region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

Disseminated by Region XIV Comprehensive Center Educational Testing Service 1979 Lakeside Parkway, Suite 400 Tucker, Georgia 30084-5865 1-800-241-3865
Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

***** Tampa, Florida 1-800-756-9003 / 813-289-8675 ***** Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 787-758-2326

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.

i

● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.

ii

the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.

iii

Learning Strategies iv .

The letters K. 5. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. directed reading. reflecting on associations. It includes accessing prior knowledge. purpose. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. 2. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. 3. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. Prediction. Questioning. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. iv . determining what they WANT to learn. Cloze. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). W. Brainstorming. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. and reformulating knowledge. Exploring Text 1. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. All contributions are accepted and recorded. and encouraging deeper understanding. 7. 6. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. assessing knowledge. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. K-W-L. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. and confirming. Think-Along. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. 4. Questions are tools for engaging attention. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. investigating ideas. A.

well structured stories or informational pieces. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. or a video production. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. or sometimes with minimal print. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. semantic webs. or structured overviews. 10. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. divides them into sections. v . After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. Schema Stories. Expanding Meaning 1. a radio dramatization. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. Sketch to Stretch. Big Books. Semantic Mapping. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. Wordless Books. 9. thinking about. and places the parts in an envelope. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. B.8. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. a puppet show. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. 2. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. concept maps. clusters. The teacher selects short. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. schema diagrams.

3. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. or to say something related to the text. 9. Problem Solving. or questions. sometimes they each read silently. or doing both. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. Personal Journals. b. vi . Dialogue Journals. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. feelings. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. Written Conversation. and perplexing questions. and insights. Say Something. 4. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. reactions. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. Each person listens and responds with comments. ideas for exploration. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. writing. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. or between two students. Journals and Logs. 8. Someone is designated to speak first. question generating. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. a. 6. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. but they talk about their perceptions. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. Reciprocal Teaching. 7. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. clarifying. and predicting. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. Responding to Reading as Writers. or problem solving. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. using invented spelling. 5. Partner Reading. questions. Each person receives a text for reading and responding.

They share. topic. e. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. letters of application. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. the individuals write to one another. book. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. and revise their work. get suggestions from other students. d. Students are engaged in thinking. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. written language. revising. reading. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. consumer awareness letters. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. and questions to extend learning. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. notes. letters to the editor. 12. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. Literature Study. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. insights. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. vii . Letters. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. Traveling Journals. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. or common theme. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. Entries may include summaries. or theme cycles. Readers’ Theatre.c. and friendly letters. 11. 14. including content area or research material. There are pen pal letters. story. This strategy is similar to written conversation. When groups of students are working together on a project. Spelling Strategies. Reading Logs. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. After discussion. Learning Logs. and presenting their written work. question. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. invitations. sharing. editing. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Different students serve as discussion leaders. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. 10. After choosing a topic. Authoring Cycle. writing.

16. a presentation. They may be used at the end of a class session. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. contrast. and make connections in a reading discussion group. 17. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. The praise column is for positive comments. Exit Slips. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. viii . Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. or focus studies. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. However. topics. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. Student Research. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. or the end of a focused study. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). the end of a week.15. texts. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. 18. the end of a day. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Text Sets. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. or a theme unit. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines.

and analyzing and appreciating text. and confirming in a variety of situations. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. brainstorming. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. Students explore text through predicting.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. 1 . questioning as a framework for reading and understanding.

6..S. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next.). A. thinking. Determine author’s purpose. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. 2. 4. or reject.J. Boston: Allyn Bacon.L. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding.K. Repeat the steps. 7. Harris & E. E. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed.). confirm. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. Cogen (Eds. (1985). Inform (give facts) b. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Sample text. In T.. & Dishner. 5.. Resample text. Prove. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. a. New York: The College Board. 8. stopping at logical places. Confirm or adjust prediction. Readence. (1990). J. Reading.E. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. & Brown. A. Tierney. 1.J. 2 .L. Entertain (amuse) 3. R.

“Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. STEPS Activate background knowledge. Use with the next section of the selection. 3 . Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading.” Predict. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. and validate or reject the predictions. Confirm or reject the predictions. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. make predictions. Let’s share our ideas. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves.

4 . Haggard. 41. Stauffer. J.. J. (1969).T. Tierney. and chapter DR-TAs. whole book. & Bear. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed.). (1988).E.Further information: Gill. R. R. & Dishner. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process.K.J.G. 31. 444-451.R.. E. 526-535. Journal of Reading. D. Readence.. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. (1988). The Reading Teacher.R. M. No book. (1990). New York: Harper & Row.

5 . YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. some false) from the selection to be read. Students read selection. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text.

Be prepared to defend your decision. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. Developed by: Seltzer. Inc. 4. (1994). 2. 3. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. 6 . KS: Research & Training Associates. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. There are seven colors in each rainbow. AFTER reading the selection. D. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. Personal Group Author 1. Overland Park.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows.

W. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. pp. 125-126). (Vol. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. and red. blue. Chicago: World Book. The amount of space each color takes up varies. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. 7 . green. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. orange. Inc. which are difficult to observe. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. In The World Book Encyclopedia. indigo. If the rain has been heavy. yellow. (1984). the bow may spread all the way across the sky. Rainbow.J. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. 16.” Reprinted from: Saucier. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color.

