsenic. 80. 77. 84. 12. 117.INDEX Albert Einstein. 113 amortization. 81. 157 adsorption. 93. 47. 75. 144. 88 activated carbon. 86. 4. 151. 32 animal waste. 112. 46. 132 Aquinas. 141 adaptability. 116. 51 Aristotle. 86 arrest. 151 acidity. 38 alanine. 1. 139. 122. 103 acetylene. 159 alkaline. 115 antibiotics. 125 adaptation. 105 aggression. 159 alternative(s). 138 arteries. 87. 34 accuracy. 40 antioxidants. 2. 30 Argentina.
97 boys. 80. 135 building blocks. 12. 46 buffer. 54. 72 bonds. 31. 88. 14. 44. 29. 89 biodegradation. 81 calcium. 106. 174 cancer. 56 buttons. 124 Australia. 94 biosorption. 153. 76. 123 beverages. 77 attacks. 95 bioethanol. 65. 105. 126. 67. 77 ATP. 124 benign. 39. 4. 30. 4. 82. 95 breathing. 11. 110.178 arthritis. 82 B B vitamins. 30. 66 aspirin. 94 capillary. 35 Averröes. 119. 86 carbon. 132 Baghdad. 9. 97. 84 carbohydrates. 125 Bush administration. 117. 112. 132 biosphere. 105. 30. 30. 75. 49 business model. 88 Brusselator. 22. 77. 154 bacterial cells. 155. 92. 21 benefits. 3. 138 Asia. 64. 2. 80. 87. 59 assessment. 20. 117. 131. 2. 141 carbon atoms. 125. 4 bias. 52 biochemistry. 29. 1. 6 Index biomass. 76 cadmium. 152. 78 biodiversity. 31. 4 blocks. 129. 53. 35. 27 behavior. 81. 94. 71 burning. 28 automobiles. 34. 75 beliefs. 47 banks. 88 Athens. 76. 9. 59 attention. 56 automata. 34 awareness. 77 carbon dioxide. 44 boundary value problem. 83. 75. 160 asthma. 18. 70. 106. 42. 89 black tea. 63 brain. 104 budget deficit. 86. 77 biodegradable. 94. 10 ash. 58. 17. 40 branching. 125. 91 bronchitis. 31 bacteria. 28. 117 Bacillus subtilis. 3. 157. 10. 34. 33. 16. 110. 127 assets. 109. 124 biopolymers. 35. 158. 76 brainwashing. 10 Canada. 5. 38 bankruptcy. 50. 26. 60 beneficial effect. 149. 15. 6. 129. 25. 71 borrowers. 70. 27. 89 brominated flame retardants. 115. 78 bioremediation. 40. 32. 26. 13. 124. 86 breast milk. 21. 40. 51. 161 behavioral change. 94. 132 birth. 33 bible. 131. 22. 77. 132. 133 calcium carbonate. 80 California. 79. 137. 94 campaigns. 83. 116. 55 authority. 94 biota. 126 . 78. 134. 88 body fat. 103. 4. 127 C cables. 153 breakdown. 115. 77. 1. 12. 87. 56 Bacillus. 52 biodegradability. 41 Aspartame. 117 backwardness. 67. 56. 47. 3. 166 capsule. 88. 131. 92. 58. 20. 42 blasphemy. 154 blame. 12. 42 atoms. 38 asbestos. 120. 115. 78. 88 bonding. 88. 93. 5. 34. 9. 78. 135. 2. 113. 71 blood. 95. 80 availability. 136. 78. 80. 84. 85. 67. 56. 155. 84. 30 articulation. 121. 1. 132. 61. 59. 47 assumptions. 43 batteries. 133.
48 consulting. 32 cation. 79 chemical energy. 25. 68 composition. 36 chain molecules. 138. 27. 158 conspiracy. 85. 115 chlorine. 15. 132.Index carbon monoxide. 113 clinical trials. 81. 2. 106. 46 consumer protection. 146. 46. 21. 30. 77. 141 C-C. 92. 131. 54 chimpanzee. 135 CDC. 105. 94 community. 56 conservation. 110. 76 carcinogenicity. 73. 42. 11. 12. 60 commodity. 11. 76. 65. 48. 88 Chile. 120 cement. 61. 73. 82. 87. 20. 88. 45. 153. 108 compounds. 87. 80 Catholic(s). 49. 108. 29. 35. 89. 20. 50 components. 113. 10 competition. 143. 28. 71 chemical composition. 81. 60 combustion. 39 complexity. 20. 20 catalyst(s). 135 conditioning. 46. 172 computers. 95. 35 chromium. 147. 127 cell phones. 20 chemical kinetics. 174 conscious knowledge. 138. 26. 84 chaos. 106. 49. 44 coke. 119. 23. 123 case study. 97 chemical reactions. 32 Catholic Church. 110. 6 condensation. 36. 3 CIA. 93. 140. 88. 60 congestive heart failure. 20. 16 conflict. 115. 143. 46 compiler. 82. 144 . 113. 94. 86. 38. 76. 40 colon. 43. 35 confusion. 152 CO2. 50 China. 21. 89 communication. 32. 86. 47 construction. 154. 159. 6 consciousness. 95 compensation. 111. 112. 76. 26. 5. 79. 95 cast. 118 chemical engineering. 32 cellulose. 118 confidence. 86. 104 concentration. 84. 106 commerce. 78. 12. 47 certainty. 91 cell. 43. 29. 5 consumption. 59 Christianity. 133 compressibility. 12. 92 charities. 119. 76. 124 carotene. 122 conductivity. 13. 156 chitin. 118. 106 179 coatings. 60 configuration. 91. 135. 111 cholesterol. 11. 16. 117. 33. 43. 132 coal. 63. 132. 159. 161 composting. 77. 93. 113. 20. 114. 58 consumer price index. 47 citizenship. 48 central bank. 63. 57 Carnot. 88 coherence. 56 Congress. 40. 84. 53 chemical industry. 81. 71. 120 contaminant(s). 56 clusters. 158 catalysis. 22 computation. 31. 78. 9. 105. 160 consensus. 80 Cold War. 78. 39 chemical approach’. 68 chemical bonds. 87. 151. 44 competitiveness. 78. 21. 149. 159. 168 composites. 32 computing. 161. 86 carcinogen(s). 144. 118 chloride. 93. 89 cardiovascular disease. 88. 37. 87. 1. 15 cleaning. 21. 84 coffee. 20. 2. 26. 100. 156 Chinese. 16. 56 carrier. 1. 44 consumers. 60. 29. 130 coagulation. 141. 84. 32. 83. 119 children. 131. 161 concrete. 22 confinement. 57 colonization. 22. 80. 141. 67.
