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A Research Paper Presented TO
The Faculty of the Ateneo de Zamboanga University School of Medicine
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of DOCTOR OF MEDICINE
By SHARIFA ANI A. HASHIM March 2007
This research entitled “THE EFFECT OF FILM VIEWING ON RABIES, ON THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF RESIDENTS OF BARANGAY COMPRA, LILOY, ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE” prepared and submitted by SHARIFA AINI A. HASHIM, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF MEDICINE is hereby accepted. ______________________ Dr. Mario R Arciaga Adviser
Approved by the Oral Examination Committee
______________________ Dr. Mario R Arciaga Chairman _____________________ Dr. Ernesto G. Florendo Member _____________________ Dr. Samuel L. Cristobal Member ________________________ Dr. Bernadette C. Macrohon Member ______________________ Dr. Muktader A. Kalbi Member ______________________ Dr. Analisa P. Santamaria Member ______________________ Dr. Ricardo N. Angeles Member ______________________ Dr. Kelly S. Geronimo Member
Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF MEDICINE
DR. MARIO R. ARCIAGA Associate Dean for Research Ateneo de Zamboanga University
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page i iv iv v
APPROVAL SHEET LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Research Objectives Hypotheses Significance of the Study Scope and Delimitation of the Study Definition of Terms Conceptual Framework CHAPTER II CHAPTER III REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Setting Respondents Sampling Design Research instrument Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Instrument Flow of Activities CHAPTER IV CHAPTER V CHAPTER VI BIBLIOGRAPHY RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1 1 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 15 16 17 25 28 29
APPENDICES A. B. C. D. E. CURRICULUM VITAE Questionnaires Invitation to film show on rabies Invitation to dog vaccination day Statistics Pictures 30 36 37 38 52 54
LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Table 2 Demographic data Mean scores on knowledge.post1 & post 2 intervention 17 18 Table 3 Table 4 P-values of knowledge scores Pre-intervention. pre-intervention. post 1 and post 2 attitude mean scores on Rabies and dog bites 19 20 Table 5 Table 6 Means of securing dogs Comparison of dog population in barangay compra & silucap 23 24 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Conceptual Framework flow of Activities 7 16 .
Jay-R Alvia and Oliver Visitacion for the company and emotional support. for guiding me and blessing me with good health. I never had the opportunity to thank you for the company. selflessness and dedication to the tasks assigned to you. Thanks for helping me out in more ways than 1… To the rest of my Compra buddies. kindness and thoughtfulness. To Jackie Eisma. thanks for everything. you’ve given me the most support. the cooking and for being there for me and bearing with me. my research adviser. Moh Abutazil. it’s been great to have you by my side all these years. To Norhaina Sinarimbo. not just me but everyone else. my timan beach brother. good friends. for letting me use their film on rabies as my intervention To Ella Balagot. To the Department of Health. for helping with the streamers.. Hashim . you made even the rough and low times worthwhile. To Dr. my ever supportive and optimistic groupmate. because of your patience. and supportive family To my parents and family for their unconditional support To Dr. Sharifa Aini A. Your perseverance. Louise Velassquez for generously sharing her resources and the use of her paper as a reference. with the registrations. To Cocoy Ramos. Roy Pagador and Mr. has inspired me most. Ronaldo Barote of the Department of Agriculture in Liloy for providing the anti rabies vaccines and manpower during my dog immunization day. not just in my research but throughout the community exposures. for guiding me and keeping me on track To Dr. the food and for all the little ways you volunteered to help. thank you so much. Mario Arciaga.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT To God Almighty. To Van2x Mariwa. That part of my research would not have been successfully implemented had it not been for your generosity and kindness.
Hence film viewing brought home the message that rabies indeed is fatal. The control group also responded positively to the invitation to the free dog immunization. however only 24% brought their dogs to be vaccinated. for evaluation of practices. quasi experimental type that employed the use of a 20 minute rabies awareness DOH film as an educational tool in the community and a control group that was not subjected to film viewing. this current study used film alone to determine its effect in the knowledge. flyers and handouts. and improvement in their attitudes with a P value of 0.ABSTRACT Rabies is a fatal but preventable disease that affects the country. Liloy Zamboanga del Norte. According to the community survey. Comparison of the results pre and post intervention shows a significant increase in the knowledge. This may be attributed to the fact that they were not able to see the film and it was not a common practice among the 2 groups to bring their dogs for immunization as they were not very aware of the dangers of acquiring rabies.000. her study was not of the quasi experimental type and also. dog bites ranks 9th in the top 10 morbidity cases and most residents opt to consult the traditional tandoks and mananambals upon being bitten by a dog. attitude and practices of the residents regarding dog bites and rabies. As for the practices. . 75% of the respondents responded to the call for immunizing their dogs and all dog owners included in the study were convinced to tie up and secure their dogs that they previously left astray in the streets. The use of film was previously done by miss Velazques in 2005 as part of her comprehensive anti rabies campaign in which she also used lecture discussions. and involves dogs as the main carriers. in barangay Compra. dog bites need to be immediately attended to and referred to the nearest health care facility and that rabies can be prevented. However. This study was a pre and post.