Inc. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. All responses are accepted. 8 . (1990). it may be used to review and evaluate learning. J. phrases. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. or statements. questions.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. 4. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. Further information: Adams. Research Triangle Park. Also. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. 5. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. 1. (1986). Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. NC: Author. Reading.L. Conceptual block busting. 3. words.

the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. . Reformulation of knowledge. Reflections on initial associations.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. “What made you think of . . PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. deleted. In a brief introduction. . elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. There are three phases to the PReP.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. assessing language use in expressing ideas. . the picture. . have you any new ideas about . . 3. 2. (the word. Through this procedure. During the second phase.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. In this first phase. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. the students are asked.). The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. see this picture. During this phase. etc. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . or changed as a result of the discussion. Initial associations with the concept. students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. “Based on our discussion. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. the teacher writes these responses on the board. Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. It includes accessing prior knowledge. (you hear this word. etc. and to become aware of their changing ideas. reflecting on associations. phrase. the teacher says. the teachers asks. and reformulating knowledge. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. 1. to listen to one another’s responses.

IN: PRC. B. & Cripe. suffixes. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. (1982). attributes. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. 1981. Langer & Nicolich.. M. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes.A. & Nicolich.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. (1990). . R. J. Inc. DE: International Reading Association. S. or analogies.) Taken from: Farr. 13(4). or root words).. (formerly Advanced Technology.. References: Langer. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. J. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. Indianapolis. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke.A. If the student has little prior information about the concept. (1981). evidencing high integration of ideas.T. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. Langer. definitions. M.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. words that sound like the stimulus word.. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. D. & Smith-Burke. 1982. Journal of Reading Behavior. .). Newark. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. responses generally take the form of examples. Peterson.. They may also link the concept with another concept. Inc. 10 . Strickler. or defining characteristics. 153-156). 1981).

Group instruction. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. Second.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. 11 . c. In classroom testing. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. The letters K. a. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. and what they have learned from reading the text. what questions they want answered. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. b. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. When disagreements and questions emerge. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. First. In this way. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. determining what they WANT to learn. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. 1986). Third. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. W. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. 1. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated.

Anderson. & W. R. Jensen. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. Mason (Eds. (formerly Advanced Technology. As they read. Taken from: Godt.). If some have not been answered satisfactorily. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).. Indianapolis. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. In G. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. The Reading Teacher. Montague (Eds. C. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reference: Ogle. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. Inc. D. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. 564-570. At this time. IN: PRC.C. New York: Longman. Anderson. L.E.T.L. (1991). M. P.2. Hillsdale. In R.C. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. (1984). Individual reflection.. & Smith. Reading. (1986).). 4. R.W. Assessment of learning. & Ehlmann. Roehler. Further information: Anderson. After the group introduction to the topic. Duffy. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. 3..). Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading.M. 39(6). students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. (1977). E. 12 . D. & J. Spiro. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved.J. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. Inc.

13 . (1986). The Reading Teacher. 39(6).WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 564-570. D.M. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.

M. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. eats spiders Categories 1.W.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. spits poison 2. 14 . eats bugs 2. small animals 1. description 2. & Gee. food 3. 45(4). Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. has a long tongue 3.. jumps 3. gray 1. 303. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. The Reading Teacher. (1991). T.C.

horrible. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. During the completion of the oral cloze.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. the teacher lists them on the board. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. including random deletion (every __nth word). the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). Very Bad Day (Viorst. Horrible. provides many alternatives for discussion. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting.” 3. word length clues. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. very [bad] day. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. No Good. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. For example. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). 1. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). relates to children’s experiences. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . 2. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. the book Alexander and the Terrible. no good. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. As the teacher reads aloud. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns).

New York: Macmillan. Newark. The Reading Teacher. (1982). 218-220). Further information: Blachowicz. DE: International Reading Association. Englewood Cliffs. newspapers. Rye. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. (1977. The Reading Teacher. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. (1972). J. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. (1989). very bad day. E. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. Working in teams of two or three. J. 16 . Searfoss. & Readence. Alexander and the terrible. no good. NJ: Prentice Hall. F. Schoenfeld. Reference: Viorst. 147-151. Cloze instruction research.L. J. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Jongsma. (1980). L. or lyrics to popular songs. Helping children learn to read (pp.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph.A.W. December). (1980). Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. C. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. 34(2). horrible.G. 300-302. magazines.. Exeter. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. 4.Z.E. Cloze activities for primary readers.

pick and were so many interesting explore. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. After supper. . feed and care for. pigs. ducks. there the coal oil lamp. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . There were horses to ride and cows to milk. were sheep. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. There was cream to eating. pigs. geese.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. cats. cats. After supper. and dogs to feed and care for. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. There were horses to chickens. cats. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. and dogs into butter and other eating. feed and care for. After supper. chickens. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. . ducks. pick and eggs to . ducks. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. There were sheep. 17 . There were There were horses to pigs. chickens. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp.

There were t and cows to milk. d cks. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. ch ck ns. chickens. There were horses to r . . There horses to ride and cows to milk. cats. th r l l mp. t ll st r 18 . cats. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. T feed and care for. geese. There chickens. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. There was cream to c eating. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. ducks. p gs. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. There After supper. ducks. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. c l m lk. so many interesting things to do. After supper. pigs. There gather. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. c ts. and dogs to feed and care for. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. pigs.

and after reading. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. their reading. the following questions may help students before. assessing knowledge. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. investigating ideas. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. and their writing. and using text and in solving problems.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. interpreting. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. creative thinking. during. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. and encouraging deeper understanding. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. 1. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 .

