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POISSON MANIFOLDS

Michel Nguiffo Boyom Résume . The main concern of this paper is the study of the relationships between the KV-cohomology of Koszul-Vinberg algebras and some properties of various geometrical objects . In particularly wo show how the scolar Kv cohomology of real or holomorphic Koszul -Vinberg algebroids is closely related to real or holomorphic poisson manifolds . In the ppendix we point out strong relationship between the pioneer work of Albert Nijenhuis (NIJ1) and the KVcohomology

1. Introduction

To motivate .let we recall the following well know features. ( ) The hochschild cohomology of associative algebras palys important roles in the theory of deformation of associative algebras and their modules (GERS2) , (GRE2), (KON),(PIP). ) The Chevally-Eilenberg cohomology of lie algebras palys important roles in the theory of deformation of lie algebras and their modules (PIP) (GER ) (KOSZ) (KON) (VEY)(NIJ)(NIR)

) The deformation of lie pseudogroups and related geometrical topics are closely related to the Koszul-Sppencer cohomology , (SI-T) (GUST)(MA1)(MAL2) Gerstenhaber has conjectured the following feature (GER)

Every restrict theory of deformation generates its proper cohomology theory

An other fact is that many geometrical structures are closely related to Koszul Vinberg algebras. Here are some important examples of such geometrical structures. (1) The geometry of homogeneous convex domains (KOZ1) (KVI) (VIN) (2) The affine geometry of lie groups (FGH) (HEL) (KIM) (Mil) (NGB1 , 2,7) (PAM) (3) lagrangian foliation in symplectic manifolds (HES) (LIB)(NGB5,6) (WE1) . According to the conjecture (of Gerstenhaber ) which is stated above a proper cohomology theory of Koszul-Vinberg algebra would help to well handle the deformations of Kuszul-Vinerg algebra structures and related topics such as

locally flat manifolds structures (KOSZ1) . The pioneer attempt in this directionis due to Albert Nijenhuis (NIj1) Recently some algebraits have tried to define the cohomology of Koszul Vinberg algerbra. They have used new homological algebra concepts such as the theory of operads , (CHL) (DZU) . Unfortunately those new concepts had led to nothing else

MICHEL NGUIFFO Than the results of A Nojenhuis (NIJ.) The reference (NGB4) is devoted to the conjecture of Gestenhaber . The pioneer result of Albert Nijenhuis is improved therein (NIJ2) (STA) ( see the appendix of this paper .) From the viewpoint of the theory of deformation of Kuszul Vinberg algebra structures, the cohomology given in (NGB4) is the complete solution of the conjecture of Gerstenhaber. That new cohomology is called KVcohomoly . It also has connections with various geometrical structures. The concern of this note is the study of relationship between the scolar KV cohomology of koszul-Vinberg algebroids and poisson manifolds. Let us summarize the content of this paper. Section 3 is devoted to some background materials. The useful definitions are given. The KV-complex of Koszul-Vinberg algebra is recalled. Section 3 is devoted to the KV-Vingberg algebroids .Let M be a smooth manifolds. Below W stands for the vector speace of real valued differentiable functions defined in M Roughly speaking a koszul ±Vingberg , a algebroid over the manifolds M is a pair (V, ) where V is vector bunble and is a vector bundle morphism of V in the Vector speace of section of V is a Koszul-Vinberg algebra, of V in the tagent bunble TM . Those data are subject to the following requirement. (1) The vector space of section of V thenis is a Koszul-Vinberg algebra ,say A. (2) is a scalar differentiable function defin ed in the base manifolds M if s and S¶ are two differentiable section of V then ). S¶ = and With the left action of in the vector space every element is a derivation of the

associative algebra . we then derive the semi -direct product of koszul-Vinberg algebras . We shall mainly deal with the scalar KV-cohomology cohomology space admits a bi-graduation, namely This

The KV-cochains of koszul-Vinberg algebroids are not tonsorial. Therefore , every homogeneous cochains has an order in the sense of (KOSZ4). The notion of order allows to assign a symbol to every q-cochains Two important theorems are proved in section 3. Theorem 3.06. For every positive integer one has Theorem 3.09 The symbol

every q-cocycle . Is a q_cocycle as well

In section 4 we study the connections between the symbols so called Koszul Vinberg cocycle and Poisson tensors on the base manifolds . In these perspectives, we prove Theorem 4.0.12 let cocylce of order say , is the cohomology class be positive integer. Let be Koszul-Vinberg . Then the skew symmetric part of the symbol ,

Poisson tensor. Moreover this Poisson tensor depends only on

K-COHMOLOGY OF KOZSUL-VINGBERG In section 5 we use theorem 4,0,12 to prove the follwing Thjeorem 5.0.14. if is a simple smooth or simple holomorphic Koszul Vinberg algbroid over the manifolds , then every Koszul-Vinberg cohomology class defines a poisson map where is the open submanifolds consisting in regular points of the ancho r map is the foliation furthermore over is nothing else than the vector space of first intergrals of In section 6 we deal with the tangent bundles of affinely flat manifolds . Those tangent bundles are transitive Koszul-Vinberg algebroids . About transitive Koszul-Vinberg algebroids , we have .

