region XIV comprehensive center
Learning Strategies Resource Guide
Disseminated by Region XIV Comprehensive Center Educational Testing Service 1979 Lakeside Parkway, Suite 400 Tucker, Georgia 30084-5865 1-800-241-3865
Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46
Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.
WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.
Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.
● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.
HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.
assessing knowledge. 7.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS
The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. directed reading. All contributions are accepted and recorded. 3. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Brainstorming. purpose. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). Think-Along. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. 5. Exploring Text
1. and reformulating knowledge.
2. reflecting on associations. Questioning. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text.
A. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. 6. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. K-W-L. Cloze. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. 4. and confirming. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. determining what they WANT to learn. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. The letters K. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Prediction. and encouraging deeper understanding.
. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. W. It includes accessing prior knowledge. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. investigating ideas.
and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text.
B. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. a radio dramatization. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. or sometimes with minimal print.
. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. or a video production. semantic webs. Wordless Books. concept maps. or structured overviews. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. 9. Sketch to Stretch. Schema Stories. divides them into sections. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. Big Books. The teacher selects short. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge.8. 10. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. thinking about. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. clusters. a puppet show. 2. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. schema diagrams. and places the parts in an envelope. Expanding Meaning
1. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. Semantic Mapping. well structured stories or informational pieces.
8. Someone is designated to speak first. and predicting. Say Something. ideas for exploration. a. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. but they talk about their perceptions. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. Written Conversation. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. Dialogue Journals. or to say something related to the text. using invented spelling. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. Partner Reading. reactions. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. Journals and Logs. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. 7. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. and insights. 9. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. questions. 5. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. 6. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. or problem solving. Each person listens and responds with comments. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Problem Solving. or doing both. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. or between two students. writing. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. b. Personal Journals.3. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. feelings. Reciprocal Teaching. clarifying. question generating. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. 4. Responding to Reading as Writers.
. and perplexing questions. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. sometimes they each read silently. or questions. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner.
Different students serve as discussion leaders. editing. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. and friendly letters. There are pen pal letters. After discussion. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. invitations. sharing. consumer awareness letters. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. the individuals write to one another. revising. Reading Logs. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. or common theme. Learning Logs. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. topic. letters of application. reading. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. and presenting their written work. or theme cycles.c.
. 10. Students are engaged in thinking. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. story. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. Readers’ Theatre. letters to the editor. After choosing a topic. Authoring Cycle. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. book. Literature Study. This strategy is similar to written conversation. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. notes. 14. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Spelling Strategies. When groups of students are working together on a project. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. 12. Traveling Journals. get suggestions from other students. and revise their work. Entries may include summaries. including content area or research material. writing. written language. They share. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. e. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. d. 11. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. and questions to extend learning. question. Letters. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of
13. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. insights.
Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. a presentation. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. contrast. The praise column is for positive comments. 18. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. However. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. the end of a day. They may be used at the end of a class session. topics. or a theme unit. Student Research. 17. texts. 16. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. Text Sets. the end of a week. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Exit Slips. or the end of a focused study.
. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines.15. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. or focus studies.
. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. Students explore text through predicting. and analyzing and appreciating text.Exploring Text
The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. brainstorming. and confirming in a variety of situations.
Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. (1985). Confirm or adjust prediction. confirm. In T.L.PREDICTION
Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Determine author’s purpose. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. 2..K. (1990). 5.
. Harris & E. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information.. & Brown. Prove. stopping at logical places. Cogen (Eds. Reading.J. A. Readence.L. or reject. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas.E. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. J.J. 4. Sample text. New York: The College Board. Resample text. E.. Boston: Allyn Bacon. thinking.S. 7. 1. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. 8. & Dishner. a. Tierney. Inform (give facts) b.).
Further information: Palinscar. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. R. A. 6.). Repeat the steps. Entertain (amuse) 3.
. Let’s share our ideas. and validate or reject the predictions. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection.Example
DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY
Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading.” Predict. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. Confirm or reject the predictions. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. Use with the next section of the selection. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. make predictions.
Activate background knowledge.
. R. Stauffer. The Reading Teacher. No book. & Dishner. (1969).G.Further information: Gill.T. R. J.R. 526-535. (1990). Tierney. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. D.E. 41.K. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. and chapter DR-TAs. E. New York: Harper & Row. (1988)..
. whole book.).R. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. Readence. 444-451. M. Journal of Reading. J. 31.J. (1988). Haggard. & Bear..
The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject.
Teacher compiles statements (some true. Students read selection. some false) from the selection to be read.
Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic.
There are seven colors in each rainbow. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. 4.
AFTER reading the selection. KS: Research & Training Associates.
Author 1. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. Be prepared to defend your decision. D.
. 3. Overland Park. 2.
Developed by: Seltzer. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. Inc. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space.Example
DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. (1994). place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support.
W. 16. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun.”
Reprinted from: Saucier. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. In The World Book Encyclopedia. Rainbow. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. pp.
. (1984). (Vol. If the rain has been heavy. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon.J. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. which are difficult to observe. 125-126). LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. The amount of space each color takes up varies. orange. indigo. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. green. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. blue. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. Inc. and red. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color.RAINBOWS
“RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. yellow. Chicago: World Book.
questions. All responses are accepted. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. Research Triangle Park. Also. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. NC: Author. 4. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. or statements. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study.
