Submitted By Vineesh A. V. Vimiya Varkey Viji M. C.

Guided BY M^. K. Gnanasheela Ms^Sumol N. C. Ms. Seena George


In security aspects, metal detector isan essential equipment. But, the metal detector, which is available in the market today, is very costly. Hence this stands as a problem for hobbyists and for small applications. Hence we have taken an endeavor to bring out a metal detector of minimum cost.

□ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □ □



In security aspects, metal detector isan essential equipment. But, the metal detector, which is available in the market today, is very costly. Hence this stands as a problem for hobbyists and for small applications. Hence we have taken an endeavor to : bring out a metal detector of minimum cost.

The salient features of our project is that the equipment is i , ■ ' compact, simple in design and can be used practically anywhere needs. The

metal detector produces an audible alarm signal when a metallic particle comes near to the sensor. A visible blinking LED is also there to indicate the presence of metal.

M ONO S i .Ii: iv C OMP AR ATOR . -----► .. AB LE M ULTIVIB R ATOR B UZZER U TIVIBRATOR I Aivlri. ----[>..

1 MF ASTABLE 3 LM324 2K2 100K 100K 70M O TR L > LM555 D/S THR Q 0 I22MF N O N I N V.5V detection transformer ir BD139 2 . A M P L I F I E R COMPARATOR MONOSTABLE . 1K LM555 »0K o o > 0 ' D/S JK THR § o > 0.

POWER SUPPLY 4. or the threshold voltage. its internal discharging Tr. and the C1 discharges through the discharging channel formed by RB and the discharging 'TV. When the timer output is high. the trigger terminal and the threshold terminal are connected so that a self-trigger is formed. turns off and the VC1 increases by exponential function with the time constant (RA+RB)*C. the comparator . the comparator output on the trigger terminal becomes high. When the VCI falls below Vcc/3.. reaches 2Vce/3.2 KHz. operating as a multivibrator. 1./ _ 3 a: THfi 7 _______ 1K 2 0 IMF t _J _______ *- 1X1 i In astable operation. resetting the F/F and causing the timer output to become low. An astable multivibrator is wired around 1C 555. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION AND WORKING The circuit of metal detector is shown in Fig. The free running frequency is selected as 1. ■ _________________________________ i ! o ' ' . This in turn turns on the discharging Tr. When the VC1.

'. But the transformer has no core (air core) and so the magnitude of this induced emf is very low. K T HP E :.i: H ' P. turns off and the VC 1 rises aaain. v. A voltage will normally induce in the secondary coil due to the mutual induction. So due to the pulsating current How. RESET • ~1 iH..'-NT .M324. '> =k ''-'1 -----V -OUT GUI' . NON INVERT ING AMPLIFIER . TPM:. detecting trans former TO AMPLIFIER K\—-•—\ (■ *._ 1' L' 5 ASTABLE OPERATION This frequency is given to the primary of the detecting transformer through a transistor. an effect of core is produced and the induced emf will be much grater than former. This voltage is amplified with the help of a non inverting amplifier build with opamp L. a varying magnetic field will formed in me transformer.1 PL — O.<SV O i> C J i BD139 I 2 1K When a ferrite substance conies near to the winding of the transformer. The discharging Tr..output on the trigger terminal becomes high and the timer output becomes high asain..—.

> 1 OK COMPARATOR .The amplified signal is given to the input of a voltage comparator. Then the output of the comparator goes low. when the ferrite body is near to the transformer. The reference voltage is set to a value below the magnitude of induced emf without any core. the input of comparator is more then thai of reference pin. So.

capacitor C1 is charged through resistor RA. .5 seconds. 1 RA*C. In this way. on.5 seconds and so the output will high for 2. When the applied voltage to the capacitor C I reaches 2Vcc/3. Also the LED turned off for this time.If. the timer's internal flip-flop turns the discharging Tr. the timer generates a fixed pulse whenever the trigger voltage falls below Vcc/3. the comparator on the trigger terminal resets the flipflop. OPERATION In this mode. C I begins to discharge and the timer output converts to low. turning the dischi irtiiim 1 r. r ROiVT COMPARATOR '» '>N[> PI - [17 1- Tt>< r r • r r ' TP 10 THPEv. In other words. When the trigger pulse voltage applied to the #2 pin falls below Vcc/3 while the timer output is low. The time is selected to 2. The greater the time constant RAC. the time constant RAC controls the output pulse width. the timer operating in monostable repeats the above process. Hence. the longer it takes for the VC1 to reach 2Vcc/3. The voltage across the external capacitor C L VC 1 increases exponentially with the time constant t= : RA*C and reaches 2Vcc/3 at td=l. The transistor BC547 starts conducting and the buzzer beeps to indicate the presence of metal.* x -oui MO NOSTA B1 . At tins time. off and causes the timer output to become high by charging the external capacitor C I and setting the flip-flop output at the same time.This low pulse is given to the triggering input of monostable multi-vibrator build around 555.

IMLB LAYOUT . the transistor will conduct and hence the buzzer will be on and it produce a tone to indicate the presence of metal. An insulating coating is applied over the primary for isolation. So when the monostable Iriggeres. WINDING DETAILS OF DETECTING TRANSFORMER The detecting trams former has a 1:1 winding (the primary and secondary has the same number of turns). The primary winding has 210 turns and is wound very closely.The output of monostable is given to base of transistor BC547 and a buzzer is connected to the colector. After the time over. The whole assemly is covered with a well insulator and apply warnish to allow the winding to set. 5. the device will be read)' for next detection. Then the secondary is wounded over the primary with 40 SWG copper wire and has also 210 turns. The primary is wound over a 1cm diameter plastic former with 35 SWG enamaled copper wire. 6. The leads are taken from the primary and the secondary.

7. COMPONENT LAYOUT O o o o o 0 o 0 0-| n |-0 XX' Q-| »l [ o o o o o rnq ) o o o J S3 *-o 40 0 — |n0O7j"L- □ 0 JU00 o 1 o 0 a LA O0 o OH .

00 40.00 20.00 2 1.00 50.00 3.00 40.00 100.00 1 200.00 4 2.00 10.00 300.00 25.50 .50 5.8.00 5 1.00 1 25.00 10. COST ESTIMATION COMPONENTS LM324 LM555 BD139 BUZZER DETECTING TRANSFORMER 3mm LED 1/4W RESISTOR 47K PRESET BC547 12-0-12/1A TRANSFORMER 1N4007 4700MFD/30V CAPACITOR 10MFD/25V CAPACITOR 0.00 3.00 150.00 1 150.00 LOO 2.00 10.00 2.00 2.00 5.00 2.00 350.00 1 50.00 50.00 0.00 1427.25 2.00 1 10.00 2 1.00 300.00 • lOMi 5.50 10.50 5. 10 RATE COST 14.00 r 75.00 200.00 1 2.00 14.1 MFD DISC CAPACITOR 14PIN IC BASE 8P1N IC BASE LM7805 PCB WIRE HANDLE SOLDERING IRON (25W) SOLDER & FLUX EXTRA TOTAL QTY 1 2 1 1 1 2.00 75.00 1 100.00 2 2. . simple in design and can be used practically anywhere needs. With this purpose in mind. Gayakwad. □ □ □ vvww.national.9. fa irchild.AMPS and Linear Integrated Circuits by Ramakant A .google. REFERENCE □ OP. a study has been conducted to understand about the electronic components available in the www.c om www. The equipment is compact. CONCLUSION This project has been developed considering the need for "'intelligent" low cost and longer lasting lamp.

0Disch arge Output0— m0Threshold Reset 0 Control Voltage Rev. With astable operation.F=/\IROHII_D SEMICONDUCTOR" www. With monostable operation.Sec to Hours • Turn off Time Less Than 2u. the frequency and duty cycle are accurately controlled with two external resistors and one capacitor. the time delay is controlled by one external resistor and one capacitor.Sec accurate timing pulses. ©2002 Fairchild Corporation Semiconductor 1.fairchildsemi. Applications • Precision Timing • Pulse Generation • Time Delay Generation • Sequential Timing Description The LM555/NE555/SA555 is a highly stable controller capable of producing Internal Block Diagram G N D 0-------------WW Wv V -AVA—0 Vcc Trigger (2 Dischargi ng Tr.2 13 LM555/NE555/SA555 Single Timer Features • High Current Drive Capability (200mA) • Adjustable Duty Cycle • Temperature Stability of 0.005WC • Timing From p.

„\ ( I D. the timer's internal flip-flop turns the discharging Tr. the timer operating in monostable repeals the above process. the longer it lakes for the Vci to reach 2Vcc/3. (Vlonoalable Circuit Figure 2.U. figure 2 shows the time constant relationship based on Ra and C. on. although the output remains unallected even if a different nigger pulse is applied while the output is high. the timer's internal discharge Tr. Vci increases exponentially with the time constant 1=Ra* C and reaches 2Vce/3 at ld=l. lowering the threshold voltage to below |/3 of the supply voltage. I\7iliv. for normal operation.*An*/Jiv L U 'J. it ma\ he affected and the waveform not operate properly if the trigger pulse voltage al the end of the output pulse remains al below Vcc/3. It must be noted that. turns off. K. the comparator on the trigger terminal resets the Hip-flop.LM555/NE555/SA555 Application Information Table 1 below is the basic operating table of 555 timer: Table 1. In this mode. I Ra* C. When the applied voltage lo the capacitor C1 reaches 2Vcc/3. capacitor CI is charged through resistor Ra . the timer output remains low regardless of the threshold voltage or-the trigger voltage. I M. Basic Operating Table Reset(PIN 4) Trigger Voltage Threshold Voltage (VtrXPIN 2) (VthMPIN 6) Don't care Don't care Low Vth > 2Vcc / 3 Vth > 2Vcc / 3 High ' Vcc / 3 < Vth < 2 Vcc / 3 Vcc / 3 < Vth < 2 Vcc / 3 High Vth < Vcc / 3 Vth < Vcc / 3 High Output(PIN 3) Low Low - Discharging When the trigger pulse voltage applied to the #2 pin falls below Vcc/3 while the timer output is low. Hence. the timer output is. increasing the threshold voltage and driving the timer output again at high. figure 3 shows the general waveforms during monostable operation. II. Resistance and Capacitance vs. Later. 1. I'igure -I shows such timer oulpul abnormality. During this time. off and causes the timer output to become high by charging the external capacitor CI and setting the flip-flop output at the same time. Waveforms of Monostable Operation Figure I illustrates a monostable circuit. In other words. In this way. fllus/div .M Figure 3. if a low signal is applied to the trigger voltage so that it becomes I/3 of the supply voltage. Only w hen the high signal is applied to the reset terminal. That is. \ n. the timer's internal discharge TV.IM. Time delay(td) lY«iv.maintained low. CI begins lo discharge and the timer output converts to low. The greater the time constant Ra C. The voltage across the external capacitor C1. timer's output changes according to threshold voltage and trigger voltage. Al this time. (PIN 7) ON ON - When the low signal input is applied to the reset terminal. When the threshold voltage exceeds 2/3 of the supply voltage while the timer output is high. turns on. turning the discharging Tr. Monostable Operation High OFF Figure 1. the timer generates a fixed pulse whenever the nigger voltage falls below Vcc/3. the lime constant RaC controls the output pulse w idth. the trigger pulse voltage needs to maintain a minimum of Vcc/3 before the timer output turns low.

Capacitance and Resistance vs. \'n-5\ Figure 4. .LM555/NE555/SA555 K^'Alkll UL-lkQ.OIul'°. Waveforms of Monostable Operation (abnormal) 2. ('l=II. Astable Operation Figure 5. Astable Circuit Frequency Figure 6.

+ 70X••mExample : LM224N N = Dual in Line Package (DIP) D = Small Outline Package (SO) . D S01 4 (Plastic Micropackage) ■ LOW INPUT BIAS CURRENT : 20nA ■ LOW INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE : 5mV max. internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers.5V TO ±15V DESCRIPTION These circuits consist of four independent. +105X•••LM324OX.3MHz ■ INPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE RANGE INCLUDES GROUND ■ LARGE VOLTAGE GAIN : 100dB 9 VERY LOW SUPPLY CURRENT/AMPLI : 375|iA N DIP14 (Plastic Package) the magnitude of the power supply voltage. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is independent of PIN CONNECTIONS (top view) P TSSOP14 (Thin Shrink Small Package) Outline ORDER CODE NumberTemperature Part RangePackage NDPLM124-55X.LM324 LOW POWER QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS ■ WIDE GAIN BANDWIDTH : 1. use the equivalent parts LM124A-LM224A-LM324A which feature 3mV max. (for more accurate applications.also available in Tape & Reei (DT) P = Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP) only available in Tape &Reel (PT) December 2001 3 14 OwipuM ] 13 Inverting Inpul -1 *■ ] 12 Non-inverting Inpul 4 ] n Vcc l 3 10 Non-irivtrting Input 3 "2 1 Inverting Input 1/13 Output 1 1 Inverting Inpul 1 [] Non-inverting Input 1 C 2 3 vfcc* 'I C 5 Non-inverting Input 2 £ \t Inverting Input 2 6 L~ . They operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages.) ■ LOW INPUT OFFSET CURRENT : 2nA ■ WIDE POWER SUPPLY RANGE : SINGLE SUPPLY : +3V TO +30V ■ DUAL SUPPLIES : ±1. + 125X•••LM22440°C.k wjt T#@ LM124 LM224 . high gain.

