region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

Disseminated by Region XIV Comprehensive Center Educational Testing Service 1979 Lakeside Parkway, Suite 400 Tucker, Georgia 30084-5865 1-800-241-3865
Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

***** Tampa, Florida 1-800-756-9003 / 813-289-8675 ***** Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 787-758-2326

Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.


● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.


the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.


Learning Strategies iv .

It includes accessing prior knowledge. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. and reformulating knowledge. Brainstorming. Questioning. Cloze. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). K-W-L. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. 2. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. 6. iv . It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. Think-Along. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. Exploring Text 1. reflecting on associations. The letters K. W. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. and confirming. 7. Prediction.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. investigating ideas. 3. 5. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. A. All contributions are accepted and recorded. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. 4. determining what they WANT to learn. purpose. Questions are tools for engaging attention. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. directed reading. and encouraging deeper understanding. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. assessing knowledge.

or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. well structured stories or informational pieces. clusters. schema diagrams. Semantic Mapping. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. Schema Stories. or sometimes with minimal print. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. thinking about. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. or a video production. The teacher selects short. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Big Books. 9. divides them into sections. a radio dramatization. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. Expanding Meaning 1. Sketch to Stretch. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. 2. or structured overviews. Wordless Books. semantic webs. a puppet show. B. 10. and places the parts in an envelope. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece.8. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. v . concept maps. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text.

sometimes they each read silently. Written Conversation. vi . but they talk about their perceptions. and perplexing questions. 8. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. 6. or doing both. Say Something. Each person listens and responds with comments. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing.3. 9. reactions. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. or problem solving. Dialogue Journals. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. or questions. Someone is designated to speak first. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. feelings. Journals and Logs. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. 5. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. or between two students. or to say something related to the text. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. using invented spelling. clarifying. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. 7. ideas for exploration. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. Partner Reading. b. Responding to Reading as Writers. and predicting. questions. Reciprocal Teaching. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. 4. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. and insights. Personal Journals. writing. Problem Solving. a. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. question generating. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers.

letters to the editor. sharing. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. e. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. Literature Study. writing. 14. including content area or research material. Spelling Strategies. 10. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. notes. reading. This strategy is similar to written conversation. 11. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. Students are engaged in thinking. letters of application. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. There are pen pal letters. After choosing a topic. vii . and questions to extend learning. They share. insights. or theme cycles. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Reading Logs. consumer awareness letters. 12. and revise their work. When groups of students are working together on a project. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. and friendly letters. topic. Learning Logs.c. written language. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. Letters. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. Entries may include summaries. Authoring Cycle. story. invitations. After discussion. book. Different students serve as discussion leaders. question. get suggestions from other students. d. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. Traveling Journals. editing. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. or common theme. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. revising. Readers’ Theatre. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. and presenting their written work. the individuals write to one another.

or a theme unit. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. The praise column is for positive comments. 17. viii . texts. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. a presentation. the end of a week. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. 16. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. the end of a day. or focus studies. They may be used at the end of a class session. 18. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. Exit Slips. topics. However. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. contrast.15. or the end of a focused study. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. Student Research. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. Text Sets.

brainstorming. and analyzing and appreciating text. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. Students explore text through predicting. 1 . questioning as a framework for reading and understanding.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. and confirming in a variety of situations.

5. (1985). Reading. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. Readence. Entertain (amuse) 3. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. a. New York: The College Board. 1. Determine author’s purpose.J. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. A. Repeat the steps. Harris & E..J.. stopping at logical places. Boston: Allyn Bacon. confirm. 2 . Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. In T. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next.). 8.L. A. J. or reject. & Dishner. Prove.S. Confirm or adjust prediction. 7. & Brown. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. Cogen (Eds. 4..). Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. E.E. Inform (give facts) b. Sample text. thinking. 2. R. Resample text. Tierney. (1990).L.K. 6.

STEPS Activate background knowledge. 3 .Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. Confirm or reject the predictions. Let’s share our ideas. Use with the next section of the selection. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections.” Predict. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. and validate or reject the predictions. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. make predictions. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle.

(1969). and chapter DR-TAs. E.K. J. M. whole book. D. & Bear.). 41. New York: Harper & Row.. J. (1990). Tierney. Boston: Allyn Bacon. 4 . R. (1988). Haggard.J. 31. (1988).T.. Journal of Reading.G. Readence. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. The Reading Teacher. 444-451.E.Further information: Gill.R.R. R. 526-535. & Dishner. Stauffer. No book.. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process.

Students read selection. some false) from the selection to be read. 5 .Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic.

A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. D. Inc. KS: Research & Training Associates. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. 3. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. AFTER reading the selection. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. Developed by: Seltzer. 6 . Overland Park. 2.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. 4. (1994). There are seven colors in each rainbow. Personal Group Author 1. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. Be prepared to defend your decision.

indigo. yellow. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. 125-126). and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. pp. 16. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. the bow may spread all the way across the sky.” Reprinted from: Saucier. (1984). Inc. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. If the rain has been heavy. 7 . (Vol. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. which are difficult to observe. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. Chicago: World Book. W. green. and red. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. In The World Book Encyclopedia. Rainbow. The amount of space each color takes up varies. orange. blue. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth.J. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors.

1. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. or statements. questions. Also. Conceptual block busting. 5. Reading. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. All responses are accepted. Further information: Adams. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. (1990). The leader asks how terms are similar or different. NC: Author.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency.L. words. Research Triangle Park. 8 . 3. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. (1986). Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. Inc. phrases. J. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. 4.

. . Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . and reformulating knowledge. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. (the word. Reformulation of knowledge. “What made you think of . Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. the picture. 1. the teachers asks. There are three phases to the PReP. . “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. assessing language use in expressing ideas. . deleted. In a brief introduction. phrase. 2. (you hear this word. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. During this phase. or changed as a result of the discussion. the teacher writes these responses on the board. have you any new ideas about . Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. and to become aware of their changing ideas.). Initial associations with the concept. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. etc. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. see this picture. reflecting on associations. It includes accessing prior knowledge. . Through this procedure. the teacher says. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. etc. 3. . students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. In this first phase. During the second phase. to listen to one another’s responses.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. Reflections on initial associations. the students are asked. “Based on our discussion.

Peterson. words that sound like the stimulus word. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. Newark. R. responses generally take the form of examples. Inc. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. IN: PRC.. (1990). responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. & Smith-Burke. B. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge.. Inc. (1982). Journal of Reading Behavior. Langer. D.. DE: International Reading Association. 13(4). 10 . & Nicolich. or defining characteristics. M. Langer & Nicolich. S.A.) Taken from: Farr. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. M. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. They may also link the concept with another concept. suffixes. (formerly Advanced Technology.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. .A. evidencing high integration of ideas. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension.). (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. J. attributes. (1981).T. If the student has little prior information about the concept. 153-156). responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . or analogies. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task.. References: Langer. & Cripe. or root words). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. definitions. 1981. J. Indianapolis. 1981). . 1982..evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. Strickler.

In this way. a. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. Third. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Second. c. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. The letters K. 1. 11 . First. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. b. When disagreements and questions emerge. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. Group instruction. and what they have learned from reading the text. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. W. determining what they WANT to learn. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. 1986). what questions they want answered. In classroom testing. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility.

If some have not been answered satisfactorily. Jensen. R. Reading. Anderson. C. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions.. 564-570. 3.M. (1984). R. (1991). Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. In G. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. (1977). & J. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. Taken from: Godt.. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information.W.C. The Reading Teacher. Montague (Eds. Individual reflection. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. E. In R. Reference: Ogle. Mason (Eds. Duffy. 12 . (1986). the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. D. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). P. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. M. D. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. As they read. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved.. At this time. Inc. Further information: Anderson. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. 4. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. IN: PRC. 39(6). & Smith. & Ehlmann.T.). Anderson.). After the group introduction to the topic.L. Spiro. New York: Longman. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (formerly Advanced Technology. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. & W.2. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge.E. Roehler. L. Assessment of learning. Hillsdale. Inc. Indianapolis.J.).C.

The Reading Teacher. D.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle.M. 13 . 39(6). 564-570. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.

Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. has a long tongue 3.W. & Gee.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. (1991). 303. food 3.C. spits poison 2. 14 . 45(4). jumps 3. eats bugs 2. description 2. The Reading Teacher. small animals 1. M. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. gray 1.. eats spiders Categories 1. T.

the teacher lists them on the board. Very Bad Day (Viorst. 1. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). horrible. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. No Good. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . very [bad] day. the book Alexander and the Terrible.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. provides many alternatives for discussion. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). no good. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). For example. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). 2. including random deletion (every __nth word). The students give reasons why their answers make sense.” 3. Horrible. As the teacher reads aloud. During the completion of the oral cloze. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. word length clues. relates to children’s experiences. the cloze procedure has taken many forms.

Z. & Readence. 34(2). DE: International Reading Association.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. The Reading Teacher. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. New York: Macmillan. 16 . (1980).G. NJ: Prentice Hall. Jongsma. Rye. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. (1982). Working in teams of two or three. Cloze activities for primary readers. 300-302. (1980). Searfoss. horrible. Reference: Viorst. or lyrics to popular songs. E.W. J. Exeter. C. The Reading Teacher. very bad day. 218-220). Further information: Blachowicz. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. magazines.. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. L. Englewood Cliffs.E. (1972). 4. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. Newark. Cloze instruction research. (1989). the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. J. 147-151. J. Alexander and the terrible.L. (1977. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. newspapers. F. December).A. Helping children learn to read (pp. Schoenfeld. no good.

ducks. feed and care for. There were There were horses to pigs. .Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . After supper. cats. . and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. and dogs to feed and care for. cats. pigs. After supper. feed and care for. pick and were so many interesting explore. 17 . were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. were sheep. pigs. pick and eggs to . ducks. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. After supper. chickens. and dogs into butter and other eating. ducks. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. cats. geese. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. There was cream to eating. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. chickens. There were sheep. there the coal oil lamp. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. There were horses to chickens.

Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. There After supper. and dogs to feed and care for. After supper. There were horses to r . Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. pigs.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . p gs. There horses to ride and cows to milk. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. so many interesting things to do. c ts. There were t and cows to milk. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. geese. chickens. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. T feed and care for. pigs. There chickens. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. t ll st r 18 . . d cks. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. c l m lk. th r l l mp. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. There was cream to c eating. cats. cats. ducks. ducks. ch ck ns. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. There gather.

If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . 1. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. assessing knowledge. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. and their writing. and encouraging deeper understanding. and after reading. the following questions may help students before. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. interpreting. during. investigating ideas. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. creative thinking. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. their reading. and using text and in solving problems.

20 . Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed.). .2. ? What if . . MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.P.. ? Reference: Christenbury. Inc. F. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . (1983). The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). (1995). Boston. ? What else could you do . . ? How did you decide . L. . . . . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. refer to the section on literature response logs. . 3. a path to critical thinking. If the focus is on literary text. . Questioning. . P. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. ? How do you know that . & Kelly. Further information: Munkins. Urbana.D. . ? Why did you . .

By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. teams. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. and/or small groups. 6. but it can also be used with pairs. In addition. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. 2. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. After they have both read the passage. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. and small groups. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. 4. and the student answers as fully as possible. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. the exchange of questions stops. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. teams.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. When the student has finished answering. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. 3. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. the teacher models good questioning strategies. 21 . 5.

(1969). ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Indianapolis.Taken from: Godt. S. Inc. IN: PRC.. R.V. Peterson. (1991). 123-126. B. (formerly Advanced Technology. Manzo. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Jensen. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). IN: PRC. 13. (1990). Inc. Inc..). 22 .). Indianapolis. & Cripe. Journal of Reading. Strickler.. Inc. D... (formerly Advanced Technology. P. A. & Ehlmann.T. Reference: Farr. M. D.

Question-answering strategies for children. (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc. 36. (1985).E. 2. Inc. R. DE: International Reading Association.E... The Reading Teacher. 2. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME).). IN: PRC. Stephenson. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Raphael. 23 . Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). D. & Cripe.. T. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. Raphael. S. (1982). Newark. Strickler. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. QARS revisited. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. T. (1990). the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. B. Indianapolis.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors.

1. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. & D. Crenshaw. 44-45). ERRQ. Question. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. MO: University of Missouri. M. D. Pyle (Eds. Reynolds. M. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. read. Bixby. 2. students react. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. respond. orally. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. After a text has been chosen and distributed. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. Students generate questions about the reading. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. In C. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. Respond. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. Read. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. they have to think about what they know in a different context. C. Gilles. Estimate. P. they share oral retellings with their partners. S. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. New York: Richard C. 5. D. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. (1988). Owen Publishers. the teacher demonstrates the process. When students formulate questions. Respond.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. & Gilles. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. Read. Students read the text silently. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. 24 .. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Crowley. Further information: Watson. (1979) Columbia. or with a partner in paired reading. Henrichs. and question.). What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. If students are working individually. 3. F. After reading. Developed by: Watson.

Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Farr. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. 94. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. 1. WHY: HOW: 2. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. Further information: Davey. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. 25 . 47(3). (1989). Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. 26(2). Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Prediction of what might occur next. Educational Leadership. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. 44-47. Journal of Reading. Make a list on the chalkboard. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. After the demonstration. R. (1983). Activation and connection of prior knowledge. B. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed.

Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. D. NY: Windmill Books and E. Inc. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. Dutton. (1994). New York. I wonder if I will ever get married. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne.P. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. 26 . (1970). F. KS: Research & Training Associates. Overland Park. The king who rained.

How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. KS: Research & Training Associates. 27 . Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. There is only one classroom per grade. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. Inc. to include the entire school. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. (1994). Overland Park. R. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party.

At the end of this reading. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. and other conventions of print. WHY: HOW: 28 . he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. repetition. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. 1. The teacher reads the text aloud. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. 4. word order. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. cumulative structure. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. stopping at natural points for student interaction. 2. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. adjectives. verbs. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. Using texts that include rhyme. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. punctuation symbols. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. nouns.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. Big print and big pictures get attention. 3.

NY 11577 Random House. Chicago. Albany. MO 65102 Wright Group. Roslyn Heights.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue.O. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Box 797. 2 Computer Drive West. P. P. 200 South Service Road. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. San Diego. Crystal Lake. CA 92127 29 . 400 Hahn Street. MD 21157 Rigby. IL 60656 Learning Well.O. IL 60014 Scholastic. 10949 Technology Place. Box 7501. Jefferson City. Department 436. Department DF. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. Westminster. Western Publishing.

Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. or characters. Some choose to write dialogue. 1. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. 2. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. to other classes. 30 . creating dialogue for the characters. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. or for parents’ programs. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. setting.

. (1979). . New York: Crowell. J. Window. (1985). (1974). R. (1993). Briggs. . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Random House. Carl’s afternoon in the park. Carl goes to daycare. Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1970). (1989). M. San Diego. New York: Sandcastle. New York: Puffin. (1981). The snowman. Day. . (1991). 31 . Anno’s journey. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1986). (1968). The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. Felix. San Diego. The city. New York: Philomel. M. . . The knight and the dragon. D. M. Anno’s alphabet. New York: Harcourt. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. (1982). Jacko. (1978). M. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Carl goes shopping. Anno. (1980). Bobo’s dream. Carl. Good dog. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. T. (1980). . Goodall. CA: Green Tiger Press. . Four Winds. (1972). A. Florian. Bang. (1993). Creepy castle. Pancakes for breakfast. DePaola. (1991). Anno’s animals. (1983). New York: Dial Books. . New York: Harper & Row. New York: Philomel. Baker.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. (1980). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. J. (1975). San Diego. Anno’s USA. . New York: Philomel. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Harcourt.

. (1979). . . The story of a castle. Hutchins. Puss in boots. Take another look. . San Diego. Hanimals. changes. Humages. . M. A boy. . New York: Dial Books. New York: Dutton. New York: Dial Books. . New York: Macmillan. (1982). New York: Dutton. Hoban. Look again. . . . Paddy goes traveling. New York: Dial Books. A boy. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. New York: Macmillan. (1981). (1989). Ah-choo. The great ape. (1983). Naughty Nancy goes to school. Little red riding hood. Mariotti. and a frog. . (1984). New York: Macmillan. (1982). New York: Margaret K. CA: Green Tiger Press. The story of a farm. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. Paddy to the rescue. New York: Macmillan. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1977). T. Paddy under water. New York: Atheneum. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. (1985). (1986). New York: Viking Press. (1984). Humands. . New York: Macmillan. New York: Dutton. (1967). McElderry Books. 32 . (1974). F. and a friend. . (1981). Story of an English village. (1978). . a dog. (1982). (1971). a dog. McElderry Books. San Diego. a frog. . San Diego. Changes. M. (1975). New York: Macmillan. Lavinia’s cottage. . April fools. (1977). CA: Green Tiger Press. (1976). (1990). (1988). New York: Macmillan. . . New York: Margaret K. (1971). New York: McElderry Books. P. Mayer. New York: Macmillan. Krahn. (1986). . New York: Greenwillow.

(1982). J. P. . New York: Greenwillow. New York: Harper. (1987). (1980). Turkle. . The bear and the fly. B. (1978). Wiesner. Sunshine. McCully. Moonlight. N. New York: Dial Books. Frog. New York: Greenwillow. P. Deep in the forest. New York: Harper. New York: Dial Books. . (1991). Tafuri. E. (1976). (1985). Hiccup. Frog goes to dinner. Rain. New York: Crown Publishers. . Breakfast time. (1980). New York: Dutton. New York: Doubleday. D. Ernest and Celestine. (1981). (1985). Oops. New York: Doubleday. Do not disturb. . where are you? New York: Dial Books. (1982). New York: Puffin. . Winter. (1986). New York: Puffin. Spier. Tuesday. Frog on his own. Junglewalk. (1988). . (1976). (1984). G. Dreams. .. (1978). 33 . New York: Dial Books. New York: Greenwillow. Vincent. Picnic. New York: Clarion Books. Ormerod. (1977). New York: Dial Books. First snow.

2. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. 4. 5. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. If the group has trouble deciding. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. well structured stories or informational pieces. and places the parts in an envelope. 1. 3. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. divides them into sections. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. WHY: HOW: 34 . reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. 6. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. The teacher selects short. they try to determine the sequence. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. They agree or disagree which is the first part. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions.

R. (1984). (1988). Creating classrooms for authors (pp. New kid on the block. J. (Eds. J.. MO: University of Missouri. 35 . K. (1978). New York: Scholastic. Kipling. New York: Alfred A. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. D. New York: Weathervane Books. The read-aloud treasury. 340-345).Developed by: Watson. New York: Doubleday. (1985). (1977). (1974). C. Prelutsky. Just so stories. E. J.. Portsmouth. & Calmenson. New York: Barnes & Noble. Oxenbury. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. Knopf. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. Haugaard. Columbia. Short.). (1988).. H. & Burke. Further information: Harste. S. NH: Heinemann.

so she ignored him. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. That baby was Louis. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. fishing. However. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. since the other swans couldn’t read. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. or journal.B. This example is a variation of using schema story. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. 1. On one of these trips. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. 2. he couldn’t get her attention.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. who had a real problem. and the thoughts that he had had. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. For some time. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. but most of all. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. 36 . Sometimes he drew a picture. the things that he had seen. Sam had been writing in a diary. New York: Harper & Row. (1970). Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. and exploring. but without a trumpet sound. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. 3. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. to keep a daily log of his experiences. He loved the beautiful Serena. 4. E. The trumpet of the swan. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. When the eggs in the nest hatched. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day.

Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. His faith and determination eventually brought success. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Overland Park. 37 . so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. S. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. Developed by: Crenshaw. KS: Research & Training Associates. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Inc.5. (1994). Sensing the severity of the problem.

000 pounds. At 320 feet and 8. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. The local police and fire departments. 38 . R. Twelve hours later. Mr. America. (1994). The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. KS: Research & Training Associates. 2.000 pounds. Overland Park.000 pounds.000 pounds. America.m. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. The water tower was the next item on his menu. After eating several prominent landmarks. It was 7 a. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. Amazing to say the least! 3. Inc. 1. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. Developed by: Burns-Stowers.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. which were in the path of the monster. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1.m. 4. he doubled in size.000 pounds.. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. seemed to be a perfect dessert. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. at 7 p. a very large.

Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. logs. and sketches to represent understanding. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. letters. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. 39 . Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. partner reading. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. and focused conversations. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. story maps. and the authoring cycle. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential.

SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. 5. During discussion. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. 2. WHY: HOW: 40 . focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic.” and “semantic networking. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. 4. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. the general steps involved are: 1.” “plot mapping. Here students see how words or ideas are related. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. add new related ideas to the map. 3.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy.

. & Ehlmann. (formerly Advanced Technology. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). J. (1971).Taken from: Godt. Inc.T. Other sources: Hanf. IN: PRC.. (1986). M. Newark. Indianapolis. DE: Reading Aids Series. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Inc. Jensen.A. IRA Service Bulletin. Journal of Reading. (1991). & Pittelman.. M. S.E. 41 . D.) Reference: Heimlich.D. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. P.