Further information: Adams. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. 1. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. phrases. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. Reading. J. 5. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Conceptual block busting. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about
2. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Inc. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience.L. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships.BRAINSTORMING
Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. words. (1986). 3.
or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . Initial associations with the concept. Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. the teacher writes these responses on the board. During this phase. the teachers asks. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. It includes accessing prior knowledge. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. During the second phase. deleted. (you hear this word. . reflecting on associations. 3. the students are asked. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. have you any new ideas about . . Reformulation of knowledge. There are three phases to the PReP. to listen to one another’s responses. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9
. . PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. 1.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. “Based on our discussion. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. etc. In a brief introduction. 2. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. Reflections on initial associations. and to become aware of their changing ideas. . see this picture. phrase. the picture. or changed as a result of the discussion. . (the word. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts.). students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. In this first phase. assessing language use in expressing ideas. and reformulating knowledge. the teacher says. etc. Through this procedure.Pre Reading Plan (PReP)
The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. “What made you think of . .
Langer. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. (1982). S. Langer & Nicolich. 1982. words that sound like the stimulus word. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task.. Newark.. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1.A. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. (1981). evidencing high integration of ideas. 1981).A. suffixes. or defining characteristics.)
Taken from: Farr. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes.
. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. & Cripe. (formerly Advanced Technology. . 153-156). Journal of Reading Behavior.. responses generally take the form of examples. B.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. & Nicolich. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. J. or analogies. & Smith-Burke.T. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. If the student has little prior information about the concept. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. . D. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed.). Peterson. definitions. References: Langer.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. DE: International Reading Association. Inc. 13(4). (1990). Strickler. R. M. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. M. J.. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).. Indianapolis. IN: PRC. 1981. or root words). attributes. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. Inc. They may also link the concept with another concept.
The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. In this way. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format.
The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. b. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. Group instruction. Third. Second. 1. c. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. 1986). The letters K. First. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. W.K-W-L
K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. and what they have learned from reading the text. In classroom testing. When disagreements and questions emerge. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. 11
. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. a. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. determining what they WANT to learn. what questions they want answered.
K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. D. R. & W. Jensen. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise.. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. The Reading Teacher. Anderson.E. D. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. R.C.T. Mason (Eds. Inc. L. 4. 564-570. IN: PRC. (1977). Individual reflection. E.W. Roehler. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. & Ehlmann. (1991).C. As they read.
Taken from: Godt. C..L. New York: Longman. Duffy. M. After the group introduction to the topic.2. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge.. Indianapolis. Anderson.). If some have not been answered satisfactorily. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (1984).).J. Montague (Eds. Assessment of learning. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. Inc. Reading. & Smith.). Further information: Anderson. In R. Spiro. (formerly Advanced Technology. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). & J.
. In G. 3. (1986). the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. Reference: Ogle. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. At this time. 39(6). Hillsdale. P.M. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion.
(1986). 39(6). 564-570. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.M. D. The Reading Teacher.
What we know (What we think we know)
What we want to learn
What we learned
Adapted from: Ogle.
how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump?
What we learned and still need to learn
1. has a long tongue 3.C. 303. spits poison 2.Example
K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K
What we know
What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies.
. food 3. what toads do
Reprinted from: Olson.W. (1991). eats spiders
Categories 1. M. small animals 1. eats bugs 2.. description 2. 45(4). jumps 3. T. gray 1. The Reading Teacher. & Gee.
The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns).” 3. No Good. As the teacher reads aloud. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). relates to children’s experiences. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. During the completion of the oral cloze. provides many alternatives for discussion. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. For example. Very Bad Day (Viorst. Horrible. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. 2. the book Alexander and the Terrible. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. the teacher lists them on the board. Students read
. very [bad] day. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. horrible. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. word length clues. including random deletion (every __nth word). The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). no good. 1.CLOZE
Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted.
no good. Rye. magazines. 300-302. F.W. (1982).E. 34(2). (1980).A. or lyrics to popular songs.
. (1980). (1977. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. The Reading Teacher. NH: Heinemann Educational Books.L. (1972). very bad day. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. J. Further information: Blachowicz.
Reference: Viorst. J. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. Cloze instruction research. New York: Macmillan. horrible. 147-151.G. (1989).. Exeter. The Reading Teacher. newspapers. E. C. Working in teams of two or three. Newark. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. & Readence. Alexander and the terrible.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. J. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. 218-220). Englewood Cliffs. Helping children learn to read (pp. NJ: Prentice Hall. Cloze activities for primary readers. 4. December). Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. Searfoss.Z. Schoenfeld. Jongsma. DE: International Reading Association. L.
cats. pick and
were so many interesting
explore. cats. chickens. there
to prepare for
stories by the light
the coal oil lamp. ducks. pigs. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. chickens. feed and care for. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore.Example
VARIATIONS OF CLOZE
Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was
visit her grandparents’ farm because
to climb and ponds and cows to milk. There were sheep. pick and eggs to
. and dogs to feed and care for. and dogs into butter and other eating. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. ducks. After supper. After supper. ducks. cats.
were fruits and vegetables
stories by the light
Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. geese. and dogs eggs to cooking
and cows to milk. There were There were horses to pigs. pigs. there the coal oil lamp. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do.
. . were sheep. . was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore.
were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to
. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. There was cream to eating. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. After supper. feed and care for. There were horses to chickens.
t ll st r
. There was cream to c eating. d cks. chickens. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . cats. c ts. g ch rn b tt r w s
nd c re f r.
so many interesting things to do. T feed and care for. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp.
. ch ck ns. nd th r f
nd p nds t w r
p. There After supper. p gs. There horses to ride and cows to milk. ducks. Th r k ng l ght
ft r s pp r. There gather.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. c l m lk. Th r
nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. ducks. There were horses to r . There
chickens. there w
prepare for cooking a
Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . pigs. th r l l mp. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. and dogs to feed and care for. After supper. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the
explore. cats. pigs. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r
gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng.
Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. Th r m t nd f th
nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m
g th r. There were t and cows to milk. geese. There
fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to
cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating.
1. Questions are tools for engaging attention. and encouraging deeper understanding. creative thinking. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. and after reading. their reading. and using text and in solving problems. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. during. and their writing. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me?
During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out?
. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text.QUESTIONING
If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. the following questions may help students before. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. assessing knowledge. investigating ideas. interpreting. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking.
D. (1995). Boston. . ? What else could you do . Urbana. . refer to the section on literature response logs. .). Questioning.P. Inc. Further information: Munkins. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. . (1983). . . P. . ?
Reference: Christenbury. If the focus is on literary text. ? How did you decide . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. . ? Why did you . 3.2. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.. . L. The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?).
. & Kelly. ? What if . Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . . a path to critical thinking. F. Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. ? How do you know that . . .
by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. In addition. 2. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. and small groups. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. teams. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. 6. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. the exchange of questions stops. and/or small groups. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. 3. teams. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely.Example
The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. After they have both read the passage. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. but it can also be used with pairs. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. the teacher models good questioning strategies. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. 5. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. and the student answers as fully as possible. When the student has finished answering. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas.
. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. 4.
(1969). M. Manzo.). Inc. Journal of Reading. Peterson. D. Reference: Farr. (1991). Strickler. 13. S. Jensen. Inc. R. B..
..V. IN: PRC. Inc. Indianapolis... (formerly Advanced Technology. & Ehlmann. & Cripe. P. IN: PRC. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning.T. Indianapolis. A. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). 123-126. (formerly Advanced Technology.Taken from: Godt. Inc.). (1990). D..
(formerly Advanced Technology. (1982). IN: PRC. Newark. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). D. (1985). The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. T. 2..E.E. Inc. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). 2. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH).Example
QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR)
To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors.
IN THE BOOK
IN MY HEAD
Think & Search (Putting it together)
Author and Me
On My Own
References: Farr. Strickler. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. DE: International Reading Association. T. Indianapolis.. Raphael.
. Raphael. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. QARS revisited. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. Inc. (1990). S.). The Reading Teacher.. Stephenson. 36. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). & Cripe. Question-answering strategies for children. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). B. R.
When students formulate questions. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. Reynolds. Estimate. 44-45). M. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. New York: Richard C. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. & D. 2. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. Owen Publishers. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. P. Students generate questions about the reading. read. Pyle (Eds. (1988). students react. or with a partner in paired reading.). 5. Crenshaw. Respond. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. Read.
. D. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. MO: University of Missouri. After a text has been chosen and distributed. they share oral retellings with their partners. In C. the teacher demonstrates the process. C. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. and question. 1. & Gilles. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. After reading. Question.Example
ERRQ (Estimate. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. 3.
Developed by: Watson. Henrichs. M. Students read the text silently. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. Gilles. Read. If students are working individually. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. ERRQ. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. D. respond. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. Crowley. F. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. they have to think about what they know in a different context. Further information: Watson. (1979) Columbia. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Respond.. S. Bixby. orally.
ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. (1989).
. Prediction of what might occur next. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. 47(3). Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. 26(2). Farr. B. (1983). Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. 44-47. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. 1. Journal of Reading.
Further information: Davey. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning.THINK-ALONG
A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible.
2. R. Make a list on the chalkboard. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. 94. After the demonstration. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Educational Leadership. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used.
A THINK-ALONG IN READING
Gwynne. Overland Park. The king who rained. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. Inc. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. D. Dutton. (1994). NY: Windmill Books and E. (1970). New York. F. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train.P.
. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about?
Developed by: Seltzer. KS: Research & Training Associates. I wonder if I will ever get married.
What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. There is only one classroom per grade. Inc. (1994).
. to include the entire school. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served.
Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking:
Developed by: Burns-Stowers. R. KS: Research & Training Associates.Example
A THINK-ALONG IN MATH
Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. Overland Park. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party.
natural language flow and familiar subject matter.
. nouns. word order.BIG BOOKS
Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. cumulative structure. 1. 3. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. Using texts that include rhyme. The teacher reads the text aloud. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. At the end of this reading. repetition. punctuation symbols. stopping at natural points for student interaction. 4. Big print and big pictures get attention. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. 2. and other conventions of print. verbs. adjectives. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group.
2 Computer Drive West. Box 7501. P. Chicago.THEN WHAT:
The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. NY 11577 Random House. 10949 Technology Place. MD 21157 Rigby. CA 92127
. MO 65102 Wright Group. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Jefferson City. Department DF. Albany.O. 400 Hahn Street. Roslyn Heights. IL 60656 Learning Well. P. Department 436. Box 797.
Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. Crystal Lake. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. San Diego.O. IL 60014 Scholastic. 200 South Service Road. Westminster. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Western Publishing.
2. Some choose to write dialogue.
. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. setting. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre.
Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. creating dialogue for the characters. or for parents’ programs. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. 1. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. or characters. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots.WORDLESS BOOKS
These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. to other classes.
New York: Harcourt. The knight and the dragon. (1978). . . . Bang. Carl. . (1980). Anno’s animals. (1974). (1991). (1970). R. Baker. Florian. D.
. San Diego. Pancakes for breakfast. New York: Harcourt. Good dog. (1993). J.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS
Alexander. (1979). Carl goes shopping. J. (1989). T. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. . The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. . New York: Philomel. . New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. San Diego. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1972). (1981). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. The city. (1991). San Diego. (1985). New York: Puffin. DePaola. New York: Crowell. CA: Green Tiger Press. Window. Anno. . (1980). Creepy castle. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. New York: Dial Books. M. . M. Felix. Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1983). New York: Harper & Row. Jacko. A. Day. Carl goes to daycare. (1986). The snowman. (1968). Goodall. (1975). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Philomel. Anno’s alphabet. (1993). Bobo’s dream. (1980). Carl’s afternoon in the park. New York: Sandcastle. Four Winds. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. Anno’s journey. Briggs. New York: Random House. M. (1982). New York: Philomel. Anno’s USA. . M.