. . ? What else could you do . Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . . . Further information: Munkins. . Inc. . (1983). The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). If the focus is on literary text. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.P. ? What if . then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. L. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.2. (1995). .). refer to the section on literature response logs. ? Why did you . F. Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. ? Reference: Christenbury. . Boston. . P. & Kelly. .D. . 3.. 20 . Questioning. Urbana. . a path to critical thinking. ? How do you know that . ? How did you decide .

and/or small groups. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. 3. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. When the student has finished answering. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. but it can also be used with pairs. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. In addition. After they have both read the passage. the exchange of questions stops. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. and the student answers as fully as possible. 6. the teacher models good questioning strategies. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. 2. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. 4. teams. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. and small groups. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. 21 . Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. teams. 5. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic.

(formerly Advanced Technology.V. & Cripe.. ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. IN: PRC.). 123-126. 13. B.T.. Inc. P. R. Strickler. Jensen. Inc. S. D. (1991). Journal of Reading. (formerly Advanced Technology. IN: PRC. Manzo. Indianapolis. (1990). M..). A... Indianapolis. D. Peterson. (1969).Taken from: Godt. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). & Ehlmann. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc. 22 . Inc. Reference: Farr.

Raphael. Question-answering strategies for children.E. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. D. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). S. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). QARS revisited. Indianapolis. Strickler. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1.E. T.). the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). DE: International Reading Association. 2.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. & Cripe. Inc. (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc. (1982). Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). 2. 23 .. The Reading Teacher. T.. Raphael. R. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). (1985). (1990). Newark. Stephenson. IN: PRC. B.. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. 36.

3. (1979) Columbia. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. Developed by: Watson. they have to think about what they know in a different context. Read. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Crowley. the teacher demonstrates the process. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. 24 . Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. New York: Richard C. orally. Bixby. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. 44-45).. Gilles. or with a partner in paired reading. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. Read. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. 1.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. students react. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. P. read. Owen Publishers. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. Question. In C. and question. Pyle (Eds. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. respond. & D. After reading. ERRQ. Students generate questions about the reading. MO: University of Missouri. they share oral retellings with their partners. Crenshaw. When students formulate questions. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. After a text has been chosen and distributed. Reynolds. (1988). S. Estimate. D. Respond. D. Further information: Watson. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. & Gilles. Henrichs. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension.). They are urged to consider how the text affects them. M. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. If students are working individually. Students read the text silently. Respond. M. 2. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. F. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. C. 5.

Journal of Reading. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. Further information: Davey. (1989). Make a list on the chalkboard. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. 25 . It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. WHY: HOW: 2. R. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Prediction of what might occur next. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. 44-47. 94. B. (1983). Educational Leadership.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. 1. After the demonstration. 47(3). Farr. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. 26(2).

F.P. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. (1970).Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. Inc. New York. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. 26 . KS: Research & Training Associates. I wonder if I will ever get married. Overland Park. NY: Windmill Books and E. D. Dutton. (1994). What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. The king who rained. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train.

we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. KS: Research & Training Associates. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. R. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. Inc. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. 27 . How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. to include the entire school. There is only one classroom per grade. Overland Park.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. (1994).

The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. verbs. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. and other conventions of print. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. Using texts that include rhyme. cumulative structure. 1. The teacher reads the text aloud. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). 4. WHY: HOW: 28 . stopping at natural points for student interaction. adjectives. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. At the end of this reading. 3. Big print and big pictures get attention. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. repetition. punctuation symbols.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. word order. 2. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. nouns. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning.

Roslyn Heights. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Jefferson City. P. IL 60014 Scholastic. NY 11577 Random House. P. 200 South Service Road. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. Department DF. San Diego. Chicago. Albany. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Box 7501. 400 Hahn Street.O.O. MD 21157 Rigby. Westminster. Box 797. 10949 Technology Place. Department 436. CA 92127 29 . MO 65102 Wright Group.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Crystal Lake. IL 60656 Learning Well. 2 Computer Drive West. Western Publishing.

There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. creating dialogue for the characters. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. to other classes. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. 2. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. setting. or for parents’ programs. or characters. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Some choose to write dialogue. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. 30 . 1.

Adventures of Paddy Pork. Anno’s USA. . The knight and the dragon. Bobo’s dream. J. The snowman. (1983). . (1989). The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. Baker. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. San Diego. New York: Harcourt. Anno’s alphabet. M.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. Bang. (1991). Florian. Day. (1980). (1986). New York: Crowell. (1970). (1982). (1978). Jacko. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. Carl goes to daycare. (1993). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Good dog. New York: Dial Books. . M. New York: Puffin. Pancakes for breakfast. . New York: Random House. . Four Winds. Briggs. (1975). (1980). New York: Harper & Row. . CA: Green Tiger Press. M. Goodall. (1993). The city. (1974). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Philomel. DePaola. New York: Philomel. New York: Harcourt. Carl’s afternoon in the park. R. D. (1985). (1980). Felix. J. T. (1981). M. . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Sandcastle. Creepy castle. New York: Philomel. . A. Carl. (1968). 31 . . Anno’s journey. (1979). (1991). Window. Anno’s animals. . Carl goes shopping. San Diego. Anno. San Diego. (1972).