the Philippines ranked third worldwide in rabies incidence in 2000. the researcher interviewed the families of 4 of the recent dog bite victims in their homes.2005). On June 24. with dogs as the main carriers. pet dogs comprise 98% of the cases while cats cover only the two percent (CDC. 2003). According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC).000 population/ year and 53% of the cases belong to the 5-14 year old age group in our country. Records from the quarterly report of the RHU in Liloy show an average of 5 reported dogbite cases per month from 2002 to 2005. In most developing countries such as the Philippines. (CDC. The disease is most commonly transmitted through a bite by an infected animal. It was noted that all 4 believed that the local tandok was . Among the rabid animals. While the ER records of Liloy District hospital show an average of 3 dogbites/ month for the same period. 2006.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Rabies. from which approximately 300 to 600 Filipinos die of Rabies every year. is a public health problem in the country. There are about 200-800 dog bite incidence per 100. . succumbed to rabies after reporting it to the Compra BHS and Liloy hospital only after a failed attempt by the local tandok to cure her of her rabies symptom. a 45 yr old mother. Rabies is endemic in the dog population. Interview with the BHS midwife revealed that one of the victims. The community survey conducted in barangay Compra by the medical students in 2004 show dog bites rank 9th in the top 1O morbidity cases. a fatal disease affecting the nervous system. 2006. This happened in May.
such as Municipal Ordinances on anti-Rabies vaccination and the Animal Welfare Act of 1998.. in charge of dog bites and livestocks revealed that the last mass vaccination of dogs was done in the year 2002 with limited turnout. Dr. since the vaccine was not available. from where she was referred to the RHU for Post-exposure prophylaxis. 2005). Luningning Elio-Villa. CHD.Ronaldo Barote. Since a Rabies awareness intervention in the form of film viewing in barangay Compra had not been previously done by the . CENTRAL MINDANAO. However she only took 1 shot because she said it was too expensive. Mr. Only 1 of the victims sought help at the BHS. which is a vaccine-preventable disease through a public health education program and with hopes to eradicate it (DOH. since most of the dog bite cases were not reported.competent enough to handle dog bite wounds. from the Department of Agriculture in Liloy district. Although there are existing government programs against Rabies and its prevention. He agreed that the anti-rabies was not a top priority program in the district. community folks were unaware of such programs against this fatal infectious disease existing in their locale. coordinator of the Department of Health's rabies control programme in the Philippines said that the first step is to educate people on how to reduce the risk of contracting rabies from dogs (Wallerstein. 1999) One of the objectives of the Infectious Disease Cluster of Department of Health is to reduce significantly the burden of priority diseases such as Rabies. It was also observed that most of the dogs in the vicinity were owned but were untied which rendered the residents at risk of being bitten and acquiring rabies. and not 1 of the dogs were immunized because their owners were not aware that dogs had to be vaccinated.
She said that “the video or film is a very flexible medium which can be stopped and played again to allow for discussions. with the unexplored potential to do what words have failed to do: film is multimodal and universal. In the Philippines. This position is reflected in statements that film is the newest art form. Its importance as a means for interactive discussion was emphasized by Lori Griffin. (Griffin. Everyone. the researcher decided to pursue this. of all ages and across all cultures. the researcher believes that there are people who can understand and learn better by watching films. 2005). the author wanted to pursue a rabies awareness study with the aid of film viewing. and since films require no reading. Film viewing was chosen as a means of health education over the conventional lecture type intervention because films are portable. A view asserting the universality and potentialities of film as a medium of education was mentioned in Tobia’s article “the uses of film in education and communication” 1996. Also.Department of Agriculture of liloy district. education and communication tools that have been successfully used to promote awareness on issues like reproductive health. a Curriculum Director of the Library Video Company in her article entitled “using video in the classroom”. In light of the above context. . can be played and replayed anytime. can be reproduced. it is said. the low literacy rate (9% college graduates) of Compra suggests that not all respondents may be able to read. there is an advantage to film viewing as an educational intervention regarding rabies. the film is one of the information . Additionally. likes and understands film.
To compare mean scores on knowledge and attitudes and compare practices two weeks and two months after film showing on Rabies and dog bites. To determine the attitudes and practices on Rabies and dog bites of the people in the barangay before and after film viewing. as compared to those of the control group . attitudes and practices of the residents in barangay Compra. Liloy .Statement of the Problem This study aims to answer the question: Will a DOH film on rabies have an effect on the knowledge. 2. attitudes and practices of the residents of barangay Compra? OBJECTIVES General Objective: To determine the effect of a film “Walang Pinapatawad ang Rabis” on the knowledge. 4. To determine the knowledge on Rabies and dog bites of the residents of barangay Compra before and after film viewing. Specific Objectives: 1. 3. To evaluate the post intervention practices of dog owners of barangay Compra by the turn out of their dogs during a scheduled dog immunization day. Zamboanga del Norte regarding rabies.
Significance of the Study If proven effective. attitudes and practices of the residents brgy Compra regarding rabies. The research was confined to barangay Compra. there would be no data that indicates whether films serve as effective health education materials in creating awareness of rabies in the community. Liloy. Definition of Terms Stray dogs – owned or unowned dogs that are not secured and left wandering around Post – Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) – vaccine given to an individual bitten by a dog . attitudes and practices of the residents of brgy Compra regarding rabies. included barangay Zamboanga del Norte for the knowledge and attitude part. This will create awareness on the management of dog bites and the risks of acquiring rabies as well as responsible dog ownership in the community. Alternative: The DOH film on rabies will have an effect on the knowledge. the intervention can be of benefit especially in rural communities like Compra where dogs abound the neighborhood and where tandoks are still looked up to as the primary source of help in dog bite case. and Silucap as a control group for the evaluation of practices. Scope and Delimitation This study only covered dogs and did not include other rabid domestic animals such as cats and cattle. If this is not done.Hypothesis Null: The DOH film on rabies will not have an effect on the knowledge.
Conceptual Framework .Conceptual Framework Lack of awareness on dog bites and rabies Educational intervention FILM Experimental group control group Film viewing no film viewing Invitation to dog immunization day • Improved/not improved knowledge. attitude and practices on dog bites &rabies • Good/ bad turn out of dogs for immunization good/ bad turn out of dogs for immunization Figure 1.
local government units (LGUs) and non-government organizations (NGOs). House Representatives from South Cotabato and Quezon City. and fatal when not treated. As indicated in the bills. the national rabies prevention and control program will be a multi-agency effort. said Rep. Interior and Local Government (DILG). many of the Rabies cases are unreported.It also includes mass dog and . Health (DOH).CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The National Epidemiology Center which was last updated in May18. Efforts to control and eradicate rabies have been noted to be insufficient and uncoordinated as can be gleaned from the high incidence of rabies in the country. It is expensive to treat. 2006). It will be jointly implemented by the departments of Agriculture (DA) as the lead agency. A few cases could even be dormant for as long as 7 years (Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Thus. According to statistics and CDC. Among the program’s component activities include conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of rabies. she added.(Field Health Service Information System) Rabies is one of the most dangerous viruses and the Philippines has one of the highest rabies incidence in the whole world. Custodio. and it is possible to miss the hazard this disease brings since the incubation period of Rabies could be as short as a few days to even 5 years. Education (DepEd). 2005 show that rabies is the 8th of the notifiable diseases in the Philippines . filed House Bills 521 and 1384 in response to this nagging health problem.
COMMITTEE NEWS.”. there has been a significant decrease in human rabies in the last twenty years in some parts of the world such as Mexico. sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. According to her. According to the WHO Expert consultation on Rabies in 2004. South America and Caribbean. Similarly. WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies emphasized that local ecology of the dog population should be taken into consideration. Incorporating education efforts which are culturally . after the initiation of programs for Rabies elimination. Louise Marie Velasques in 2005 entitled “ the effect of a comprehensive anti-rabies campaign on the KAP of the residents in brgy Poblacion. 2005). there was an increase in the attitude questions in the post intervention tests.cat vaccination. A study conducted by ADZU-SOM alumni Dr. plus coordinated involvement of other related sectors in the community. She also used other tools like lecture discussions. This initial increase may have been due to the 20-minute Tagalog film showing on Rabies and dog bites. hand outs and flyers . Zamboanga del Sur” included film viewing as one of the health education interventions. Results from her study showed an immediate significant increase on the knowledge from the pre-intervention to the first post intervention exam. Aurora. It showed real-life cases of rabid humans and canines…. The film interestingly and vividly displayed almost all that there is to know on the said topics. (HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. stray dog impounding and an information education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. There was also another significant improvement in the knowledge scores during the post 2 intervention exam. “ two (2) of the respondents perfected the post 1 intervention test and the lowest score yielded increased to 6.
motivated this researcher to pursue a rabies awareness study in barangay Compra.appropriate are also needed. and the success of Dra. The aforementioned literature. in the form of film viewing alone . 2005). George Arnaiz. . Furthermore. He further emphasized responsible dog ownership by keeping dogs leashed and regularly giving anti-Rabies shots to owned pets (PIA Press Release. Ve lasquez in the use of film in her community. inter-sectoral cooperation and community participation. stressed during the mid year evaluation and planning workshop on the province’s Rabies elimination program that the solution to Rabies lies at the municipal level. it suggests that high vaccination coverage can be achieved through strategies which incorporate well-designed educational campaigns. Dumaguete governor.
Liloy.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design This was a quasi-experimental . most residents leave their dogs untied. . pre and post-interventional study. tandoks and mananambal are still relied on for animal bite cases and animal bites are rarely reported Respondents Inclusion Criteria those who are ages 18 and above and who are permanent residents of barangay Compra with no hearing or visual impairment. Research Setting The study was conducted in Barangay Compra. but failed to participate in the succeeding phases. with farming as its main occupation. and where dogbites ranks 9 th in the top 10 morbidity case. Drop-out Criteria People present in the pre-intervention phase.063 residents. a community of 1.
Questions that had details not mentioned in the film were removed from the questionnaire. 5 questions on attitudes and 6 questions that were of a checklist type. its signs and symptoms and means of prevention and treatment.Sampling Design This study utilized a convenience sampling method in which invitations to the film show were distributed and those who a) attended. on practices regarding dog bites and rabies. The said questionnaire ( translated to Visaya and back translated to english) was pre-tested in barangay Sto-Nino. were included in the study. It included questions on etiology of rabies .The modified questionnaire was composed of 14 multiple choice questions on the knowledge of the people on dog bites and Rabies. . about 30 minutes away from barangay Compra . Variable: Independent variable: film viewing dependent variable: knowledge. b) met the above mentioned criteria and c) agreed to participate . attitude and practice Research Instruments A questionnaire that was previously used by miss Louise Marie Velasquez in her study was modified to suit the intervention since her study was comprehensive with lectures and flyers and handouts in addition to film viewing. This was used to gather pre and post-interventional data .
attended the film show. Intervention – film viewing A 20 minute film was shown on Rabies. once the signs and symptoms set in. pre and post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies as well as prevention. It also emphasized on responsible dog ownership. was distributed among the The pre-intervention questionnaire was self administered. clarified their confusions. mode of transmission. 2006.” Responsableng Amo. and given prior to the intervention on the same day. Moreover it showed that rabies is fatal. is from the Department of Health which is part of its National Rabies Prevention and Control Program borrowed from Dra. Matinong Aso. A total of 57 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. however. and answered their questions. only 45 particpated in the subsequent phases of the study.Data Gathering Pre-intervention House to house invitations to the film viewing selected respondents on Oct 11-13. There was also an interactive discussion after the film which reinforced what the respondents learnt . The film entitled “Walang Pinapatawad ang Rabis. . signs and symptoms. 2006. It also showed how most people make the mistake of trusting their fate to tandoks and mananambal. epidemiology.Velasques who procured it from the Zamboanga City Veterinarian’s Office. instead of turning to health centers and hospitals. This film included information on etiology. This film show was held in the barangay hall of Compra in the afternoon of October 21.
