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Multi-View Fa e Dete tion

**Stan Z. Li1 , Long Zhu1 , ZhenQiu Zhang2 ? , Andrew Blake3
**

HongJiang Zhang1 , Harry Shum1

Mi
rosoft Resear
h Aisa, Beijing, China

Institute of Automation, Chinese A
ademy Sini
a, Beijing, China

3

Mi
rosoft Resear
h Cambridge, Cambradge, UK

Conta
t: szlimi
rosoft.
om, http://resear
h.mi
rosoft.
om/szli

1

2

**Abstra
t. A new boosting algorithm,
alled FloatBoost, is proposed to
**

over
ome the monotoni
ity problem of the sequential AdaBoost learning.

AdaBoost [1, 2℄ is a sequential forward sear
h pro
edure using the greedy

sele
tion strategy. The premise oered by the sequential pro
edure
an be

broken-down when the monotoni
ity assumption, i.e. that when adding

a new feature to the
urrent set, the value of the performan
e
riterion does not de
rease, is violated. FloatBoost in
orporates the idea of

Floating Sear
h [3℄ into AdaBoost to solve the non-monotoni
ity problem

en
ountered in the sequential sear
h of AdaBoost.

We then present a system whi
h learns to dete
t multi-view fa
es using

FloatBoost. The system uses a
oarse-to-

ne. FloatBoost learns the omponent dete tors in the pyramid and yields similar or higher lassi. simple-to- omplex ar hite ture alled dete tor-pyramid.

ation a ura y than AdaBoost with a smaller number of weak lassi.

This work leads to the .ers.

1 Introdu tion Pattern re ognition problems has two essential issues: (i) feature sele tion. and (ii) lassi. A live demo will be shown at the onferen e. It runs at 200 ms per image of size 320x240 pixels on a Pentium-III CPU of 700 MHz.rst real-time multi-view fa e dete tion system in the world.

Boosting is a method whi h attempts to boost the a ura y of an ensemble of weak lassi.er design based on sele ted features.

ers to a strong one. The AdaBoost algorithm [1℄ solved many of the pra ti al diÆ ulties of earlier boosting algorithms. Ea h weak lassi.

er is trained one stage-wise to minimize the empiri al error in a given distribution re-weighted a ording lassi.

ation errors of the previously trained lassi.

A ru ial heuristi assumption made in su h a sequential forward sear h pro edure is the monotoni ity. i.er. It is shown that AdaBoost is a sequential forward sear h pro edure using the greedy sele tion strategy to minimize a ertain margin on the training set [4℄.e. that when adding a new weak lassi.

.er to the ? The work presented in this paper was arried out at Mi rosoft Resear h Asia.

the value of the performan e riterion does not de rease. The premise oered by the sequential pro edure an be broken-down when the assumption is violated. when the performan e riterion fun tion is non-monotoni . urrent set.e. i. This is the .

the monotoni ity property has to be satis. To make this work well. A straight sequential sele tion method like sequential forward sear h (SFS) or sequential ba kward sear h (SBS) adds or deletes one feature at a time. aimed to deal with non-monotoni riterion fun tions for feature sele tion.rst topi to be dealt with in this paper. Floating Sear h [3℄ is a sequential feature sele tion pro edure with ba ktra king.

alled plus-`-minus-r. Feature sele tion with a non-monotoni riterion may be dealt with by using a more sophisti ated te hnique.ed by the performan e riterion fun tion. 6℄. The Sequential Floating Sear h methods [3℄ allows the number of ba ktra king steps to be ontrolled instead of being . whi h adds or deletes ` features and then ba ktra ks r steps [5.

xed beforehand. Spe i.

[9{12℄. There. it is assumed that human fa es an be des ribed by some low dimensional features whi h may be derived from a set of prototype fa e images. Taking advantage of the fa t that fa es are highly orrelated. Improvement on the quality of sele ted features is gained with the ost of in reased omputation due to the extended sear h. two issues are essential in fa e dete tion: (i) feature sele tion. The SFFS algorithm performs very well in several appli ations [3. Learning based methods have so far been the most ee tive ones for fa e dete tion. Changes in fa ial view (head pose) further ompli ate the situation. ally.g. The se ond topi is an appli ation of booting learning in fa e dete tion. 14℄. It is su h a exibility that amends limitations due to the nonmonotoni ity problem. it adds or deletes ` = 1 feature and then ba ktra ks r steps where r depends on the urrent situation. The idea of Floating Sear h is further developed in [8℄ by allowing more exibility for the determination of `. and (ii) lassi. Large amount of variation and omplexity brought about by hanges in fa ial appearan e. fa e dete tion is treated as an intrinsi ally twodimensional (2-D) problem. e. lighting and expression makes the fa e manifold highly omplex [13. 7℄. From pattern re ognition viewpoint.