Hutchins. (1982). New York: Margaret K. (1977). Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. (1971). (1989). Look again. . . McElderry Books. Changes. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. (1984). New York: McElderry Books. (1978). The story of a castle. Krahn. a frog. Take another look. New York: Dial Books. Ah-choo. 32 . (1985). (1976). (1982). (1967). New York: Dial Books. . F. Puss in boots. New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. Mayer. T. . New York: Atheneum. Paddy to the rescue. New York: Macmillan. (1984). Naughty Nancy goes to school. . Mariotti. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Viking Press. New York: Macmillan. (1990). Humages. . M. Hanimals. (1986). Humands. (1982). changes. . A boy. New York: Macmillan. and a friend. a dog. . San Diego. McElderry Books. and a frog. . April fools. . The great ape. . New York: Dutton. (1971). (1986). New York: Margaret K. New York: Dutton. Hoban. (1981). San Diego. M. (1981). New York: Dutton. a dog. Paddy under water. New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. New York: Dial Books. New York: Macmillan. P. (1974). Little red riding hood. CA: Green Tiger Press. San Diego. (1977). (1983). . The story of a farm. New York: Greenwillow.. . . CA: Green Tiger Press. (1979). . . Story of an English village. . . (1975). Paddy goes traveling. A boy. (1988). Lavinia’s cottage.

Hiccup. . Junglewalk. N. New York: Puffin. New York: Puffin. J. (1978). P. (1982). New York: Greenwillow. Rain. Spier.. . (1977). (1980). Frog on his own. B. (1988). Frog. Tuesday. . (1976). Breakfast time. G. Ernest and Celestine. New York: Dial Books. New York: Doubleday. where are you? New York: Dial Books. New York: Harper. (1981). New York: Clarion Books. . New York: Doubleday. D. Deep in the forest. (1982). (1984). Sunshine. E. (1991). New York: Dial Books. (1985). Vincent. (1976). Tafuri. . New York: Crown Publishers. . (1980). New York: Dial Books. The bear and the fly. . First snow. Moonlight. McCully. Oops. Picnic. (1978). . New York: Greenwillow. (1985). P. New York: Dial Books. Frog goes to dinner. (1987). Winter. Ormerod. Dreams. (1986). Turkle. New York: Harper. Do not disturb. New York: Greenwillow. New York: Dutton. 33 . Wiesner.

and places the parts in an envelope. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. they try to determine the sequence. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. WHY: HOW: 34 . divides them into sections. 3. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. 5. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. well structured stories or informational pieces. 2. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. If the group has trouble deciding.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. The teacher selects short. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. 6. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. They agree or disagree which is the first part. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. 4. 1.

(1977). (1988). (1985). R. S. J. New York: Barnes & Noble. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. Columbia. E. (1978). Knopf. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. New York: Doubleday. K. Portsmouth. (1974). Short.. D. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Just so stories. Kipling. J. (1984).. The read-aloud treasury. New kid on the block.Developed by: Watson. Prelutsky. New York: Scholastic. C. (1988). NH: Heinemann. New York: Alfred A. H. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. Further information: Harste. New York: Weathervane Books. J. & Burke. (Eds. Oxenbury.). MO: University of Missouri. Haugaard. 35 .. 340-345). & Calmenson.

and exploring. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. The trumpet of the swan. 4.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. but without a trumpet sound. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. so she ignored him. That baby was Louis. On one of these trips. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. fishing. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. 3. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. 2. 1. Sometimes he drew a picture. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. 36 . so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. and the thoughts that he had had. This example is a variation of using schema story. He loved the beautiful Serena. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. When the eggs in the nest hatched.B. New York: Harper & Row. Sam had been writing in a diary. he couldn’t get her attention. who had a real problem. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. (1970). Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. or journal. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. since the other swans couldn’t read. to keep a daily log of his experiences. For some time. However. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. the things that he had seen. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. but most of all. E.

His faith and determination eventually brought success. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner.5. Inc. 37 . Developed by: Crenshaw. S. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Sensing the severity of the problem. KS: Research & Training Associates. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Overland Park. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. (1994).

4.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. seemed to be a perfect dessert. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2.000 pounds. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. After eating several prominent landmarks. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. Twelve hours later.000 pounds. At 320 feet and 8. Overland Park. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. America. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. The water tower was the next item on his menu. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. he doubled in size. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. America. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. 38 . KS: Research & Training Associates.000 pounds. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. 1. Mr. at 7 p. Inc.000 pounds. R.m. 2. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. which were in the path of the monster.m.000 pounds. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. Amazing to say the least! 3. (1994). Developed by: Burns-Stowers. a very large. It was 7 a.. The local police and fire departments.

The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. 39 . Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. letters. and the authoring cycle. partner reading. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. story maps. and focused conversations. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. logs. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. and sketches to represent understanding.

Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. During discussion. 3. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. add new related ideas to the map. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. WHY: HOW: 40 .SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. 4. Here students see how words or ideas are related. 2. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map.” “plot mapping.” and “semantic networking. the general steps involved are: 1. 5. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge.

(1971). Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Journal of Reading.) Reference: Heimlich..D. D. IN: PRC. (formerly Advanced Technology. Newark. (1991). Jensen.E.Taken from: Godt. & Pittelman. 41 .A. IRA Service Bulletin. & Ehlmann. P. M.. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. (1986). DE: Reading Aids Series. S.T. Inc. J. M.. Inc. Other sources: Hanf. Indianapolis.