Theorem 6.0.18 let be a transitive Koszul-Vinberg algebroids . We keep the notations and as above. If is a KoszulVinberg cocycle of order then its symbol is symmetric . In section 7 we consider the cotangent bundle with the liouville symplectic form the fibers of the colonical projection of are leaves of a Lagrangrian foliation of the symplectic manifold . . we set The vector space of first integrals of this foliation is devoted by . From those data we derive the following KV -complex

Where is the associative algebra os smooth of holomorphic functions defined in the subspace consist in those (0,2)-cohomology classea containing a non null Poisson tensor . The main result of section 7 is Theorem 7.0.19 . The set P(M) of non null poisson structures on M is isomorphic to the set In section 8 a collection of other results about the KV -cohomologi are derived using the KV-complexes which can be connected to various geometrical objects. The appendix is devoted the connection between the KV -cohomology and the chevalley-Eilenberg cohomology. In particular we how the pioneer work of Albert Nijenhuis (NIJ1) is connected the KV-cohomology. 2. THE KV-COHOMOLOGY Throughout this section we denote a fixed commutative field of characteristics zero. All algebric structures such as vector spaces and algebras have the same ground field . Let be an algebra whose multiplication map is denoted by associator map of A is the 3-muliti-linear map which is defined by The

MICHEL NGUIFFO BOYOM

. Let be a vector space which is endowed with two-sided linear actions of the vector space , say and , .

Definition 2.0.1. Algebra is called a Koszu-Vinberg algebra if the associator map is symmetric with respect to the pair Definition 2.0.2. A vector space with two-sided linear actions of the vector space is called a Koszul-Vinberg module of the Koszul-Vinberg algebra if the following axioms are satisfied:

Given a Koszul-Vinberg algebra the vector space carries a Lie algebra This Lie structure whose bracket is defined by algebra is called the commutator Lie algebra of the Koszul -Vingberg

Definition 2.0.3. Given

Here are some important examples of Kozsul-Vinberg algebras. : Every associate algebra is a Koszul-Vinberg algebra. : Let be the vector space of formal vector fields on . Let the linear coordinate functions of . An element is an expression

be

are power series in the variables Where the is defined by

. The multiplication in

It is easy to check that The commutator Lie algebra of is a simple Lie algebra. This fact is contrast to the finite dimension case. Indeed, according to a Y. Result, the commutator Lie algebra of a finite dimensional Koszul-Vinberg algebra cannot be semi-simple However, if the ground field is a commutative field of characteristic , then a Koszul-Vinber algebra whose commutator Lie algebra is semi-simple must be , being a positive integer,[NGB1].

: Let be a homogenous bounded convex domain in an Euclidian space. We suppose that doesn¶t contain any straight line. Let be the Lie algebra of the Lie group of affine automorphisms of . Then , the vector space carries a Koszul-Vinberg algebra structure whose commutator Lie algebra is [KVI], [VIN]. Let and be two modules of the same koszul-Vinberg algebra . The tensor product . Is a module of under the following two-sided actions?

Let and be two positive integers. Let us set since the tensor product is associate, we deduce from the conventions above that the tensiorial algebra admits a structure such that:

KV-COHOMOLOGY OF KOSZUL-VINBERG ALGEBROIDS AND POISSON MANIFOLDS

the left action is a derivation of the tensor product, the right action is defined by In regard to the conventions just set we shall equip with the following structures of A-module. Let The following elements are defined as it follows

Under the two-sided actions we just defined the vector space becomes a module of The main complex Let be the group of integers. To every we assign the The homogeneous subspaces are defined as it follows If is a negative integer then Otherwise

Let and be two positive integers such that the linear map We now define the linear map If then we set If then given

To every we assign which we define by putting

as it follows.

the map

is defined by

The satisfy the conditions Thus the considerations just discussed yield the following cochain complex The cohomology space at the level by . namely , is denoted

Before proceeding let us consider an example .We take vector space endowed with the following multiplication

We the obtain a Koszul-Vinberg algebra whose commutator Lie algebra is the Heisenberg algebra. We consider the field of real numbers as a trival module of Then a direct calculation leads to the following results: At the another side the vector space may be indentified with the subspace of

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