er design based on sele ted features. (2) onstru ting weak lassi. AdaBoost is adapted to solving the following three fundamental problems in one boosting pro edure: (1) learning in rementally ru ial features from a large feature set. Applied to fa e dete tion [15℄.

ers ea h of whi h is based on one of the sele ted features. and (3) boosting the weak lassi.

ers into a stronger lassi.

er using a linear ombination derived during the learning pro ess. The work of Viola and Jones results in the .

ability to deal with non-frontal fa es is important for many real appli ations be ause statisti s show that approximately 75% of the fa es in home photos are non-frontal [16℄.rst real-time frontal fa e dete tion system whi h runs at about 14 frame per se ond for a 320x240 image [15℄. ea h des ribing fa es in a ertain view. However. Feraud et al. This way. like [9{12℄. This work. in whi h several fa e models are built. deals with frontal fa es only. A reasonable treatment for multi-view is the viewbased method [17℄. expli it 3D modeling is avoided. [18℄ .

[23℄ use SVM's to estimate fa ial poses.adopt the view-based representation for fa e dete tion. and use kernel support ve tor ma hines (SVMs) for multipose fa e dete tion and pose estimation [21. Huang et al. Wiskott et al. and use an array of 5 dete tors with ea h dete tor responsible for one view. [19℄ build elasti bun h graph templates for multi-view fa e dete tion and re ognition. Gong and olleagues [20℄ study the traje tories of fa es in linear PCA feature spa es as they rotate. 22℄. The system of S hneiderman and Kanade [24℄ is laimed to be the .

for ee tive statisti al learning. it is slow and takes 1 min to work on a 320x240 image over only 4 o taves of andidate size [24℄. Multi-resolution information is used for dierent levels of wavelet transform. In this work.rst algorithm in the world for (non-real-time) multi-view fa e dete tion. fa e dete tion is posed as a problem of lassifying ea h s anned sub-window as fa e or nonfa e and su h a lassi. However. we propose a new boosting algorithm. The algorithm onsists of an array of 5 fa e dete tors in the view-based framework. alled FloatBoost. In this paper. Ea h is onstru ted using statisti s of produ ts of histograms omputed from examples of the respe tive view.

The premise oered by the sequential pro edure an be broken-down when the assumption is violated. following the earlier works of [24.er is trained using an AdaBoost learning algorithm. FloatBoost in orporates the idea of Floating Sear h [3℄ into AdaBoost (the real version of AdaBoost presented in [2. 25℄ is in this work) to solve the non-monotoni ity problem en ountered in the sequential algorithm of AdaBoost. 15℄. We then present an appli ation of FLoatBoost in a learning-based system for real-time multi-view fa e dete tion. 2℄ is a sequential forward sear h pro edure using the greedy sele tion strategy. Its heuristi assumption is the monotoni ity. AdaBoost [1. The system uses a oarse-to-.

simpleto- omplex dete tor-pyramid ar hite ture.ne. Coarse-to-.

Simple-to omplex refers to the omplexities of fa e dete tors. whi h deals with hanges in fa ial view.ne [26. whi h enables the eÆ ien y needed for dete tion of a small number of fa es from a vast number of andidate sub-windows. This work leads to the . These go beyond straightforward view-based methods. 27℄ refers to the strategy for view spa e partition in the pyramid hierar hy from the top (input) to the bottom (output).

s an I exhaustively at all possible lo ations (u. It runs at 200 ms per image of size 320x240 pixels on a Pentium-III CPU of 700 MHz. Se tion 4 provides experimental results. v. Se tion 3 des ribes the multi-view fa e dete tion system.rst real-time multi-view fa e dete tion system in the world. test for ea h x if it is a fa e at pose 0 ) x is a pattern of fa e at pose H (x) < 0 ) x is a nonfa e pattern (1) . The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Se tion 2 presents the FloatBoost learning methods. Se ond. s j I ). 2 FloatBoost Learning Multi-view fa e dete tion an be done in three steps: First. resulting in a large number of subwindows x = x(u. v ) and s ales s.

post-pro ess to merge multiple dete ts. we des ribe boost based learning methods for onstru ting fa e/nonfa e lassi. In this se tion.Third.

we onsider fa e-nonfa e lassi. Here.ers. and propose a new boosting algorithm whi h improves boosting learning.

: : : . (xN .1 AdaBoost Learning For two lass problems. For fa e dete tion. y1 ). yN ). Multi-view fa e dete tion will be ta kled in the next se tion. ation only and drop the pose notation . we are given a set of N labelled training examples (x1 . where yi 2 f+1. 2. xi is an image sub-window of a . 1g is the lass label asso iated with example xi .

as opposed to the original dis rete one [1℄).g.xed size (e. 20x20) ontaining an instan e of the fa e (yi = +1) or nonfa e (yi = 1) pattern. see Fig. In the notion of RealBoost (a real version of AdaBoost [2. 25℄. a stronger lassi.1.

er is a linear ombination of M weak lassi.

ers HM (x) = M X m=1 hm (x) (2) where hm (x) 2 R are weak lassi.

The lass label for a test x is obtained as H (x) = sign[HM (x)℄ (an error o urs when H (x) 6= y ) while the magnitude jHM (x)j indi ates the on.ers.

In boosting learning [1. and the weights are updated dynami ally using a multipli ative rule a ording to the errors in previous learning so that more emphasis is pla ed on those examples whi h are erroneously lassi. 25℄. 2.den e. ea h example xi is asso iated with a weight wi .

ed by the weak lassi.

the new weak lassi. This way.ers learned previously.

ers will pay more attention to those examples. The stronger lassi.

er is obtained as a proper linear ombination of the weak lassi.

ers. The \margin" of an example (x. y ) a hieved by H (x) (a single or a ombination of weak lassi.

ers) on the training examples an be de.

ned as yH (x) [4℄. This an be onsidered as a measure of the on.

The following riterion measures the bound on lassi.den e of the h's predi tion.

yi ). the best hM (x) for the new strong lassi.(3). ation error [2℄ J (H (x)) = Ew (e yH (x) )= X e yi H (xi ) (3) i where Ew () stands for the mathemati al expe tation with respe t to w over the examples (xi . Given the P 1 urrent HM 1 (x) = M m=1 hm (x). AdaBoost onstru t h(x) by stage-wise minimization of Eq.

w(M hM (x) = 21 log PP ((yy = = 1 j x. w(M 1) 1) ) ) (5) . 25℄ that the minimizer is +1 j x.er HM (x) = HM 1 (x) + hM (x) is the one whi h leads to the minimum ost J (HM hM = arg min hy 1 (x) + hy (x)) (4) It is shown in [2.

0. (xN . of whi h a examples have yi = +1 and b examples have yi = 1. where N = a + b. yN )g. : : : . (Input) (1) Training examples Z = f(x1 . (2) The number M of weak lassi. y1 ).

(Output) M H (x) = sign[ m=1 hm (x)℄. where w(M and letting 1) RealBoost Algorithm. FloatBoost in orporates the idea of Floating Sear h [3℄ into AdaBoost [1. M : (1) Choose hm a ording to Eq. (Initialization) (0) wi = 21a for those examples with yi = +1 or (0) wi = 21b for those examples with yi = 1. The premise oered by the sequential pro edure an be broken-down when the assumption is violated.2 FloatBoost Learning AdaBoost [1. w) P (y = +1) 1 T = 2 log P (y = 1) (6) (7) we arrive hM (x) = LM (x) T (8) The half log likelihood ratio L(x) is learned from the training examples of the two lasses. w)P (y ) = +1. Its heuristi assumption is the monotoni ity. Using P (y j x. and the threshold T an be adjusted to ontrol the balan e between the dete tion and false alarm rates in the ase when the prior probabilities are not known. 25℄ to over ome the non-monoto ity problems asso iated with AdaBoost. 2. 3. and normalize to i wi(m) = 1. 2. w) LM (x) = 12 log PP ((xx jj yy = 1. w) = P (x j y. 1. The Sequential Floating Sear h (SFS) method [3℄ allows the number of ba ktra king steps to be ontrolled instead of being . 1. P P Fig. 2℄ is a sequential forward sear h pro edure using the greedy sele tion strategy. 2. (2) Update wi(m) wi(m) exp[ yi hm (xi )℄.ers to be ombined. (Forward In lusion) For m = 1.5. : : : . are the weights given at time M .

xed beforehand. Spe i.

ally. it adds or deletes ` = 1 feature and then ba ktra ks r steps where r depends .

These feature sele tion methods. however. Improvement on the quality of sele ted features is gained with the ost of in reased omputation due to the extended sear h. The idea of Floating Sear h is further developed in [8℄ by allowing more exibility for the determination of `. It is su h a exibility that amends limitations due to the non-monotoni ity problem. The SFS algorithm performs very well in several appli ations [3. do not address the problem of (sub-)optimal lassi. 7℄.on the urrent situation.

FloatBoost ombines them into AdaBoost for both ee tive feature sele tion and lassi.er design based on the sele ted features.

(xN . y1 ). yN )g.er design. of whi h a examples have yi = +1 and b examples have yi = 1. (Input) (1) Training examples Z = f(x1 . : : : . 0. where N = a + b. (2) The maximum number Mmax of weak lassi.

then JM = J (HM ). (Output) M H (x) = sign[ m=1 hm (x)℄. (Conditional Ex lusion) (1) h0 = arg minh2HM J (HM h). then goto 4. 1. (Initialization) (1) wi(0) = 21a for those examples with yi = +1 or (0) wi = 21b for those examples with yi = 1.(1). (2) Choose hM a ording to Eq. H0 = fg. min min If JM > J (HM ). 3. (b) goto 2. (4) HM = HM 1 [ fhM g. min 0 JM 1 = J (HM h ). min (2) If J (HM h0 ) < JM 1 . (3) Update wi(M ) wi(M 1) exp[ yi hM (xi )℄. (Forward In lusion) (1) M M + 1.g.ers. then re- al ulate wi(j ) and hj for j = m0 . normalize to i wi(M ) = 1. 2. (3) else (a) if M = Mmax or J (HM ) < J . (3) The ost fun tion J (HM ) (e. then (a) HM 1 = HM h0 . FloatBoost Algorithm. P P Fig. 4.4. M = 0. Mmax ). min (2) Jm =max-value (for m = 1. 2. : : : . error rate made by HM ). M = M 1. 0 (b) if h = hm0 .. . and the maximum a eptable ost J . : : : .(1). M . ( ) goto 3.

: : : . hM g be the so-far-best set of M weak lassi.Let HM = fh1 .

ers. J (HM ) be the riterion whi h measures the overall ost of the lassi.

ation fun tion P min h HM (x) = M m=1 m (x) build on HM . Jm be the minimum ost a hieved so far with a linear ombination of m weak lassi.

onditional ex lusion and output. the FloatBoost Learning pro edure involves training inputs. initialization. : : : . the urrently most signi.2. forward in lusion. As shown in Fig. Mmax (whi h are initially set to a large value before the iteration starts). In Step 2 (forward in lusion).ers for m = 1.

ant weak lassi.

er is added one at a time. whi h is the same as in AdaBoost. In Step 3 ( onditional ex lusion). FloatBoost removes the least signi.

ant weak lassi.

min subje t to the ondition that the removal leads to a lower ost than JM 1 .er from HM . Sup0 posing that the removed weak lassi.

These are repeated until no more removals an be done. : : : . whi h an be de. the a eptable ost J is the maximum allowable risk. hM will be re-learned. then hm0 . For fa e dete tion.er was the m -th in HM .

The algorithm terminates when the ost is below J or the maximum number M of weak lassi.ned as a weighted sum of missing rate and false alarm rate.

FloatBoost usually needs fewer weak lassi.ers is rea hed.

One have two options with su h a result: (1) Use the FloatBoost-trained strong lassi.ers than AdaBoost to a hieve a given obje tive J .

er with its fewer weak lassi.

ers to a hieve similar performan e as an be done by a AdaBoost-trained lassi.

er with more weak lassi.

(2) Continue FloatBoost learning to add more weak lassi.ers.

adding more weak lassi.ers even if the performan e on the training data does not in rease. The reason for (2) is that even if the performan e does not improve on the training data.

Multi-view fa e dete tion should be able to dete t non-frontal fa es. 3 Multi-View Fa e Dete tion System The multi-view fa e dete tion task is the following: Given the input image. Adopting a oarse-to-.ers may lead to improvements on test data [4℄. subwindows at all lo ations and s ales are s anned. Fa e dete tion is to lassify ea h sub-window into fa e or nonfa e.

the dete tor-pyramid ar hite ture onsists of several levels from the oarse top level to the .ne view-partition strategy.

