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• 11 • Distance Protection

Introduction 11.1

Principles of distance relays 11.2

Relay performance 11.3

Relationship between relay voltage
and ZS/ZL ratio 11.4

Voltage limit for accurate
reach point measurement 11.5

Zones of protection 11.6

Distance relay characteristics 11.7

Distance relay implementation 11.8

Effect of source impedance
and earthing methods 11.9

Distance relay application problems 11.10

Other distance relay features 11.11

Distance relay application example 11.12

References 11.13

• 11 • Distance P rotection

The problem of combining fast fault clearance with
selective tripping of plant is a key aim for the protection
of power systems. To meet these requirements, high-
speed protection systems for transmission and primary
distribution circuits that are suitable for use with the
automatic reclosure of circuit breakers are under
continuous development and are very widely applied.
Distance protection, in its basic form, is a non-unit
system of protection offering considerable economic and
technical advantages. Unlike phase and neutral
overcurrent protection, the key advantage of distance
protection is that its fault coverage of the protected
circuit is virtually independent of source impedance



I >> F1
x 3
IF1= =7380A

√3 +
Relay R1


I >>
> F2

IF2= =6640A

Therefore, for relay operation for line faults,
Relay current setting <6640A and >7380A
This is impractical, overcurrent relay not suitable
Must use Distance or Unit Protection

Figure 11.1: Advantages of distance
over overcurrent protection

This is illustrated in Figure 11.1, where it can be seen that
overcurrent protection cannot be applied satisfactorily.

Network Protection & Automation Guide • 171 •

Distance protection is comparatively simple to apply and Transformers or saturating CT’s. power swings and load variations may be 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 65 plotted on the same diagram and in this manner the % relay rated voltage performance of the relay in the presence of system faults (a) Phase-earth faults and disturbances may be studied. with fault 0 20 40 60 80 100 position relative to the relay setting. location If the measured impedance is less than the reach point ZL = line impedance equivalent to relay reach setting impedance. The impedance measuring techniques employed in 100 particular relay designs also have an impact.2. The apparent impedance so ZS = system source impedance behind the relay calculated is compared with the reach point impedance. It can claim both maximum and minimum operating times. (c) Three-phase and three-phase-earth faults Depending on the measuring techniques employed in a particular relay design. Reach accuracy is a % relay rated voltage comparison of the actual ohmic reach of the relay under (b) Phase-phase faults practical conditions with the relay setting value in ohms.2 PRINCIPLES OF DISTANCE RELAYS With electromechanical and earlier static relay designs. when applied with a signalling channel. between the relay location and the selected reach point. It is of a protected circuit. and reach point). where: thus giving discrimination for faults that may occur in different line sections. 11. S. It can also provide both primary usual for electromechanical and static distance relays to and remote back-up functions in a single scheme. (% Zone 1 setting) 105 Impedance reach • 11 • 100 11. = ZS ZL The basic principle of distance protection involves the division of the voltage at the relaying point by the and measured current.’s) as shown in Figure 11. for modern digital or numerical distance relays. It was appropriate to use a relay capable of measuring the customary to present information on relay performance impedance of a line up to a predetermined point (the by voltage/reach curves. it may be plotted on an R/X diagram. In this form it is the variation between these is small over a wide range of eminently suitable for application with high-speed auto. Since the impedance of a transmission line is the magnitude of input quantities particularly influenced proportional to its length. as shown in Figure 11.R. easily be adapted to create a unit protection scheme However.2: Typical impedance reach accuracy characteristics for Zone 1 such as those produced by Capacitor Voltage • 172 • Network Protection & Automation Guide .I. it is assumed that a fault exists on the line between the relay and the reach point. Such a relay is described as a distance relay operating time/fault position curves for various values of and is designed to operate only for faults occurring system impedance ratios (S. The 100 loci of power system impedances as seen by the relay 95 during faults.3. can also adversely delay it can be fast in operation for faults located along most relay operation for faults close to the reach point.I .3 RELAY PERFORMANCE 95 Distance relay performance is defined in terms of reach 0 20 40 60 80 100 accuracy and operating time.1 Electromechanical/Static Distance Relays 11.R.3. for the protection of critical transmission lines. and with the point % relay rated voltage on the voltage wave at which the fault occurs. Figure 11. measuring signal transient errors. for distance measurement it is both reach accuracy and operating time. 95 Operating times can vary with fault current. Reach accuracy particularly depends on the level of 105 (% Zone 1 setting) Impedance reach voltage presented to the relay under fault conditions. reclosing. Since this is dependent on the (% Zone 1 setting) Impedance reach 105 ratio of voltage and current and the phase angle between them. system operating conditions and fault positions. Distance P rotection The reach point of a relay is the point along the line impedance locus that is intersected by the boundary characteristic of the relay.

u. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Fault position (% relay setting) 11.1 1 10 1 100 1000 S/Z ZL or 1 Fault position (p. They are usually slightly Operation time (ms) 50 40 slower than some of the older relay designs when 30 operating under the best conditions. 11. IR and VR 10 Min are the current and voltage measured by the relay. as illustrated fault at the reach point.0 13ms V 0.3 0. for phase faults. The voltage V applied to the 30 impedance loop is the open circuit voltage of the power 20 Max system. relay setting ZL) Boundary where: 1.1 0. this may be alternatively in Figure 11. These 0. V is the phase-phase source (b) Zone 1 phase-phase fault: maximum operation times voltage and ZS/ZL is the positive sequence source to line impedance ratio. therefore. for the faulted phases Network Protection & Automation Guide • 173 • .8 0. For faults involving characteristics for Zone 1 phase-phase faults earth it is dependent on the method of system earthing behind the relaying point. The Distance P rotection expressed as a percentage of the relay setting is plotted voltage VR applied to the relay is.01 0.Equation 11.8 IR = 0.01 0. the above information was combined in a family of contour curves. is valid for all types of short 0.u.2 VR = V • 11 • 0. Source impedance ZS is a measure of Figure 11.. 0. Fault position (% relay setting) The impedances ZS and ZL are described as source and (b) With system impedance ratio of 30/1 line impedances because of their position with respect to the relay location.7 9ms ZS + Z L 0.2 circuits provided a few simple rules are observed. as shown in Figure Operation time (ms) 50 11.3 ZL 0.4 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RELAY VOLTAGE (a) With system impedance ratio of 1/1 AND ZS/ZL RATIO A single. may represent any fault condition in a three- 40 phase power system. IRZL. Point R represents the relay location. VR is the phase-phase relay voltage and IR is the phase-phase relay Figure 11.6 15ms 0.1 are: 0. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 respectively. equivalent circuit.1 ZS + Z L 0 0.7 0.4 illustrated in Figure 11.5(a). relay setting ZL) VR = V 1. but their maximum 20 Max operating times are also less under adverse waveform 10 Min conditions or for boundary fault conditions.4: Typical operation-time contours current.0 Boundaryy (ZS ZL ) +1 .. expressed in terms of source to line impedance ratio ZS/ZL by means of the following expressions: VR=IRZL Fault position (p.4 0. where the fault position measure of the impedance of the protected section.3.9 0.5 The above generic relationship between VR and ZS/ZL.5(b).4.3: Typical operation time the fault level at the relaying point. Line impedance ZL is a Alternatively.9 0. For a against the source to line impedance ratio.5 Therefore : 0.1 1 10 100 1000 S/Z ZL i. generic.6 0.2 Digital/Numerical Distance Relays Digital/Numerical distance relays tend to have more consistent operating times.

V is the phase-neutral source a reach point fault depends on the minimum voltage at voltage and ZS/ZL is a composite ratio involving the relay location under this condition being above a the positive and zero sequence impedances.3 0.2 0. can also be quoted in terms of an equivalent current for the faulted phase maximum ZS/ZL or S. Basic distance protection will comprise instantaneous directional Zone 1 protection and one or more time- Distance P rotection VS VL=VR delayed zones.2 REACH POINT MEASUREMENT The ability of a distance relay to measure accurately for ii. The 30 resulting 15-20% safety margin ensures that there is no risk of the Zone 1 protection over-reaching the protected 20 line due to errors in the current and voltage 10 transformers.5 11 • Voltage VR (% rated voltage) • 80 0 VR (%) 10 20 30 40 50 11. Most modern relays are provided with healthy where phase voltage polarisation and/or memory voltage ZS = 2ZS1 + ZS0 = ZS1(2+p) polarisation.Equation 11.5 VOLTAGE LIMIT FOR ACCURATE VR = V p−p (ZS ZL ) +1 …Equation 11.5 2 13 4 5 10 ZS and measurement. provided the reach VR = V l −n ⎛2 + p⎞ point voltage criterion is met. Figure 11. Zone 2 of the distance protection to line impedance ratio must cover the remaining 15-20% of the line. settings of up to 85% may be safe. Typical settings for three forward-looking zones of basic distance (a) Power system configuration protection are given in the following sub-sections. To determine the settings for a particular relay design or for 10 a particular distance teleprotection scheme. any increased measuring (ZS ZL ) ⎜ ⎟ +1 ⎝ 2 +q⎠ errors for faults closer to the relay will not prevent relay . involving 7. which depends on the relay the phase-neutral relay voltage and IR is the relay design. VR is declared value. where the fault-loop voltage measured by the relay may ZS0 be very small. The prime purpose of the relay polarising ZL = 2ZL1 + ZL0 = ZL1(2+q) voltage is to ensure correct relay directional response for and close-up faults.5 end-to-end signalling.0 90 2. the relay manufacturer’s instructions should be referred to. for earth faults.R. Otherwise. Typical reach and time settings for a 3- IR zone distance protection are shown in Figure 11. 1 Distance relays are designed so that.I. p= Z S1 Z L0 q= 11. 1 11.1 Zone 1 Setting ZS 70 ZL Electromechanical/static relays usually have a reach 60 setting of up to 80% of the protected line impedance for 50 instantaneous Zone 1 protection.6 ZONES OF PROTECTION Z L1 Careful selection of the reach settings and tripping times R for the various zones of measurement enables correct co- Source Line ordination between distance relays on a power system. VR (%) 100 5.. in the forward or reverse direction.3 operation. For digital/numerical 40 distance relays.6. there would be a loss of System impedance ratio ZL discrimination with fast operating protection on the (b) Variation of relay voltage with system source following line section..6. This voltage.1 0. inaccuracies in line impedance data 0 provided for setting purposes and errors of relay setting 0.5: Relationship between source to line ratio and relay voltage • 174 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . V VR some set to measure in the reverse direction. Digital ZS ZL and numerical distance relays may have up to five zones.

the number of signal inputs they have. This is required where there are Distance P rotection Time Z2J Y line voltage transformers. in addition to its forward reach setting. one of the forward- elements after a time delay that is initiated by a fault looking zones (typically Zone 3) could be set with a small detector. Alternatively.2 (protected line + longest second line) Zone 3R = 20% of protected line 11. In some systems. to provide fast tripping in the Z1J Z1L Source Source event of accidental line energisation with maintenance H J K 0 earthing clamps left in position. zero-impedance fault. Zone 2 protection is provided either by separate applying a reverse reach setting of the order of 25% of elements or by extending the reach of the Zone 1 the Zone 1 reach.6.4 Settings for Reverse Reach and Other Zones the shortest adjacent line. the effect of fault or phase of two input quantities to obtain operating current infeed at the remote busbars will cause the characteristics that are either straight lines or circles impedance presented to the relay to be much greater when plotted on an R/X diagram. by relays. At each stage of than the actual impedance to the fault and this needs to distance relay design evolution. Zone comparators are classified according to their polar 3 reach should be set to at least 1. the Zone reverse offset reach from the origin of the R/X diagram. 120% of the protected line impedance. Thus complete coverage of a close-up. This avoids the need to additional protection functions. the second line section. The common types compare either the relative amplitude On interconnected power systems. variations in the remote busbar infeed can To ensure full cover of the line with allowance for the prevent the application of remote back-up Zone 3 sources of error already listed in the previous section.11. with fast clearance of faults in there may be no healthy phase voltage signal or memory the first 80-85% of the line and somewhat slower voltage signal available to allow operation of a clearance of faults in the remaining section of the line. in situations where a line section is obtained.2 Zone 2 Setting be taken into account when setting Zone 3. With the offset-zone time delay bypassed. 11. Where possible.6. An offset impedance measurement characteristic is non- Zone 2 tripping must be time-delayed to ensure grading directional. 2 elements are implemented in software. Zone 4 might be used downstream relays. For example. there can be provision of ‘Switch-on-to- Z3JR Z3JF Fault’ (SOTF) protection.6: Typical time/distance characteristics required according to impedance boundaries defined on • 11 • for three zone distance protection the R/X diagram. directional impedance zone. the protection but on radial distribution systems with single reach setting of the Zone 2 protection should be at least end infeed. In electromechanical and static to provide back-up protection for the local busbar. Distance relay impedance is time delayed to discriminate with Zone 2 protection comparators or algorithms which emulate traditional plus circuit breaker trip time for the adjacent line. One advantage of a non-directional zone of with the primary relaying applied to adjacent circuits that impedance measurement is that it is able to operate for fall within the Zone 2 reach. Zone 1 = 80-85% of protected line impedance Zone 2 (minimum) = 120% of protected line Zone 2 (maximum) < Protected line + 50% of shortest second line Zone 3F = 1. presented to the relay for a fault at the remote end of and the method by which signal comparisons are made. In most digital and numerical relays. In many applications it is common practice to set the Zone 2 reach to be equal to the protected line section +50% of 11. this ensures that the resulting maximum effective Zone 2 reach does Modern digital or numerical relays may have additional not extend beyond the minimum effective Zone 1 reach impedance zones that can be utilised to provide of the adjacent line protection.6. Traditional distance relays and numerical relays that emulate the impedance elements of traditional relays do not measure absolute impedance. no difficulties should arise.3 Zone 3 Setting They compare the measured fault voltage with a replica voltage derived from the fault current and the zone Remote back-up protection for all faults on adjacent impedance setting to determine whether the fault is lines can be provided by a third zone of protection that within zone or out-of-zone.2 times the impedance characteristics. the development of Network Protection & Automation Guide • 175 • . where the grade the Zone 2 time settings between upstream and first three zones are set as above. Additional impedance Z1H Z1K H X Z2K zones may be deployed as part of a distance protection Y Z3KF Z3KR scheme used in conjunction with a teleprotection Time signalling channel.7 DISTANCE RELAY CHARACTERISTICS X = Circuit breaker tripping time Y = Discriminating time Some numerical relays measure the absolute fault impedance and then determine whether operation is Figure 11.

Vector AC represents the impedance of line AC disadvantages: behind the relaying point.2 Plain Impedance Characteristic C D This characteristic takes no account of the phase angle between the current and the voltage applied to it. the AC quantities being compared are the voltage and current M measured by the relay. for this • 11 • reason its impedance characteristic when plotted on an F R/X diagram is a circle with its centre at the origin of the (b) Illustration of use of directional/impedance relay: circuit diagram co-ordinates and of radius equal to its setting in ohms. depending on Impedance p the technology used. and in this form would operate for all faults AZ< along the vector AL and also for all faults behind the RAD: directional element at A busbars up to an impedance AM. and therefore 85% of the protected line.7: Plain impedance relay characteristic operational amplifier comparators in static-type distance relays. is therefore non- directional. AL represents the reach of i. X B Restrains 11. Operation occurs for all impedance values less than the RAZ< & RAD & setting. it is non-directional.7. • 176 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . it will see faults both in front instantaneous Zone 1 protection. There are numerous techniques C available for performing the comparison. through diode and Figure 11. Impedance B element RZ< Any type of impedance characteristic obtainable with L one comparator is also obtainable with the other. They vary from balanced-beam relay (amplitude comparison) and induction cup (phase comparison) electromagnetic relays. The relay RAD Trip relay characteristic. For the impedance elements of a distance relay. If the sum and difference of V and (a) Characteristic of combined directional/impedance relay I are applied to the phase comparator the result is a similar characteristic. shown in Figure 11. For example. set to cover 80% to of and behind the relaying point.1 Amplitude and Phase Comparison L Operates Line AB Relay measuring elements whose functionality is based on the comparison of two independent quantities are A R essentially either amplitude or phase comparators. Since many C A B traditional relays are still in service and since some numerical relays emulate the techniques of the Z Z< traditional relays.8: Combined directional AB and RAC is the equivalent leading angle for a fault on and impedance relays line AC.7. a brief review of impedance comparators is justified. The addition and subtraction of the signals for one type of A R Restrains Q comparator produces the required signals to obtain a Distance P rotection similar characteristic using the other type. Vector AB represents the impedance in front of the relay between the relaying point A and the end of line A relay using this characteristic has three important AB. for all points within the circle. to digital sequence comparators in digital relays X and to algorithms used in numerical relays. Directional comparing V and I in an amplitude comparator results in element RD a circular impedance characteristic centred at the origin of the R/X diagram. It is to be noted that A (c) Logic for directional and impedance elements at A is the relaying point and RAB is the angle by which the fault current lags the relay voltage for a fault on the line Figure 11.7. that is. impedance operating characteristic shapes and sophistication has been governed by the technology Line AC Line AB available and the acceptable cost. A IF1 B IF2 Source Source Z< 11.