99. 106. 120. 50. 111 drugs. 89 Department of Energy. 37 discretization. 89 correlation. 29. 28. 91. 71 cytoskeleton. 75 definition. 84 culture. 30. 85 drinking water. 108 detection. 97. 118 durability. 48 crime. 33 criticism. 119. 29 credit. 116. 166. 28. 10. 39. 34 dizziness. 174 diffusion process. 58. 103. 120 cotton. 108 covering. 132 E earth. 89 couples. 39. 75 dioxin. 82. 13. 115 democracy. 10. 68. 78. 122. 11. 50 doctors. 113. 159 digestion. 75. 61. 30. 82 death(s). 118. 19. 159 distribution. 5. 27. 60. 82 cough. 11. 112. 12. 51. 9. 83 duration. 97 diffusivity. 24. 48 decision making. 40. 122 cystine. 168. 72 Index degradation process. 17. 103. 3. 50 diffusion. 61 destruction. 111 DuPont. 158 dentures. 58. 91. 92 crude oil. 68. 56. 105. 19. 17. 84 demand. 18. 162 convergence. 45 cortex. 103 conversion. 93. 42. 121 eating. 110. 11. 69. 97. 86. 32. 78. 1. 43. 78 density. 60. 9. 83. 84. 174 coupling. 123 Copenhagen. 62. 54. 75 discourse. 125 degenerate. 51. 155 continuity. 58 debt. 52. 160. 108. 89. 124. 88 costs. 136 determinism. 35. 29. 30. 111. 152 disaster. 116. 84 deviation. 46. 111. 111. 174 decisions. 46. 110. 59. 117. 62 creative abilities. 42 corrosion. 67. 105. 169 diarrhea. 95. 88 DNA. 45 denaturation. 70 Darwin. 30 desalination. 106 duties. 52. 36. 10. 133 division. 49 democrats. 45. 174 defects. 108 degradation rate. 117. 60. 160 dimer. 89 coughing. 126 desire(s). 127 corruption. 122. 91 copper. 80. 20. 173 differentiation. 21. 110. 44. 42 cycles. 42 developmental disorder. 61 decomposition. 12. 57. 158. 108. 59 dumping. 32 cosmetics. 45. 67. 158 control. Charles. 83. 125. 50 credibility. 26. 84 critical thinking. 65. 2. 109. 56. 17. 42. 104. 21. 39. 73. 27. 155 corporations. 110 cooling. 45. 40 degradation. 88. 83. 36. 92. 67. 81 depression. 115. 30. 61. 89. 49. 117 currency. 15. 77. 108. 79. 2 diversity. 97. 13. 25. 59 doors. 31. 81. 169 deficit(s). 87 depolymerization. 108. 114. 133. 94. 69. 41 critical period. 28. 130 dimensionality. 132. 77. 41. 81. 39. 89 differential equations. 21. 90 diploid. 128 . 80. 111 divergence. 21. 37. 63 D danger. vii. 89 deficiency. 131. 121 cooking. 15. 87 dating. 106. 50 database. 41. 106.180 contamination. 38.
20 EPA. 51. 115. 76. 88. 123 EIA. 138. 16. 88 faith. 158. 89 fear. 93. 89. 133. 46. 51. 138. 10. 4. 40. 76. 30 equality. 105. 130 ethers. 34. 118 electric circuit. 3. 92. 49 economic theory. 81. 1. 75. 140. 96 ethnicity. 132. 48. 82 evolution. 91 environmental context. 119. 122. 67. 13 exports. 53 exchange rate. 105. 14. 44 erosion. 76. 53. 108. 79. 94. 2. 84. 50. 48. 70. 26. 45. 12 fish. 89. 72 farmers. 88. 131. 19. 91. 92. 41 evidence. 40. 119 England. vii. 120 fertilizers. 3. 26. 18. 105. 71. 88 . 128 epidemic. 34. 25. 52. 4. 106. 5. 91 flexibility. 120. 89. 111. 92 ecosystem. 174 financial system. 132 environmental impact. 71 electric charge. 88. 40. 151. 40. 36 exploitation. 81. 92. 135 flame retardants. 9. 20 flame. 94 First World. 119. 121. 41. 35. 35. 77. 76. 80. 96 enzyme. 130 economic cycle. 26 economic growth. 39 economic development model. 155 environmental chemicals. 131 emission. 109 feedback. 127 electrodes. 32 endometriosis. 54 electron(s). 132 environmental degradation. 127 electromagnetic. 5. 94 ethylene glycol. 30. 30 fibers. 46. 2. 75. 112. 116. 94. 15 eyes. 108. 48 fat. 70. 109. 22. 156. 28 fermentation. 120. 118. 56. 68. 47 excuse. 54. 4. 86. 6. 136 estates. 88 fatigue. 146. 86. 42 entrepreneurs. 18. 65. 21. 122. 96 effluent(s). 89 elasticity. 84. 87 employment. 93. 92. 58. 89 181 F fabric. 80. 88. 71. 2 ethylene. 122. 62 equilibrium. 89 expertise.Index ecology. 89 fidelity. 50. 175 Europe. 72. 24. 21. 91 extraction. 61. 16. 29. 94. 87 Einstein. 13. 73 fire retardants. 124. 130. 37. 5. 123. 69. 40. 49 environment. 51 filtration. 77. 25 environmental sustainability. 89. 121. 86 environmental regulations. 2. 106. 78. 48 financial institutions. 86. 20. 78. 46 financing. 21. 33. 17. 132 finance. 15 family. 89 feces. 127 equity. 52. 118. 51. 12. 70. 57. 57. 70. 76. 88 energy. 87. 12. 4. 17. 111. 132. 31. 41. 11. 30. 86 energy density. 95. 63. 87. 128 elaboration. 54. 43 fine wool. 94 eucalyptus. 118. 25 education. 55. 79. 5 electricity. 43. 22. 117 Euler. 141. 116. 31. 89 failure. 118. 48 ethanol. 115. 119 electrolyte. 119. 29. 110. 12. 26 economics. 111. 78. 36. 76 email. 160 energy consumption. 60. 31. 15 electric energy. 21. 48 exposure. 129. 89 flooring. 120. 2. 123. 89. 68. 34. 116. 5. 159. 156 fission. 161 equipment. 135. 127. 131 Ecuador. 123. 70 fever. 48 extremism. 27. 41. 12 encoding. 45. 128. 46 financial support. 10.
50. 87. 122. 115. vii. 88. 6. 47. 20. 89 GPS. 6 helix. 58 government. 125. 109 growth. 12. 128 foams. 89 healing. 44. 62 guidance. 87. 13 fuzzy logic. 125 Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 21. 20. 88. 80. 118. 166 grass. 80 graph. 142. 80. 40 food. 159. 51. 23 health. 132. 133. 34. 29. 56. 88. 110. 86. 12. 42 greenhouse. 3. 51. 106. 88. 27. 3. 2. 93 heterogeneity. 76. 108. 144. 62. 123. 58. 50. 119. 88. 68 flotation. 111. 159. 81. 148. 28. 118. 57. 37. 26. 162 fluid intelligence. 10. 77. 76. 20. 39 fungi(us). 45. 80 futures. 46 general knowledge. 75. 80 fluoride. 84 football. 148. 44 ground water. 40. 21. 117. 125. 117. 89. 140. 50. 31. 73. 45. 46. 141. 124. 119. 122 greenhouse gas(es). 88. 15. 77 gravity. 155. 123. 117 Freundlich isotherm. 71 glycine. 64 Georgia. 84. 110. 41 harm. 13. 116 hip. 39. 37 generation. 87. 58. 12. 149. 10 freedom. 174 heating. 58. 160 freshwater. 20. 59 heart disease. 57. 111 glass(es). 117 GDP. 121. 25. 158. 123. 144. 114. 87. 138. 2. 122. 151 fruits. 56. 52. 88 foreign exchange. 86. 78. 127 fossil fuels. 54 grazing. 80. 30. 47. 127 fuel cell. 127 funding. 42 Greeks. 62. 110. 136 glucose. 86. 108. 174 heat transfer. 37. 53 gold. 89. 2. 108. 56 G gambling. 49. 62 guidelines. 1. 117 hands. 64 fuel. 124. 91. 132 fluid. 106. 125 Harvard. 128 gifts. 146. 81. 48. 131.182 Index glycol. 75. 159. 154 Guerilla. 128 Germany. 76 focusing. 27 H habitat. 156 height. 47. 147. 59 hazards. 88 food products. 20. 63 girls. 89. 88 gross domestic product. 146. 42 freezing. 131. 123. 71. 86. 122. 28 groups. 53. 27 glutamic acid. 131 furniture. 127 heavy metals. 16. 56. 71 . 106 fraud. 95 high school. 75. 95 heart attack. 119. 51. 27 fluorescence. 52. 88. 59. 63 glaciers. 53 higher quality. 39 funds. 56 heat. 95. 149. 39. 117 Greece. 132 health effects. 94 glycolysis. 49. 77. 46. 44. 53 granules. 45. 111 grouping. 105. 60 genome. 143. 44 gases. 76. 120. 108. 110. 77. 105. 141. 86. 124. 154. 117. 120. 162. 106. 27. 83. 89. 90. 164. 53. 81. 23. 109. 58. 105. 43. 78. 35 grants. 45. 48. 118. 48 GDP per capita. 122. 76. 88. 108. 94 God. 123. 58 heart failure. 89 headache. 127 genocide. 48 formaldehyde. 21 hexachlorobenzene. 155 fundraising. 144. 89 fossil. 55 footwear.
48 impregnation. 151 hypothesis. 47. 38 interaction. 83 Honda. 56 housing. 73. 89 infancy. 130 hormone. 76. 119. 63 hydrocarbon(s). 43. 46 incidence. 32. 14. 105 immune system. 90. 47. 73. 108 husband. 166 India. 39 International Monetary Fund (IMF). 89. 155. 71 hydrogen gas. 111 identity. 21. 12. 148 intervention. 46. 46. 15. 75. 26 human development. 32. 42 indicators. 155 industry. 81 host. 43. 87. 84. 149 intentions. 49 income tax. 88 infinite. 2 interest rates. 65. 27 insects. 39 intensity. 49. 130 honesty. 12. 42. 47 imports. 10. 56. 58 injury. 72. 21. 35 investment. 6. 127. 25 Hong Kong. 113. 70. 48 interest groups. 26. 49. 36. 95 integration. 141. 78 inauguration. 77. 27. 46. 26. 13. 26. 106 industrial wastes. 48. 10. 1 183 I ice caps. 174 insane. 117 integrity. 68. 86 industrial revolution. 37. 61 indirect solar energy. 125 inventions. 118 hydrogen bonds. 12. 34 humidity. 45 image analysis. 75 infertility. 73 hydroxide. vii. 56. 46. 46 independence. 84 implementation. 49. 19 ideology. 27 human condition. 5. 84. 71. 88 immunological. 71. 131 intelligence.Index histidine. 48 Information Age. 9. 40 humanity. 5. 89 interpretation. 48 hydrogen. 12. 33 instability. 12. 136 imitation. 132. 58. 17. 21. 37. 136 images. 20. 46. 21. 93. 49 international terrorism. 95 indigenous. 47. 49. 47 independent variable. 125 inflation. 17. 59 hotels. 43. 116 insight. 52 instruments. 65. 54. 11. 144. 95 human subjects. 44 interference. 27. 16. 37. 76 impurities. 15. 140. 26. 48 inhibitor. 67. 92. 40 innovation. 52. 158 Inter-American Development Bank. 88. 71 homogeneity. 48. 146. 143. 15. 118 hydrophobic. 158 income. 40. 12. 9. 151 hydroelectric power. 18. 11. 40 illusion. 9. 30. 65. 86 hydrochloric acid. 55. 128 infrared spectroscopy. 39 inspiration. 84 inner ear. 34. 110. 25 instinct. 48 human brain. 46. 121 inclusion. 39. 57. 160 imaging. 60. 156 Indians. 95 industrial production. 48 insulation. 136 imagination. 92. 16. 20. 93. 132. 37 internet. 60 instruction. 3. 46 international relations. 155. 25. 80 infrastructure. 68 humus. 28. 111 households. 58 . 50 human milk. 91 human genome. 60 institutions. 11 human exposure. 14. 76. 38. 45. 121 Indonesia. 125. 45. 11. 10.
94. 62 laser. 40. 15. 97 Latin America. 48. 105. 32 mass media. 129. 64 isolation. 75 lens. 15 Iraq. 94 mass communication. 99. 106. 138. 159. 6. 89. 65 iteration. 174 linear dependence. 125. 1. 40 M K keratin. 174 J Japan. 129 machinery. 159 meanings. 33. 4. 6. 147. 49 ions. 48 males. 73. 106 lifetime. 37. 29 mathematics. 1. 86. 36. 78 Keynes. 56. 25 Korea. 11. 38 jobs. 44 London. 124 liver. 157. 69. 24 manners. 29. 83. 124. 25. 93. 31. 158. 154. 49 laws. 54. 96. 125 Marx. 136. 38 Ireland. 11. 42. 111 land. 49. 91. 131. 158. 159 isotope. 143. 114. 12. 160 lead cations. 136 leucine. 159 . 45. 175 Islamic. 134 manure. 15. 21. 64. 11. 48. 71 isothermal. 43. 34. 92. 108 mapping. 61 manufacturing. 12. 88. 94. 34. 78. 35. 91. 91. 93 Jerusalem. 83. 150. 61. 22. 11. 39. 45. 43. 36 kidney. 26. 174 Islam. 117 iron. 164. 132. 56 lying. 105. 39. 90. 76. 46. 156. 97 King. 24. 131 learning. 79. 3. 86. 63 management. 63. 2. 126 leaching. 18 measurement. 6. 23. 34. 1. 44. 37. 92. 32. 81. 42 liquid fuels. 92 justification. 144. 160 investment capital. 79. 174 mandates. 11. 15. 57. 91. 84. 89 lung cancer. 86. 46. 21. 30. 77. 65. 71. 35 matrix. 22 linkage. 141. 173. 117. 5. 32 language. 49 Jordan. 93. 111. 174. 15. 25. 83 lifestyle. 32. 46 mathematical logic. 132 L labor. 88 lead. 40 LTD. 81. 58 LSD.184 Index leachate. 47 marsh. 12 manipulation. 135. 95. 118 listening. 66. 29 market(s). 7. 72. 93. 78. 88 loans. 120. 35. 42 Kuwait. 124 lung. 71 life cycle. 39. 87. 69. 94 lifecycle. 117. 86. 43. 116. 49. 18. 132. 60. 42. 89. 132. 78. 133. 62 limitation. 133 irradiation. 45 lakes. 80. 1 jihad. 155. 78. 49 isoleucine. 31. 131. 128. 24. 17. 84. 2. 156 Iran. 78. 12 investors. 77. 46. 9. 129 iris. 13. 62. 64 literature. 25. 160. 151. 85. 34. 93. 70. 94 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 154. 95. 97 Iran-Contra. 42. 125 Italy. 69. 104. 25. 77. 12. 5 linear model. 10. 54. 28. 146. 155. 155 Los Angeles. 76. 86. 70 links. 18. 154 landscapes. 76 kinetics. 30.