15Æ ℄. +15Æ℄. A dete tor-pyramid is onstru ted to dete t the presen e of up-right fa es. In-plane rotations are handled as follows: (1) Divide into three sub-ranges 1 = [ 45Æ . +90Æ ℄. (2) in-plane rotations in the range of = [ 45Æ . . 3. subje t to out-of-plane rotations in and in-plane rotations in [ 15Æ .ne bottom level. We adopt the view-based approa h.1 Dealing with Head Rotations Our system deals with three types of head rotations whi h urrently are in the following ranges: (1) out-of-plane rotations in the range of = [ 90Æ . The design of su h a dete tor-pyramid will be des ribed shortly. +45Æ ℄. and (3) a moderate amount of up-and-down nodding rotations.

15Æ . The up-and-down nodding rotations are dealt with by toleran es of the fa e dete tors to them. Left and right: In-plane rotated by 30Æ . Fig. Fig. 2 = [ Middle: An image ontaining frontal fa es subje t to in-plane rotations.3). 3. (2) Apply the dete torpyramid on two images in-plane-rotated by 30Æ as well on the original image. +15Æ ℄. This will ee tively over in-plane-rotations in [ 45Æ. +45Æ ℄. +45Æ℄ ( f. 3.2 Dete tor-Pyramid The design of the dete tor-pyramid adopts the oarse-to-. and 3 = [+15Æ .

+15Æ℄. The ar hite ture is illustrated in Fig. +90Æ ℄ and in-plane rotations in 2 = [ 15Æ.ne and simple-to omplex (top-down in the pyramid) strategy [26. This ar hite ture design is for the dete tion of fa es subje t to out-of-plane rotations in = [ 90Æ. 4. Fig. Coarse-to-.4. Dete tor-pyramid for multi-view fa e dete tion. as mentioned earlier. +45Æ℄ is dealt with by applying the dete tor-pyramid on the images rotated 30Æ . 27℄. The full in-plane rotations in = [ 45Æ.

ne The full range of out-of-plane rotations is partitioned into in reasingly narrower ranges. and thereby the whole fa e spa e is divided into .

Fa es dete ted by the 7 hannels at the bottom level of the dete tor-pyramid need to be merged to give the .5. The partitions of the out-of-plane rotation for the 3 levels is illustrated in Fig. Our urrent implementation of the dete torpyramid onsists of 3 levels.in reasingly smaller subspa es.

Out-of-plane view partition. Out-of-plane head rotations (row 1).nal result. the fa ial view labels (row 2). and the oarse-to-.

ne view partitions at the three levels of the dete tor-pyramid (rows 3-5). Fig. Therefore. Although there are no overlaps between the partitioned view sub-ranges at ea h level. 5. fa es dete ted by the 7 hannels at the bottom level of the dete tor-pyramid need to be merged to give the . a fa e dete tor trained for one view may dete t fa es of its neighboring views.

6. Fig.nal result. This is s hemati ally illustrated in Fig. whereas those in the later stage are more omplex and spend more time. From left to right: Outputs of fontal. left. For the purpose of eÆ ien y. Simple-to- omplex A vast number of sub-windows result from the s an of the input image. right view hannels. the dete tors in the early stages are simpler so as to reje t a vast number of nonfa e sub-windows more qui kly with little omputation. and the . S hemati illustration of merge from dierent hannels. Therefore. it is ru ial to dis ard as many as possible nonfa e sub-windows at the earliest possible stage so that as few as possible sub-windows will be pro essed further by later stages.6.

3.3 Learning Weak Classi.nal result after merge.

ers for Fa e Dete tion Ea h weak lassi.

er is onstru ted based on a simple feature. derived from the sub-window x. These blo k dieren es are steerable . denoted feature x(j) (note this notation diers from xi . Three basi types of simple features are used in this work as shown in Fig. the latter being for training example i).7.

lters similar .

7. The three types of simple Harr wavelet like features x(j ) de. 15℄.to those used in [28. Ea h su h feature has a s alar value whi h an be omputed very eÆ iently [29℄ from the summed-area table [30℄ or integral image [15℄.366 three-blo k features (with some restri t to their freedom). but are more general in that these features an be nonsymmetri al to ater to non-symmetri al hara teristi s of non-frontal fa es. There are a total number of 188.979 two-blo k features for a sub-window of size 20x20 pixels. Fig. There are a total number of 102.

Be ause we know the form of the optimal weak lassi. Ea h feature takes a value al ulated by the weighted (1.ned on a subwindow x. 2) sum of the pixels in the re tangles. dy ) apart. The re tangles are of size x y and are at distan es of (dx.

we design a set of andidate weak lassi.(6).er as Eq.

ers as follows. given that M 1 features have been sele ted and the orresponding M 1 weak lassi.

w )p(x(M ) j y. : : : . our assumption of the onditional independen e in the above equation may be more justi. w ) While p(x j y ) p(x(1) j y )p(x(2) j y ). x(M 1 )) (9) (10) Note that p(x(m) j y. w(0) ) p(x(2) j y. w) by using the distributions of the M features sele ted so far by p(x j y) p(x(1) . x(M 2) ) p(x(M ) j y. : : : . : : : . x(1) . x(m 1) . Therefore. x(1) . : : : . x(1) ) p(x(M 1) j y.ers have been learned: First. w(1) ) (11) (M 2) (M 1) p(x(M 1) j y. x(M ) j y) = p(x(1) j y ) p(x(2) j y. we approximate p(x j y. p(x(M ) j y ) is simply assumed in [24℄. x(m 1) ) is a tually p(x(m) j y. : : : . : : : . x(1) . x(2) . we have p(x j y) p(x(1) j y. w(m 1) ) be ause w(m) ontains the information about entire history of w due to the multipli ative rule and a ounts for the dependen ies on x(1) .

The two densities are estimated using the histograms . Then denote the onditional probability densities of feature x(j ) of subwindow x by pj (x(j ) j y.able. w(M 1) ) with y = +1 for the fa e pattern and y = 1 for the non-fa e pattern.

w (M 1) ) . Let (M 1) ) (M 1) (x) = L((jM) 1) (x) L((jM) 1) (x) = ppjj ((xx((jj)) jj yy==+11.resulting from weighted voting of the training examples.w . and h(j ) andidate weaker lassi.

ers is designed as HM ( 1) = fh((jM) 1) (x) j 8j g T . The set of (12) Now. the best hM (x) among all in H(M 1) for the new strong lassi.

(4) among all hy 2 H(M 1) .er HM (x) = HM 1 (x) + hM (x) is given by Eq. the onstru tion of the dete tor-pyramid is done as features ! weak lassi. 3.4 Summary of the System To summarize the above.

ers ! strong lassi.

er ! dete tors ! pyramid level ! pyramid as follows: 1. 2. There are a number of andidate features. Simple features are designed. A subset of them are sele ted and the orresponding weak lassi.

ers are learned using FloatBoost. 3. The strong lassi.

or a as ade of strong lassi. as the output of FloatBoost learning.er is onstru ted as a linear ombination of the weak ones. 4. A dete tor is omposed of one.

the full range of out-of-plane rotation is partitioned into a number of sub-ranges. 6. 5. ea h spe ialized for a ertain view sub-range. At ea h level of the pyramid. and the same number of dete tor are trained for fa e dete tion in that partition. Finally. the dete tor-pyramid is omposed of several levels from the oarsest view partition at the top to the .ers.

The 6.000 fa e examples. For ea h aligned fa e example. +20Æ ℄ of out-of-plane rotations. overing the outof-plane rotation in the range of [ 20Æ .1 Frontal Fa e Dete tion About 3000 fa e examples are olle ted from various sour es. [9℄. is used for test the performan e.000 images are then ropped and re-s aled to the size of 20x20.8. The ROC urve for the training set is shown in Fig. a synthesized fa e example is generated by a random in-plane-rotation in the range of [ 15Æ .000 images ontaining no fa es. 4 Experimental Results 4. whi h is used in [9℄. +15Æ ℄. This reates a training set of 6. and CMU-NN of Rowley et al. Our Floatboost (FB) algorithm is ompared with AB (20) (AdaBoost of viola-Jones as implemented by ourselves using training examples of size 20x20). SuÆ ient nonfa e examples are olle ted from 100. The MIT+CMU test set omposed of 125 images ontaining 481 fa es. The results are . They are roughly aligned by eyes and mouth. AB (24) (AdaBoost with training examples of size 24x24 [15℄).nest partition at the bottom.

ROC urve of FloatBoost method for the frontal fa e training set. 8.Fea" stands for number of features and \N. where \N. Fig.FA" for number of false alarms.9 shows ROC urves of FB and AB (20). shown in Table 1. Our algorithm using FloatBoost learned a total of 2546 features (weak lassi. 9. Comparison of ROC urves of FloatBoost and Viola-Jones (20x20) methods on the MIT+CMU test set. Fig.Fig.

The reader is also referred to [31℄ for a more omprehensive omparison with other systems.ers) from the 20x20 training examples to a hieve the performan e.2 Multi-View Fa e Dete tion The training set for multi-view fa e dete tion is reated in the similar way to that for the frontal fa es. The CMU pro. +90Æ ℄. ex ept that the out-of-plane rotation overs the full range of [ 90Æ. 4. This is about 2/3 of 3872 omputed the AdaBoost ounterpart from the 20x20 training examples.

This test set onsists of 208 images with 441 fa es of whi h 347 were .le fa e set [24℄ is used to test the algorithm.

2% 89.Fea 2546 3872 6061 N/A N.4% 86% Table 1. and CMU-NN methods on the MIT+CMU test set.2% N. pro.6% 82.1% 83. Viola-Jones AdaBoost.2% 88.FB AB (20) AB (24) CMU-NN N.FA=31 90.FA=10 83. Comparison of FloatBoost.7% 76.

They were olle ted from various news web sites.ri. The database an be downloaded at http://vas .edu/idb/html/fa e/pro. mu. whi h are not restri ted in terms of subje t matter or ba kground s enery.le views.

Con lusion and Future Work The oarse-to-.le images /index. We also provide a video lip showing multi-view fa e dete tion at http://resear h.html.html.mi rosoft.10. Some results are shown in Fig. 5 Some multi-view fa e dete tion results. om/szli/Demos/MVFa eDet. 10. Fig.

ne and simple-to- omplex dete tor-pyramid leads to the .

By in orporating the idea of Float- .rst real-time multi-view fa e dete tion system.

It needs fewer weaker lassi. 2℄. FloatBoost ee tively improves the learning results.ing Sear h [3℄ into AdaBoost [1.

we stress that the underlying ar hite ture is fairly general and an be applied to other appearan e based obje t dete tion problems as well. Noti ing that only examples with large weigh values are in uential. Friedman et al. Several methods an be used to make the training more eÆ ient with little drop in the training performan e. The Boosting algorithm may need substantial omputation for training. i.ers than AdaBoost to a hieve similar or higher performan e. In the urrent version. Given that this framework demonstrates good performan e in multi-view fa e dete tion. In A tive Floating Sear h [8℄. the forward step is un onditional. This strategy may ause some problem due to the lo al minimum problem [8℄. the forward step is made onditional too and this may give a better solution.e. [25℄ propose to sele t examples with large weights. those whi h in the past have been wrongly lassi.

ed by the learned weak lassi.

for the training weak lassi.ers.

Top examples within a fra tion of 1 .er in the next round.

of the total weight mass are used. where .

Y. Y... 0:1℄. S hapire. d-sampling (disjoint subsets). Singer.: \A de ision-theoreti generalization of on-line learning and an appli ation to boosting". S hapire. Freund.: \Improved boosting algorithms using on. R. Journal of Computer and System S ien es 55 (1997) 119{139 2. [32℄ redu es samples size by random sampling of the training set problem. 2 [0:01. Referen es 1. R. Fan et al.E. Two sampling s hemes are adopted: r-sampling (uniform sampling ea h round).

P. R. Y. Lee.den e-rated predi tions". Freund. W.. P. J.D.S. The Annals of Statisti s 26 (1998) 1651{1686 5.: Floating sear h methods in feature sele tion. S hapire.: \Boosting the margin: A new explanation for the ee tiveness of voting methods". Bartlett. Pudil. Kittler.. Novovi ova... S. In: Pro eedings of the Eleventh Annual Conferen e on Computational Learning Theory.: \On sele ting features for pattern lassi. J. Stearns. Pattern Re ognition Letters 15 (1994) 1119{1125 4.. (1998) 80{91 3.

In Chen. (1976) 71{75 6. Osuna. N. E. (1997) 130{136 12..A. IEEE Transa tions on Pattern Analysis and Ma hine Intelligen e 20 (1998) 23{28 10. Roth.H. C. IEEE Trans.: Pattern Re ognition in Pra ti e. P. A. K. (2000) . D.. In: Pro eedings of Neural Information Pro essing Systems. Pattern Re ognition Letters 20 (1999) 1157{1163 9..: \A snow-based fa e dete tor". P. P. T. T. Freund. Somol. Zongker...: \Feature set sear h algorithm". Pa lik. H.: Feature sele tion: evaluation.. Novoviova. NorthHolland. Rowley.. and samll sample performan e.. Kanade. Sung. Jain. Ahuja... D. Pudil.ers". IEEE Transa tions on Pattern Analysis and Ma hine Intelligen e 20 (1998) 39{51 11. J. F. S. J. Kittler.. M.: \Neural network-based fa e dete tion".K. appli ation. Poggio.: \Adaptive oating sear h methods in feature sele tion". Sijtho and Noordhoof (1980) 41{60 7. In: Pro eedings of International Conferen e Pattern Re ognition. R. Baluja.. Girosi. ed.: \Example-based learning for view-based human fa e dete tion". In: CVPR. Yang.: \Training support ve tor ma hines: An appli ation to fa e dete tion". on PAMI 19 (1997) 153{158 8.

S. In: IEEE ICCV Workshop on Statisti al and Computational Theories of Vision. Gwizdka.: \Transformation invarian e in pattern re ognition .. Cun.. A. C.: \performing multi-view fa e dete tion and pose estimation using a omposite support ve tor ma hine a ross the view sphere". Bi hsel. Ku hinsky. Analysis. Feraud. Fellous. Pering. Li. Muller. K. B.: \Robust real time obje t dete tion"..V. M.: \View-based and modular eigenspa es for fa e re ognition".. S. J. Springer (1998) 15. Wiskott..13.M. N.: \An investigation into fa e pose distribution".. T. Ng. Jones. Serra.. Pentland. S. P.. Moghaddam. Starner. eds.: "fa e re ognition by elasti bun h graph mat hing". In: Pro . IEEE Transa tions on Pattern Analysis and Ma hine Intelligen e 19 (1997) 775{779 20. M. Cree h. Vermont (1996) 21.S. Canada (2001) 16. M Kenna. J. A.. Pittsburg (1999) 17. J.P. Vi torri. C.. A. Conf on Automati Fa e and Gesture Re ognition.R. Gong. B.tangent distan e and tangent propagation".B.. IEEE International Conferen e on Fa e and Gesture Re ognition.. J..Y.. Viola. Gong..L. S. malsburg. Collins. Pentland. In Orr.: "FotoFile: A onsumer multimedia organization and retrieval system".. Collobert.L.. Y..A. Kruger. Simard.: \Human fa e re ognition and the fa e image set's topology". In: Pro eedings of IEEE Computer So iety Conferen e on Computer Vision and Pattern Re ognition. Bernier..P. Corfu.: \support ve tor regression and lassi. L.. B. (1994) 84{91 18.G. In: Pro ... IEEE International Workshop on Re ognition. Freeze. Liddell. Fourth IEEE Int.. Denker. O.: \A fast and a urate fa e dete tor for indexation of fa e images". In: Pro . P. H.. J. M. D. and Tra king of Fa es and Gestures in Real-Time Systems.: Neural Networks: Tri ks of the Trade. G. Grenoble (2000) 19. M. CVGIP: Image Understanding 59 (1994) 254{261 14. J. Gree e (1999) 14{21 22. Van ouver. Gong. Y. In: Pro eedings of ACM SIG CHI'99 Conferen e.

Hastie. Stanford Univerity (1998) 26. X. In: Pro eedings of International Conferen e Pattern Re ognition. Te hni al report. K.. D. Shao.: \Additive logisti regression: a statisti al view of boosting". Huang. Friedman. Sequoia Hall. Queensland. Conf. R. T. Kanade. Y. In: Pro eedings of IEEE Computer So iety Conferen e on Computer Vision and Pattern Re ognition.: \A statisti al method for 3d obje t dete tion applied to fa es and ars". Department of Statisti s. Geman.. We hsler. In: IEEE Int. Brisbane. J. S hneiderman..: \Joint indu tion of shape features and tree lassi. (2000) 25. Amit. Wilder. H. Fran e (2000) 300{305 23. Australia (1998) 24.. H. Oo Fa e & Gesture Re ognition. J. T..: \Fa e pose dis rimination using support ve tor ma hines (SVM)"... ation based multi-view fa e dete tion and re ognition". . Tibshirani.

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