Indianapolis.) Have students review the other materials (e.). use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. When the semantic map is completed. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. (formerly Advanced Technology. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. Inc. 1. IN: PRC. (1991). Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. various high-interest. & Ehlmann.D. 3. Discuss each word. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. Have students read the textbook material. low-vocabulary reading materials. S. Newark. and textbook or basal materials. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Pittelman. maps.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Inc.. easy-toread trade books. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading..T. .g. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook.E. Jensen. filmstrips. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. filmstrips. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. including a context phrase or sentence for each word.. Taken from: Godt. (1986). . 4. 42 . Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). J. These materials could include posters. 2. posters. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. DE: Reading Aids Series. IRA Service Bulletin. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. D.. M. Reference: Heimlich. pictures. P. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic.

Louise’s friend. On lines drawn from the circle. write key concepts or themes from the story. 2. McCall Capt. For example.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . how the characters feel or react. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. important problems and episodes in the story. . after reading 1. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Write their ideas on the map. and outcomes of the story. . Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall.

T. Reference: Heimlich. Jacob have I loved. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. (formerly Advanced Technology. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. 44 . Jensen. & Pittelman.. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. J. Inc. & Ehlmann. (1980). M.. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. With the students. 4. IN: PRC. Paterson. As students find new information through this guided reading. If appropriate. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). add it to the map. S. IRA Service Bulletin.. Taken from: Godt. P. (1986). Indianapolis.D. DE: Reading Aids Series. New York: Avon Books. (1991).E. K.). have students role-play or act out the story. D.3. Inc. Newark.

IRA Service Bulletin. & Pittelman. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. pointing out relationships and differences among words. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. in small groups or as a whole group.D. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. 3. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. Newark. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. DE: Reading Aids Series. . Discuss the group’s semantic map. Have students suggest labels for these categories. (1986). Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.E. J. . As the instructor. 4. Have students. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew.. Reference: Heimlich. if possible. 45 . S. for vocabulary development 1.

Newark. J. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. .D. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. Reference: Heimlich. 1. (1986).) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. & Pittelman. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Secondary categories. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. 3. Before reading the textbook. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. In this final step of the procedure. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Support details. IRA Service Bulletin. S. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. Identification of main idea. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading.. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. Next. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. 46 . DE: Reading Aids Series.E. . 2.

C. 2. K.. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. or viewed. or viewing a text. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. M. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. 1. After revisiting the text. Portsmouth. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. Short. IN: Indiana University. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. (1988). hearing. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. K. NH: Heinemann. & Burke.. (1984). & Feathers. Bloomington. They may listen to a text being read aloud. 3. Students sketch while they are listening. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. The drawings may be used to generate writing.. It can be an individual or group experience. To demonstrate this strategy. heard.. After reading. J. Siegel.. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. J. C. 353-357).SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. Further information: Harste. Burke. 47 .

exploring. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. selecting possible solutions. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. (If the article contains a solution. acting on ideas.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. p. and revising where necessary. Divide the article up into five sections. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. and looking at the effects. Problem solving. 23). you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. then defining it more clearly. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. determining a desired outcome. evaluating the outcomes. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. 1972) in any curricular area. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. 48 . trying out solutions. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. choosing strategies to use. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. as described in mathematical terms.

Reference: Cohen. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. (1972).S. J. Based on: Bransford.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes.. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously.D. New York: Freeman. learning. 49 . and creativity. (1984). Thinking (p. 5). J. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. & Stein. B.

50 . In this way. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. Making a picture or diagram. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. Acting out problems. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. Using or making a table. they guess the answer. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. students must experience tangible realities. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. test to see if it is correct. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. Many problems are based on actions. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. By taking an active role in finding the solution. For some students. spot missing data. or manipulatives in problem solving. Making an organized list. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. When problem solvers use this strategy. which requires physical models for real understanding. materials. There are two major ways of using objects. such as numbers. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. First. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Unfortunately. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. Making a guess and checking the result. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems.

Adapted from: Hyde. Using logical reasoning. Portsmouth. NH: Heinemann. or behavioral. Hoogeboom. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem.. Mathwise. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . (1991).Using or looking for a pattern. . & Clyne. . Working backwards. A. By identifying the pattern. A pattern is a regular. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. then. J. . the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way.” or “if something is not true. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. for this reason. & Hyde. Simplifying the problem. . but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. then . the solver must make a series of computations. . then . (1988).. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. A pattern may be numerical. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. . Sunnyvale. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. then . M. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. Portsmouth. Inc. . To solve certain problems.” or “if something is true. CA: Creative Publications. 51 . teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. visual.. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. & Goodnow. However. R. The problem solver 1. (1987). systematic repetition. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. . . .” or “if . R. especially when they begin to solve complex problems. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. else. . starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. P. S. A.

and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). question generating.g. reread. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. When the students are asked to clarify. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings.g. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. When students generate questions.. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text.. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. Furthermore. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. and across the passage as a whole. subheadings. across paragraphs. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. ask for help). To do this successfully. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. new vocabulary. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. Text can be summarized across sentences. are not making sense. As they become more proficient. unclear referent words. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. 52 . and predicting. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. clarifying. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. and in fact the passage. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly.

HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. through modeling and instruction. and over time the teacher. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. but it is important that every student participate at some level. leads the group in clarifying and. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. For the initial days of instruction. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. finally. 1. To illustrate. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. For example.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. predicts the upcoming content. points out anything that may have been unclear. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. the students receive practice with each of them. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. This is a beginning. 2. For some students. the dialogue begins. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. 53 . 3. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying.