Humages. The story of a castle. . Lavinia’s cottage. The story of a farm. A boy. (1967).
. New York: Atheneum. A boy. New York: Margaret K. (1982). (1981). (1986). Changes. Hoban. M. . (1981). McElderry Books. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton.. (1976). Hutchins. (1988). T. New York: Macmillan. CA: Green Tiger Press. . . . and a frog. San Diego. New York: Macmillan. (1971). New York: Dial Books. (1990). a frog. M. Ah-choo. (1979). New York: Dutton. . New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. Mariotti. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1983). New York: Margaret K. . The great ape. (1985). (1984). (1977). Paddy under water. F. a dog. Krahn. . (1986). New York: Macmillan. (1974). . . (1984). New York: Macmillan. . Puss in boots. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Greenwillow. April fools. a dog. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. New York: Macmillan. (1982). . Naughty Nancy goes to school. New York: Viking Press. (1975). Story of an English village. . Take another look. Humands. (1978). Hanimals. Paddy goes traveling. (1971). McElderry Books. Mayer. . New York: Dial Books. Little red riding hood. San Diego. (1982). . . (1989). and a friend. changes. Look again. Paddy to the rescue. New York: Dutton. New York: McElderry Books. New York: Dutton. . New York: Dial Books. San Diego. P. (1977). New York: Macmillan. . Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house.
. (1976). New York: Clarion Books. Oops. Dreams. Frog. (1985). New York: Greenwillow. McCully. Ernest and Celestine. (1981). (1977). Winter. Moonlight. (1982). New York: Greenwillow. Tafuri. Wiesner. Junglewalk. New York: Dial Books. New York: Doubleday. . N. (1982).. P. New York: Doubleday. Turkle. (1976). New York: Crown Publishers. The bear and the fly. . New York: Puffin. Rain. New York: Dial Books. Spier. Sunshine. . (1980). . Hiccup. (1987). where are you? New York: Dial Books. New York: Harper. J. (1988). (1978). Breakfast time. New York: Puffin. Deep in the forest. (1985). E. . (1980). Picnic. G. (1978). First snow. (1991). P. Frog goes to dinner. . Tuesday. Ormerod. . . (1984). Vincent. New York: Harper. Do not disturb. D. New York: Greenwillow. Frog on his own. B. New York: Dial Books. New York: Dial Books. New York: Dutton. (1986).
1. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. The teacher selects short. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. If the group has trouble deciding. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. They agree or disagree which is the first part. 6. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. well structured stories or informational pieces. 5. and places the parts in an envelope. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently.
. 3. they try to determine the sequence. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. 4.SCHEMA STORIES
Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. 2. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. divides them into sections. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions.
(1974). Further information: Harste..). A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. (1988). Kipling. K. Just so stories. Creating classrooms for authors (pp.. New York: Weathervane Books. (Eds. New York: Scholastic. (1985). The read-aloud treasury. Knopf. C. New York: Doubleday. New York: Barnes & Noble. (1978). S. New York: Alfred A. Short. Portsmouth. (1988). Oxenbury. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book.
. 340-345). Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. & Burke. Prelutsky.Developed by: Watson. & Calmenson. Columbia. H.. NH: Heinemann. J. J. D. J. E. (1984). Haugaard. (1977). MO: University of Missouri. R. New kid on the block.
but without a trumpet sound. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group.Example
SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY
White.B. who had a real problem. New York: Harper & Row. That baby was Louis. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. 4. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. but most of all. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. He loved the beautiful Serena. 2. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. and exploring. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. Sam had been writing in a diary. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. (1970).
. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. E. When the eggs in the nest hatched. On one of these trips. the things that he had seen. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. The trumpet of the swan. fishing. or journal. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. to keep a daily log of his experiences. so she ignored him. However. and the thoughts that he had had. since the other swans couldn’t read. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. 1. Sometimes he drew a picture. This example is a variation of using schema story. For some time. 3. he couldn’t get her attention. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading.
Overland Park. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. (1994). Sensing the severity of the problem. KS: Research & Training Associates. S. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property.
.5. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena.
Developed by: Crenshaw. Inc. His faith and determination eventually brought success.
America. KS: Research & Training Associates.000 pounds.000 pounds.m. a very large. The water tower was the next item on his menu.000 pounds.. 1. At 320 feet and 8.000 pounds. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. seemed to be a perfect dessert. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. Amazing to say the least! 3. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4.m. (1994).
. The local police and fire departments. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. Inc. he doubled in size. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. Overland Park. After eating several prominent landmarks. at 7 p. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals.Example
MATH SCHEMA STORY
This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. Twelve hours later. Mr.000 pounds. 4. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. which were in the path of the monster. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow.
Developed by: Burns-Stowers. America. 2. R. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. It was 7 a.
The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals.
. and the authoring cycle. partner reading. and focused conversations. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. and sketches to represent understanding. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. letters. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing.Expanding Meaning
When students are exploring text. logs. story maps.
Draw a box or circle around the word or term. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. 4. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity.” and “semantic networking. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. add new related ideas to the map. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. Here students see how words or ideas are related. 2.
. During discussion. the general steps involved are: 1.SEMANTIC MAPPING
Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion.” “plot mapping. 3. 5. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing.
IRA Service Bulletin. (1991). Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking.Taken from: Godt. (1986). Indianapolis. Other sources: Hanf.T. S.) Reference: Heimlich. & Pittelman.. D. Jensen. P. & Ehlmann.
.. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). (1971). Newark. IN: PRC. Inc. Inc.E. (formerly Advanced Technology. Journal of Reading. DE: Reading Aids Series. M.A.D. J. M..
& Pittelman. Inc. M. When the semantic map is completed. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. (1991). pictures. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. . including a context phrase or sentence for each word. These materials could include posters. Newark. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word.. posters..g. low-vocabulary reading materials. . Indianapolis.. 4. Jensen. IN: PRC. filmstrips. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. S.). J. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. 1. D.. various high-interest. filmstrips.
. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. Discuss each word.D. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. 2.Example
SEMANTIC MAPPING . easy-toread trade books. & Ehlmann. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. Have students read the textbook material. P. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook.E. maps. before reading
The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied.T. DE: Reading Aids Series. IRA Service Bulletin. Inc. and textbook or basal materials. 3. (1986). listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk.) Have students review the other materials (e. Reference: Heimlich. (formerly Advanced Technology.
Taken from: Godt.
SEMANTIC MAPPING . Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). Wallace Aunt Trudy
Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. On lines drawn from the circle. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently.
McCall Capt. . . how the characters feel or react. and outcomes of the story. Louise’s friend. important problems and episodes in the story. For example. Write their ideas on the map. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. after reading
1. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. write key concepts or themes from the story. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © ©
Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family
Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention
Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness
. 2. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story.
& Ehlmann. Inc. & Pittelman. 4. (formerly Advanced Technology. have students role-play or act out the story. Jensen.). As students find new information through this guided reading. DE: Reading Aids Series. Newark. Reference: Heimlich.3. S. Indianapolis. If appropriate. add it to the map.E. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). J. Jacob have I loved. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. (1980). With the students. New York: Avon Books. Paterson.D. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. (1986). Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.. M.T. IN: PRC.. D. Inc.
.. K. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. (1991). IRA Service Bulletin. P.
Taken from: Godt.
Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew.
Reference: Heimlich. . if possible. S. J. Have students. 4.Example
SEMANTIC MAPPING .D. pointing out relationships and differences among words. Have students suggest labels for these categories.E. As the instructor. 3. & Pittelman. for vocabulary development
1. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept.
. IRA Service Bulletin. Newark. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. DE: Reading Aids Series. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. in small groups or as a whole group. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. Discuss the group’s semantic map. . you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. (1986).. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story.
The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it.
. Secondary categories. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Support details.E. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. DE: Reading Aids Series. S.Example
SEMANTIC MAPPING .D. Newark. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. as a study skill strategy
Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. IRA Service Bulletin. J.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place.. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. Next. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. Before reading the textbook. . The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. 3. & Pittelman. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. (1986). 2.
Reference: Heimlich. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. Identification of main idea. 1. . In this final step of the procedure.
or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Short. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. hearing. K. They may listen to a text being read aloud. K. 3. Portsmouth.
Developed by: Harste. 1. Further information: Harste. or viewed. 2... Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. The drawings may be used to generate writing.SKETCH TO STRETCH
Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. Bloomington. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. or viewing a text. Burke. To demonstrate this strategy. Students sketch while they are listening. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. & Burke. It can be an individual or group experience. & Feathers. C. After reading. J.. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. IN: Indiana University. C. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches.. heard. (1984)..
. After revisiting the text. 353-357). the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. Siegel. (1988). J. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. M. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. NH: Heinemann.
IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. 23). but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. acting on ideas. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. evaluating the outcomes. and looking at the effects. choosing strategies to use. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. Problem solving. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. p. and revising where necessary. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. 1972) in any curricular area. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. determining a desired outcome. (If the article contains a solution.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. selecting possible solutions.PROBLEM SOLVING
Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. Divide the article up into five sections. then defining it more clearly. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. trying out solutions. as described in mathematical terms. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. exploring.
B. 5). Chicago: Rand McNally and Co.D. J.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. and creativity.
Based on: Bransford. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems.
. Reference: Cohen. & Stein. (1972). Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking.S. J. Thinking (p. New York: Freeman.. (1984). learning.
Making an organized list. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Many problems are based on actions. students must experience tangible realities. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Making a picture or diagram. or manipulatives in problem solving. such as numbers. First. In this way. Using or making a table. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. which requires physical models for real understanding. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. test to see if it is correct. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed.Example
Using objects. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. For some students. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Unfortunately. Acting out problems.
. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. spot missing data. When problem solvers use this strategy. There are two major ways of using objects. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. they guess the answer. materials. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. Making a guess and checking the result. By taking an active role in finding the solution. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking.
. R. then .” or “if . & Goodnow. (1991).
Adapted from: Hyde. (1987). P. The problem solver 1.. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. Portsmouth. & Clyne. . . Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. then . visual. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed.Using or looking for a pattern. . J.. .” or “if something is true. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. the solver must make a series of computations. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. . . especially when they begin to solve complex problems. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem.. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. Using logical reasoning. A. Portsmouth. A pattern may be numerical. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way.” or “if something is not true. By identifying the pattern. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . .
. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. (1988). NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Inc. However. A. & Hyde. S. M. A pattern is a regular. . then . Sunnyvale. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. R. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. CA: Creative Publications.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. or behavioral. then. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. systematic repetition. Simplifying the problem. else. To solve certain problems. Mathwise. . for this reason. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. Working backwards. . NH: Heinemann. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. Hoogeboom.
students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. Text can be summarized across sentences. and predicting. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. and in fact the passage. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. across paragraphs.g. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. subheadings. clarifying. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. and across the passage as a whole. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. When students generate questions. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity.. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. question generating. ask for help). reread. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess.g. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. To do this successfully. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. are not making sense.RECIPROCAL TEACHING
Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts).
. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. new vocabulary. unclear referent words.. Furthermore. When the students are asked to clarify. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. As they become more proficient.
After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. the dialogue begins. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. the students receive practice with each of them. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. through modeling and instruction. For example. finally.WHY:
These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. and over time the teacher. leads the group in clarifying and. This is a beginning. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. 2. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. To illustrate. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning.
. 1. For some students. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. but it is important that every student participate at some level. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. 3. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. predicts the upcoming content. For the initial days of instruction. points out anything that may have been unclear. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion.