IRA Service Bulletin. low-vocabulary reading materials.E. When the semantic map is completed. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. pictures. Newark. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading. 42 . use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic.. Discuss each word. (formerly Advanced Technology. DE: Reading Aids Series.T. (1991).. S.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . & Pittelman. Jensen. filmstrips. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk.D. filmstrips. M. D. Inc. & Ehlmann. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. 2.. and textbook or basal materials. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. These materials could include posters. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color.. J. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. Reference: Heimlich. posters. 3. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. . Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. maps. Indianapolis.g. Inc. . IN: PRC. easy-toread trade books. Have students read the textbook material. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). various high-interest. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. 1. P. 4. Taken from: Godt. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context.). including a context phrase or sentence for each word. (1986).) Have students review the other materials (e.

these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. On lines drawn from the circle. For example. 2. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. important problems and episodes in the story. Louise’s friend. . . McCall Capt. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. write key concepts or themes from the story. how the characters feel or react. Write their ideas on the map. after reading 1. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . and outcomes of the story. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 .

. With the students. Inc. & Ehlmann. Inc. 4. IRA Service Bulletin.D. K. Paterson. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). IN: PRC.). Newark. DE: Reading Aids Series. Jensen. As students find new information through this guided reading. Indianapolis.T. (1991). Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. add it to the map. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. J. & Pittelman. Taken from: Godt. New York: Avon Books. have students role-play or act out the story. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map..E. If appropriate. (1980). M.3. Jacob have I loved. (formerly Advanced Technology. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. P. (1986). S. 44 .. D. Reference: Heimlich.

D. As the instructor. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . & Pittelman. pointing out relationships and differences among words. IRA Service Bulletin. Have students suggest labels for these categories. Have students. J. in small groups or as a whole group. 4. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. S. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. . Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. 45 . (1986). 3. Discuss the group’s semantic map.E. for vocabulary development 1. if possible. DE: Reading Aids Series. Reference: Heimlich. Newark. . Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask.. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept.

3. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. Support details. . DE: Reading Aids Series.D. Before reading the textbook. Next. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. J. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. (1986). Identification of main idea. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. (If sections in the text have not been labeled.E. & Pittelman. 46 . students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. In this final step of the procedure. 1. S. . Secondary categories. Reference: Heimlich. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. 2. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. Newark. IRA Service Bulletin..

47 . NH: Heinemann.. hearing. Bloomington. or viewed. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. & Burke. Siegel. C. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. J. 3. 1. 353-357). individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. After reading. Further information: Harste. After revisiting the text. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. It can be an individual or group experience.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. Short. M.. J.. K. Students sketch while they are listening. Burke. (1984). heard. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. IN: Indiana University. They may listen to a text being read aloud. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. To demonstrate this strategy. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. K. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class.. The drawings may be used to generate writing. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches.. 2. or viewing a text. & Feathers. C. (1988). Portsmouth.

48 . but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. evaluating the outcomes. exploring. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. 1972) in any curricular area. and revising where necessary. (If the article contains a solution. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. choosing strategies to use. acting on ideas. Divide the article up into five sections. trying out solutions. and looking at the effects. Problem solving. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. then defining it more clearly. determining a desired outcome. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. as described in mathematical terms. 23). p. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. selecting possible solutions. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five.

Thinking (p. New York: Freeman. B.S.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking.D. Reference: Cohen.. and creativity. J. (1984). 5). Based on: Bransford. & Stein. 49 . J. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. (1972). Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. learning.

50 . Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. Many problems are based on actions. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. materials. In this way. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. Making an organized list. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. Making a picture or diagram. By taking an active role in finding the solution. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. or manipulatives in problem solving. spot missing data. Making a guess and checking the result. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. First. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Acting out problems.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. There are two major ways of using objects. For some students. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Using or making a table. such as numbers. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. students must experience tangible realities. they guess the answer. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. test to see if it is correct. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. Unfortunately. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. which requires physical models for real understanding. When problem solvers use this strategy. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task.

J. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if .” or “if . Using logical reasoning. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. Sunnyvale. for this reason. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. R. then .Using or looking for a pattern. S. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. A. . Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler.” or “if something is not true. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. Hoogeboom. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. A pattern is a regular. . However. . To solve certain problems. or behavioral. the solver must make a series of computations. systematic repetition. (1988). starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. Mathwise. . The problem solver 1. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. Inc. A. then . (1991). . NH: Heinemann. then . Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. & Hyde. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. & Goodnow. visual. 51 . Portsmouth.. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. Adapted from: Hyde. A pattern may be numerical. . By identifying the pattern. M. (1987). The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. & Clyne.. R. CA: Creative Publications.” or “if something is true. P. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem.. Working backwards. Simplifying the problem. Portsmouth. . . . . . then. else. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. especially when they begin to solve complex problems.

g. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. clarifying. Text can be summarized across sentences. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. across paragraphs. ask for help). and across the passage as a whole. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. When the students are asked to clarify.g.. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. are not making sense. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. question generating. unclear referent words. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. As they become more proficient. new vocabulary. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. and predicting. To do this successfully. and in fact the passage. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. 52 . reread. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. When students generate questions. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess.. Furthermore. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. subheadings. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages.

the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. but it is important that every student participate at some level. through modeling and instruction. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. For the initial days of instruction. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. predicts the upcoming content. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. leads the group in clarifying and.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. 53 . and over time the teacher. the dialogue begins. To illustrate. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. the students receive practice with each of them. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. For some students. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. For example. finally. 2. points out anything that may have been unclear. 3. 1. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. This is a beginning. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show.

Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed.S. 1-17. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. A. New York: The College Board. Godt.Taken from: Farr.L. A. & Ehlmann. Peterson. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind.S. Palincsar. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. thinking. Jensen. R. Reading. Inc. S. Alexandria. Strickler. & Brown.. Harris & E. M. A. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc. 5-10).. IN: PRC. IN: PRC. P. 2(1). (1991).). & Palincsar.T. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. (1986).. Indianapolis. B.. A. Cooper (Eds..” In T.. (formerly Advanced Technology. D. Indianapolis.. Inc.).S. & Cripe. Palincsar. (1985). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). D.J. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). self-control training. (1990).). 54 . Further information: Brown. A. Reciprocal teaching. (1982). Inc.

Some students read aloud to each other. Invitations (p. Students from different classrooms may be partners.. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. Further information: Gilles. or teachers and students may be partners. (1987). They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Routman. P. 2. Partner book selection. Watson (Ed. In D. 35).). Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. R. C. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations.J. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. 1. 55 . Urbana. & Crowley. and insights. Ideas and insights (pp. It encourages shared meaning. Portsmouth. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. NH: Heinemann. questions. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. (1991). Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. 176-177). 2. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information.

3. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. NH: Heinemann. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. 2. C. Instead of writing. 5. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Short. (1988). 56 . The students take turns speaking first each time. or questions.. & Burke. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. (1977). After reading the identified portion of the text.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. Columbia. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. Each person listens and responds with comments. 4. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. K. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. D. 1. MO: University of Missouri. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. J. Creating classrooms for authors.. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. reactions. Further information: Harste. and they decide who will speak first. Portsmouth.

. Burke. IN: Indiana University. D. Whole language: Getting started . This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Katonah. but it is a silent communication. IN: Indiana University. Further information: Crafton. NY: Richard C. 57 . (1991). and content areas. (1977). Ideas and insights. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. C. C. 195-198). and it can be used with all ages. moving forward (pp. Bloomington. King. Watson (Ed. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. L. Written conversation. (1977). Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. . Bloomington.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. Owen. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas.). grade levels. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. Urbana. In D. (1987). One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner.

● When they write. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. acquire input.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. 1. which helps them in the composing process. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. and then discuss how the advice can be used. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. they use a variety of options. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. HOW: 58 . Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership.

3.K. a compendium. too general. 59 . ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. After the reader/writer’s presentation. or discusses the process of reading or writing. & Dishner. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. or too tentative.2. 2. comments may be off-base. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage.E. E. (1985). Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. and in the beginning.J. R. ● Model appropriate interactions. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. second edition. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. reads a section of the report or story. Reading strategies and practices.. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. found confusing. Readence. Inc. these conferences cannot take place. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. Writing experiences contribute to reading. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. and might use) and fields questions and comments. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. J. Adapted from: Tierney.. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed.

Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. Paper. Ask. ask students. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. or perplexing questions. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. a stapler. The writer and reader are the same person. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. sharing insights. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. 3. ideas for exploration. opinions. feelings. 4. and questions of future consideration. Try a variety of types to see what works best. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. 6. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. 2. interesting ideas to explore. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. WHY: HOW: 60 . variations of written conversation. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. When everyone has finished. 1. and collecting data to document learning. are intended for sharing. spiral notebooks.

to provide new invitations for extending understanding. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. the individuals write to each other. 61 . They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. and questions to share with others. story. topic. or common theme. book. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. Entries may include summaries. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. insights. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Many students dialogue with their teacher. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. When groups of students are working together on a project. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. and questions to extend learning. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. However. or any other conventions of language. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. similar to written conversation. question. punctuation. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. responses. in a traveling journal. feelings. or theme cycles. insights. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations.

The journal book. Katonah. . Harste. Owen.. (1988). C. NH: Boynton/Cook. NH: Heinemann.). moving forward (pp. Fulwiler. (Ed. Whole language: Getting started . J.Further information: Crafton. Short. 62 . 280-285). (1987).. (1991). NY: Richard C. & Burke. T. K. 163-168). L. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. . Portsmouth. Portsmouth.

) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon.” 63 .

Inc. Who was your favorite character? Describe. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. 2.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. and thinking processes. Regardless of the label. how? 5. KS: Research & Training Associates. or reading response log. Overland Park. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. Did any of the characters change? If so. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. (1994). What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. 64 . Where did the story take place? 3. writing. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. What was a problem in the story? 4. such as reading journal. S. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. literature log. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations.

WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. the school board president. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. 2. (1994). Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. S. persuasive letters. business letters of application. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. the school superintendent.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. KS: Research & Training Associates. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. Inc. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. Pen pal letters. personal letters to family and friends. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. or other countries. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. other states. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. lead a discussion about the experience. The sense of audience determines the format and language. Overland Park. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. 65 . 1. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. 4. or to state and national legislators. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. After about ten minutes. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency.

(3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. drafting. 2. 4. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. Think about experiences. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. c. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Write name and date on paper. revising. Read and write materials of one’s choice. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. d. The students list two or three possibilities.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. As a writing process. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. 6. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. a. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. 3. Write first drafts. a. editing. Students follow these steps: 1. a. b. The students hold peer conferences. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. The teacher holds conference. b. The teacher leads discussion about choices. 5. Choose topic. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. Write “draft #1” on paper. sharing. the authoring cycle includes thinking. and publishing. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. 66 WHY: HOW: . The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. Prepare writer’s folder. Conference.