132 natural gas. 108. 95 nerve. 79. 29. 75 men. 135 molecules. 30 multidimensional. 133 mining. 143. 95 millennium. 52. 21. 18 nation. 88 Mexico. 84. 29. 27. 57. 117 nitrogen. 159 molecular biology. 67. 19. 132 meat. 17. 111 Minnesota. 63 mentor. 64. 156 metaphor. 42 misconceptions. 52. 154 nitrifying bacteria. 75. 65. 17. 83. 38 mortality. 49 memory. 131 metal ions. 60. 131. 113. 71. 44 medicine. 87. 39. 135. 22. 94. 86. 160. 111 modus operandi. 95. 65 mixing. 60. 158. 18. 62. 175 modeling. 21. 30. 18. 40. 110. 22. 12. 32. 156 metals. 32 militant. 158 nitrate(s) 116. 71 methyl methacrylate. 121. 84 mycelium. 69. 112. 37. 114. 159. 32. 80 melting. 129 New Zealand. 81. 115. vii. 73. 51 molecular structure. 49 mercury. 61 median. 141. 41. 144. 32. 128 New Mexico. 46. 65 microbes. 60 milk. 87. 52 nausea. 86. 39. 80. 68. 16. 21 multiplier. 57 Muslim(s). 76. 18. 57 natural environment. 89 Navier-Stokes equation. 20 military. 13. 25 missions. 75. 66.Index measures. 53 New South Wales. 17. 11. 20. 144. 53 minority. 117. 63. 22. 67. 156 microorganisms. 47. 118. 12 metal content. 34. 42 mutation. 79 mold. 158. 28. 94 minerals. 84. 154. 80 Nebraska. 2. 105. 16. 97 models. 122 natural laws. 26. 49. 124 methanol. 138. 155. 116. 37 natural selection. 113. 4 moisture. 22 methane. 114. 115 naming. 11. 48 muscles. 117. 153 mole. 12. 88 media. 141. 159 near infrared spectroscopy. 125. 30. 38 New Jersey. 57 motion. 135. 14. 157 multiplicity. 52. 130 Nepal. 155 microscope. 38. 158 money. 117 microbial. 55 New York. 78. 131. 94. 132. 48. 153 185 N NaCl. 54 network. 132. 50. 5. 94. 155. 70. 69. 90 monopoly. 93. 33. 159 motives. 40 mushrooms. 16. 76. 174 natural science(s). 75. 80. 86 Middle Ages. 32 morality. 154. 152. 40 Netherlands. 62 National Institutes of Health. 118. 22. 92. 62 MERCOSUR. 79 microwave. 86. 46. 61. 117. 164. 25 natural resources. 3. 78 molecular weight. 132. 17. 119 methionine. 74. 174 membership. 158 modernization. 118 momentum. 117 . 54. 88. 153. 73. 118. 53 MTBE. 2. 32 morning. 154. 28. 24. 7. 88 messages. 111. 40 nerve fibers. 105. 53 Miami. 37. 91 Newton. 35. 174 Newtonian. 80. 39 monomer(s). 93. 54. 160. 86. 136 microscopy. 39 movement. 25. 88 MIT. 34 melt. 36. 29. 14.
55. 117 ozone. 30. 65. 35 petroleum. 77 payroll. 3. 115 pathways. 77. 30 observations. 17. 55. 76. 138. 108. 87 Nobel Prize. 12. 48. 131 ownership. 95 partial differential equations. 20. 48 oil revenues. 174 Periodic Table. 94. 3. 10. 156. 81. 84. 101 organic compounds. 71 phosphate. 88. 173 peptide chain. 39. 30. 122 pathogens. 47. 123. 10. 84. 5. 86 pH. 117 pigments. 117. 18. 35. 93. 132. 149. 33. 84. 131. 174 oil production. 87 oxygen. 22. 15. 77. 160 pessimism. 26. 95. 19 permeability. 157 North America.186 nitrogen gas. 62 oligomers. 70. 97 physiology. 75. 5. 20 nonlinearities. 89. 16. 6. 47. 44. 77 perception(s). 9. 16. 94 O obesity. 71 peptides. 24. 18 phytoplankton. 17 osmosis. 118 phosphorus. 76 oxidants. 143. 151. 46. 57. 84. 127. 20. 87 oxidation rate. 78. 117 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 159 permeable membrane. 30 Index P pacemakers. 89 Palestine. 125 orthogonality. 15. 119 organism. 95 organizations. 151. 51. 81. 97. 88. 174 oil refineries. 51. 35. 164 parasite. 166 Norway. 158. 154 pharmaceuticals. 173 particles. 112 osmotic. 68. 37 PDEs. 45. 54. 54. 69. 38 one dimension. 97. 122. 119. 160 physics. 9. 86. 155. 2. 58 paints. 112 nutrients. 68. 87 nitrous oxide. 95. 49. 117 nutrition. 86 physical properties. 108. 71. 117. 87. 47 older people. 21. 121. 27. 86. 38. 126 performance. 30. 44 perpetration. 131. 73. 2 parallelism. 6 oscillation. 76. 77. 91. 45. 135 oxidation products. 111. 91. 32. 57 overtime. 94 nuclear energy. 81 oxides. 5. 30 oxidation. 125. 116 nitrogen oxides. 50. 82. 111 organic matter. 18. 37. 106 physical environment. 161 phenylalanine. 89 pain. 20. 144. 53 Paris. 42 pesticide(s). 61 parents. 67. 18 opacity. 79. 13. 20. 51. 158 particulate matter. 134 omission. 116. 175 petroleum products. 81 plague. 116. 141. 46 oxalate. 81. 117 photovoltaic. 27. 68. 20. 133 photosynthesis. 135. 27 parameter. 10 packaging. 90. 112 permit. 86. 59. 17 passive. 73. 15 personal. 97 . 111 octane. 115. 112 osmotic pressure. 125 personality. 14. 25. 100. 21. 39. 98. 74 oil. 91. 87. 78. 30 PET. 116. 80. 54. 67. 166. 14 operations research. 20. 86. 35 operator. 9. 86. 55 oceans. 59 phase diagram. 112 osteoporosis. 17. 106. 92. 16. 83.
21. 76. 71. 88. 35. 76. 29. 173 polypeptide. 67. 11. 80. 58. 127 price index. 68. 122. 114. 99. 118 polymerization. 159. 84. 28 precipitation. 80. 32 radius. 106 platinum. 75 public health. 158 power plants. 87. 109. 88. 61. 85. 69. 19. 48. 54. 40 psychology. 161. 117. 26. 34. 174 productivity. 135 polypropylene. 173 population size. 70 polymer(s). 83. 158 quasars. 63. 12. 106. 112. 5 pumps. 5. 89. 59 program. 45 pollutants. 99. 77. 77. 103 programming. 68. 69 protons. 82. 159. 88 polyurethane. 3. 94 polyurethane foam. 81. 81. 108. 85. 70. 105. 132 prediction. 77. 49 prostate. 3. 94. 33. 46. 95. 46 prices. 74. 106. 68. 162 quarks. 83. 44. 48 public sector. 90. 40 psychoactive drug. 22. 12 profit. 56 propaganda. 13. 120. 15 private investment. 15. 73. 11. 70. 90. 74. 48 private property. 87 pollution.Index planets. 86 polyethylene. 48 187 primacy. 32 R racism. 88 pools. 45 pulses. 117 profession. 48. 11 planning. 69. 110. 88 plastics. 48 political opposition. 79. 80. 13 producers. 80. 88 Q quantum mechanics. 94 polyvinyl chloride. 45. 82. 6 . 91. 86. 125. 20. 45. 54 questioning. 71 polyphenols. 118. 17 poison. 75. 117. 89 plasticizer. 123. 88 public investment. 89 proposition. 127. 92. 78. 51. 12. 85. 29 promote. 158. 53 plants. 31. 88 poor. 87. 133. 166. 161. 128 radio. 152 Prozac. 122 purification. 117 plasma. 111. 135 polynomials. 30 Pseudomonas. 108 portability. 10. 133 power. 78. 75. 115. 48 production. 42 president. 27. 32. 73. 21. 22. 94. 78. 31. 78 Pseudomonas spp. 81. 56. 20. 49 presidential elections. 132. 70 polystyrene. 41 radiation. 29. 46. 45 pragmatism. 105. 134. 97 plastic industry. 82. 162 prejudice. 17. 84. 162. 86. 43. 118 potassium. 49 pressure. 11 probability. 166 prevention. 69. 83. 16. 105. 64. 121. 116. 27. 113. 94 prostate cancer. 106. 159. 45 population. 26. 85 power sharing. 86. 94 protein(s). 78. 117 psychoactive. 157. 57. 48. 70. 118 Plato. 72. 29 police. 81. 48. 4. 168. 45. 76. 58 Poland. 53 puberty. 47. 83 protocol(s). 108. 25. 47. 12 privacy. 26. 78. 46. 25 preference. 86. 20. 73. 74. 116. 133 polycarbonate. 71. 103. 61 policy instruments. 117. 94. 160. 78. 55 protozoa. 87 plastic products. 155 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 117 PVC. 84. 80 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. 81.