R..). A. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. Cooper (Eds. 1-17. Harris & E.S. & Cripe. IN: PRC. (1982). & Ehlmann. A. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. (formerly Advanced Technology.” In T. 2(1). (1985). A. & Palincsar. Inc. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).L. thinking.S.. Palincsar. D. Reading. D. A. P. IN: PRC.J. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities.). Indianapolis. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. self-control training. S.Taken from: Farr... 5-10). Inc. Alexandria. Strickler. Peterson. (1991). (formerly Advanced Technology. New York: The College Board.
.). & Brown. A. Inc. (1990). and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Further information: Brown. Godt.S.. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).. (1986).. M. Jensen. B. Indianapolis. Inc.T. Palincsar. Reciprocal teaching.
2. or teachers and students may be partners. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. 35). others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Invitations (p. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Ideas and insights (pp. In D. Urbana. 1. C. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. Portsmouth. (1991). and insights. 176-177). NH: Heinemann. Watson (Ed. P. 2. It encourages shared meaning.
.). Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. Routman. Partner book selection.
1. R. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. & Crowley.
Further information: Gilles. questions. Students from different classrooms may be partners. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. (1987). The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. Some students read aloud to each other..J. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.PARTNER READING
Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else.
The students take turns speaking first each time. & Burke. NH: Heinemann.SAY SOMETHING
This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. (1988). 2. and they decide who will speak first. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. 3. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Instead of writing. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion..
. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text.
Developed by: Watson. Portsmouth. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. Columbia. After reading the identified portion of the text. 4. MO: University of Missouri. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Creating classrooms for authors. K. Short. (1977).. D. 5. Each person listens and responds with comments. J. 1. Further information: Harste. or questions. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. reactions. C.
NY: Richard C. Bloomington. grade levels. and content areas. In D. Bloomington. Watson (Ed. Katonah. . The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. L. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. Whole language: Getting started .
. Burke. (1987). .WRITTEN CONVERSATION
This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. Further information: Crafton. C. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. King. Urbana. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. moving forward (pp. (1977).
Developed by: Burke. IN: Indiana University. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions.). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 195-198). IN: Indiana University. D. Written conversation. C. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. and it can be used with all ages. Ideas and insights. Owen. but it is a silent communication. (1991). (1977).
. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. acquire input.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS
This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. ● When they write. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership.
Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. which helps them in the composing process. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. and then discuss how the advice can be used. they use a variety of options. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher.
● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. and in the beginning.2. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. and might use) and fields questions and comments. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. too general. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. Reading strategies and practices. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. 3. ● Model appropriate interactions. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2. & Dishner. After the reader/writer’s presentation. Inc. a compendium. E. or discusses the process of reading or writing. (1985). the listener(s) responds with comments and questions.
. these conferences cannot take place. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. Readence. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. or too tentative. second edition... Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. found confusing.E.J. reads a section of the report or story. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. Writing experiences contribute to reading. R. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece.
Adapted from: Tierney. J. comments may be off-base.K.
are intended for sharing. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. ask students. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. ideas for exploration. spiral notebooks. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper.
. When everyone has finished. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. The writer and reader are the same person. 4. 6. 3. a stapler. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. and collecting data to document learning. or perplexing questions. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. variations of written conversation. opinions. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. sharing insights. Paper. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. and questions of future consideration. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. 2. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. feelings. Ask. Try a variety of types to see what works best. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. interesting ideas to explore. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together.JOURNALS AND LOGS
Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. 1. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience.
● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. or any other conventions of language. or common theme. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. in a traveling journal. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. insights. similar to written conversation. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. insights. Entries may include summaries. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. responses. the individuals write to each other. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. When groups of students are working together on a project. and questions to share with others. or theme cycles. topic. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas.
. Many students dialogue with their teacher. feelings. story. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. and questions to extend learning. punctuation. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. book. question. However. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing.
. Fulwiler. .Further information: Crafton. 163-168). The journal book. Whole language: Getting started . C. K. NH: Heinemann. Owen. & Burke. Short. NH: Boynton/Cook. NY: Richard C. L. (Ed. Portsmouth. Katonah. Portsmouth. moving forward (pp. T. Creating classrooms for authors (pp.). . Harste. (1988).. (1991). 280-285)..
● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known.Example
IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS
Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain.”
. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon.
. What questions occurred to you as you were reading?
Developed by: Crenshaw. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. how? 5. it is a record of responses to reading literature. Did any of the characters change? If so. Regardless of the label. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. Who was your favorite character? Describe. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. What was a problem in the story? 4. S. and thinking processes. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. literature log. 2.Example
GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS
A reading log has many labels. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. Overland Park. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. KS: Research & Training Associates. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. (1994). Where did the story take place? 3. or reading response log. writing. such as reading journal.
The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters.
Developed by: Crenshaw. the school board president. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. S. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. Overland Park. other states. or other countries. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. lead a discussion about the experience. 4. 1. or to state and national legislators. After about ten minutes. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. persuasive letters. business letters of application. The sense of audience determines the format and language. 2. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. Pen pal letters. (1994). and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. personal letters to family and friends. Inc. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. KS: Research & Training Associates. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. the school superintendent. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials.
An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. The students hold peer conferences. Students follow these steps: 1. 2. 6. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. The teacher holds conference. The students list two or three possibilities. a. d. the authoring cycle includes thinking. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. and publishing. b. Prepare writer’s folder. a. Read and write materials of one’s choice. 66
. sharing. c. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. Conference. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. b. Write name and date on paper. revising. 4. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. As a writing process. Think about experiences. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. 5. The teacher leads discussion about choices. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. 3. Write “draft #1” on paper. a. Choose topic. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. Write first drafts. drafting. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics.
class books. 9.. (1994). N. Portsmouth. Harste. Writing: Teachers and children at work. J. Have an author’s party. 10. & Burke. (1990). Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. (1987). ED 282 928).. punctuation. 13. K. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Watson. NH: Boynton/Cook. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. Portsmouth. Edit to check the form or structure. Further information: Applebee. & Mullis. D. Portsmouth. Moffett. I. librarian. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. L. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. 11. Urbana. (Ed. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. Murray. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Ideas and insights. J. Portsmouth. KS: Research & Training Associates. Active voice. individual books.).