Post . administered the vaccines to the dogs.Intervention Phase The Post test 1 was done 2 weeks after the intervention to assess their short term knowledge and change in attitude and practice. . Dodong Barote) were not able to attend to help facilitate the discussions. This activity was held to compare the change in practices of the respondents in barangay Compra as compared to those of barangay Silucap who were not subjected to film viewing on rabies. personalities from the RHU(Dra. Roy Pagador and his team from the Provincial Veterinary office in Dipolog. Post test 2 was conducted 2 months after the intervention to assess for retention of the respondents’ knowledge. Ronaldo Barote from the Department of Agriculture office of Liloy who contacted Dr.However. house-to-house by the researcher and a barangay health worker and collected right after they were answered. 2006). The practices were evaluated by the researcher based on a checklist. Roy Pagador. who is a veterinarian. Dr. Digamon) and DA (Mr. Dog immunization day was arranged 2 weeks after the film viewing . This was held in barangay Compra (experimental group) & barangay Silucap (control group) on the same day (Nov 10. attitude and practice. The questionnaires for the knowledge and attitude part were distributed among the respondents. With the cooperation of Mr.
. post 1 and post 2 intervention tests on the knowledge and attitudes questionnaire. Descriptive Statistical Method (frequency) was used for the questions on practices. Paired T-test was used for selected item analysis.intervention test.Statistical Instrument ANOVA for repeated measures was used as a statistical instrument to compare the changes in pre.
2006) post intervention phase: • administration of post test 1(November 14. 2006) dog immunization day ( November 10. 2006) Subject selection by convenience sampling(Oct21) and control group identification (Oct 11-13) Intervention phase: • administration of questionnaires to respondents(October21. 2 weeks and 2months after the intervention respectively Figure 2. 2006) • • film viewing on rabies( October 21.2006) and 2 (January21.Flow of Activities .Flow Of Activities Pre intervention phase • • Pre-testing of questionnaires ( September 2.2007)using the same questionnaire to the respondents.
however only 45 participated in the post tests. the rest were only evaluated for their knowledge and attitude.demographic data Number of respondents Male Female Mean age Range 45 19 26 100% 42. The table also shows the distribution of respondents over the 7 puroks of barangay Compra. Table 1.8% 43 18-68 .CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION Demographic data There were 57 respondents who attended the film viewing.2% of the 45 respondents were dog owners and were subjected to the “practices’ part of the study. 62. Table 1 shows that females dominated the males and that the mean age of the respondents is 43.2% 57. Farming is the main occupation aside from housekeeping and half the respondents completed elementary level in education. hence 12 were considered as drop-outs from the study.
2% 2.1% 6.7% 8.7% 11.1% 2.8% Dog owners Non dog owners Knowledge There were 14 items in the knowledge questions about rabies and dog bites from the film.2% 2.2% 37.9% 37.8% 13.2% 2.2% 8 9 14 5 3 4 2 28 17 17.3% Occupation Housekeeper Farmer Driver Teacher Carpenter Seaman Student Secretary Brgy official Address (purok) Purok 1 Purok 2 Purok 3 Purok 4 Purok 5 Purok 6 Purok 7 22 12 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 48.1% 11.8% 20% 31.9% 26. Table 2 and 3 shows the mean scores and the p values of the respondents during the pre-intervention and the post 1 and 2 exams.2% 2.9% 4. .Educational attainment Elementary level High school level College level 22 17 6 48.2% 2.4% 62.
At the end of the intervention. it is observed that they still managed to pass. Nonetheless. Five( 5) had a perfect score of 14 in the post 1 test. This was also significant (P-value 0.000. .intervention Pre. their scores decreased by 1. with a cut off passing score of 10. pre-intervention. and 2 of them maintained it in the post 2 test.87 10.000 _____ 0.P.000 0.067 points to a mean score of 10.91 11.mean scores on knowledge.000 Post-intervention 2 0.values Pre. and from the mean scores of the respondents in the post 2 exam.values of Knowledge scores p. we can see that there is a significant increase in the mean scores of the respondents regarding rabies and dog bites from 7.87 out of 14 in the post 1 exam.intervention 2 _____ 0.5 out of 14.intervention Post intervention 1 Post intervention 2 7. it can be seen that there was a significant increase in the knowledge of the respondents regarding rabies and dog bites.91 in the pre-test to 11.value of . post 1 and post 2 intervention Mean scores Pre.80 Table 3. Two months after the post 1 exam. with a P.000 0. and this improved to 8 in the 2 succeeding tests.intervention Post. The lowest score in the pre intervention test was 3.000).000 Post-intervention 1 0.000 _____ From the table.intervention 1 Post. however.8.Table 2. hence showing the knowledge decay over 2 months.