49. 17. 125. 44 reality. 174 simulation. 89 . 83. 133 renewable energy. 86 range. 158 reasoning. 106 sawdust. 80. 47. 112 sample. 45. 9. 106. 40. 31. 38. 158. 160 scarcity. 49 similarity. 12. 35. 111 school. 33. 27. 69. 48. 4. 49. 174 respiration. 90. 11. 52. 116. 2. 119 respiratory. 42 reliability. 71 sewage. 58. 80. 51 shrimp. 59. 22. 25. 82 rain. 88. 21. 73. 78 resolution. 114 reaction rate. 57. 14. 84. 16. 55 relevance. 27 recession. 36. 111 security. 139. 59. 11. 20. 127 shape. 160 sites. 12 raw materials. 144. 83 regeneration. 159. 136. 97. 114. 85. 21. 137. 71. 81. 15. 22. 127 regenerate. 172. 127. 82 rubbers. 53 science. 161. 31. 28. 3. 124 rickets. 2. 42. 20 reflection. 108. 20 reading. 79. 59 series. 138. 63 relativity. 159. 87. 53. 43. 33 scientific method. 155 scaling. 160 scientific knowledge. 39 recovery. 131. 105. 129. 28. 79 resins. 93. 12. 112 recycling. 94. 152 Rome. 92. 51. 11. 49 sacrifice. 6. 123. 27. 135 S SA. 159. 132. 29. 96 redistribution. 11. 93. 40. 80. 27. 34. 69. 168. 32. 44. 171. 147. 36. 99. 94. 111. 160 relatives. 61. 23. 117 signals. 128 savings. 11. 124. 78. 42 room temperature. 51 relationship(s). 77 shock. 116. 135. 112 religion. 60. 96. 88 resistance. 91 refrigeration. 29. 159 seawater. 26. 85. 30 Saudi Arabia. 78. 84. 34. 160. 9. 47. 46. 25 rejection. 135.188 Index routing. 159 sequencing. 40 rubber. 56. 110. 116. 36. 10. 48. 112 separation. 162 rate of return. 46. 10. 6. 10. 57 rings. 80 research funding. 20. 86. 106 residues. 12. 111. 128 sabotage. 39. 52 real estate. 110. 12 Samsung. 59. 1. 89 sales. 37. 90. 132. 132 seed. 35 saturated fat. 15. 27. 2. 116 sedimentation. 59 salt. 106. 136 resources. 6. 82. 122. 45. 117. 138. 49 recognition. 29. 2. 48. 89. 48. 69 satellite. 45 sheep. 169. 32. 119 resilience. 17 remediation. 61. 32. 166. 83. 44 sign(s). 64. 56 search. 174 sampling. 134 risk. 34. 49 reduction. 94. 15. 89 rice. 43. 143. 124 rice husk. 41. 4. 55. 18. 28. 85. 39. 16. 132 refining. 108. 58. 33. 33 safety. 117 selecting. 138. 118. 48. 21 reprocessing. 170. 13. 107. 22. 36. 51. 87. 51 scientific understanding. 155. 106 Renewable Energy Technology. 10 sediment. 106 regression. 153 sharing. 68. 95 repair. 173 serine. 95 rods. 93 semi-permeable membrane. 12. 146 regulations. 47. 86. 59 reserves.
86 stages. 134. 117 supply chain. 45. 24. 80 supply. 37. 68. 86 sulfur oxides. 92. 135. 105. 16. 27. 21. 61. 88 sludge. 29. 25 statistics. 49 students. 155. 65. 154 spectrophotometer. 57. 123. 43. 60. 93. 88. 93 surplus. 133. 56 Sun. 35. 108. 133. 117. 12. 123 solid phase. 156 teachers. 1 tea. 22. 35. 26. 69. 51. 129. 137 stoichiometry. 138. 51. 158 189 strategies. 76 smokers. 116. 92 sodium. 56. 48 stereotyping. 88 stability. 135 spectroscopy. 134 sugar. 31. 11. 30 swelling. 92. 2. 135. 112. 5. 25. 158 strontium. 126. 132. 60 sustainability. 54. 68. 93. 89 switching. 80 spectrum. 131. 166 T tactics. 86 sorting. 11 species. 34 storage. 41 Spain. 28. 51. 29. 50. 52. 174 stabilizers. 27. 57. 43 surveillance. 5. 136 stock. 51. 119. 132 solvent. 35 syndrome. 78 standards. 46. 130 smog. 121. 49 socialization. 9. 67. 130 solidification. 84 targets. 46 suicidal behavior. 114. 96. 81. 61. 117. 116. 40 social indicator. 86 sulphur. 117. 29. 127. 49. 42. 122 tar. 30. 30. 95. 39 tax collection. 58. 90. 86 smoke. 22. 81. 118 South Korea. vii. 53 technological advancement. 106 stomach. 30 suicide. 115. 40. 34 synthesis. 141. 55 sperm. 47 taxation. 68 . 106. 11. 116. 42 Soviet Union. 31 society. 32. 46 taxis. 35 symptom(s). 60. 121. 111. 134. 46 sugar mills. 86. 161 solid state. 30 skin diseases. 151 sodium hydroxide. 34. 91 speech. 143. 155. 78. 115. 62 Taiwan. 127 solar system. 78. 57 symmetry. 12. 128 speed. 20. 147. vii. 56 snakes. 55 speed of light. 130 supercritical. 50. 32. 13. 174 sustainable development. 106. 149. 6. 94. 93 speciation. 49 steel. 159. 71 stress. 53. 174 solubility. 33 sulfur. 57.Index skills. 113. 121. 30. 65 tanks. 116. 16 sounds. 61 survival. 92. 30. 86 solar energy. 91. 62. 68. 43. 125 sweets. 68. 136. 57. 111. 151 software. 161 solid waste. 124. 70 summer. 59 substitution. 46. 41 South America. 75. 95. 53 teaching. 78. 120. 95 synthetic polymers. 64 skin. 30. 128 substitutes. 108. 77 systems. 42 sterile. 136 soil. 164. 95. 90. 63. 60 strength. 106. 96. 125. 154. 112. 122. 155 structural changes. 122 strain. 124. 89 skin cancer.