9: Mho relay characteristic in the algorithms of some modern numerical relays. angle of displacement of the diameter from the R axis. plotted on an R/X diagram. P Q 11. This can be obtained by the addition of a separate directional control element.9(b). Network Protection & Automation Guide • 177 • . If this control is not provided. it has non-uniform fault resistance coverage iii. The relay operates for values of fault impedance faults in the forward direction along line AB. This is an example of the (b) Mho impedance characteristic need to consider the proper co-ordination of multiple Distance P rotection relay elements to attain reliable relay performance IX during evolving fault conditions. For this reason they are still emulated Figure 11. It cleverly combines the discriminating qualities of both reach control and j directional control. the impedance unit is prevented ZF from operating by the inhibiting output of unit RD. to make the relay non-responsive to j Opperate IR faults outside the protected line. requires a directional element to give it correct discrimination IX ii. because of the large area IZn V-IZn Restrain covered by the impedance circle V Directional control is an essential discrimination quality for a distance relay. This demonstrates that the impedance element is Angle ϕ is known as the Relay Characteristic Angle inherently directional and such that it will operate only for (RCA).3 Self-Polarised Mho Relay The mho impedance element is generally known as such because its characteristic is a straight line on an q admittance diagram. they have been widely deployed worldwide for (c) Increased arc resistance coverage many years and their advantages and limitations are now well understood. as illustrated in Figure 11. B the type of problem to be addressed was commonly referred to as one of ‘contact race’. The impedance characteristic of a directional control (a) Phase comparator inputs element is a straight line on the R/X diagram. the passes through the origin. the under impedance j Operate element could operate prior to circuit breaker C opening. Mho impedance elements AP Relay impedance setting j were particularly attractive for economic reasons where AB Protected line K Arc resistance electromechanical relay elements were employed. is a circle whose circumference the impedance reach. IR A Reversal of current through the relay from IF1 to IF2 when C opens could then result in incorrect tripping of the healthy line if the directional unit RD operates before Restrain K the impedance unit resets. the directional unit RD at A will restrain due to current Zn IF1. it is susceptible to power swings and heavy loading of a long line.7. In older relay designs. The characteristic of a mho impedance element. along the diameter and ϕ. when The impedance characteristic is adjusted by setting Zn. so the combined characteristic of the directional and IX impedance relays is the semi-circle APLQ shown in Figure 11. As a q Line angle result. ZF within its characteristic. thereby eliminating the ‘contact race’ A IR • 11 • problems that may be encountered with separate reach and directional control elements. At the same time. This is achieved by the addition of a polarising signal. B Restrain If a fault occurs at F close to C on the parallel line CD.8.

Where a power system is resistance-earthed. The earthing resistance is in the source dependent upon the relative values of R and X at the behind the relay and only modifies the source angle and system operating frequency.. [11. such as offset mho. As the line to be protected is made up of that reduced fault current may have on the value of arc resistance and inductance. through vegetation. The resulting characteristic is shown in Figure cross-polarised and memory polarised directional 11. It will be noted that the impedance reach varies with with regard to the relay settings other than the effect fault angle.e. Using the empirical X formula derived by A. the actual amount If current bias is employed. when it is required to do so. its fault angle will be resistance seen. the mho characteristic is of line protected. falls to zero or near-zero. However.. so that the measuring value AQ multiplied by cosine (θ-ϕ).R. offset lenticular. be protected.4 Offset Mho/Lenticular Characteristics angle equivalent to the line angle will under-reach under Under close up fault conditions. AB.4 . to set the RCA less than the line mho characteristic or any other form of self-polarised angle. Therefore the element can operate for close-up faults in both the required relay setting AQ is given by: forward and the reverse directions. or known. or an earth fault involving additional therefore be taken into account only when assessing resistance. Methods of covering this when setting the relay. there is a non-linear relationship between arc voltage and arc current.10: Typical applications appreciated that this does not need to be considered for the offset mho relay • 178 • Network Protection & Automation Guide .9(c) where AB corresponds to the length of the line to impedance characteristics. The offset mho relay has two main applications: AB AQ = cos ( θ − ϕ ) Distance P rotection Due to the physical nature of an arc.Equation 11. it should be Figure 11. which results in a non-linear resistance. therefore. or if the protected 2 line is of wood-pole construction without earth wires. when the relay voltage resistive fault conditions. This problem can usually be overcome by using a relay with a cross-polarised mho or a polygonal (b) Carrier starting in distance blocking schemes characteristic. It would condition. With ϕ set less than θ. a relay using a self-polarised It is usual.1] the approximate value of arc resistance can be assessed as: Zone 28710 3 Ra = L I 1.4 Zone 2 where: Zone 1 R Ra = arc resistance (ohms) Busbar zone • 11 • L = length of arc (metres) I = arc current (A) (a) Busbar zone back-up using an offset mho relay On long overhead lines carried on steel towers with X overhead earth wires the effect of arc resistance can J usually be neglected. so that it is possible to accept a small amount of directional impedance characteristic may fail to operate fault resistance without causing under-reach. van C.7. The effect is most significant on H Zone 3 short overhead lines and with fault currents below Zone Carrier stop 2000A (i. the earth fault resistance reduces the G R effective earth-fault reach of a mho Zone 1 element to such an extent that the majority of faults are detected in Carrier start K Zone 2 time. such as tower footing resistance or fault relay performance in terms of system impedance ratio. the difference between the line condition include the use of non-directional impedance angle θ and the relay characteristic angle ϕ must be characteristics. the value of the resistive component of fault impedance will increase to change the impedance angle. Warrington. would be equal to the relay setting shifted to embrace the origin. Thus a relay having a characteristic 11. In Zone 1 the latter case. minimum plant condition). Under an arcing fault source to line impedance ratio for earth faults.

A further benefit of the Zone 3 application is for Switch-on-to-Fault (SOTF) protection. which allows high. with the reverse reach arranged to ⎝b⎠ extend into the busbar zone. Hence.10(b).7. characteristics. enabling measuring units as a fault detector and/or Zone 3 measuring unit. provide remote back-up protection for faults on the adjacent feeder. advantage of preserving and indeed enhancing the shows how the lenticular characteristic can where the Zone 3 time delay would be bypassed for a tolerate much higher degrees of line loading than offset short period immediately following line energisation to mho and plain impedance characteristics. since the required Zone 1 ohmic setting is low. a disadvantage of the characteristic self-polarised.7. The problem is aggravated in the case of short lines. More modern digital or numerical X systems can offer a synchronous phase reference for variations in power system frequency before or even Offset Lenticular characteristic during a fault.10(a).11: Minimum load impedance will be enhanced. This coverage consistent with non-operation under maximum facility can also be provided with quadrilateral load transfer conditions.4.3 Application of lenticular characteristic directional properties of the mho characteristic. the cross-polarisation technique is also effective transfer conditions if Zone 3 of the relay has a large for close-up three-phase faults. offset mho characteristic is inherently able to operate for Carrier is transmitted if the fault is external to the close-up zero voltage faults. the aspect ratio of the lens ⎛⎜ a ⎞⎟ is adjustable. One way of ensuring correct mho second or third zone relay at the remote station.7. offset mho 11. a shaped type of characteristic may be used. A large Zone 3 reach may be required to healthy phase voltage reference is available. for the case where a mho element has 100% and impedance relays Network Protection & Automation Guide • 179 • . With a In this application it is used in conjunction with mho ‘lenticular’ characteristic. Early memory systems were based on tuned. plain mho impedance characteristic.2 Carrier starting unit in distance schemes with carrier blocking 11. in order to prevent accelerated tripping of the directional element. that provides There is a danger that the offset mho relay shown in several cycles of pre-fault voltage reference during a Figure 11. resonant.5 Fully Cross-Polarised Mho Characteristic If the offset mho unit is used for starting carrier The previous section showed how the non-directional signalling. when a Z D3 Z D2 applied to overhead line circuits with high impedance Z D1 angles.4.10(a) may operate under maximum load fault. For this type of fault.3. is that it has limited coverage of arc or fault Load 0 area R resistance. where the resistive coverage is restricted. it to be set to provide the maximum fault resistance it will provide back-up protection for busbar faults. The amount of the resistive coverage offered by the mho circle is directly related to the forward reach setting. element response for zero-voltage faults is to add a Transmission is prevented for internal faults by operation percentage of voltage from the healthy phase(s) to the of the local mho measuring units. main polarising voltage as a substitute phase reference. This effect is illustrated in Figure permitted with lenticular. 11. as shown in Figure 11. no reach setting. allow rapid clearance of a fault anywhere along the Reduction of load impedance from ZD3 to ZD1 will protected line. and it has the breakers. One additional benefit of applying cross-polarisation to a mho impedance element is that its resistive coverage Figure 11.12. where there would be no protected line but inside the reach of the offset mho polarising voltage to allow operation of a plain mho relay. it is arranged as shown in Figure 11. correspond to an equivalent increase in load current.11. Figure 11. speed fault clearance by the local and remote end circuit This technique is called cross-polarising.1 Third zone and busbar back-up zone To avoid this. So. By the Distance P rotection use of a phase voltage memory system. the resulting resistive coverage may be Impedance too small in relation to the expected values of fault characteristic resistance. analogue circuits. • 11 • b Offset Mho As described in Section 11. but problems occurred when applied to networks where the power system operating frequency could vary.

14: Partially cross-polarised polarised characteristic characteristic with 'shield' shape • 180 • Network Protection & Automation Guide .R. the relay characteristic expands there is no phase shift between the measured voltage to encompass the origin of the impedance diagram for and the polarising voltage. modern relays offer independent impedance measurement for each of the three earth-fault and three ZS phase-fault loops. Figure 11. the mho fully cross-polarised impedance characteristic into the resistive expansion will occur during a balanced three.12: Fully cross-polarised mho relay 11. For reverse faults. independent method of faulted phase selection is not provided.13 does not phase fault as well as for unbalanced faults.I. = 6 ZL1 R X Zn2 0 1 6 12 60 30° ZS1 24 S'1=Z ZL1+Zn2 R Mho unit characteristic (fully cross-polarized) -X (b) Resistive expansion of shaped partially cross-polarised Mho with increasing values of S. due to the tendency of comparators connected to healthy phases to operate under heavy X fault conditions on another phase. especially when single- R pole tripping is required for single-phase faults. expansion will not occur under load conditions. The degree of resistive reach forward faults only.7.13. maloperation 0 ZL of healthy phases is undesirable. the effect is to enhancement depends on the ratio of source impedance exclude the origin of the impedance diagram.6 Partially Cross-Polarised Mho Characteristic characteristic with variations of ZS/ZL ratio Where a reliable. Fully cross-polarised characteristics have now largely been superseded. cross-polarisation. when With cross-polarisation. Figure 11. negative reactance quadrants of Figure 11. The imply that there would be operation for reverse faults. where a single =25 ZL comparator is connected to the correct fault loop impedance by starting units before measurement begins. Relay location IF Va1 Shield-shaped characteristic with E1 ZS1 ZL1 16% square-wave Self-polarised Mho circle N1 F1 cr cross-polarisation X Ia1 Fully cross-polarised Mho circle c ZS2 Ia2 ZL2 N2 F2 Zn Va2 -R • 11 • R Extra resistive coverage of shield Mho unit characteristic Conventional 16% (not cross-polarized) X -X partially cross-polarised Mho circle S'2=Z ZL1+Zn1 Zn1 (a) Comparison of polarised characteristics drawn for S.R.13: Illustration of improvement in relay resistive coverage for fully cross. Figure 11. However. a modern non-switched Distance P rotection Positive current direction distance relay may only employ a relatively small Source for relay ZS ZL percentage of cross polarisation. thereby to relay reach (impedance) setting as can be deduced by ensuring proper directional responses for close-up reference to Figure 11. With cross-polarisation from the It must be emphasised that the apparent extension of a healthy phase(s) or from a memory system. forward or reverse faults. For these types of relay.I. This is of no ZS consequence in a switched distance relay.

A further factor is that the additional cost implications of Figure 11. This can be overcome by selecting an alternative to use of a phase current for R G polarisation of the reactance reach line. it is often necessary to prevent fault resistance to earth contribute to the highest values distance protection schemes from operating during of fault resistance. the disadvantages of the fully cross-polarised characteristic are avoided. an out-of-step Recommendations in this respect can usually be found in tripping scheme employing ohm impedance measuring the appropriate relay manuals. entering the three R zones in turn and causing the ohm units to operate in A sequence. To avoid excessive errors in the zone stable or unstable power swings. selection. or out-of- This form of polygonal impedance characteristic is shown step. To initiate system separation for a resistive reach in terms of the zone impedance reach. When the impedance enters the third zone the Zone 3 trip sequence is completed and the circuit breaker trip coil RZ1 can be energised at a favourable angle between system RZ2 RZ3 sources for arc interruption with little risk of restriking. By employing only partial cross-polarisation. Polygonal impedance characteristics are highly flexible in terms of fault impedance coverage for both phase and earth Out-of-step tripping relay faults. This is especially true for earth fault identified by an ordinary distance protection. C Zone 2 The ohm impedance elements divide the R/X impedance B diagram into three zones. to strategically in Figure 11.14 shows a typical characteristic Use of the Ohm Characteristic that can be obtained using this technique. B and C. most digital and numerical characteristic distance relays now offer this form of characteristic. elements can be deployed. power swing.7 Quadrilateral Characteristic such scenarios are identified. tripping protection can be deployed. As impedance measurement.15. it is common to impose a maximum cascade tripping. while still retaining the 11. A. Figure 11. For this reason. resistive coverage than any mho-type characteristic for This type of disturbance cannot normally be correctly short lines. prospective unstable power swing. X Ohm impedance characteristics are applied along the forward and reverse resistance axes of the R/X diagram and their operating boundaries are set to be parallel to the Distance P rotection Zone 3 protected line impedance vector. as shown in Figure 11. It therefore provides better connected loads on either side of the split are matched. Where 11. where the arc resistances and previously mentioned. the point representing the 1&2 impedance moves along the swing locus. stability might only be regained if the swinging sources are separated. As the impedance Zone 1 Zones changes during a power swing. Figure 11. During severe power swing conditions from which a system is unlikely to recover.16: Application of out-of-step tripping relay characteristic Network Protection & Automation Guide • 181 • .15: Quadrilateral characteristic Locus of • 11 • X Quadrilateral elements with plain reactance reach lines H Zone C Line impedance can introduce reach error problems for resistive earth faults where the angle of total fault current differs from the angle of the current measured by the relay. and also attain reliable faulted phase technology do not arise. Ideally. This will Zone B be the case where the local and remote source voltage Zone A vectors are phase shifted with respect to each other due to pre-fault power flow. the forward reach and resistive reach settings that are split should be made so that the plant capacity and independently adjustable.7.The level selected must be sufficient to provide reliable implementing this characteristic using discrete directional control in the presence of CVT transients for component electromechanical or early static relay close-up faults.7. The characteristic is provided with split a power system at a preferred location.8 Protection against Power Swings – advantages. in order to avoid reach accuracy.16.

This algorithm can be executed setting to another.7. the type of fault to have all of the above functions implemented in 4.17(a) shows an example of such a relay scheme. The complete distance relay is housed in a single unit. starting.8 DISTANCE RELAY IMPLEMENTATION for phase faults. Only an unstable power swing condition can cause the It is impossible to eliminate all of the above factors for impedance vector to move successively through the all possible operating conditions. Provided the computed distance each impedance loop may have their reach settings to fault lies within the Zone reach of the relay. the symmetry of line impedance for significant economies in space. transmission circuits. Starter units may not be necessary. Therefore. Figure 11. a more economical arrangement is for ‘starter’ is expected. it is assumed a fault has occurred. capable of offering the highest faults) may not fall within the fault detection criteria of performance in terms of speed and application the Delta algorithm. other types of system success can be achieved with a suitable distance relay. This type of relay is commonly Distance P rotection algorithm. making 5. To most common formats are: overcome this. However. through the increased availability that stems terminal circuit) from the provision of continuous self-supervision. so that the distance relay may not see all the current that produces the fault comprised a panel-mounted assembly of the required voltage) relays with suitable inter-unit wiring. While this is true in principle for for three-zone protection for all types of fault. the fault resistance software. flexibility Furthermore. will This may comprise relay elements or algorithms for not result in relay element operation. Various distance relay formats exist. the distance to c. 2. provided that fault distance is a simple or algorithms would be required in a full distance relay function of impedance. The increase occurs after zone significantly faster than the conventional distance time delays that are initiated by operation of starter elements. such as power system fault conditions. possibly up to 40ms in some relay designs.17(b)) are likely 3. that covers all phase faults faster. the magnitudes of current and voltage (the relay housed in its own case. protection against earth faults may require different characteristics and/or settings to those required 11. the fault impedance loop being measured Digital/numerical distance relays (Figure 11. d. high-resistance scheme. the circuit configuration (single. considerable three zones. wiring and increased 6. a trip progressively increased from one zone reach command is issued. elements to detect which phase or phases have suffered a fault. resulting in faster overall tripping times. The execution time for the algorithm for traditional depending on the operating speed required and cost distance protection using quadrilateral or similar considerations related to the relaying hardware. The distance measurement elements may produce impedance characteristics selected from those described 11.9 Other Characteristics in Section 11. each zone may be provided with independent sets Relays that use the ‘Delta’ algorithm generally run both of impedance measuring elements for each this and conventional distance protection algorithms in impedance loop. double or multi. resulting in additional units being • 11 • Discriminating zones of protection can be achieved using required. often known as the ‘Delta’ algorithm. disturbance.g. The time. Faulted phase selection can be carried out by comparing referred to as a reach-stepped distance relay the signs of the changes in voltage and current. the impedances actually measured With electromechanical technology. In parallel. If the change between these commonly referred to as a switched distance relay samples exceeds a predefined amount (the ‘delta’). some numerical distance relays also use a. When • 182 • Network Protection & Automation Guide .7. software characteristics may result in a relatively long operation or numerical relay processing capacity required. as some types of fault (e. a single set of impedance measuring elements for fault is also computed. This is sampled previously. a single measuring element for each phase is alternative algorithms that can be executed significantly provided. each of the by a distance relay also depend on the following factors: measuring elements would have been a separate relay 1. This is known as a full distance parallel. The starter elements switch a This algorithm detects a fault by comparing the single measuring element or algorithm to measure measured values of current and voltage with the values the most appropriate fault impedance loop. A total of 18 impedance-measuring elements distance relays. dependability. These algorithms are based generally on detecting changes in current and voltage that are in excess of what b. distance measuring and for scheme logic.

or tripping three- phase when single-pole fault clearance is required. A number of different types of starters have been used. Figure 11. such as: a. there may be occasions where a numerical • 11 • relay that mimics earlier switched distance protection techniques is desired. comparing the step change of level between pre-fault load. to aid selectivity. together with a segregated measuring algorithm for each phase-ground and phase to phase fault loop (AN. However.17 (b): MiCOM P440 series numerical distance relay Some applications may require the numerical relay characteristics to match those of earlier generations already installed on a network. except for the most made. This enables very fast detection of the faulted phases. It does not impose a time penalty as the phase selection and measuring zone algorithms run in parallel. superimposed current comparisons. Numerical distance relays permit direct detection of the phases involved in a fault. Such relays are available. BN.17 (a): First generation of static distance relay Numerical phase selection is much faster than traditional starter techniques used in electromechanical or static distance relays. The choice of starter was dependent on power demanding EHV transmission applications. thus ensuring full- scheme operation.the additional features detailed in Section 11.11 are taken economy for other applications. the most common being based on overcurrent. AB. A distance relay using this technique is known as a switched distance relay. often abbreviated to phase selection. change in voltage magnitude c. The reasons may be economic (less software required – thus cheaper than a relay that contains a full-scheme implementation) and/or technical. which then permits the appropriate distance-measuring zone to trip. The cost and the resulting physical scheme size relays. within only a few samples of the analogue current inputs b. change in current magnitude Distance P rotection Figure 11. such equipment offers substantial user element was provided. together with ‘starter’ units that benefits. CA). Several techniques are available for faulted phase selection. normally use an individual impedance-measuring element With electromechanical or static switched distance per phase. Several techniques are available for faulted phase selection. The phase selection algorithm provides faulted phase selection. It is possible to build a full- scheme relay with these numerical techniques. the relay risks having over or underreach problems. To achieve system parameters such as maximum load transfer in Network Protection & Automation Guide • 183 • . in order to switch the appropriate signals to the single measuring function. CN. This is called faulted phase selection. only one measuring into consideration.8. undervoltage or under-impedance measurement. detected which phases were faulted. Without phase selection. and fault current (the ‘Delta’ algorithm).1 Starters for switched distance protection multi-sided polygonal impedance characteristics that Electromechanical and static distance relays do not assist in avoiding tripping due to heavy load conditions. often with refinements such as 11. a selection of available starters often had to be made this arrangement impractical. BC.

relation to maximum reach required and power system double phase faults are dependent on the source earthing arrangements.5 times the setting of the (a) Single-phase to earth (A-E) overcurrent starters F A On multiple-earthed systems where the neutrals of all Va B the power transformers are solidly earthed. For satisfactory operation of the overcurrent A starters in a switched distance scheme.9. C Ic Ib Ia Vc • 11 • 11. or in power systems where the fault current is less than the full load C Vb Ic Ib Ia current of the protected line. Furthermore. The type of under-impedance starter used is mainly Va=Vb=Vc=0 dependent on the maximum expected load current and Ia+Ib+Ic=0 equivalent minimum load impedance in relation to the (b) Three-phase (A-B-C or A-B-C-E) F required relay setting to cover faults in Zone 3.18: Current and voltage relaying point. The relationships are given in Figure 11.2 times the maximum full load current of the protected line b.9 EFFECT OF SOURCE IMPEDANCE AND EARTHING METHODS Vc=0 For correct operation. To ensure (c) Double phase to earth (B-C-E) this. Where overcurrent starters are used. indiscriminate tripping ( for double . Without this feature. the following Va B conditions must be fulfilled: Vb C a. it is not possible to use Vc Distance P rotection overcurrent starters.phase faults ) maximum load conditions after a second or third zone fault has been cleared by the first zone relay in the faulty ( ) V ' bc = 2 a 2 − a Z L1 I '1 section. impedance as well as the line impedance. the current setting of the overcurrent starters must Ic Ib Ia Vc be not less than 1. care must be taken to ensure that. it is necessary to provide the correct measured F quantities to the measurement elements. This is A illustrated in Figure 11.11 where ZD1. Ic Ib Ia Vc 11.18 shows the current and voltage relations for Ib=-Ic the different types of fault.19. In these circumstances under- impedance starters are typically used. to ensure that they will drop off under ( ) V ' bc = a 2 − a Z L1 I '1 ( for 3 . offset mho and impedance relays are used. If ZS1 and ZL1 are the source (d) Double-phase (B-C) and line positive sequence impedances.1 Phase Fault Impedance Measurement Ia=0 Vb=Vc Figure 11. or that Vb C additional compensation is required. with minimum generating plant in Applying the difference of the phase voltages to the relay service. the currents and voltages at this point for relationships for some shunt faults • 184 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . For example: enough to detect faults beyond the third zone. It is not always A the case that use of the voltage and current for a Va B particular phase will give the correct result. viewed from the Figure 11. ZD2. distance relays must be capable of Vb=0 Ia=0 measuring the distance to the fault accurately. the setting of the overcurrent starters is sensitive eliminates the dependence on ZS1. and ZD3 are B Va respectively the minimum load impedances permitted Vb when lenticular.phase faults ) may result for subsequent faults in the second or third F zone. these starters require a high drop-off to pick-up ratio. the power system minimum fault current for a Va=0 Ic=0 fault at the Zone 3 reach of the distance relay must Ib=0 not be less than 1.

From the above expressions. the healthy phase currents are zero. varies with the number of infeeds. the impedance measurement will be incorrect.5 Note: I'1 = 1 (I'a+aI'b+a2I'c) Relaying 3 point I' and V' are at relay location Supply A F 1 A B 0 B Figure 11. Correct Z= ⎨1+ ⎬Z where K= L0 ⎩ 3 ⎭ L1 ZL1 measurement for both phase-phase and three-phase faults is achieved by supplying each phase-phase (a) System earthed at one point only behind the relaying point measuring element with its corresponding phase-phase voltage and difference of phase currents. Unless these factors are taken into (c) As for (b) but with relaying point at receiving end account.20 illustrates the three possible arrangements by: that can occur in practice with a single infeed. I'c aI'1 (a-a2)I'1 3.20: Effect of infeed and earthing arrangements on earth fault distance voltage drops between the relaying point and the fault.phase faults ) Z= ZL1 (b) System earthed at one point only in front of the relaying point and the relay will measure ZL1 in each case. measurement The voltage drop to the fault and current in the fault loop are: V ' a = I '1 Z L1 + I ' 2 Z L1 + I ' 0 Z L 0 The voltage appearing at the relaying point. the current • 11 • in the fault loop depends on the number of earthing points. Thus. the method of earthing and sequence impedances Z=KZL1 of the fault loop.9.2 Earth Fault Impedance Measurement Relaying point Supply When a phase-earth fault occurs. the phase currents at the relaying point. the transmission line positive sequence impedance V'a ZL1I'1 2(ZS1+ZL1)I'1 ZL1: V'b a2ZL1I'1 (2a2ZL1-ZS1)I'1 ⎧ K −1 ⎫ V ' a = Z L1 ⎨ I ' a + ( I ' a + I ' b + I ' c ) V'c aZL1I'1 (2aZL1-ZS1)I'1 ⎩ 3 ⎭…Equation 11. and the residual current I’N at the relaying point is given Figure 11. the I ' a = I '1 + I ' 2 + I ' 0 method of system earthing and the position of the relay relative to the infeed and earthing points in the system. as previously mentioned. (=ZL0/ZL1).phase faults ) 2 1 1 I ' b − I ' c = a − a I '1 B B C 1 1 C ( 2 I ' b − I ' c = 2 a − a I '1 ) ( double . 11. I’c are the phase currents at the relaying Fault Three-phase Double-phase point. I’b. where I’a. The voltage drop to the fault is the sum of the sequence Figure 11. the voltage at the quantity (A-B-C) (B-C) relaying point can be expressed in terms of: 1. K. the ratio of the transmission line zero sequence to I'b a2I'1 (a2-a)I'1 positive sequence impedance. for the Relaying point B-C element. It would appear that B 1 1 B the voltage drop to the fault is simply the product of the C 1 1 C phase current and line impedance. In Figure I' n = I' a + I' b + I' c = 3 I'0 11. However. the phase-earth 1 F 2 A A voltage at the fault location is zero. the current measured will be: Supply A 1 F 2 A ( ) Distance P rotection ( 3 .20(a). I'a I'1 0 2. so that the Network Protection & Automation Guide • 185 • .19: Phase currents and voltages at relaying point for 3-phase and C 0 C double-phase faults Distance measuring elements are usually calibrated in ⎧ (K-1) ⎫ Z terms of the positive sequence impedance.

the 11. it may be found that the = 3I1(Z1+ZN) circuit impedance is less than the minimum setting Hence. With knowledge of the sequence impedance Z1 is fed with the phase current at the impedances involved in the fault. Care should be The required setting for ZN can be determined by taken that both phase and earth faults are considered. It is then only necessary to check that and ZN equals the measured phase to neutral voltage in the minimum voltage for accurate reach measurement the faulted phase. arrangements. the system voltage and the earthing relaying point.20(b). Many of them have been overcome of the infeeds taken into account. the phase currents have a 1-1-1 impedance correctly. earth 3 Z=ZL1 fault measuring elements will measure the fault In Figure 11. the currents entering the fault from the relay branch have a 2-1-1 distribution. The 3 I1 ( Z1 + Z N ) = I1 ( 2 Z1 + ZN ) impedance seen by a relay comparing Ia and Va is: Z 0 − Z1 ZN = ⎪⎧ Z = ⎨1 + ( K − 1 ) ⎪⎫ Z 3 ⎬ L1 ⎩⎪ 3 ⎭⎪ = ( Z0 − Z1 ) Z1 …Equation 11.2 Minimum Length of Line 11. it is possible to calculate the minimum The value of ZN is adjusted so that for a fault at the voltage at the relay terminals for a fault at the reach reach point. not employ voltage memory techniques require a Distance P rotection Most distance relays compensate for the earth fault minimum voltage at the relay terminals under fault conditions by using an additional replica impedance ZN conditions.10.20(c). and hence: infeeds and earthing points on the system. expressions: A suitable alternative might be current differential • 186 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . phase currents Ia.6 3 Z1 …Equation 11.7 In Figure 11. Nevertheless. In such cases. ZN is fed with the full residual current. ( K − 1) arrangements if a proportion K N = of the 3 residual current In=Ia+Ib+Ic is added to the phase 11. Secondly. This voltage should be declared in the data within the measuring circuits. or alternatively the fault MVA.1 Minimum Voltage at Relay Terminals current Ia.10 DISTANCE RELAY APPLICATION PROBLEMS impedance measured would be a superposition of any Distance relays may suffer from a number of difficulties two of the above examples. so: Z 0 − Z1 With the replica impedance set to . Z=KZL1 If there were infeeds at both ends of the line. an alternative method reach point is given by equating the above two of protection will be required. the required setting of ZN for balance at the range of the relay. in the latest numerical relays. an awareness of the problems is useful where a protection This analysis shows that the relay can only measure an engineer has to deal with older relays that are already impedance which is independent of infeed and earthing installed and not due for replacement. This is illustrated with reference to the A-N fault with single earthing point behind the relay as in Figure 11. To determine the minimum length of line that can be protected by a distance relay.20(a). the ohmic impedance Voltage across the replica impedances: of the line (referred if necessary to VT/CT secondary side = IaZ1+INZN quantities) must fall within the ohmic setting range for = Ia(Z1+ZN) Zone 1 reach of the relay. • 11 • considering an earth fault at the reach point of the relay.10. distance relays that do compensation’. can be attained for a given application. with the relative magnitudes in their application. it is necessary to check first Voltage supplied from the VT’s: that any minimum voltage requirement of the relay for a = I1(Z1+Z2+Z0) = I1(2Z1+Z0) fault at the Zone 1 reach is within the declared sensitivity for the relay. This technique is known as ‘residual To attain their claimed accuracy. Whereas the phase replica sheet for the relay. Ib and Ic have a 1-0-0 pattern. irrespective of the number of distribution. For very short lines and especially for cable circuits. the sum of the voltages developed across Z1 point of the relay.