& Palincsar. D. Further information: Brown. A. New York: The College Board. Indianapolis. S. (formerly Advanced Technology. IN: PRC.J. Reading. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. 1-17. Inc. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). self-control training. Palincsar. Reciprocal teaching.S. Indianapolis. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc. Cooper (Eds. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. Inc. A. Godt.. A.. Peterson.. (1990). Inc.L. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom..). Jensen. A.. & Brown. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. & Ehlmann. thinking. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. Alexandria.T.S. (1985). IN: PRC. 5-10). B. D. (1986). Palincsar. (formerly Advanced Technology. 54 . P. Strickler. R. (1982). Harris & E. M. & Cripe. 2(1).Taken from: Farr. (1991). A.” In T.S.)..).

Some students read aloud to each other. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. 176-177). Invitations (p. 2. 1. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. (1987). They will decide how far to read and who will begin. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. Partner book selection. In D. & Crowley. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information.J. Watson (Ed. It encourages shared meaning. R. Students from different classrooms may be partners. questions.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. C. Ideas and insights (pp. Further information: Gilles. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. and insights.). P. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. (1991). NH: Heinemann. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. 55 . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 2. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion.. Routman. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. Portsmouth. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. or teachers and students may be partners. Urbana. 35). others read silently and then talk about their perceptions.

4. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. NH: Heinemann. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. MO: University of Missouri. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Short. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. and they decide who will speak first.. Portsmouth. 56 . 1. C. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. The students take turns speaking first each time. (1977). Further information: Harste. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. & Burke. 3.. After reading the identified portion of the text. Columbia. K. 5. J. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. Creating classrooms for authors. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. 2. reactions. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. or questions. (1988). It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Each person listens and responds with comments. D. Instead of writing.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation.

but it is a silent communication. C. 195-198). NY: Richard C. Whole language: Getting started . Ideas and insights. King. Further information: Crafton. (1977). Urbana. Owen. 57 . L. IN: Indiana University. IN: Indiana University. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. and it can be used with all ages. and content areas. grade levels. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. (1991). D. In D. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. C. moving forward (pp. (1977). . (1987). Burke.). Written conversation. Katonah. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. Watson (Ed. Bloomington. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. . One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Bloomington. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas.

● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. and then discuss how the advice can be used. they use a variety of options. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. ● When they write. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. HOW: 58 . 1. acquire input. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. which helps them in the composing process.

and in the beginning. Inc. & Dishner. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. 59 . 2.. Adapted from: Tierney. Writing experiences contribute to reading. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. ● Model appropriate interactions. or too tentative.2. Readence. 3.. (1985). After the reader/writer’s presentation. a compendium. and might use) and fields questions and comments. J.K. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. second edition. R. E. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. too general. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom.E. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. Reading strategies and practices. or discusses the process of reading or writing.J. these conferences cannot take place. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. found confusing. comments may be off-base. reads a section of the report or story. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1.

Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. Ask. 3. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. variations of written conversation. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. 6. or perplexing questions. opinions. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. ideas for exploration. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Paper. 4. ask students. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. 2. feelings. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. interesting ideas to explore. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. 1. Try a variety of types to see what works best. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. spiral notebooks. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. sharing insights. The writer and reader are the same person. and collecting data to document learning. are intended for sharing.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. and questions of future consideration. When everyone has finished. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. a stapler. WHY: HOW: 60 .

Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. insights. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. feelings. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. However. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. punctuation. in a traveling journal. When groups of students are working together on a project. Many students dialogue with their teacher. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. and questions to share with others. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. question. or theme cycles. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. story. and questions to extend learning. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. insights. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. similar to written conversation. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. the individuals write to each other. topic. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. book. 61 . Entries may include summaries. or any other conventions of language. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. responses. or common theme. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas.

NH: Boynton/Cook. C. Creating classrooms for authors (pp.. Short.. Whole language: Getting started . L. Portsmouth.). NH: Heinemann. (1987). 280-285). The journal book. Katonah. 163-168). K. (Ed. Harste. Owen. . . NY: Richard C. moving forward (pp.Further information: Crafton. & Burke. Portsmouth. T. J. Fulwiler. (1991). (1988). 62 .

● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain.” 63 . ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five.

Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. S. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. literature log. how? 5. KS: Research & Training Associates. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. writing. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. (1994). or reading response log. such as reading journal. Where did the story take place? 3. 2. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. Who was your favorite character? Describe. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. Regardless of the label. Inc. 64 . Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. it is a record of responses to reading literature. What was a problem in the story? 4. and thinking processes. Overland Park. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Did any of the characters change? If so. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw.

Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. The sense of audience determines the format and language.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. business letters of application. the school board president. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. After about ten minutes. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. or to state and national legislators. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. Overland Park. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. lead a discussion about the experience. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. persuasive letters. 4. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. 2. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. the school superintendent. Inc. or other countries. Pen pal letters. 1. 65 . invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. (1994). KS: Research & Training Associates. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. personal letters to family and friends. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. S. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. other states.

The students hold peer conferences. b. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. 4. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. Write “draft #1” on paper. As a writing process. The students list two or three possibilities. The teacher leads discussion about choices. editing. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. Students follow these steps: 1. 3. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. Write name and date on paper. Think about experiences. c. and publishing. b. Prepare writer’s folder. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. revising. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. Write first drafts. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. 2. The teacher holds conference. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. 6.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. d. Choose topic. sharing. Read and write materials of one’s choice. drafting. Conference. the authoring cycle includes thinking. a. a. 66 WHY: HOW: . 5. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. a.

(1989). NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. Portsmouth. Have an author’s party. 12. 11. (1994). NH: Heinemann. Atwell. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. (1991). c.. A. Inc. Developed by: Crenshaw. librarian. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Writing: Teachers and children at work. & Mullis. Moffett. L. (1986). Active voice. Portsmouth. Watson. 8.. J. Writing in the real classroom. Edit to check the form or structure. and 17. (1987). Langer. KS: Research & Training Associates. Share the writing with other classes. 67 . 9. ED 282 928). punctuation. (1987). NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth.). Further information: Applebee. Parson. b. L. Portsmouth. Graves. Invite the principal. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. and parents. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. (1988). NH: Boynton/Cook. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. NH: Heinemann. Urbana.7. or like materials. Princeton. D. (1990). S. N. 13. Ideas and insights. (1983). Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). Harste. (Ed. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. (1992). Grammar. C. NH: Heinemann. & Burke. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Short. Overland Park. The art of teaching writing. D. J. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.. K. Murray. Portsmouth. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. Portsmouth. class books. individual books.. a. I. NH: Heinemann. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. J. 10. D. Calkins. Portsmouth.

change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). Students may ask someone other than the teacher. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. Editing is an important part of written communication. They teach and support each other. To encourage students to explore language structure. Develop own list. Sixty years ago. Try it first. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. Create personal dictionaries. 3. 89-90). This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. HOW: 68 . Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. 2. They are: 1. 1992. and spelling is a part of the editing process. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. When a word ends in a silent final e. Use other resources. Check four basic rules. pp. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. When a word ends in a consonant and y. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. Work with a partner. have them try several spellings of a particular word. As students learn the words.

Frith. (1980). (1994). London: Academic Press. (1981). Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations.4. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. Cognitive processes in spelling.). S. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. KS: Research & Training Associates. C. DE: International Reading Association. Urbana. (1992). (1992). (Ed. Wilde. S. (Eds. (1989). Newark. 69 .. Portland. J. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Inc. Further information: Buchanan. When a word has the vowels i and e together. S. Developed by: Crenshaw. Share mnemonic strategies. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Henderson. & Beers. U. NH: Heinemann. E. Overland Park. OR: Portland State University. Winnipeg. the i comes before e except after c.). E. Spelling for whole language classrooms. Wilde. You kan red this! Portsmouth. Check classroom display chart. Read. (1990).

LITERATURE STUDY

WHAT: WHY:

Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.

HOW:

Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

70

Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

71

Example

SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.

72

but as students gain experience. circles. Wood. J. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. Often. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. and cycles. S. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. 1984. Missouri.. 1985. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. D. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. 1964.. Silverstein. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean.. E. 73 . Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. 1973. This may be the best response of all. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow.. (1992).. Give no cues or prompts. that is. Arno. district teachers. & Wood. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.J.R. Pienkowski. E.. Share ideas in the discussion group. Keats. S. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. 1985. A.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. Literature sets.

individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. S. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. After everyone reads the text silently. Short. In the process. 74 . Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. (1982). As rehearsal continues. When performing. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience... talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. C. (1988). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 4. 2. Creating classrooms for authors. Urbana. K. Suggest some good resources for scripts. 5. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. NH: Heinemann. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. & Burke. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Sloyer. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. J. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. 3. Portsmouth. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1.

). Students should form groups and do the following: 1. List how books were alike or different. contrast. Hannalee. (1982).) Freedman. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. Talk about differences and likenesses. M. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. 1. New York: Morrow. (1964).TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. 1991). 3. 4. P. In content areas. D. R. 2. illustrations.) Fehrenbacher. and blacks and whites after the Civil War.) Neely. Lincoln: A photobiography. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Decide how to share information with the larger group. author. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. New York: New American Library. (Ed. (Photos and text about Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. or genre. Explore the various books in the text set collection. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. For example. (1988). students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. Be ever hopeful. (Lincoln’s own writings. (For reference and browsing. 5. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. Hannalee.) 75 . Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. New York: McGraw-Hill. the Ku Klux Klan. (1987). New York: Clarion Books. Following are different ways to choose text sets.

(1959). Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. Slake’s limbo. W. A. other genres such as biography. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. New York: Bradbury Press. New York: Bradbury Press. Scarsdale. J. poetry. New York: Harper & Row. Paulsen. Julie of the wolves. Scarsdale. 3. T. (Reteller). 2. For example. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. and informational books could be used. New York: Viking Press. high fantasy. realism. (1975). 76 . (Reteller). (1969). Mazer. 1990). New York: Scribner. NJ: Prentice-Hall. (1974). Steel. National Geographic articles. J. G. F. (1976). Strega Nona: An old tale. H. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. Lang. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. Snow bound. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. (1987). New York: Delacorte Press. Holman. F. New York: Dutton. (1972). New York: Windmill Books. (1973). a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. Steig. (1981). nonfiction trade books. Of course. social issues. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. Hatchet. (Reteller). Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Tattercoats: An old English tale. historical fiction. Englewood Cliffs. Sylvester and the magic pebble.To this list. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. My side of the mountain. George.