Developed by: Crenshaw. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. or like materials. C. Portsmouth. Short. (1991). NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. Princeton. Langer.. Parson. Graves. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. a. D. b.7. c. and parents. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. S. Inc. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. J.. Calkins. Share the writing with other classes. A. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. L. D. (1992). NH: Heinemann. (1987). Invite the principal. (1983). (1988). and 17. (1989). NH: Heinemann.
. Portsmouth. 12. The art of teaching writing. Writing in the real classroom. (1986). Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Atwell. 8. Grammar. Overland Park.
Use other resources. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. When a word ends in a consonant and y. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. Sixty years ago. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. When a word ends in a silent final e. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. 3. Create personal dictionaries. As students learn the words. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. Check four basic rules. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. 89-90). new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. 2. They teach and support each other. To encourage students to explore language structure. Editing is an important part of written communication. They are: 1. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Work with a partner. 1992. pp. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. Try it first. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i).SPELLING STRATEGIES
Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. and spelling is a part of the editing process.
. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. Develop own list.
Spelling for whole language classrooms. Wilde. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants.
Developed by: Crenshaw. the i comes before e except after c. (1992). E. OR: Portland State University. E. S. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. London: Academic Press. Newark. When a word has the vowels i and e together. Inc. Urbana. NH: Heinemann. Overland Park.4. (Eds. Share mnemonic strategies. (Ed. Cognitive processes in spelling. S. (1990).. C. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. S. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. (1994). Portland.
. J. KS: Research & Training Associates. Winnipeg. U. & Beers. Wilde. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. (1992). Further information: Buchanan. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Henderson. DE: International Reading Association. (1989).). (1981). Frith. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. You kan red this! Portsmouth. (1980). Read.). Check classroom display chart.
Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.
Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?
Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?
Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.
Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. 1984. Give no cues or prompts..Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. S. Arno. 1985. Silverstein. Share ideas in the discussion group.
. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. Often. circles.... they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. 1985. Missouri. Scholastic)
Reference: Crenshaw. D. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. S. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. that is. This may be the best response of all. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.J. Keats. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. A. and cycles.. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. Pienkowski. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose.. but as students gain experience. E. J. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Literature sets. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. 1964. district teachers. E. & Wood. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. 1973.R. Wood. (1992). Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters.
talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. K. 5. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. Short. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. & Burke. Portsmouth. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. After everyone reads the text silently. (1988).
Further information: Harste. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance.. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. S. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. C. Sloyer.. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. In the process.READERS’ THEATRE
Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. J. Creating classrooms for authors. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. 2. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. Urbana. 3. (1982). Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. As rehearsal continues. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. NH: Heinemann.
. When performing. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. 4.
. illustrations. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings.TEXT SETS
Text sets are collections of books related by theme. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. D.
Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. (Photos and text about Lincoln. contrast. New York: Morrow. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. a teacher might begin collecting books such as:
Beatty. Hannalee. Lincoln: A photobiography. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. In content areas. (1987). R. (1982). Explore the various books in the text set collection. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. (For reference and browsing. Decide how to share information with the larger group. and make connections in a reading discussion group. (Ed. Hannalee.) Fehrenbacher. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. New York: McGraw-Hill. 4. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text.). or genre. List how books were alike or different. P. the Ku Klux Klan. (1988). For example. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. Students should form groups and do the following: 1.) Freedman. 1991). New York: Clarion Books. New York: New American Library. 1. (1964). M. Be ever hopeful. author. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. 2. Following are different ways to choose text sets.) Neely. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. 5. 3. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. Talk about differences and likenesses. (Lincoln’s own writings.
Since all students have read novels centered on a theme.
. Lang. G. (1975). F. J. Tattercoats: An old English tale. A. historical fiction. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. (1976). social issues. Slake’s limbo. poetry. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. nonfiction trade books. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. Julie of the wolves. (1981). Sylvester and the magic pebble. the following tales all deal with magical objects:
DePaola. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Snow bound. Mazer. realism. T. (1974). W. (1972). a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. high fantasy. Englewood Cliffs. George. other genres such as biography. New York: Bradbury Press. F. Strega Nona: An old tale. (1969). New York: Harper & Row. 1990). Steel. (1973). or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. Hatchet. J. and informational books could be used. H. New York: Dutton. NJ: Prentice-Hall. New York: Scribner. (1987). National Geographic articles. (Reteller). (Reteller). Holman. Scarsdale. New York: Windmill Books. New York: Viking Press. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. My side of the mountain. 2.To this list. 3. (1959). New York: Delacorte Press. Scarsdale. Steig. Paulsen.
Of course. (Reteller). For example. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are:
Survival/personal discovery George. New York: Bradbury Press. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp.
New York: Crowell. Brooks. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. and refrain). Chengliang. A summer day. Danziger. L. Nixon. (Dates variable)..Family problems Byers. Peterson. New York: Four Winds Press. & Maestro. D. Coats.. New York: Greenwillow Books. New York: Crown Publishers. Dillon. Calendar art: Thirteen days. M.. & Popov. Kirst. Sendak. K. (1985). N. New York: Macmillan. (1987). Briggs. A Place to Belong. M.. Cracker Jackson. Werner. G. New York: Philomel. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). NY: Beekman Publishers. Scarsdale. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. Brown. Carle. Anno. (1987). years from around the world. J. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. The sun’s day. (1985). Caught in the Act. Chicago: Children’s Press. Gerstein. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. Burns. M. In The Face of Danger). Florian. New York: Viking Kestral. New York: Harper & Row. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. The very hungry caterpillar. (1988).. Through the year with Harriet. New York: Philomel. (1987).. New York: Scholastic.