^ Inverting . N W «a .100k ' . (rnV) .) e = R7 DC SUMMING AMPLIFIERe .uin t if Rl e0 = LM124£o ' 1M>' • 1 e. Q2 Q3 • 27? Q7 777. +e -e. Destructive dissipation can result from simultaneous short-circuit on all amplifiers. ^777.LIeoi |>nlyt? pDlyt.LM124-LM224-LM324 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM (1/4 LM124) LJ ! T :6MA lOOt'A 05 [06 ./ V •-. 2/13 L 1I TYPICAL SINGLE . this transistor action can cause the output voltages of the Op-amps to go lo the Vcc voltage level (or to ground for a large overdrive) for the time duration than an inpul is driven negative. GND ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Symbol Parameter Vcc Supply voltage Vi Input Voltage Vid Differential Input Voltage 1' Power Dissipation N Suffix Plot D Suffix Output Short-circuit Duration z) 'in ^oper LM124 500 LM224 ±16 or 32 -0. 777. te?) > (e3 *e4) 0to keep 2 0 > Ov e LOW DRIFT DETECTOR PEAK . It is due to the collector-base junction of the input PNP transistor becoming forward biased and thereby acting as input diodes clamps. 777.'fittM'HiniK 3 Ehyleritt o—f | r^r100ke 100k o i re = e. :LM124eo 1M "___________ Inpul cunenl -■ -<\ ^J< K _____ +5V.. e '° ■ ♦ i. input . R3 100 k R6 100 k R4 100k ■ 1/4 . 3 Input Current ' Opearting Free-air Temperature Range 50 -55 to +125 Short-circuits from the output lo VCC can cause excessive healing if VgC > 15V. -e4 4 Where (e.3 to +32 + 32 500 400 Infinite LM324 500 400 Unit V V V mW mW 50 50 mA -40 to 0 to +70 °C +105 T stg Storage Temperature Range -65 to +150 X Either or both input dnuii-LiiLuu^ iFuui me uuipui iu v^*^ lchi LdUbe excessive neduny u vpc > ov.R5 and R3 . input Non-inverting . 777.|Q11 Output | Q12 ' 50MA X Q8 |" |Q9 557 ~777 777. there is also NPN parasitic action on the IC chip.en).SUPPLY APPLICATIONS HIGH INPUT Z ADJUSTABLE GAIN DC NON-INVERTING INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER DC GAIN t? J R2 2k Rl 100k As shown e0 = 101 (e2-.R4 = R6 (e2 -e. Q4j - • foiO * • .1 ► ]| /■y-■ RlR2 100k ' o f ^ • i.LM124 R7 100k • !! iLM124 I T o R5 100k 1/4 :|_M124 1/4 <V. exceed the magnitude of Vcc* or Vcc". .3V. The maximum output current is approximately 40mA independent This input current only exists when the voltage at any of the input leads is driven negative. In addition to this diode action. This is not destructive and normal output will set up again for input voltage higher than -0. 777. i ne maximum uuipui voltages must not currer of the magnitude of Vcc.

LM124-LM224-LM324 8/13 .

Base VoltagevCBO805030VdcEmitter-Base VoltagevEBO6. B. C BC548. Junction to AmbientRHJA200°c/wThermal Resistance. C BAS MAXIMUM RATINGS EMITTER CASE 29-04.5 12Watt mW/cCOperating and Storage Junction Temperature RangeTj.0VdcCollector Current — Continuousic100mAdcTotal Device Dissipation @ T/\ = 25=C Derate above 25°Cpd625 5. Tstg55 to +150XTHERMAL CHARACTERISTICSCharacteristicSymbolMaxU nitThermal Resistance. Junction to CaseR0JC83. A.3cc/w .0mW mW/XTotal Device Dissipation @ Jq = 25~C Derate above 25°CPd1. A.MOTOROLA SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNICAL DATA Order this document by BC546/D Amplifier Transistors NPN Silicon BC546. B BC547. STYLE 17 TO-92 (TO-226AA) RatingSymbolBC 546BC 547BC 548UnitCollector-Emitter VoltagevCEO654530VdcCollector. B.

1996 (M) MOTOROLA 10k(As shown Av = 101)1 1/4 ! • oe2 100k iI .0——Collector Cutoff Current'CES(VCE = 70V.ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted) CharacteristicSymbolMinTypMaxUnitOFF CHARACTERISTICSCollector-Emitter Breakdown VoltageBC546v(BR)CEO65——V(IC = 1.0——BC5486.0——V(lE = 10 uA. Ib = 0)BC54745——BC54830 ——Collector-Base Breakdown VoltageBC546v(BR)CBO80——V(IC = lOOuAdc)BC54750 ——BC54830——Emitter-Base Breakdown VoltageBC546v(BR)EBO6.0uA REV 1 —------------------------------------------— © Motorola.215(VCE = 30 V. VBE = 0)BC547—0. TA = 125°C)BC546/547/548——4.215(VCE = 35 V. VBE = 0)BC548— 0. IC = 0)BC5476.215nA(VCE = 50V.0 mA.VBE = 0)BC546—0. Inc.

10063 . 45 60 80 Max. BD138 and and BD140 1 TO-126 1.5A VCE = 2V. lE = 0 VEB = 5V.5A 25 25 40 40 Min. lB = 0 VCB = 30V.5 12. A.5 3.Collector 3.1 10 250 160 0.Base NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor Absolute Maximum Ratings Symbol V TC=25°C unless otherwise noted Parameter Value : BD135 BD137 BD139 45 60 80 45 60 80 5 1.150 ■ Units V V V V V V V A A A W w c =c CBO Collector-Base Voltage VfJEO Collector-Emitter Voltage BD135 BD137 BD139 V EBO lc 'CP lB Pc Pc Tj T STG Emitter-Base Voltage Collector Current (DC) Collector Current (Pulse) Base Current Collector Dissipation (TC=25°C) Collector Dissipation (Ta=25°C) Junction Temperature Storage Temperature Tc=25°C Electrical Characteristics Symbol VCE0(sus) 'CBO 'EBO h unless otherwise noted Test Condition lc = 30mA.250 t-2000 Fawchild Semiconductor International hFE Classification Rev. lc = 0. Ic = 0 VCE = 2V. Emitter 2.55 . Units VVV 0. BD139 Collector-Emitter Saturation Voltage Base-Emitter ON Voltage Classification'61016nFE340 .F=/\IROHIL-D SEMICONDUCTOR TU BD1 35/137/139 Medium Power Linear Switching Applications • Complement respectively to BD136.5 1 V V uA pA Parameter Collector-Emitter Sustaining Voltage : BD135 : BD137 : BD139 Collector Cut-off Current Emitter Cut-off Current FE1 FE2 FE3 n h VCE(sat) VBE(on) DC Current Gain : ALL DEVICE : ALL DEVICE : BD135 : BD137.25 150 . lB = 50mA VCE = 2V. Typ.160100 . lc = 150mA lc = 500mA.0 0. lc = 0. lc = 5mA VCE = 2V. Feb'uaiy 2000 .5 1.

Internal Block Digram INPUT SEHlbS PASS E l. these devices can be used with external components lo obtain adjustable \oltages and currents. 18.0 . If adequate heal sinking is provided. thermal shut down and safe operating area protection. making it essentially indestructible. 9. 10.fairchildsemi.EMKN T GND ©2001 Fairchild Corporation Semiconductor Rev. TO-220 D-PAK 1 1. making them useful in a wide range of applications. Input Output 2. 8. GND 3. SEMICONDUCTOR* KA78XX/KA78XXA 3 -Terminal 1 A Positive Voltage Regulator Features Output Current up to IA Output Voltages of 5.0.(—/-VI t-t l_» Ml 11_ L/ www. 12. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. Each type employs internal current limiting. 6. the\ can deliver over IA output cunenl. 24 V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection Output Transistor Sale Operating Area Protection Description The KA78XX/KA78XXA series of tin 'ce-tcrminul positive regulator are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages. 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful