I I6A

Earth retaining structures
See also. 863164. 863168. 863218. 863219
863304 Use of probability theory to assess the safety of propped embedded cantilever retaining walls Smith, G N Geotechnique V35, ,V4. Dec 1985. P451-460 The use of the probability theory in the assessment of the reliability of a propped embedded cantilever retaining wall is described. The method of analysis is a numerical one and involves an iterative procedure by which the reliability index of the system is evaluated. Knowing the reliability index, a nominal value of the probability of failure of the structure can be obtained. It is shown that a powerful feature of the probability approach is that, whereas the four methods generally used to determine the factor of safety, F, of a propped embedded wall give four different F values, the same four methods all give the same value of reliability index. Auth. 863305 Specification for cast in place concrete diaphragm walling Ground Engng VI8, ,V6, Sept 1985, PI l-19 863306 First 'Stent Wall' installed at Kingston upon Thames Ground Engng VI8. N7, Oct 1985. P27-31 A novel retaining wall construction method has had its first contract application in a car park development at Kingston upon Thames. It is the 'Stem Wall" secant pile wall, the principle of which is to use contiguous concrete male piles secanted into female bentonite/cement/p.f.a piles. An account of the method, construction of the concrete piles and tests carried out is presented. 863307 Failure of an anchored shoetpile bulkhead LaGatta, D P; Shields,D R Proc International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, R oila, :~lissouri, 6-11 May 1984 VI, P393-399. Publ St Louis: Geotechnical Engineering, 1984 An anchored steel sheet pile bulkhead was constructed in soft organic silt and clay. The bulkhead failed when the anchors ruptured during dredging in front of the bulkhead. The construction and failure of the bulkhead are described. Analyses were performed to investigate the cause of the failure. The major factors which contributed to the failure were: (I) failure to design for the lowest tide condition; (2) use of design soil strengths which were too high; (3) prestressing of the anchor system which resulted in increased anchor loading due to soil arching; and (4) bending stresses induced in the anchors by settlement and equipment loading. Particular emphasis is placed on the effects of soil arching on the anchor loading. Auth. 863308 Anchor slab retaining wall stands overtOl~ng flood Wang, Z L; Wu, X M; Zhang, Z S Proc International Conference on Case Histories in Geotecknical Engineering, Rolla, ~4issouri, 6-11 May 1984 VI, P401-404. Publ St Louis." Geotechnical Engineering. 1984 An anchor slab retaining wall, able to stand seasonal overtopping floods, was constructed in 1980 beside a river in Fukien Province, China. Stresses and deformations have been monitored during the mean water level and flood seasons since its

completion. Observation~ and measurements pro,,,.' that t n c ~all is stable against floods. The earth pressure is sho~n to he slightly higher than the designed ~a!u¢ 863309 Research on static earth pressure on retaining walls Fukuoka. M; Imamura. Y Proc 6th Budapest Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,Budapest, 2-5 October 1984 P495500. Publ Budapest. Akademiai Kia~b,. t984 Earth pressure of backfill was measured during and after the construction of a 6m high, ver.,, rigid L-shaped retaining wall. No movements of the wall v, ere observed. Measured earth pressure was slightly larger than the Coulomb earth pressure but increased significantly with rain~ater percolation. This is probably due to changes in soil properties. A stone block !uncemented) retaining wall, 4m high, had a ~er~ small earth pressure at rest, and collapsed similarly to a sliding failure in an unretained slope. It is concluded that design earth pressures on retaining walls should be determined by case records. rather than old earth pressure theories. 863310 Precast prestressed concrete retaining wall designed by a new method of earth pressure estimation Fukuoka. M: Nakagawa, H Proc 6th Budapest Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,Budapest, 2-5 October 1984 P501506. Publ Budapest. Akademiai Kiado. 1984 A precast, prestressed concrete retaining wall with a curved surface is described. It was designed after analysis of accumulated data from many vertical and inclined retaining walls. Model tests were first performed, which showed bending moments at the bottom of a curved wall to be larger than for a straight one. This was overcome by designing a shelf into the wall. Stability analysis using Taylor's friction circle showed the curved wall to be more stable than the straight one. In addition, the curved walls increase sight distance, and consequently safety, of roads. 863311 Interaction between flexible sheet piling and eohesionless soil Kuralowicz, Z; Tejchman, A Proc 6tb Budapest Conference on Soil 114echam'cs and Foundation Engineering,kdapest, 2-5 October I984 P527533. Publ Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1984 Results of model tests on flexible sheet piling in a cohesionless soil analogue are presented. The deformation and stress distribution along the piling were measured for piles of different flexibilities for the cases of backfilled and open excavations. Slip lines and plastic zones in the soil at limit equilibrium were observed. Results were compared with those for a rigid wall. A new analytical method to calculate earth pressures for flexible sheet piling is proposed. 863312 Definitive retaining wall structures Lakatos, E; Encsy. B; Voros, J Proc 6tb Bm~pcst Conference on Soil Meckanics and Foundation Et~gineering,~dape st , 2-5 October 1984 P535544. Publ Budapest. Akademiai Kiado. 1984 Requirements to cut materials and labour costs have led to the adoption of new design practices for retaining walls in Hungary. Three solutions are described. The "crust packet' (a braced steel box unit. concreted on one or both sides) can be used in the production of underground structures or bridge

C 1986 Pergamon Press Ltd. Reproduction not permitted

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