The correct answer was letter b) having dogs immunized/ vaccinated. open/healing wounds. Only 15 got it correct. All in all. D = disagree and D = strongly disagree with scores of 1.356 P value 0. 41 got it correct in the post 1 and 2 exams. Hence. ANOVA for repeated measure was used. I Pre-Int Post-1 3. After watching the film however. Another item in which there was a significant increase in the scores in the post1 and maintained in the post 2 test was about prevention of rabies in their pet dogs. Attitude Table 4 summarizes the comparison between the mean scores on attitude during the pre-intervention. Table 4. abrasions etc. The questions were answerable with SA = strongly agree. post 1 and post 2 attitude mean scores on Rabies and dog bites Item Comparison group 1.Pre-intervention. there was a significant increase in the knowledge of the respondents. Since I don’t own a dog. the number of respondents with correct answers improved in the post tests 1 and 2 to 37 and 31 respectively. A = agree.2. post 1 and post 2 exams and the corresponding p-values of the respondents on Rabies and dog bites. Most respondents got the answer wrong in the pre intervention because they either chose letter a) through bite from an infected dog and cat or letter b) through dog/cat licking of mucus membrane or scratches.Knowledge Question 3 was about transmission of rabies. health education in the form of film viewing was effective in rabies awareness.3 and 4 respectively. Initially they answered letter c) giving vitamins to the dogs.000 don’t need to learn about 2.289 . The correct answer was letter d) both.
311 Pre-Int 2.356 Post 2 3.000 2. 2. D = 3. respondents’ attitudes on all 5 items were between agree and disagree . A = 2.422 1.422 Post 2 3. Item number 1 states. SA = 1 5.311 dog Pre-Int 0.000 0.088 Post 1 3. D = 3.467 1.311 Post-1 3. It is inhuman to impound stray dogs. D = 3. SA = 1 4. D = 3.756 Post 1 3. SD = 4. I don’t need to know about rabies”.687 0. which is a positive attitude. which was more or less maintained until the post 2 exam.489 Post-1 3.000 0. SA = 1 3.289 Post 1 3. SD = 4. I believe that a tandok can Pre-Int cure me from rabies. I am not afraid of dog Pre-Int bites because they are not fatal.822 that is why I don’t bother to get my dog vaccinated. I believe that 2.311 Post-1 3. SA = 1 3.289 Post 1 3. . A = 2.000 0.311 Post 2 3. A = 2.000 vaccination is expensive. D = 3. “since I don’t own a dog. Here there was a significant change in their attitude from agreeing to the statement to disagreeing in the post 1 exam. SD = 4.244 Post-1 3.687 0.053 In the pre-intervention.756 Post 2 3.311 Post 2 3. A = 2. A = 2.000 0.rabies. except for item number 5 which shows that they already disagree that dog bites are not fatal. SD = 4. SD = 4. SA = 1 Post 1 3.
They maintained their improved attitude even in the post 2 intervention. This was probably because they had witnessed the turn out of dogs that came for the dog vaccination day and who received their shots for free. 20 dog owners brought their dogs for registration . there was also a significant improvement in their attitude from the pre intervention with a P. Item number 4 states “ I believe that dog vaccination is expensive. most of them on the dog immunization day held in barangay Compra which was hosted by the department of agriculture and provincial veterinary office.000 P value. that is why I don’t bother to get my dog vaccinated”.value of 0. .00 and 0. Based from the data gathered from the questionnaires. “ I am not afraid of dog bites because they are not fatal” shows that the respondents generally are aware that dog bites can be fatal.289 to 3. “ I believe that a tandok can cure me from rabies”. Item number 5. By the post 2 exam.In item number 2. and this attitude was strengthened further in the post 1 and post 2 exam with P-values of 0.00. but from their post intervention scores ( after the dog vaccination day) . as they were the ones who owned dogs (table 1). “ it is inhuman to impound stray dogs” likewise show their attitudes improved from 2. but they failed to show documents to prove this. a total of 23 dogs had been registered with the department of agriculture. even before the intervention.311 with a 0. Practice The checklist for practices was employed to only to 28 out of 45 respondents. Post intervention however. it can be seen that their attitudes changed and even improved in the post 2 exam. 9 dog owners had already registered their dogs at the department of agriculture prior to the intervention.053 respectively. Here they initially were undecided whether to completely agree or disagree. Item number 3.
Evaluation of the dog owners’ practices by actual observation before the intervention. . Eleven 11 (39. who went to the 2 barangays to deliver and administer the vaccines. By the end of the study. Table 5. Table 6 shows that in brgy Silucap. This group was not subjected to film viewing. revealed that more than half the number of dogs they own were left astray which is 15 o( 53. as a control group was also involved in the evaluation for turn out of dogs brought for immunization. however invitations to the free rabies vaccines in barangay Silucap were distributed with those for barangay Compra simultaneously a week before and were again reminded of the said activity 3 days prior to the vaccination (dog immunization day). all 28 dog owners did not leave their dogs out untied. This was courtesy of the team from the Provincial Vetererinary (PRO-VET) office in Dipolog city. 7 or 24% of the 29 owned dogs were vaccinated on the same day. in the post 1 and post 2 evaluation of practices. After the flm viewing. None of the dogs were collared.means of securing dogs Pre intervention Post test 1 Caged 4 11 2 19 5 26 Post test 2 5 19 4 28 Leashed Both Total 0 15 Based from the data gathered. leashed or both.6% )out of the 28 dogs. a total of 24 dogs were brought for immunization on the Nov 10.2%) were leashed and 4 (14. Hence 75% of the respondents responded to the call to get their dogs vaccinated from rabies.2%) were caged by the respondents as means of securing their dogs. This part of the study is quasi-experimental. 3 dog owners claimed to have had their dogs vaccinated at the department of agriculture previously. 2006 dog vaccination day. Table 5 shows the gradual increase in the number of dogs either caged.
