Dogfish shark

Turtle

Chicken
Premaxilla Nasal Maxilla Frontal Parietal Interparietal Nasolacrimal canal Lacrimal bone Jugal/Malar Orbit Supraorbital arch Temporal fossa Lambdoidal ridge Ext. occipital protuberance Occipital bone Tympanic bulla Mastoid process Jugular process Occipital condyle Foramen magnum Ext. auditory meatus Zygomatic processes

Cat
Zygomatic arches Palatine Internal nares Vomers Presphenoid Alisphenoid Basisphenoid Hamular process Mandibular fossa Cerebellar fossa Cerebral fossa Tentorium Temporal fossa Petromastoid Sella turcica Hamulus Sphenoidal sinus Olfactory fossa Frontal sinus Cribriform plate Ethmoturbinals Nasoturbinals Maxilloturbinals

(Chondocranium) Rostrum Rosral keel Precerebral cavity Cerebral cavity Oval fenestra Precerebral fenestra Nasal capsule External nares Orbit Antorbital processes Supraorbital crest Postorbital processes Otic/auditory capsule Endolympathic fossa Basitrabecular process Basal plate Median streak

Occipital condyle Foramen magnum (Splanchnocranium) st 1 – Mandibular Palatoquadrate Meckel’s cartilage nd 2 – Hyoid arch Basihyal Ceratohyal Hyomandibular 3rd ~ 7th – Branchial First Basibranchial 2nd Basibranchial Hypobranchial Ceratobranchial Epibranchial Pharyngobranchial

Cranium

1st gill arch – mandibular Arch Palatoquadrate or Pterygoquadrate (Upper) Meckel’s Cartilage (Lower)

Lower jaw (Mandible) Dentary Symphysis Incisors Canine S U Autostylic S P E N Autostylic S I O N

Diastema Premolar Molar Coronoid process Condyloid process

Jaw

J Hyostylic

A

W

Autostylic

pisiform. few caudal Pygostyle Centrum–amphiplatyan Cervical vertebrae (7) Atlas Axis Typical vertebrae (13) Lumbar vertebrae (7) Sacral vertebrae (3) Caudal vertebrae Neural canal Neural arch Transverse process Anterior articular process Cat Posterior articular process Neural spine Odontoid process Pre. and other centralia.& Postzygapophyses Vertebrarterial canal Pleurapophyses (cervical) Diapophyses (thoracic) Metapophysis Anapophyses Tubercles Intervertebral foramina Chevron bone Vertebral Column Centrum–amphicoelous Neural arches Neural canal Hemal arches Hemal canal Intercalary plates Basapophyses Neural spines Hemal spines Coracoid bar Scapular process Suprascapular cartilage Basal pterygiophores Propterygium Mesopterygium Metapterygium Radial pterygiophores Scapula Prescapular process Precoracoid Glenoid fossa Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals–fused radiale. ulnare. spine Odontoid process Pre. capitate.Dogfish shark Turtle Centrum–heterocoelous Cervical vertebrae (8) Atlas Axis Typical Cervical Trunk vertebrae (10) Sacral vertebrae (2) Caudal vertebrae Neural arch Neural canal Neural spine Pre. scapholunar. canal. 3rd Metacarpal Manus Phalanges Scapula Spine Infraspinous fossa Supraspinous fossa Dorsal/vertebral border Axillary/glenoid border Anterior/coracoid border Metacromion process Acromion process Glenoid fosssa Coracoid process Humerus Greater tuberosity Lesser tuberosity Head Deltoid ridge Pectoral ridge Supracondyloid ridge Supracondyloid foramen Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Capitulum Trochlea Ulna Olecranon Semilunar notch Coronoid process Radius Carpals–triquetral. 2nd.& Postzygapophyses Transverse processes Chicken Centrum–heterocoelous Atlas Axis Neural arch. greater & lesser multangular Metacarpals Phalanges (with claws) Pectoral Girdle & Forelimbs .& Postzygapophyses Vertebrarterial canal Hypapophysis Diapophysis Synsacrum–last thoracic. centrale. all lumbars. carpalia Metacarpals Phalanges Scapula Glenoid fossa Precoracoid Furculum/Wishbone Clavicle Interclavicle Humerus Head Greater tuberosity Lesser tuberosity Deltoid ridge Olecranon process Radius Ulna Carpometacarpus 1st. sesamoid. hamate. all sacral.

Dogfish shark Turtle Chicken Cat Puboischiac bar Iliac process Basal pterygiophores Propterygium Metapterygium Radial pterygiophores Clasper Hook of clasper Epipubic cartilage Pubis & pubic symphysis Ischium & ischiac symphysis Pectineal process Obturator foramen Ilium Acetabulum Femur Tibia Fibula Tarsals–fused tibiale. intermedium. fibulare. tarsalia Metatarsals Phalanges Ilium Ischium Pubis Ilioischiac foramen Acetabulum Femur Head Greater trochanter Condyles Patella Crest Tibiotarsus Fibula Tarsometatarsus Ilium (with crest) Ischium Pubis Acetabulum Ischiac tuberosity Obturator foramen Femur Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Head Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Patella Tibia (with crest) Fibula Pelvic Girdle & Hindlimbs Astragalus/Talus Calcaneus/Fibulare Tarsal Cuboid Navicular/scaphoid st 1 /Median cuneiform 2nd/Intermediate cuneiform 3rd/Lateral cuneiform Metatarsal Phalanges Ribs & Sterna Entoplastron– interclavicle Epiplastra– clavicle Plastron– sternum Ribs (fused within carapace) Sternum Costal process Xiphisternal processes Keel/Carina Ribs Vertebral rib Uncinate process Clavicle Sterna 1st–Manubrium Body of the sternum Xiphisternum Xiphoid cartilage Ribs Vertebral rib Coastal cartilage/ Sternal rib Capitulum Tuberculum . and centralia.