29. 159 turbulent. 18. 45. 34. 40. 52. 93. 56. 59. 20. 17. 17. 19. 28 therapy. 6. 55 trimer. 116. 37. 58 traits. 78. 33. 105 transition(s). 164 vegetable oil. 80. 42 training. 132. 48 . 12. 131. 37. 127. 143. 10. 28. 84 United Nations. 38. 29 ultraviolet light. 26. 115 theory. 133. 75 TIA. 133 toxin. 116. 6. 91 uniform. 18. 56. 28. 159. 94. 160. 4 United Kingdom. 75. 12. 123. 4. 25. 84. 2. 120. 148. 88. 23. 159 telephone. 115. 34 transcendence. 18 trade. 68 uncertainty. 159. 47. 38.E. 34. 84. 32. 20. 13. 117 toxicity. 70. 160 transformation(s). 3. 6. 31. 74. 121. 34.190 Index translation. 27.. 160 territory. 2. 157.A. 93 turnover. 89 uranium. 3. 46. 45. 48 unemployment rate. 53. 77. 50. 48 toluene. 57 V validity. 83 users. 90. 162 theory of simulation. 54. 90 United Arab Emirates. 137. 42. 38 temperament. 33. 4. 159. 132 three-dimensional space. 28. 91. 10. 34. 4. 93 technology. 17. 159 Turkey. 22 thinking. 89 tongue. 85 UV. 135. 41. 43. 144 tribes. 92 UK. 28. 81. 71 values. 22. 161. 36. 159. 136 thyroid. 83 tracking. 122 variable(s). 16. 125. 50 terrorism. 86. 173. 41. 157. 82. 5. 45. 132 toxic products. 117 transmission. 119. 158. 59 tradition. 20. 12. 24. 80. 136. 124. 90. 88 toys. 65 torture. 32. 20 urethane. 54 variation. 118. 76. 45. 157. 127 vehicles. 9. 154. 13. 25. 23 valine. 13. 89. 56. 31. 13. 50. 87 toxic substances. 79. 46. 47 UNESCO. 30. 9. 166. 84. 45. 83 toxic metals. vii. 27. 30 transport. 6. 36. 82. 82. 63. 126. 57. 151 vapor. 26. 21. 153. 41. 124. 32. 81. 162. 93. 161. 122. 95. 10. 14. 17. 5. 109. 32 television. 15 time. 60. 106. 129. 120 toxic gases. 161 time frame. 5 time use. 101. 69. 3. 158. 6. 90 tobacco. 62. 56. 131. 52. 138. 78. 18. 95 textiles. 37. 20. 61. 41. 110. 88 trace elements. 40 total utility. 136 U U. 70. 33. 131. 33. 2. 63 temperature. 71 technological developments. 46. 43 tyrosine. 69. 160 universities. 172. 82. 51. 68. 171. 88. 39 Texas. 36 unemployment. 85. 112 transportation. 53. 57 UN. 11. 123. 95 United States. 11. 122 thermodynamic. 95. 119 trend. 128 universe. 68. 49. 31. 92. 124. 48. 54. 87. 19. 34. 158. 59 threat. 48 trees. 32. 125. 35. 51. 71 threshold(s). 22. 17. 50 translocation. 37 triggers. 57. 26. 93 upholstery. 65 thermal energy. 16. 174 variance. 33 threonine. 42. 128 UV light. 67. 15. 35. 55. 68. 75 turbulence. 31. 32.
15 vision. 117 wires. 61 Wisconsin. 77. 4. 41. 109. 111. 61. 41. 62. 42 191 W Wales. 122 weakness. 88 World Bank. 68. 155 wastewater treatment. 79. 17. 73. 63 wood.Index velocity. 42 Western Hemisphere. 78. 115 White House. 74. 57. 45. 76. 64. 122 versatility. 55 walking. 131. 64 vitamin D deficiency. 46. 89 wealth. 78. 108. 73. 2 writing. 91 workers. 67. 56 vitamins. 48. 106 winning. 72. 65 ventilation. 10 worldview. 83. 30. 57 vitamin E. 65 war. 89 voting. 94 Washington Consensus. 119. 39 vestibular system. 62 Washington. 41. 133 vomiting. 44. 110 young men. 117. 174 Western countries. 88. 69. 36. 20. 55. 46 waste disposal. 56 vitamin C. 76 wool. 3 Y yield. 85 waste management. 96 World War. 49 well-being. 46. 133. 48. 40 women. 50 Wall Street Journal. 39. 48. 3. 47. 70. 57 Vitamin D. 40. 78 wastewater. 57. 119 vertebrates. 39. 130 water heater. 56 vitamin D. 71. 40. 30. 49 wholesale. 17 worry. 47. 40 violence. 31 vitamin A. 69. 132. 86. 40 victims. 46 World Health Organization (WHO). 39. 47. 65. 84. 56. 158 Venezuela. 63 Z zinc. 136 visualization. 116. 130. 154. 124 wells. 60. 49 visas. 39 wind. 49. 86 . 60 wetlands. 56. 12 World Wide Web. 58. 115. 55 winter. 78.
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