Edit to check the form or structure. (1987). Atwell.. & Mullis.. Moffett. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. a. class books. Share the writing with other classes. & Burke. Graves. I. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. 11. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Portsmouth. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. Langer. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. (1983). Watson. (1989). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. (Ed. Have an author’s party. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). b. D. Invite the principal. A. Grammar. Calkins. NH: Boynton/Cook. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Ideas and insights. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. S. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. 10. C. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. librarian. Active voice. individual books. Portsmouth. Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. N. Short. 13. Overland Park. Princeton. D. and 17. Murray. Developed by: Crenshaw. Portsmouth. The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth. 9. KS: Research & Training Associates. and parents. 8. (1988). NH: Heinemann. 12. NH: Heinemann. (1990). (1987). punctuation. (1992). J. NH: Heinemann. (1986). Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning.). L. Writing in the real classroom. Urbana. 67 . L. J. Writing: Teachers and children at work. Further information: Applebee. (1991). ED 282 928). Portsmouth.. D. (1994). Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Parson. Portsmouth. or like materials. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. Harste.7. c.. J. K. Portsmouth.

Check four basic rules. To encourage students to explore language structure. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. 1992. They teach and support each other. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Use other resources. When a word ends in a silent final e. 3. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Create personal dictionaries. When a word ends in a consonant and y. As students learn the words. Sixty years ago. pp. Try it first. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. They are: 1. and spelling is a part of the editing process. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. 89-90). change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). HOW: 68 . Work with a partner.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. Editing is an important part of written communication. 2. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Develop own list. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them.

. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. You kan red this! Portsmouth. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. the i comes before e except after c. Portland. Henderson. Inc. (Eds. Winnipeg. (1980). U. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. OR: Portland State University. Read. J. & Beers. Check classroom display chart. Overland Park. (1981). E. (1992). Further information: Buchanan. When a word has the vowels i and e together. S. (1989). C. (1990). NH: Heinemann. Wilde. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. KS: Research & Training Associates. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations.). Developed by: Crenshaw. (1994). DE: International Reading Association. E. S. 69 . Frith. Cognitive processes in spelling. Wilde. (Ed. Urbana.). (1992). Spelling for whole language classrooms. Newark. S. Share mnemonic strategies.4. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. London: Academic Press.



Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.


Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.


Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.



A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.


those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. & Wood. that is. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton. A. S. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Arno. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean..Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. Keats. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. 1985. Pienkowski. (1992).. 1984. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. 1964. J. Share ideas in the discussion group... 73 . Literature sets..J. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. E. circles. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. Give no cues or prompts.. and cycles. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. Silverstein. 1985. but as students gain experience. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. Wood. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House.R. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. district teachers. E. Missouri. Often. 1973. D. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. S. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. This may be the best response of all.

Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 5. S. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom.. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. 4. Creating classrooms for authors. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. In the process. After everyone reads the text silently. K. J. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. 74 . Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. When performing. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. 2. Urbana.. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. 3. C. (1982). talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. & Burke. NH: Heinemann. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. Short. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Sloyer. Portsmouth. (1988). As rehearsal continues.

a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. (Ed. contrast. (Photos and text about Lincoln. author.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. illustrations. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. Hannalee. (1964). For example. (1982).) Freedman. 3. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War.). Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. Decide how to share information with the larger group. 4. Hannalee. Talk about differences and likenesses. New York: McGraw-Hill. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. (For reference and browsing. and make connections in a reading discussion group. R. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. In content areas. Lincoln: A photobiography. Following are different ways to choose text sets. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton.) Fehrenbacher. 5. New York: Morrow. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. (Lincoln’s own writings. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. New York: Clarion Books. New York: New American Library. P. (1987). This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. 2. the Ku Klux Klan. List how books were alike or different. D. or genre.) Neely. Be ever hopeful. 1991). The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. M.) 75 . (1988). Explore the various books in the text set collection. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. 1.

a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. National Geographic articles. and informational books could be used. New York: Harper & Row. Steel. J. Julie of the wolves. T. Englewood Cliffs. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. Scarsdale. poetry. (1975). New York: Viking Press. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. 1990). Strega Nona: An old tale. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. (1987). Holman. Snow bound. Steig. Tattercoats: An old English tale. New York: Bradbury Press. Of course. (1973). My side of the mountain. New York: Bradbury Press. Mazer. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. (Reteller). New York: Delacorte Press. W. social issues. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. other genres such as biography. (Reteller). 2. New York: Dutton. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. Lang. New York: Scribner. F. J. New York: Windmill Books. (Reteller). (1972). (1969). historical fiction. George. 3. H. G. high fantasy. For example. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. A. Scarsdale. (1959). facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. (1981). NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hatchet. (1974). F. nonfiction trade books. Slake’s limbo. (1976). Paulsen. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. realism.To this list. Sylvester and the magic pebble. 76 . Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts.

New York: Scholastic. NY: Beekman Publishers. Time. Boston: Little. The very hungry caterpillar. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. B. Gerstein. A Place to Belong. (1985). (1985). & Maestro. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart.. Calendar art: Thirteen days. Fisher. Cracker Jackson. Anno’s sundial. The oak tree. New York: Four Winds Press. Peterson. D. M.. Nixon. P. Danziger. New York: Harper & Row. Chengliang. New York: Viking Kestral. Florian.. New York: Macmillan. D. (1988). (1988). Sendak. L. (1986).. B. (1980). Brooks. Coats. Dillon. Hayashi. Caught in the Act. N. 4. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. Burns. & Co. Jack and the Beanstalk versions.. & Popov. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. Neasi. (1978). New York: Crown Publishers. The Great Gilly Hopkins. M. rhyme. G. Woodstock. months. (1987).. The sun’s day. Brown. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. L. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. (1987). years from around the world. In The Face of Danger). (1987). (1978). L. weeks. New York: Philomel. B. New York: Philomel. — 77 .Family problems Byers. but for different age groups. D.. R. (1989). New York: Bantam Books. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. J... A minute is a minute. Carle. G. A summer day. K. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). (1986).. (Dates variable). (1988). A. Scarsdale. M. Text Set for Older Children Anno. and refrain). (1977). M. Calvi. Chicago: Children’s Press. Briggs. M. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. E. Dillon. Anno. R. (1987). Z. This book is about time. E. Kirst. Through the year with Harriet. Werner. Gould. 5. New York: Greenwillow Books. All in a day.. New York: Philomel. New York: Crowell.

Moss. K. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor.G. NH: Heinemann. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Urbana. DC: American Council on Education. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. C. (Ed. Virginia Hamilton). Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. (1992). (1981). Inc. Matthews. S. NH: Heinemann. L. (Ed. Owen. Tway.A. Washington. Urbana.L. Jensen. C. Katonah. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Webb. (1993). Students can read award winners from previous years. Whole language: Getting started . Urbana. Boston. H. Creating classrooms for authors. Hinton.E. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers.. N.E. Moving forward. phase II.C. Taxel.).). . Inc. Wirth. J. & Dudley-Marling. E. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. (1993). (1988). Rhodes. 78 . (1988). C. L. C. (1994). Portsmouth.M.. & Roser.). Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. & Burke. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. Urbana. Short. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. (Ed. Portsmouth. J. (1988). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Reading ladders for human relations. Publishers. Further information: Crafton. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Columbia.). Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. Owen. (1992). . NY: Richard C. (1990). Katonah. J. (1991).— Texts by the same author (Jean George.). or the male characters of S. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual.). Publishers. (1992). S. MO: University of Missouri. — — — Reference: Gilles. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Hinton). (Ed. Norwood. Moir. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. J.. New York: Richard C. (Ed. Literature study. D. Harste. High interest easy reading. Roald Dahl. (Eds. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Columbia. 79 . R. & Rasinski. (1992). (1991). Further information: Vacca.. Case studies in whole language.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. T. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. K.

Using semantic webbing. 2. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Criteria for topic. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Developing research procedures. and strategies using many learning processes. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. Writing a proposal for a research project. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Implementing the project proposal. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. WHY: HOW: 80 . 5. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. 6. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Identifying available resources. skills. 7. determine which subtopics are manageable. After the proposal has been approved. Determining purposes of the research project. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). 1. Selecting a topic. 3.

Adapted from: Flores. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. 81 . or newspapers. time lines. field guides for scientific subjects. Culminating activities. newsletters. dramatic scripts. topic-oriented alphabet books. computer programs. displays. how-to books. murals. models. articles for class magazines. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. puzzles. CA: CSU — School of Education. games. mobiles.8. skinny books. B. posters. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. videotapes and audiotapes. (1988). San Bernardino.

San Bernardino. B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. (1988). Older children fill it out for themselves.) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education. 82 .

subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. and rationales.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. San Bernardino. (1988). questions. CA: CSU — School of Education. Adapted from: Flores. B. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. and the methodology of a research project. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. 83 . It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. the purpose. issue.

B. CA: CSU — School of Education. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. San Bernardino. (1988).Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. 84 .

Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. 296). drop the ones that don’t fit. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. 2. Review the questions. Santa Rosa. flowcharts. graphs. L. Supporting real research. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings.). Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. and clarify the ones that do. Bird. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. tables. L. 3. food museum kits 6. Goodman.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. interviews. What conclusions does it support? 4. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. time lines role-playing. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. In K. Once you have chosen your research topic. songs and dances. (1991). Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. The whole language catalog (p. 85 . CA: American School Publishers. Goodman (Eds. socio-drama folk art. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. & Y. list everything you know about your topic.

K.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. Columbia. 86 . MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. (1990).

PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. 2. ask them to try a PQP on their own. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. 33(7). critically evaluate their learning. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. 87 . Record some of these on the chart. or focus studies. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. 3. texts. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. Working with at-risk learners. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. Write students’ comments on the chart. Journal of Reading. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. The praise column is for positive comments. (1990). It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. After recording their ideas. topics. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. 551. After a particular presentation or lesson. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most.

L. the end of a day. When the lesson or study is completed. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. When all exit slips are collected. K. or the end of a focused study. 4. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. I will try. or specific questions. Whole language: Getting started . Owen Publishers. Additional ideas include one question they have. Portsmouth. the end of a week. or ideas were presented. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. one thing they will do to extend their learning. (1991).EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. Katonah. Short. Others include I learned. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed.. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. and identify areas for further exploration. & Burke. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. identified needs. (1988). C. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. . Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. . 88 .. NY: Richard C. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. or a theme unit. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. and I need or I have a question. 1. concepts. Inc. Harste. Moving forward. J. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. They may be used at the end of a class session. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. NH: Heinemann. a presentation. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. 2. 3. Creating classrooms for authors.

89 .

KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. 9209 West 110th Street.. 90 . Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. Inc. Overland Park.February.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.