10.. Should there be a possibility of the remote impedance to the fault. Application checks are still essential. Consider a relay setting of ZA+ZC.2. infeed being reduced or zero. 11. However. Zone 2 of one line impedance: section should not reach beyond the Zone 1 coverage of Network Protection & Automation Guide • 187 • .8 It is clear from Equation 11. the latest So. the relay at A will not measure the 11.8 that the relay will 11.10..10.10.3 Under-Reach . the relay effective setting ZR = intended relay reach (relay reach becomes ZA+10ZC. For example. If IB=9IA and the relay reach is set to see faults at F. particular care Therefore the effective reach is must be taken to ensure that the appropriate earth fault ⎛ IA ⎞ loop impedance is used in the calculation. see Section 11. so such problems are now IA rarely encountered.Effect of Remote Infeed underreach. the relay will then reach further than intended. setting) Care should also be taken that large forward reach Distance P rotection ZF = effective reach settings will not result in operation of healthy phase relays for reverse earth faults.21. When considering earth faults.. ZC Percentage over-reach is defined by the equation: IA+IB Source ZF − ZR ×100% A IA xZC ZR . as the line length will probably be short IA + IB enough for the cost-effective provision of a high ZA + × x × ZC IA bandwidth communication link between the relays fitted at the ends of the protected circuit.3.Equation 11.6. then in the where: absence of the remote infeed.9 • 11 • F ZA where: Z< ZR = relay reach setting Relaying point Relay setting: ZA+ZC ZF = effective reach Relay actual reach due to parallel line infeed: ZA+xZC An example of the over-reaching effect is when distance relays are applied on parallel lines and one line is taken Figure 11. For For a fault at point F. though.21: Effect on distance relays out of service and earthed at each end.4 Over-Reach A distance relay is said to over-reach when the apparent IB impedance presented to it is less than the impedance to the fault.5.5 Forward Reach Limitations correct impedance for a fault on line section ZC due to There are limitations on the maximum forward reach current infeed IB. This is best illustrated by an for relay balance: numerical distance relays have a very wide range of impedance setting ranges and good sensitivity with low Z A + ZC = Z A + (I A + IB ) × x × ZC levels of relaying voltage. but care has impedance presented to it is apparently greater than the to be taken.Equation 11. The main cause of underreaching is the effect of fault current infeed at remote busbars. the relay is presented with an example. This is covered of infeed at the remote busbar in Section 13. setting Zone 2 to Percentage under-reach is defined as: reach a specific distance into an adjacent line section under parallel circuit conditions may mean that Zone 2 ZR − ZF ×100% reaches beyond the Zone 1 reach of the adjacent line ZR protection under single circuit operation. It is relatively easy to compensate for this A distance relay is said to under-reach when the by increasing the reach setting of the relay. ZA + ⎜ ⎟ ZC ⎝ IA + IB ⎠ .. In Figure 11. setting that can be applied to a distance relay. with reference to Figure 11.

the next line section relay. but it can be seen from the Table relay may be employed for this purpose (see Section that steady progression is being made towards a ‘one-box’ 11. to allow the relay to incorporate additional features that assist the protection respond to a fault that develops on a line during the dead engineer in providing a comprehensive solution to the time of a single pole autoreclose cycle. or a significantly less than the rate of change that occurs current less than that corresponding to the three phase during fault conditions. or on an all zones to inhibit operation of the distance protection elements and applied/inhibited basis.7. The external means. for rapid clearance of any protected circuit fault will still demand the use of two independent protection systems. or changes in load flows that occur as a result of faults and it may be incorporated into the distance relay itself. depending on the particular relay prevent tripping.7 Voltage Transformer Supervision the forward reach setting and the relay resistive Fuses or sensitive miniature circuit breakers normally coverage (e. This problem only affected older a. However. On their subsequent clearance are one cause of power swings.g. This is A modern digital or numerical distance relay will often particularly important. A dedicated power swing tripping relay model dependent. it may be possible to achieve solution that incorporates all the protection and control splitting by strategically limiting the duration for which requirements for a line or cable. the level of dependability required power swing conditions. protection requirements of a particular part of a network.10. voltage memory polarisation may maloperate if one or more voltage inputs are 11. If condition. Where there is a link between 11. Also. Zero or negative and into the relay characteristic. c. contacts from these may be used individually to each of the relay zones. supervision of the voltage when the internal voltages of generators at different inputs is recommended. the healthy phase-earth fault units of some relay designs may be prone to operation Distance relays having: for heavy reverse faults. separate voltage supervision circuits. e. For this reason. This of a power swing. relay reach is excessive. used. Discrimination between relay should not trip in order to allow the power system primary power system faults and wiring faults or loss of to return to a stable conditions. Power swings are variations in power flow that occur For these types of distance relay.10.1 provides an indication of the additional features network as split points. where the network should be that may be provided in such a relay. tripping of the distance relay can be inhibited and/or an alarm is given. When the relay detects such a fault current under minimum fault infeed conditions. most supply due to individual fuses blowing or MCB’s being distance protection schemes applied to transmission opened is obtained by blocking the distance protection only systems have a power swing blocking facility available. operation of the relay elements can be fast-acting miniature circuit breakers are used to protect blocked.g. a relay must not protect the secondary wiring between the voltage operate under maximum load conditions. Alternatively.11 OTHER DISTANCE RELAY FEATURES occurring while a power swing is in progress. Some Utilities may designate certain points on the Table 11. a Mho Zone 3 element). Modern distance A power swing may cause the impedance presented to a protection relays employ voltage supervision that operates distance relay to move away from the normal load area from sequence voltages and currents. detection of VT failure. features that are actually provided is manufacturer and slipping occurring. The combination of split in the event of an unstable power swing or pole. for example. The supervision may be provided by points of the power system slip relative to each other. A number of the features offered with modern relays can eliminate b. but all involve recognising that the arrangement will not detect the simultaneous loss of all movement of the measured impedance in relation to the three voltages and additional detection is required that relay measurement characteristics is at a rate that is operates for loss of voltage with no change in current. In the case of a stable sequence voltages and corresponding zero or negative power swing it is especially important that the distance sequence currents are derived.8).6 Power Swing Blocking removed due to operation of these devices. at the highest the operation a specific distance relay is blocked during transmission voltages. self-polarised offset characteristics encompassing relays applied to three-terminal lines that have the zero impedance point of the R/X diagram significant line section length asymmetry. • 188 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . sound phase polarisation this problem. • 11 • Various techniques are used in different relay designs to inhibit power swing blocking in the event of a fault 11. if the transformer secondary windings and the relay terminals. Distance P rotection when zero or negative sequence voltage is detected without Different relays may use different principles for detection the presence of zero or negative sequence current. Power swing blocking may be applied the VT secondary circuits.

1 Line Impedance Calculations are carried out in terms of primary system impedances in ohms.79 - Auto-reclose KZO (ang) Default residual compensation factor (phase angle) -6.476) x 100 where the CT and VT ratios may be entered as parameters.42Ω (magnitude) and 800 (angle) as nearest settable values. the impedance seen by the relay in = Ω/km the case of an earth fault.089 + j0. Figure 11.Zone 2 104 Ω Broken conductor detection R3G Ground fault resistive reach value .2: Distance relay parameters for example Table 11.12 DISTANCE RELAY APPLICATION EXAMPLE primary quantities and eliminates considerations of VT/CT ratios. ZL = (0.Zone 1 0 s (backup to distance protection) TZ2 Time delay .42 ∠79.42 Ω Tee’d feeder protection ZL1 (ang) Line positive sequence impedance (phase angle) 79.6Ω • 11 • ohms can be performed by the relay. Since the Z< zero sequence impedance of the line between Source Impedance: 5000MVA max substations ABC and XYZ is different from the positive sequence impedance.12.5 deg CB state monitoring Z1 (mag) Zone 1 reach impedance setting (magnitude) 38.Zone 2 78 Ω (backup to distance protection) R3ph Phase fault resistive reach value .87 deg Check synchroniser KZO (mag) Default residual compensation factor (magnitude) 0.Zone 1 78 Ω Directional/Non-directional phase fault overcurrent protection R2ph Phase fault resistive reach value .27 Ω Disturbance Recorder Z3 (ang) Zone 3 reach impedance setting (phase angle) 80 deg CB failure detection/logic R1ph Phase fault resistive reach value . 11.22 shows a Distance P rotection simple 230kV network.Zone 3 104 Ω User-programmable scheme logic Table 11. the scaling between primary and secondary = 8.95 Ω Measurement of voltages.Zone 1 104 Ω Stub-bus protection R2G Ground fault resistive reach value . Relay Parameter Parameter Units Fault Location (Distance to fault) parameter description value Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection ZL1 (mag) Line positive sequence impedance (magnitude) 48. Relay parameters used in the example are listed in Table 11.41 Ω 0 example by allowing calculations to be carried out in Use values of 48. will be different to that seen for a phase fault. The MiCOM P441 relay with quadrilateral line at this voltage level.8 s Under/Overvoltage protection R1G Ground fault resistive reach value .9 + j47.2 Residual Compensation 230kV/110V The relays used are calibrated in terms of the positive sequence impedance of the protected line.Zone 3 0.41 deg Alternative setting groups ZLO (mag) Line zero sequence impedance (magnitude) 163.26 Ω CT supervision ZLO (ang) Line zero sequence impedance (phase angle) 74. All relevant data for this exercise are given in teleprotection scheme would normally be applied to a the diagram. ABC XYZ PQR 1000/1A 60km 230kV 230kV 230kV 11.Zone 3 78 Ω Directional/Non-directional earth fault overcurrent protection TZ1 Time delay . In practice. it is assumed that only a conventional 3- calculations necessary to apply three-zone distance zone distance protection is to be set and that there is no protection to the line interconnecting substations ABC teleprotection scheme to be considered.1: Additional features in a distance relay 11. currents. etc. characteristics is considered in this example. a and XYZ.22: Example network for distance relay setting calculation Network Protection & Automation Guide • 189 • . rather than the traditional practice The line impedance is: of using secondary impedances.12. Z2 (ang) Zone 2 reach impedance setting (phase angle) 80 deg Event Recorder Z3 (mag) Zone 3 reach impedance setting (magnitude) 83.2.Zone 2 0. With numerical relays. The system diagram shown in Figure 11.35 s Negative sequence protection TZ3 Time delay . This simplifies the = 48.74 Ω CB condition monitoring Z1 (ang) Zone 1 reach impedance setting (phase angle) 80 deg CB control Z2 (mag) Zone 2 reach impedance setting (magnitude) 62. The following example shows the For simplicity. involving the passage of zero + Ω/km sequence current.

484 ∠ 79.8 × 48. the two requirements are in conflict.426 + j1.576 Ω (1.3 Zone 1 Phase Reach protecting the line between substations XYZ and PQR The required Zone 1 reach is 80% of the line impedance. Ideally.4 Zone 2 Phase Reach normal range is 200-500ms.12. are involved. Assuming • 11 • Sometimes. provided this does residual (or neutral) compensation factor KZ0. the resistive reach settings for each zone can be set Use 62.5 × 60 × 0. A typical time delay is 350ms.41 o = 38.41 o ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3 Z1 = 83. Zone 3 reach: K Z0 = ( Z0 − Z1 ) 3 Z1 ⎛ 48.632 ∠ 74. at least 120% of the protected line as for the Zone 2 element. component. both requirements can be met.42 ∠ 79. Hence.41 o Ω the time delay required is that to cover the total clearance time of the downstream relays.42 ∠ 79. K Z 0 = 0. the requirements for setting Zone 2 reach are: The considerations for the Zone 3 element are the same 1.476 ⎠ 11. and the 11. regardless of the fault within the zone.27∠80 0Ω.42 ∠ 79.74 ∠ 79. since the Zone 2 element covers part of these lines. offsets occur ∠ K Z 0 = −6.484 ∠ 79.41 o + ⎞ =⎜ ⎟Ω ⎝ 0. independently of the impedance reach settings. Assuming that this line has distance. Hence.089 + j 0. The resistive reach setting represents the maximum amount of additional fault resistance (in excess of the line impedance) for which a zone will trip. nearest available setting.476 Ω 0. In case. • 190 • Network Protection & Automation Guide . Independent timers are Hence.2).c.87 Ω ) o Proper co-ordination of the distance relay settings with Z L0 those of other relays is required. set equal not result in any transformers at substation XYZ being to: included.12. A setting of the summary: whole of the line between substations ABC and XYZ.12. and a suitable safety margin.12. It is assumed that this constraint is met.12.74∠80° Ω nearest settable value.9.41 o + ⎞ =⎜ ⎟Ω ∠ K Z0 = ∠ ( Z0 − Z1 ) ⎜1.41 o Ω For each of the transmission lines: Use a setting of 83.089 + j 0. Therefore. except that the downstream fault clearance time is that for the Zone 2 element of a 2. To this must Use 38.792 For Zone 1. available for the three zones to ensure this. a typical time is 800ms.6 Zone Time Delay Settings = 0. this adjustment is provided by the between substations ABC and PQR. Zone 2 reach: TZ2 = 250ms TZ3 = 800ms ⎛ 48.2 × 60 × 0. be added the reset time for the Zone 2 element following clearance of a fault on the adjacent line.95 ∠ 79.7 Phase Fault Resistive Reach Settings o = 62.41o Ω ) 11. TZ1 = 0ms (instantaneous) plus 50% of the adjacent line section to substation PQR is used. incapable of breaking the instantaneous d. the earth fault reach of the relay requires zero 11. ( ) 0. instantaneous tripping is normal.27 ∠ 79.5 Zone 3 Phase Reach sequence compensation (see Section 11. A time delay is used only in cases where large d.5 o and old circuit breakers. Hence.95∠80 0 Ω nearest available setting. In this distance relays are used. ( Z L1 = 0.c. unit or Distance P rotection instantaneous high-set overcurrent protection applied. The Zone 2 element has to grade with the relays 11. Zone 3 is set to cover 120% of the sum of the lines For the relay used. less than the protected line + 50% of the next line distance relay or IDMT overcurrent protection.41 Ω With the use of a quadrilateral characteristic.

phase-phase fault resistance (principally that of the A. by using the maximum resistive reach possible. the minimum load impedance Zlmin will be 130Ω.12. Network Protection & Automation Guide • 191 • .12. Table 11. Therefore. and is applied to all zones. leading to a typical arc resistance Rarc using the van Warrington formula (Equation 11. Allowance should be made for the effects of any remote fault infeed.1 Protective Relays – their Theory and Practice.2 is used to adjust the phase fault reach setting in the case of earth faults.4) of 8Ω. the residual compensation factor as calculated in Section 11. Using the current transformer ratio as a guide to the maximum expected load current.R. • 11 • 11. it must be less than the apparent resistance measured due to the heaviest load on the line The minimum fault current at Substation ABC is of the order of 1. the resistive reach setting lies between 8Ω and 78Ω. Chapman and Hall. fault arc) 1962.8kA.13 REFERENCES follows: i.2 also shows the settings calculated. it must be greater than the maximum expected 11. Hence the settings are: R3G = 104Ω R2G = 104Ω R1G = 104Ω This completes the setting of the relay.8 Earth Fault Impedance Reach Settings By default.9 Earth Fault Resistive Reach Settings The margin for avoiding the minimum load impedance need only be 20%. for this simple example they can all be set equal. leading to a maximum resistive reach setting of 78Ω. van C.12. Typically. This need not always be the case. as 11.Two constraints are imposed upon the settings. it depends on the particular distance protection scheme used and the need to include Power Swing Blocking. Warrington. Suitable settings are chosen to be 80% of the load resistance: Distance P rotection R3ph = 78Ω R2ph = 78Ω R1ph = 78Ω 11. the resistive reaches will be set to avoid the minimum load impedance by a 40% margin for the phase elements. ii. While each zone can have its own resistive reach setting.