New York: Philomel. (1988). weeks. D. Brown. 4. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. Hayashi. Chicago: Children’s Press. B. (1986).Family problems Byers. Gould. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. New York: Macmillan. Time. R.. (1987). M. M. Caught in the Act. (1985). P. The oak tree.. In The Face of Danger). K. L. New York: Philomel. (Dates variable). New York: Viking Kestral. Chengliang. L. Woodstock. New York: Crowell.. Neasi.. Burns. A minute is a minute. (1986). (1988). Brooks. Sendak.. 5. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. Calvi. A Place to Belong. (1989). (1980). & Maestro. G. Anno’s sundial. (1987). New York: Bantam Books. Peterson. New York: Greenwillow Books. (1977). (1978). Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. All in a day. The Great Gilly Hopkins.. Kirst. Dillon. M. Briggs. and refrain). Werner. N. Dillon. B. Scarsdale. Anno. but for different age groups. E.. Coats. years from around the world. Nixon. New York: Scholastic.. R. A. Danziger. New York: Crown Publishers. E. Gerstein. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. J. Boston: Little. The sun’s day. NY: Beekman Publishers. New York: Philomel. (1978). New York: Harper & Row. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. M. (1987). Cracker Jackson.. Florian. This book is about time. Z. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. (1987). & Popov. — 77 . M. Carle. (1988). Fisher.. (1985). The very hungry caterpillar. G. Text Set for Older Children Anno. months. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). D. rhyme. New York: Four Winds Press. Calendar art: Thirteen days. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. D. Through the year with Harriet. & Co. L.. A summer day. B.

Webb. Tway. or the male characters of S. (1993). S.). (1992). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1990). D. J.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. J. Matthews. . Further information: Crafton. Columbia.). Students can read award winners from previous years. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom.M. & Burke. (Eds. Rhodes. Urbana. Owen. Hinton. Jensen. (Ed.. Boston. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. DC: American Council on Education. Publishers. NH: Heinemann. NY: Richard C. (1992). Wirth.. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. (1993). Hinton). Virginia Hamilton). Katonah. Publishers. New York: Richard C. Moving forward. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. Short. Harste. (1981). Whole language: Getting started .). Norwood. Urbana.E. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. (1988).C. Portsmouth.L.). Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. Moss. Inc. Moir. .. K. High interest easy reading. Urbana. Inc. E. MO: University of Missouri. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. phase II. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. H. & Roser. Portsmouth. C. (1994). (1988). MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. (Ed. Creating classrooms for authors.G. Owen.E.A. Reading ladders for human relations. (1988). Roald Dahl. Katonah. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. Urbana. J. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. S. Taxel. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. — — — Reference: Gilles. & Dudley-Marling. Literature study.). (Ed. (Ed. (1992). L. Washington. C. N. (1991). 78 . L. C. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school.). Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. J. (Ed. NH: Heinemann. C.

Case studies in whole language. Further information: Vacca. K. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. T. R. Columbia.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. (1991). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.. & Rasinski. 79 . (1992).

and strategies using many learning processes. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. Selecting a topic. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. 6. Identifying available resources. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. WHY: HOW: 80 . Criteria for topic. Using semantic webbing. 3. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. 7. Determining purposes of the research project. skills. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. After the proposal has been approved. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Developing research procedures. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. 5. Implementing the project proposal. determine which subtopics are manageable. 1. Writing a proposal for a research project. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). 2. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan.

They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. 81 . dramatic scripts. time lines. topic-oriented alphabet books. CA: CSU — School of Education. articles for class magazines. field guides for scientific subjects. models. videotapes and audiotapes. Culminating activities. puzzles. newsletters. San Bernardino. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. (1988). murals. posters. computer programs. mobiles. games. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. or newspapers. Adapted from: Flores. how-to books. displays. B.8. skinny books.

CA: CSU — School of Education. Older children fill it out for themselves. (1988).) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. 82 . San Bernardino.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. B.

and the methodology of a research project. issue. the purpose. Adapted from: Flores. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. B. 83 . ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. questions. CA: CSU — School of Education. San Bernardino. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. (1988). ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. and rationales.

San Bernardino. (1988). Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. B. 84 .Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education.

3. Bird. time lines role-playing. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. Goodman (Eds. L. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Goodman. CA: American School Publishers.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. interviews. graphs.). 2. socio-drama folk art. In K. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. Supporting real research. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. The whole language catalog (p. Once you have chosen your research topic. flowcharts. food museum kits 6. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. tables. Review the questions. songs and dances. drop the ones that don’t fit. (1991). Santa Rosa. L. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. 85 . list everything you know about your topic. and clarify the ones that do. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. & Y. What conclusions does it support? 4. 296). Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions.

Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. K. (1990). MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Columbia. 86 .

Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. 2. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. The praise column is for positive comments. critically evaluate their learning. topics. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. (1990).PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. After recording their ideas. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. 33(7). PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. Write students’ comments on the chart. 551. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. Record some of these on the chart. ask them to try a PQP on their own. texts. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. After a particular presentation or lesson. Journal of Reading. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. 87 . or focus studies. 3. Working with at-risk learners.

. and identify areas for further exploration. Harste. 1. 3. or specific questions. 4. the end of a week. Portsmouth. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. Inc. 2. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. (1988). or a theme unit. Additional ideas include one question they have. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. When all exit slips are collected. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. I will try. Moving forward. identified needs. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. C. Short. They may be used at the end of a class session. one thing they will do to extend their learning. J. and I need or I have a question. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. K..EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. or ideas were presented. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Owen Publishers. L. the end of a day. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. 88 . When the lesson or study is completed. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. & Burke. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation.. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. Whole language: Getting started . Others include I learned. (1991). NH: Heinemann. NY: Richard C. a presentation. . Creating classrooms for authors. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. concepts. or the end of a focused study. Katonah.

89 .

. Overland Park. 9209 West 110th Street. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 90 .February. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. Inc.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.