of owned dogs in the barangay No. the turn out was still good in Compra. This was done with the help of 2 research assistants who covered both areas by means of habal-habal. All 24 responded in the affirmative. This may be attributed to the film viewing on rabies that was shown about 2 weeks before the dog vaccination day. A question that was added in the post exams was if they wanted to get their dogs immunized again the following year. Nonetheless.of dogs vaccinated 24 (75%) 7 (24%) 32 It was found that Compra had a larger population of dogs (owned and stray) as compared to Silucap.Before the intervention. Table 6 .comparison of dog population in barangay compra and silucap COMPRA Experimental group 61 SILUCAP Control group 42 29 No. the dogs( stray and owned) were manually counted on 2 different days in both barangays. . of stray dogs No.
since it was only for 20 minutes.CHAPTER V DISCUSSION This study was to see the effect of a 20 minute DOH film on rabies on the knowledge. they expressed relief that vaccines did not cost a single centavo. About one hundred residents attended the film viewing but not all of them were included in the study as only one member per household was chosen. The contents of the film had everything there was to know about dog bites and rabies. pathophysiology. Even the viewers below 18 sat through the whole video. . After watching the portion on ways to prevent rabies. Some even announced that if they had not watched. attitude and practices of barangay Compra. contrary to what they previously believed. It showed real life cases of rabies in humans and dogs. prevention as well as ways on how to be a responsible dog owner. including etiology. Due to the the comprehensiveness of the film. there was little to add or clarify after the film show and most respondents were able to understand it after viewing it twice. treatment . manifestations. Nonetheless they watched keenly and even requested for the film to be replayed as they missed certain portions. it captured their full attention and also the film contained colorful and animated instructions on what to do upon being bitten by a dog and what happens if no measure is taken. They expressed that they realized how deadly a rabies infection can be and how easily it can be prevented if they responsibly took charge of their pet dogs. they would have continued to depend on tandoks and mananambals.
only 7 dogs were immunized or 24% of the known owned dogs were vaccinated despite the invitations and reminders. The turn out was good in barangay Compra as 75% of the dog owners brought their dogs for immunization and registration. dog bites need to be immediately attended to and referred to the nearest health care facility and that rabies can be prevented. A similar significant improvement was also noted in Miss Velasquez’ research which she partly attributed to the same 20 minute DOH film. it was hard for them to transport their dogs to the immunization site as they lived in the farthest part of the barangay. Post intervention. The study on evaluation of practices regarding dog bites and rabies was quasiexperimental as a control group was involved and invited to avail of the free rabies vaccines for their dogs but were not subjected to the intervention: film viewing. Five( 5) had a perfect score of 14 in the post 1 test.At the end of the intervention. Hence film viewing brought home the message that rabies indeed is fatal. but this was not significant. it can be seen that there was a significant increase in the knowledge of the respondents regarding rabies and dog bites. In the control group however. Similarly in the attitude questions. there was a significant improvement with a P value of 0. The ones who could not make it said. .000 in all 5 items. This may be attributed to the fact that they were not able to see the film and it was not a common practice among the 2 groups to bring their dogs for immunization as they were not very aware of the dangers of acquiring rabies. some of them reverted back to their initial attitude. and 2 of them maintained it in the post 2 test.
By the end of her study . Considering the higher population and larger area assigned to her. attitude and practice on barangay Compra. Giving of colored collars to the immunized dogs was initially part of the plan to secure and identify the dogs. . The respondents expressed that they were not aware about the necessity of registering their dogs. Results also show that the intervention brought about a responsible dog ownership in the respondents as all of them were convinced to tie up and secure their dogs instead of allowing them to roam the streets untied. Therefore health education in the form of film viewing indeed had a beneficial and significant effect on the knowledge.The study of miss Velasquez in 2005 also yielded a good turnout as 44% or 33 out of 75 dogs were brought for vaccination in her community. It was also noted that most of the dogs in barangay Compra were not registered with the Department of Agriculture. all but one of the dog-owner respondents expressed their desire for their dogs to be vaccinated still. it was still a good outcome. regarding dog ownership. but there was no supply available in the offices concerned at the time. dog bites and rabies.
House to house dog vaccination should be done to ensure maximum coverage of dogs as most owners have difficulty bringing their dogs to the vaccination site. reduction of stray dogs and encourage responsible dog ownership. Hence film viewing is an effective alternative to the conventional lecture type as an educational tool in creating awareness among residents of barangay Compra. The film viewing on rabies and the mass dog immunization indeed made a significant impact in the community in creating awareness as it even convinced the barangay to work on arranging a yearly vaccination of dogs within the community in coordination with the Provincial veterinary team from Dipolog city. Recommendation The researcher recommends the following: 1.CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion Results and assessment of the study show a general increase in the knowledge and change in attitude and practices of the respondents. 2. . Copies of the DOH film on rabies should be distributed and used as a means of health education in other barangays in the district to aid in the awarensess of rabies.
Center for Disease Control Griffin. R. Rabies Research Program 2005 (www. Research Institute of Tropical Medicine. WHO Media Center. 2005 McGraw-hill. Geneva Switzerland. June 2001. Inc.ph WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies 2004: First Report WHO Technical Report series 931. Tobia. No 24. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 16th Ed. 28 August 2005. Zamboanga del Sur” ADZU School of Medicine Wallerstein. Aurora.BIBLIOGRAPHY Committee News. and Corey. 2006 “ the effect of a comprehensive anti-rabies campaign on the KAP of the residents in brgy Poblacion. Field Health Service Information System. “Rabies Cases Increase in the Philippines.htm). 15 May 1999. C. PIA Press Release. Rabies Virus and other Rhabdoviruses.gov.” BMJ Journal. 2005 Rabies Still a Public Health Concern. 2005. 1999.google. Lawrence 2005. 10 January 2005.gov. Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control. “Dog bite victims receive anti-Rabies Vaccination. LM MD. Vol 13. October 2004.2005 Anti-Rabies Program to be Instituted. Miranda M. 2006 www. Hanlon. Rabies. .com Velasquez.” MindaNews. Divisions of Media Relations 2005. National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians.L 2005“using video in the classroom” library video company.doh.E.ph/program/rabies. A Publication of the Committee Affairs Department.ritm. Fact Sheet N 99.. Nessia. 1996 “the uses of film in education and communication” www. Cathleen A.
children only b. worms which have been ingested d. anyone* c. what are the early signs of rabies in an individual bitten by a dog? a. rats only . paralysis* d. virus from an animal bitep b. increased salivation. a & b* 4. KNOWLEDGE: 1. Pls encircle the correct answer. a curable disease 2. through dog licking of mucus membrane or scratches. a deadly infection of the brain* b. adults only d. eating a well-cooked dog meat d. a few months to 30 years 7. who can have rabies? a. through bite from an infected dog and cat b. fear of drinking fluids. sick people only 5. What is rabies? a. open/healing wounds. how long does it take to manifest signs of rabies after a dog bite a. 1 to 2 days after the dog bite b. 3 days to 1 week d. how is rabies transmitted? a. abrasions etc c. which of these animals commonly transmits rabies? a. a mild disease c. 7 days to as long as 7 years after the dog bite* c. blurring of vision and dizziness c.APPENDICES APPENDIX A Name: Age: Sex: address: educational attainment occupation: QUESTIONNAIRE I. what causes rabies? a. cats only c. virus from an insect bite 3. b only 6. dogs only b. bacteria from any kind of wound c. multiple choice. abdominal pain & vomiting b. an infection d.
after sustaining a dog bite. a person can get rabies within a span of 1 year from the dog’s vaccination shot. sudden change in behavior. cannot transmit the virus to a person they bite b.d. attacking objects within range. oral antibiotics is an effective treatment of rabies b. when they are given antibiotics d. which of the following will make dogs free from rabies? a. many years ago 11. he will remain healthy even without intervention b. all of the above* 13. feeding dogs with commercial dog food b. how do you prevent rabies in dogs? a. giving vitamins to the dogs d. dogs will require vaccination yearly* c.which of the following are signs of rabies in the dog? a. if they are tied/ caged/ leashed at home b. keeping one’s body healthy 14. he is at risk of having rabies infection c. Restlessness c. ATTITUDES . The person bitten will not require a post-exposure prophylaxis after getting one. cleaning/ washing of the wound is enough c. hoarse howl b. washing the wound thoroughly with water will do d. dogs and cats* 8. biting anything on its way d. drooling. running aimlessly.which of the following is true regarding treatment of dog bites? a. having dogs immunized/ vaccinated* c. wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water* b. if they receive vaccine yearly* 10. paralysis. if they received vaccine once in 3 years c. d. the first best thing to do is a. what will happen to someone who is bitten by a rabid dog? a. apply antibacterial ointment/ cream immediately over the wound c. Post exposure prophylaxis is needed for all dog bite case* 12. inability to sleep. dogs who have been vaccinated once several years prior. go to the hospital or doctor immediately since washing the wound will not help II. observation of the dog is needed before complete vaccination of the person bitten d. he will die of rabies if without intervention* d. he will not die but remain sickly for the rest of his life 9. which of the following is true regarding dog vaccination? a.
1. I believe that a tandok can cure me from rabies. strongly disagree since I don’t own a dog. III. I am not afraid of dog bites because they are not fatal. _____ no 2. some ______ no 3. how often? ______ every 6 months ______ every year ______ every 2 years ______ every 4 years ______ every 5 years (post intervention 1 and 2) 7. strongly agree b. It is inhuman to impound stray dogs. were you able to avail of the free vaccines on dog vaccination day on November 10. 3. some of them ______ no 6. PRACTICES 1. would you like to get your dog immunized again? ______yes ______no Ngalan: pinuy-anan: . disagree d. do you get your dogs vaccinated? ______ yes all of them ______ yes. I believe that dog vaccination is expensive. I don’t need to learn about rabies. 5. that is why I don’t bother to get my dogs vaccinated. 4. 2.Pls answer with a. do you own dogs? _____yes. do you secure your dogs? ____yes. if yes. 2006 in Compra barangay hall? ______yes ______no 8. are they registered with the department of agricuture? ______ yes all of them ______ yes. ____no 4. how? ______caged ______ leashed 5. agree c.
Pagkaon sa maayong pgkaluto nga karneng iro a ug b* kinsa man ang matakboyan ug rabies? mga kabataan lamang bisan kinsa* mga dagko/ hamtong nga tawo mga masakiton lamang unsa man ang sayo nga mga timailhan sa tawo nga napaakan ug iro nga adunay rabies? sakit ang tiyan ug pagsuka hanap na panun-aw ug pagpanglipong kanunay nga paglaway.Edad: Sex: PANGUTANA: palihog lingini ang hustong tubag: grado: trabaho: kahibalo: unsa man ang RABIES? makuyaw nga impeksyon sa utok?* Gamay na nga sakit Impeksyon Sakit nga adunay kaayuhan. mahadlok moinom ug tubig ug pangpanghiwi/pugpanggahi* letra nga b lamang hangtod kanus-a nato Makita nga ang tawo nga gikan napaakan ug iro aduna nay mga timailhan ug rabies? hangtad 2 ka adlaw gikan napaakan ug iro 7 ka adlaw hangtod 7 ka tuig gikan napaakan ug iro* 3 ka adlaw hangtod usa ka semana mga pila ka bulan hangtod 30 ka tuig hain man ining mga mananapa ang kalagmitan makatakod ug rabies? iro lamang iring lamang ilaga lamang iro ug iring* unsa man ang mahitabo ni bisan kinsa nga mapaakan ug irong buang? magpabilin siya nga himsoy bisan walay gihimo nga panagang anaa siya sa kapeligro nga magkaimpeksyon ug rabies mahimo siya nga mamatay ug rabies kon walay gihimong pagpanangang* dili siya mamatay apan magmasakiton sa tibuok niya nga kinabuhi . kinawrasan ug mga samad nga abli ug padung na mayo. unsa man ang hinungdan anan sa rabies? virus nga naggumikan sa pinaakan sa mga mananap* kagaw nga naggumikan sa nagkalainlaing klase sa samad bitok/ulod nga nakasulod sa atong lawas virus nga naggumikan sa pinuukan sa mga insekto giunsa pagtakod o pagbalhin sa rabies? pinaagi sa pagpaak gikan sa naay impeksyon nga iro ug iring pinaagi sa pagtilap sa iro ngadto sa mga samad.
dili makatawo nga ang iro higtan na naa lang sa kalye 4. unsa man ang una natong angay nga buhatan? ayohon paghugas ang samad uban sa sabon ug tubig* pagbutang ug mga ointment/ cream dihadto dayon ngadto sa samad paghugas sa samad ug tubig lamang pag-adto sa hospital o doctor dihadiha daun kay kon ang paghugas lamang sa samad walay ikatabang naandan nga kinaiya palihog tubaga uban sa dakong uyon uyon dili uyon dakong dili uyon 1. gitangkal. ang tandok makapag-paayo ug rabies. 3. motuo ko. Paglimpyo ug paghugas sa samad sa pinaakan insakto na Pagobserban sa iro nga nakapaak gikinahanglan una pa ikompleto ang pagbakuna ngadto sa tawo nga napaakan Dugang nga pagpanagang o pagbakuna gikinahanglan gayod sa tanang kaso sa mga napaakan ug iro* asa man ning mosunod ang mga timailhan ug rabies ngato sa iro? dali nga kausaban sa kinaiya sa iro. dili na kinahanglan pa dugang pa nga panagang batok sa rabies. asa man ning mosunod ang husto mahitungod sa pagtambal sa pinaakan ug iro? pag-inom ug antibiotics epektibo nga tambal ug rabies.asa man ning mga mosundo ang makahimo sa atong mga iro nga libre batok sa rabies? kon sila gihiktan. dili ko mahadlok paakan ug iro. dili ra na ko kinahanglan maibau-an bahin sa rabies. 5. motuo ko na ang bakuna sa iro mahal. pagpamaakpaak sa bisan unsa maagian tanan nga nahisgotan sa unaahan* unsaon nimopagsumpo sa rabies? pagpakaon sa mga iro uban sa mga baligya nga pagkaon alang sa iro pagpaimmunize o pagpabakuna sa mga iro* paghatag ug mga bitamina ngadto sa mga iro pagpadayon sa kahimsog sa kada lawas human mapaakan sa iro. pureso dili nako pabakunahan an iro. wala koy iro. 2. nagngolob ug pugaw nga paghot pagpanggahi pag atake sa mga butang nga haduol. kay dili ra makamatay. . gikadenahan sa balay kon sila gihatagan ug bakuna kausa sa kada 3 ka tuig kon sila gihatagan ug mga antibiotics kon sila gihatagan ug bakuna kada tuig* asa man ning mosunod ang husto mahitungdo sa pagpamakuna sa mga iro? ang mga iro nga nabakunahan kausa sa daghan nang mga katuigan ang miagi dili na makatakod ug virus ngadto sa tawa nga ilang napaakan ang mga iro gikinahanglan pabakuna kada tuig* ang tawo makakuha ug rabies sulod sa gidugayon nga usa tuig gikan nga ang iro nabakunahan ang tawo nga napaakan ug iro ug nahatagan ug panagang sa daghang na milabay na tuig. pagpadayan ug way tumong.
dili tanan _____dili 3. kapila _____kada unom ka bulan _____kada tuig _____ka duha ka tuig _____kada lima ka tuig (post 1. dili tanan _____dili 6. imo bang gipabakunahan ang imong nga iro? _____oo. aduna ka bay buhi n iro? ______yes. paunsa _____balay sa iro _____hiniktan 5. rehistrado ba kini sa departmento sa agrikultura? _____oo. gusto pa ba nimu nga mabakunahan ang inyong iro laban sa rabies _____oo _____dili . nakadawat ba ug libreng bakuna ang inyong iro katung nobyembre 10 sa compra barangay hall? _____oo _____dili 8. ________no 4.ginabuhat 1. tanan _____oo. ________no 2. kon gibakunahan. 2 intervention) 7. tanan _____oo. gitangkil ba ninyo ang inyong iro?____yes.
Pakistan Year 1987-1993 .CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL INFORMATION Name: Sex: Address: Sharifa Aini A Hashim Female Blue Gate. Malaysia Palak Ajijul Hashim Habib Mudjahab A. Zamboanga City Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Mother: Father: December 12. 1981 Kota Kinabalu. Pharmacy Universidad de Zamboanga 1998-2002 High school Name of School Islamabad International School. Hashim EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND College Degree Name of School Year BS. Boalan. Sabah. Buena Gatas rd. Pakistan Year 1993-1997 elementary Name of School Islamabad International School.