Greenhouse Gas Management at the Local Government Scale

Tools and Resources for Local Governments

Our mission is to build and serve a movement of local governments to advance deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and achieve tangible improvements in local sustainability.

ICLEI International Offices
US – Oakland, CA
– – – – –

Canada – Toronto, ON Europe – Freiburg, Germany Asia Pacific – Tokyo, Japan

Over 1,000 participating jurisdictions around the world

Africa – Johannesburg, South Africa Latin America & Caribbean – Rio de Janiero, Brazil Australia – Melbourne India – New Delhi Indonesia – Jakarta Philippines – Quezo City Korea - Seoul

– – – – –


Approximately 500 member local governments Representing more than 25% of the population …And growing!

ICLEI Network - Minnesota
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
Blue Earth County Dakota County Duluth Edina Lake City Mahtomedi Minneapolis Northfield Oakdale Roseville Saint Paul Virginia White Bear Lake

ICLEI - A Worldwide Movement of Local Governments

• Climate Change Mitigation • Climate Change Adaptation • Sustainability Performance

Why Work with ICLEI?
● ● ● ●

National network of peers Emissions Analysis Software Decision Support Tool Transportation; Forestry; Outreach Toolkits

● ●

National Trainings and Events Technical, policy and communications assistance


U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
• •

850+ U.S. cities since 2005 Meet or beat the Kyoto Protocol targets: 7% reduction from 1990 levels by 2012 Urge the state and federal government to adopt environmentally sustainable policies and programs ICLEI members are often also MCPA signatories

Multiple Benefits of Local Sustainability
● Improve air quality ● Reduce municipal operating costs ● Save money ● Reduce traffic congestion ● Create local jobs ● Improve the quality of urban life

The 5 Milestone Process
Make Commitment

Milestone 1. Inventory Emissions Milestone 2. Set Target/Goal Milestone 5. Monitor/Evaluate Progress Milestone 3. Establish Local Action Plan

Milestone 4. Implement Local Action Plan

The Importance of Quantification • Establish a firm baseline against which future • • • •
action can be evaluated Compare the impact of alternatives, before implementation Develop analytical evidence to secure political and community support for actions Illustrate the critical role local governments play in reducing emissions Demonstrate and monitor progress towards achieving emission reduction goals

Sources of Local Emissions – Westchester CO, NY

3% 30%
Residential Energy


Com m ercial Energy Transportation Waste/other


Source: Action Plan for Climate Change, Westchester County, NY

Sources of Local Emissions – Charleston, SC

1% 21%
Residential Energy


Com m ercial Energy Transportation Waste/other


Source: Local Action Plan for Climate Change, Charleston, SC

Sources of Local Emissions – Chicago, IL

9% 31% 21%

Residential Energy Com m ercial Energy Transportation Waste/other


Source: Chicago Climate Action Plan, Chicago, IL

Sources of Local Emissions – Chicago, IL


Residential Energy

30% 61%

Com m ercial Energy Transportation Waste/other

Source: Chicago Climate Action Plan, Chicago, IL

CO2 From Auto Travel – Chicago

CO2 per square mile

CO2 per household

The Community and Municipal Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
Solid Waste Energy Transportation Water

Local government policies affect all major sources of greenhouse gas emissions

Protocol vs. Programs
What GHGs to count How to count them How to report them

When to Report them What to include in the report

ICLEI five milestone process is a Program How to compute the inventory is the Protocol TCR Requirements are a Program How to compute the inventory is the Protocol

Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) Software

Big picture policy and planning assistance tool for state and local governments Tool for storing, organizing, analyzing data to: - Develop emissions inventories - Evaluate proposed measures/scenarios - Develop or evaluate policy and local action plans

Multi-pollutant emissions coverage: eCO2, NOX, SOX, CO, VOCs, PM10

The Community-Scale Inventory
Sources: Transportation Fuels, Natural Gas, Electricity, Methane from Solid Waste Sectors: • Residential • Commercial
(incl. agriculture)

• Industrial • Transportation • Solid Waste

Who provides the data?
Primary data providers

Additional data providers
● ● ●

Electric and gas utilities Planning and transportation agencies Solid waste management agencies

Private industry Treatment plant operators Ports Households

The Government Operations Inventory
Sources: Transportation Fuels, Natural Gas, Electricity, Methane from Solid Waste Sectors: • Buildings • Vehicle Fleet • Employee Commute • Streetlights • Water/Sewage • Solid Waste

Who provides the data?
Emissions Sector
Buildings and Facilities Traffic Signals and Streetlights Water and Wastewater Operations Vehicle Fleet Solid Waste Existing Landfills Employee Commute Air Travel by City Employees (optional) Methane from Wastewater Treatment (optional)

Data Source
Payment/Utility Records Payment/Utility Records Payment/Utility Records Fueling Records/Vehicle Use Collection Records/Average Operations Records/Modeling Employee Survey/Study Travel Records Existing Meter/Modeled Emissions

Setting A Target

Business as Usual


>20% 30%


46,966 10% 23,483



Reduction Target

180,000 1990





Developing A Local Action Plan

Commercial / Industrial




Milestone 1: Baseline Milestone 2: Reduction Target Milestone 3: Develop Action Plan

What Actions are Local Governments Taking?

Energy Efficiency
Greensboro, NC city coliseum lighting, plumbing and HVAC retrofits to cut CO2e by 1,700 tons per year

Ann Arbor, MI LED pedestrian lighting uses 50% energy use and saves 250 tons CO2e annually

Energy Efficiency
Alameda County, CA: Campaign Alameda County, CA: Campaign for for efficient light bulbs will efficient light bulbs will save 225 tons COCO2 per year save 225 tons 2e per year perper 1,000 bulbs 1,000 bulbs

Tucson, AZ Sustainable Energy Standard saves $73,000 and 784 tons CO2e per year

Energy Efficiency - Cost Savings
Arlington County, VA $200,000 Justice Center investments: $70,000 annual savings

St. Louis County, MN Parking garage paint job: $20,000 annual savings

Whatcom County, WA Weekend computer shutdowns: $65,000 annual savings

Transportation Strategies

Arlington, VA: Carsharing spares 43% of VMT by members

Durham, NC Biodiesel in school buses reduced an estimated 1,213 tons of CO2e annually

Transportation Strategies

Los Angeles neighborhood parking study: 100,000 hours and 700 tons CO2e wasted each year

Pasadena, CA: $1,800 per parking meter generated each year

Waste Reduction
Durham, NC: 118,580 tons of CO2e reduced annually through community recycling and composting program

Seattle, WA: Ordinance banning recyclables in garbage projected to save residents and businesses $2 million and 260,000 tons of CO2e annually

Urban Forestry

Urban Forestry improves air quality, decreases the urban heat island effect and makes cities more beautiful

Saint Paul, MN: 3,100 tons CO2 per year reduced through tree planting

Quick Wins for Government Operations: Energy Efficiency
• Preferable Purchasing for Energy STAR Appliances & Electronics • Mandating green building standards for new construction • Automatic sensors for lighting • Sleep mode for electronics • LED traffic and streetlights • Street light dimmers

Quick Wins for Government Operations: Transportation

• Anti-Idling & driver education • Replace fleet vehicles with carsharing • Flextime and telecommuting • Use of alternative transportation where feasible for work • Downsize / rightsize vehicle fleet

And Many More!

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA): A Decision Support Tool

Evaluate and prioritize strategies Scalable, customizable Hundreds of measures Payback calculator Case studies Implementation guidance

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA): A Decision Support Tool

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA): A Decision Support Tool

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA): A Decision Support Tool

Climate and Air Pollution Planning Assistant (CAPPA): A Decision Support Tool

The Importance of A Regional Approach

• Significant economies of scale
− Avoid duplication of labor,
learning curve − Take advantage of the network effect / multipliers

• Better data accuracy in some • •
sectors (VMT, waste) More complete picture of emission sources and trends Encourage regional solutions!

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