. Hayashi. This book is about time. L. E. (1978). D. (1977)... Woodstock. A.. Gould. Dillon.. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell.
Text Set for Older Children
Anno. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. (1978). R. Neasi. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. weeks. (1986). (1987). (1989).. rhyme. Fisher. months. D. Z. R. E. B. (1980). M. B. The oak tree.
5. The Great Gilly Hopkins. (1986). New York: Philomel. A minute is a minute. & Co. G. (1988).
4. (1988). P. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. B. M. Boston: Little. but for different age groups. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. All in a day. L. Text Set for Younger Children
Carle. Calvi. Anno’s sundial. New York: Bantam Books. Time.
Short. N.). Inc.E. Further information: Crafton.. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets.M. J. C. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. NY: Richard C. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students.). (1991). C. Inc. . (1990). Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. K. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Publishers.. Owen. Roald Dahl. NH: Heinemann. Urbana. Wirth. E.. Webb. NH: Heinemann.). (Ed. L. Norwood. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection.).C. Boston. Taxel. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1992). phase II. . J. Whole language: Getting started .). Moir. Jensen. Hinton. (Eds. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. J. Hinton). (Ed. (1981). or the male characters of S.G. (1993). Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. Publishers. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Portsmouth. J. C. Katonah. Columbia. Harste.L. & Roser. DC: American Council on Education. Moss. Students can read award winners from previous years. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. H.). Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. C. MO: University of Missouri. (Ed.E. (1988). Rhodes. Literature study. & Burke. High interest easy reading. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. (1992). (1988).A. & Dudley-Marling. S. (Ed. Tway. Katonah.—
Texts by the same author (Jean George.
Reference: Gilles. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Washington. Reading ladders for human relations. Moving forward. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. Portsmouth. (Ed. Owen.
. L. (1993). Urbana. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Matthews. D. Creating classrooms for authors. S. Urbana. (1992). (1988). (1994). New York: Richard C. Urbana. Virginia Hamilton).
T. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Further information: Vacca. Columbia. (1991).
. K. & Rasinski. (1992). R.Example
TEXT SET PROJECT FORM
Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to
Developed by: Copeland. Case studies in whole language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich..
Criteria for topic. Developing research procedures. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. 1. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. Implementing the project proposal. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. 6. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. skills. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. 2. Determining purposes of the research project. After the proposal has been approved. 7. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Using semantic webbing. Selecting a topic. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. and strategies using many learning processes.
. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. 5. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. Writing a proposal for a research project. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Identifying available resources. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. determine which subtopics are manageable. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
Student research projects are based on student inquiry. 3.
dramatic scripts.8. B. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. computer programs.
Adapted from: Flores. posters. CA: CSU — School of Education. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. Culminating activities. mobiles. field guides for scientific subjects. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. displays. murals. how-to books. videotapes and audiotapes. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. topic-oriented alphabet books. skinny books. (1988). time lines. puzzles. articles for class magazines. models. games. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. newsletters. San Bernardino. or newspapers.
Older children fill it out for themselves. B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. San Bernardino. (1988).
Name (individual or members of group):
Theme or topic:
Questions to be explored:
Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”):
Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education.Example
PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH
(May be filled out by teacher for younger children.
IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
A proposal is a statement of the rationale. issue. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. (1988). ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic.
. and rationales. the purpose. B. CA: CSU — School of Education. questions. San Bernardino. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known.
Adapted from: Flores. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. and the methodology of a research project.
TEACHER PLANNING FORM
Theme or topic:
Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans:
Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn?
Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education. (1988). Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. B. San Bernardino.
questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. graphs.
. Goodman (Eds. 3. (1991). keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Bird.). time lines role-playing. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. drop the ones that don’t fit. Goodman.Example
GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS
1. flowcharts. Once you have chosen your research topic. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. interviews. L. What do you want to research next?
Reference: Bird. food museum kits 6. 2. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. list everything you know about your topic. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. 296). bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. L. socio-drama folk art. In K. and clarify the ones that do. Review the questions. songs and dances. Supporting real research. tables. & Y. Santa Rosa. The whole language catalog (p. What conclusions does it support? 4. CA: American School Publishers.
COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids
WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information
GAME I learned:
I would like to learn:
Developed by: Copeland. K. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. (1990).
EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION
Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report.
The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. Write students’ comments on the chart. 33(7). PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP)
PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning.
Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. 2.
. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. topics. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. texts. 551. ask them to try a PQP on their own. or focus studies. Journal of Reading. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. (1990). Working with at-risk learners. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. After recording their ideas. critically evaluate their learning. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. Record some of these on the chart. The praise column is for positive comments. After a particular presentation or lesson. 3.
Creating classrooms for authors. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. give an account of the knowledge they have gained.
Further information: Crafton. Short. Additional ideas include one question they have. 4. (1988). Whole language: Getting started . 3. (1991). or specific questions. I will try. one thing they will do to extend their learning. Moving forward. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs.. identified needs. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. the end of a day. and identify areas for further exploration. J. NY: Richard C. 2. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. or a theme unit. Inc. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. Harste. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. When all exit slips are collected. or ideas were presented. concepts. and I need or I have a question. a presentation. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. Katonah. . the end of a week. L.
. or the end of a focused study.EXIT SLIPS
Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. Owen Publishers. & Burke. Others include I learned. 1. When the lesson or study is completed. They may be used at the end of a class session. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. C.. K. Portsmouth. . NH: Heinemann.
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A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers.