region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

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Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

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Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.


● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.


the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.


Learning Strategies iv .

or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. iv . It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Questioning. purpose. Cloze. 5. W. reflecting on associations. 2. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). K-W-L. assessing knowledge. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. Exploring Text 1. determining what they WANT to learn. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. and encouraging deeper understanding.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. It includes accessing prior knowledge. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. 6. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. 4. All contributions are accepted and recorded. A. Brainstorming. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Think-Along. investigating ideas. and reformulating knowledge. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. 3. The letters K. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. 7. Prediction. and confirming. directed reading. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW.

After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. semantic webs. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. a radio dramatization. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. divides them into sections. The teacher selects short. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. or sometimes with minimal print. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. B. Sketch to Stretch. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. 10. Semantic Mapping. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. schema diagrams.8. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. v . Big Books. Schema Stories. clusters. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Wordless Books. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. 9. and places the parts in an envelope. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. a puppet show. thinking about. 2. Expanding Meaning 1. or structured overviews. or a video production. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. well structured stories or informational pieces. concept maps.

Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. and perplexing questions. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. or questions. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. writing. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. but they talk about their perceptions. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. or to say something related to the text. Say Something. clarifying. ideas for exploration. sometimes they each read silently. 6. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. 5. or between two students. feelings. Partner Reading. reactions. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. Responding to Reading as Writers. Problem Solving. or problem solving. Reciprocal Teaching. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. vi . They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. using invented spelling. Journals and Logs. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. and predicting. 8. or doing both. and insights. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. 9. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. Personal Journals. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. questions. Someone is designated to speak first. a. 7. question generating. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Each person listens and responds with comments. b. Written Conversation. Dialogue Journals. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. 4.3.

including content area or research material. and friendly letters. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. question. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. Different students serve as discussion leaders. Spelling Strategies. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. 11. book. or theme cycles. After discussion. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. the individuals write to one another. revising. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. d. e. and revise their work. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. Traveling Journals. letters of application. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Authoring Cycle. 10. notes. letters to the editor. editing. reading. insights. Letters. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. and presenting their written work. This strategy is similar to written conversation. 14. They share. Readers’ Theatre. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea.c. invitations. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. 12. vii . topic. consumer awareness letters. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. Literature Study. Entries may include summaries. Reading Logs. get suggestions from other students. There are pen pal letters. Learning Logs. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. Students are engaged in thinking. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. or common theme. writing. When groups of students are working together on a project. story. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. After choosing a topic. and questions to extend learning. sharing. written language. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication.

Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. However. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. The praise column is for positive comments. the end of a day. They may be used at the end of a class session. or the end of a focused study. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. viii . Text Sets. 16. texts. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. and make connections in a reading discussion group. contrast. Student Research. 17. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. or a theme unit. the end of a week. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. 18. Exit Slips. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. a presentation. or focus studies. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives.15. topics.

brainstorming. and confirming in a variety of situations. and analyzing and appreciating text.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. 1 . All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. Students explore text through predicting.

Entertain (amuse) 3. A. Readence.). R. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Reading. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. (1985). & Brown. Harris & E. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. In T. E. 4. Prove.J. a.).. Repeat the steps. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c.K.E.L. 6. stopping at logical places. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. Resample text. Tierney. confirm. Cogen (Eds. 1. 7. 5. A. Sample text. J. & Dishner.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. (1990). thinking.L. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. Inform (give facts) b. 8. or reject.. 2 .S.J. 2. Confirm or adjust prediction. Determine author’s purpose. New York: The College Board.. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar.

and validate or reject the predictions. Confirm or reject the predictions.” Predict. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. Let’s share our ideas. 3 . The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. STEPS Activate background knowledge. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. Use with the next section of the selection. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. “Why do you think so?” Read silently.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. make predictions.

(1988).. 444-451. J. 31.E. & Dishner. and chapter DR-TAs.G. & Bear. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process.R..T.). New York: Harper & Row. (1990). 526-535. D. (1988). Readence. E. 4 . R. The Reading Teacher. Journal of Reading. Tierney. Stauffer..K. Haggard. M. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.J. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. R.R. (1969).Further information: Gill. J. No book. 41. whole book.

Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. 5 .Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. some false) from the selection to be read. Students read selection. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject.

A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. Inc. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. Be prepared to defend your decision.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. (1994). AFTER reading the selection. Developed by: Seltzer. 3. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. KS: Research & Training Associates. D. There are seven colors in each rainbow. 4. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. Personal Group Author 1. 6 . read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. 2. Overland Park.

and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. Inc. blue. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. indigo. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. 125-126). pp.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. Rainbow. (1984). which are difficult to observe.J. orange. green. W. 16. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. The amount of space each color takes up varies. and red. If the rain has been heavy. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. yellow. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. 7 . In The World Book Encyclopedia. (Vol. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. Chicago: World Book. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly.” Reprinted from: Saucier.

3. NC: Author. J. The leader asks how terms are similar or different.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. questions. (1986). MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. 1. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. words. Further information: Adams. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. 4. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. Research Triangle Park. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. All responses are accepted.L. 8 . Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Reading. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. or statements. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. phrases. Inc. 5. Conceptual block busting. Also. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. (1990).

assessing language use in expressing ideas. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . reflecting on associations. . the teacher says. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. In a brief introduction. “What made you think of . (the word. It includes accessing prior knowledge. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. the students are asked.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. or changed as a result of the discussion. 2. etc. . Through this procedure. . Reformulation of knowledge. There are three phases to the PReP. see this picture. the teachers asks.). . PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. the teacher writes these responses on the board. and to become aware of their changing ideas. 1. have you any new ideas about . Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. . 3. “Based on our discussion. and reformulating knowledge. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. deleted. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. Initial associations with the concept. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. During the second phase. During this phase. Reflections on initial associations. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. phrase. . Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. In this first phase. etc. the picture. to listen to one another’s responses. (you hear this word.

Journal of Reading Behavior. References: Langer. (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc.. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich.) Taken from: Farr.). DE: International Reading Association. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. or root words). Newark. They may also link the concept with another concept. S. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. & Nicolich. Indianapolis. Peterson. or defining characteristics. M. & Smith-Burke.. M. words that sound like the stimulus word.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. J. Langer & Nicolich. J.A. Langer. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. responses generally take the form of examples. IN: PRC. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. (1990). 1981. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1.. definitions. (1981). If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts.T. 10 . evidencing high integration of ideas. (1982). suffixes. D. . R. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. or analogies. If the student has little prior information about the concept. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. Strickler. Inc.A. . & Cripe. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. 153-156). 1982. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. B. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . attributes... 1981). 13(4). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).

b. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. Second. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. Third. determining what they WANT to learn. First. In this way. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. When disagreements and questions emerge. W. 1. 1986). The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. Group instruction. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. c. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. The letters K. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. and what they have learned from reading the text. what questions they want answered. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. In classroom testing. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. a. 11 .

(1977). 12 . Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Roehler.W. Further information: Anderson. P.E. Duffy. Reading. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading..M. As they read.T. Assessment of learning. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. IN: PRC. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. 564-570.L.C. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. (1984).J. & W. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. After the group introduction to the topic. (1991). D. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. If some have not been answered satisfactorily.). R.). L. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. Anderson. & Smith. D.. (formerly Advanced Technology. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. & Ehlmann. Individual reflection. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept.. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Jensen.2. R. At this time. 4. The Reading Teacher. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. Reference: Ogle. Inc. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. & J. 3. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. In G. Indianapolis. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. Mason (Eds. M. New York: Longman. In R. Hillsdale. Taken from: Godt. E. Spiro. C. (1986). Anderson. Montague (Eds.C. Inc. 39(6).).

The Reading Teacher. (1986).WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 564-570. 39(6). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. 13 . D.M.

description 2.C. M.. T. The Reading Teacher. has a long tongue 3. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. jumps 3. 14 . how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. 45(4). food 3. spits poison 2. eats bugs 2. gray 1. small animals 1. (1991). 303.W.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. & Gee. eats spiders Categories 1. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies.

assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. the teacher lists them on the board. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. As the teacher reads aloud. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 .CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). no good. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words.” 3. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. the book Alexander and the Terrible. word length clues. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. horrible. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. 2. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. Very Bad Day (Viorst. Horrible. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. No Good. During the completion of the oral cloze. provides many alternatives for discussion. For example. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. 1. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. very [bad] day. including random deletion (every __nth word). relates to children’s experiences.

Further information: Blachowicz. The Reading Teacher. 4. newspapers.W. L. Schoenfeld. & Readence. (1989). J. horrible.Z. Working in teams of two or three. 34(2). NH: Heinemann Educational Books. The Reading Teacher. J. (1980). (1982).their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. or lyrics to popular songs. Cloze activities for primary readers. Helping children learn to read (pp. Cloze instruction research. Exeter. no good.G. Englewood Cliffs. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. E. (1972). Reference: Viorst. J. (1980). the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. 218-220). 147-151.A.. C. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. 16 . 300-302. (1977. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. Rye. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. Searfoss. Jongsma. very bad day. Alexander and the terrible.L. Newark. December). magazines.E. F. NJ: Prentice Hall. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. DE: International Reading Association. New York: Macmillan. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading.

were sheep. pick and were so many interesting explore. ducks. geese.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. 17 . feed and care for. cats. There were horses to chickens. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. There were sheep. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. After supper. ducks. . pigs. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. pick and eggs to . were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . There was cream to eating. After supper. After supper. and dogs into butter and other eating. . There were There were horses to pigs. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. cats. ducks. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. there the coal oil lamp. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. chickens. feed and care for. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. pigs. chickens. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. and dogs to feed and care for. cats.

ducks.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. and dogs to feed and care for. p gs. There chickens. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. There was cream to c eating. After supper. pigs. pigs. There After supper. geese. c ts. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. t ll st r 18 . There horses to ride and cows to milk. so many interesting things to do. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. There were horses to r . There gather. th r l l mp. cats. There were t and cows to milk. ducks. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. cats. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. d cks. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . chickens. c l m lk. T feed and care for. . ch ck ns.

investigating ideas. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. 1. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . and using text and in solving problems. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. and encouraging deeper understanding. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. interpreting. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. assessing knowledge. during. creative thinking. and their writing. then questioning is an important part of exploring text.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. their reading. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. the following questions may help students before. and after reading.

. ? What else could you do .2. Boston. . 20 . L. . Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . (1995). MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. Urbana. Further information: Munkins. . . ? How did you decide . ? What if . Inc. refer to the section on literature response logs. . . P. 3. . . If the focus is on literary text. ? How do you know that . & Kelly. Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed..P.). .D. a path to critical thinking. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. . (1983). The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. ? Why did you . Questioning. F. . ? Reference: Christenbury.

the exchange of questions stops. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. and/or small groups. In addition. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. 5. teams. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. the teacher models good questioning strategies. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. 4. and small groups. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. but it can also be used with pairs. teams. After they have both read the passage. 6. and the student answers as fully as possible. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. When the student has finished answering. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. 21 . 3. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. 2. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure.

. Inc. D. Indianapolis..Taken from: Godt.). (1991).. (formerly Advanced Technology. 22 . Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. 13. Manzo. Inc.T. Inc. IN: PRC. S.. Peterson. IN: PRC. A. (1969). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Strickler. & Ehlmann. Journal of Reading. & Cripe.). (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc.. R. P. Reference: Farr. B. 123-126.V. Jensen. D. M. (1990). Indianapolis.

Inc. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure.. R. 36. (1982). (formerly Advanced Technology. T. QARS revisited. & Cripe. B. (1985). Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). 2. T. DE: International Reading Association. (1990). Inc. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). 2.. 23 .Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. S. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1.). Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). IN: PRC. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. Strickler. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. Raphael. Newark. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). The Reading Teacher.. Raphael. Stephenson. Question-answering strategies for children. Indianapolis. D.E.E.

Read. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. P. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. S. D. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. the teacher demonstrates the process. After a text has been chosen and distributed. Estimate. Bixby. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. (1988). 1. read. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. MO: University of Missouri. Crowley. When students formulate questions. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. Reynolds. 5. 2. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. (1979) Columbia. Owen Publishers. orally.. they share oral retellings with their partners. C. Students read the text silently. 24 . If students are working individually. or with a partner in paired reading. M. 3. Students generate questions about the reading. D. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. they have to think about what they know in a different context. Read. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. F. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. Crenshaw. & Gilles. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Respond. students react. Gilles. Pyle (Eds. Further information: Watson.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. 44-45). Henrichs. Question. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. ERRQ. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. and question. Respond. After reading. & D.). What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. New York: Richard C. respond. M. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. In C. Developed by: Watson.

B. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Further information: Davey. 1. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Make a list on the chalkboard.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. 44-47. Farr. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. (1983). Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. 25 . Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. (1989). After the demonstration. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. WHY: HOW: 2. R. Journal of Reading. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. 94. Prediction of what might occur next. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. 26(2). Educational Leadership. 47(3).

What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. 26 . I wonder if I will ever get married. Overland Park. KS: Research & Training Associates. The king who rained.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne.P. (1970). an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. New York. Inc. Dutton. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. (1994). NY: Windmill Books and E. F. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. D.

KS: Research & Training Associates. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. R. Inc.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. 27 . How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. to include the entire school. Overland Park. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. (1994). What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. There is only one classroom per grade. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served.

2. and other conventions of print. adjectives. 1. 3. verbs. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. The teacher reads the text aloud. cumulative structure. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. WHY: HOW: 28 . Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. word order. At the end of this reading. natural language flow and familiar subject matter.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. Big print and big pictures get attention. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Using texts that include rhyme. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. repetition. punctuation symbols. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. stopping at natural points for student interaction. 4. nouns. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group.

Western Publishing.O. MD 21157 Rigby. Roslyn Heights. Chicago. Box 7501. San Diego. CA 92127 29 . IL 60656 Learning Well. 400 Hahn Street. 2 Computer Drive West.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Department DF.O. 200 South Service Road. Westminster. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. Albany. P. Crystal Lake. Box 797. NY 11577 Random House. 10949 Technology Place. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Jefferson City. Department 436. MO 65102 Wright Group. 2931 East McCarthy Street. P. IL 60014 Scholastic.

or for parents’ programs. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. to other classes. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. or characters. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. 30 . creating dialogue for the characters. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. 2. Some choose to write dialogue. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. 1. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. setting. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations.

CA: Green Tiger Press. (1993). Anno’s alphabet. . San Diego. New York: Harcourt. M. . Jacko. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1985). Briggs. (1980). San Diego.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Dial Books. A. Anno’s journey. Adventures of Paddy Pork. T. (1980). . Anno’s USA. The knight and the dragon. DePaola. Anno. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Goodall. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1986). New York: Harper & Row. (1979). J. Anno’s animals. New York: Random House. (1982). (1983). The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1970). Four Winds. Felix. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. R. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. (1975). (1989). The snowman. New York: Crowell. Good dog. (1968). Pancakes for breakfast. Day. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Bang. . Baker. New York: Philomel. . . Creepy castle. D. New York: Sandcastle. . Carl. Carl goes to daycare. New York: Philomel. . (1993). (1981). M. San Diego. (1991). 31 . New York: Harcourt. (1972). J. M. (1974). (1978). Florian. M. The city. (1980). Window. New York: Philomel. Bobo’s dream. New York: Puffin. Carl’s afternoon in the park. . Carl goes shopping. . (1991).

(1982). F. 32 . . (1967). New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. Changes. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1990). . changes. and a friend. New York: Macmillan. (1976). Mariotti. (1984). The great ape. Puss in boots. Paddy to the rescue. April fools. (1989). (1982). Paddy goes traveling. New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. . (1977). The story of a farm. New York: Dial Books. (1978). (1971). (1984).. (1982). Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. New York: Dutton. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1977). Hutchins. (1988). The story of a castle. . . New York: Dutton. New York: Greenwillow. . . (1974). New York: Macmillan. Humages. New York: Dutton. San Diego. Krahn. McElderry Books. McElderry Books. . . a dog. . Ah-choo. a frog. a dog. . The mystery of the giant’s footprints. and a frog. M. . (1986). (1986). New York: Viking Press. (1979). New York: Margaret K. Look again. New York: Dial Books. M. (1971). T. San Diego. Little red riding hood. . New York: McElderry Books. Naughty Nancy goes to school. . (1981). . New York: Dial Books. New York: Margaret K. (1985). Hoban. Story of an English village. P. New York: Macmillan. . Take another look. . Mayer. New York: Atheneum. (1981). Paddy under water. San Diego. Humands. A boy. Hanimals. (1975). . New York: Macmillan. (1983). Lavinia’s cottage. CA: Green Tiger Press. A boy.

New York: Clarion Books. P. (1976). New York: Dial Books. New York: Puffin. P. Frog. (1984). Picnic. Sunshine. Tafuri. New York: Dial Books. New York: Crown Publishers. Rain. where are you? New York: Dial Books. . Breakfast time. New York: Greenwillow. (1987). (1978). Do not disturb. .. (1982). Tuesday. . E. . New York: Dial Books. . (1980). Wiesner. Junglewalk. New York: Dial Books. . The bear and the fly. (1985). D. Turkle. Moonlight. New York: Greenwillow. (1978). Hiccup. New York: Doubleday. Frog on his own. J. McCully. New York: Harper. (1981). Dreams. Oops. New York: Greenwillow. New York: Dutton. (1986). New York: Doubleday. First snow. (1982). Spier. (1988). (1991). B. Frog goes to dinner. (1977). New York: Harper. New York: Puffin. . 33 . (1985). N. Winter. . Ormerod. (1976). (1980). Vincent. Deep in the forest. G. Ernest and Celestine.

2. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. well structured stories or informational pieces. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. and places the parts in an envelope.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. divides them into sections. The teacher selects short. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. They agree or disagree which is the first part. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. If the group has trouble deciding. they try to determine the sequence. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. 1. 5. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. 4. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. WHY: HOW: 34 . The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. 6. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. 3.

New York: Barnes & Noble. Haugaard. K. (1988). (1974). Portsmouth. H.. 340-345). C. (1977). (Eds. & Burke. New York: Alfred A. Just so stories.. Further information: Harste. New York: Doubleday. Oxenbury. MO: University of Missouri. J. D. New kid on the block. New York: Weathervane Books. Prelutsky.Developed by: Watson. Kipling. The read-aloud treasury. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. Short. 35 . New York: Scholastic.. (1978).). A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1985). Columbia. (1988). J. & Calmenson. E. R. Knopf. J. (1984). S. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. NH: Heinemann.

Louis still couldn’t make himself understood.B. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. E. to keep a daily log of his experiences. fishing. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. so she ignored him. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. and the thoughts that he had had. or journal. but without a trumpet sound. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. (1970). However. 1. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. That baby was Louis. Sam had been writing in a diary. 3. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. When the eggs in the nest hatched. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. since the other swans couldn’t read. the things that he had seen. 2. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. On one of these trips. 4. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. The trumpet of the swan. and exploring. New York: Harper & Row. who had a real problem. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. This example is a variation of using schema story.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. For some time. He loved the beautiful Serena. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. but most of all. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. 36 . Sometimes he drew a picture. he couldn’t get her attention.

S. (1994). Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. Developed by: Crenshaw. Sensing the severity of the problem.5. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Overland Park. Inc. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. His faith and determination eventually brought success. 37 . KS: Research & Training Associates.

Overland Park.000 pounds. a very large. America. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size.000 pounds. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. KS: Research & Training Associates. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. Twelve hours later.. 2. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. Mr. at 7 p. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. Amazing to say the least! 3. 4.m. Inc. It was 7 a.000 pounds. R. 38 . The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. At 320 feet and 8. After eating several prominent landmarks. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. which were in the path of the monster.000 pounds. he doubled in size.m. seemed to be a perfect dessert. (1994). 1.000 pounds. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. The local police and fire departments. America. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. The water tower was the next item on his menu.

story maps. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. and the authoring cycle. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. partner reading. and sketches to represent understanding. logs. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. and focused conversations. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. 39 . Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. letters. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process.

Draw a box or circle around the word or term. 3. WHY: HOW: 40 . Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. During discussion. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy.” and “semantic networking.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. the general steps involved are: 1.” “plot mapping. 5. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. 2. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Here students see how words or ideas are related. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. 4. add new related ideas to the map. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map.

S. Other sources: Hanf. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. (1991). Jensen. D. Indianapolis. M. Newark. Inc.D. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. IN: PRC. Inc.) Reference: Heimlich.T. DE: Reading Aids Series. 41 . P. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). (1986).E... Journal of Reading. (formerly Advanced Technology. & Ehlmann. IRA Service Bulletin. & Pittelman.. M.Taken from: Godt.A. (1971). J.

Jensen.T. Reference: Heimlich. posters. S. Taken from: Godt. 2. DE: Reading Aids Series. & Ehlmann. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. These materials could include posters. (formerly Advanced Technology. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. and textbook or basal materials. D. (1991). . use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. (1986). IN: PRC.. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). filmstrips. P.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . various high-interest.. 4. & Pittelman. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied.g. Inc. low-vocabulary reading materials. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. Have students read the textbook material. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. Inc. . including a context phrase or sentence for each word.D. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk.). filmstrips. M. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word.E. Indianapolis. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. IRA Service Bulletin.. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. 3. Discuss each word. When the semantic map is completed. 42 ..) Have students review the other materials (e. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. pictures. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. Newark. maps. easy-toread trade books. 1. J.

Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . write key concepts or themes from the story. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. 2. . Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. McCall Capt. . how the characters feel or react. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). Louise’s friend. and outcomes of the story. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . On lines drawn from the circle. Write their ideas on the map. after reading 1. For example. important problems and episodes in the story. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it.

J. K.). 4. M. Paterson. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map..E. Inc. If appropriate. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Ehlmann. Indianapolis. New York: Avon Books.T. Jensen. DE: Reading Aids Series. Inc. (1986). S. Jacob have I loved. (formerly Advanced Technology.3. IRA Service Bulletin. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. P. IN: PRC. As students find new information through this guided reading. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. 44 . Taken from: Godt. D.D.. Reference: Heimlich. & Pittelman. (1980). recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. have students role-play or act out the story. Newark. With the students.. add it to the map. (1991).

Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. IRA Service Bulletin. for vocabulary development 1.D. 4. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Pittelman. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. Have students. Reference: Heimlich. pointing out relationships and differences among words.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. As the instructor. Newark. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. 45 .. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. Discuss the group’s semantic map. DE: Reading Aids Series. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. S. (1986). 3. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. J. Have students suggest labels for these categories. if possible. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. .E. in small groups or as a whole group. .

Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. 2. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. Identification of main idea. . The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. IRA Service Bulletin. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. . 46 . & Pittelman. In this final step of the procedure. DE: Reading Aids Series. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. Newark. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. 3. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. Next. (1986).Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Secondary categories. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses.E. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. S.. J. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. Support details. Reference: Heimlich.D. 1. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. Before reading the textbook.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory.

Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. IN: Indiana University. J. Students sketch while they are listening. C. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. & Burke. They may listen to a text being read aloud. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. The drawings may be used to generate writing. hearing. K.. 47 .SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. & Feathers. Portsmouth. Siegel. It can be an individual or group experience. 1.. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. After revisiting the text. or viewing a text.. (1984).. After reading. K. or viewed. Short. (1988). Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. M. heard. J. 353-357). individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. NH: Heinemann. To demonstrate this strategy. Further information: Harste. 2. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. C. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. 3.. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. Burke. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Bloomington. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group.

you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. acting on ideas. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. 1972) in any curricular area. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. 23). and revising where necessary.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. 48 . exploring. choosing strategies to use.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. then defining it more clearly. Divide the article up into five sections. (If the article contains a solution. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. evaluating the outcomes. as described in mathematical terms. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. p. trying out solutions. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. selecting possible solutions. determining a desired outcome. and looking at the effects. Problem solving. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem.

The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. B.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. 5). What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. New York: Freeman. 49 .S. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. (1984). learning. Thinking (p. & Stein. Reference: Cohen.. and creativity. Based on: Bransford. J. J.D. (1972).

textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Acting out problems. Using or making a table. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. 50 . Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Many problems are based on actions. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Making a guess and checking the result. First. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. For some students. In this way. spot missing data. There are two major ways of using objects. test to see if it is correct. Making a picture or diagram. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. or manipulatives in problem solving. By taking an active role in finding the solution. When problem solvers use this strategy. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. which requires physical models for real understanding. Making an organized list. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. Unfortunately. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. students must experience tangible realities. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. they guess the answer. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. materials. such as numbers. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data.

” or “if something is not true. . . but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. Hoogeboom. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. A pattern may be numerical. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. . Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. visual. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. The problem solver 1. Inc.. . . R. . M. A. . Adapted from: Hyde. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. . (1991).” or “if . Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. then. Portsmouth.. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. CA: Creative Publications. Working backwards. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. R.. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. & Hyde. A. (1988). The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . then . & Clyne. By identifying the pattern. Using logical reasoning. for this reason. Simplifying the problem. then . NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. or behavioral. systematic repetition.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. 51 . then . To solve certain problems. NH: Heinemann. S. (1987). J. . P.Using or looking for a pattern. especially when they begin to solve complex problems. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. Mathwise. . However. A pattern is a regular. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. & Goodnow. the solver must make a series of computations.” or “if something is true. . Sunnyvale. else. Portsmouth.

they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. 52 . and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts).g. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. and predicting. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. question generating. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. and across the passage as a whole. As they become more proficient. across paragraphs. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. Text can be summarized across sentences. When students generate questions. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. are not making sense. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next.. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. and in fact the passage. subheadings. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. new vocabulary. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. When the students are asked to clarify. unclear referent words. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. ask for help). their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. reread. To do this successfully.. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure.g.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. Furthermore. clarifying.

but it is important that every student participate at some level. For example. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. through modeling and instruction. points out anything that may have been unclear. 3.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. 1. the dialogue begins. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. predicts the upcoming content. and over time the teacher. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. 53 . why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. finally. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. 2. This is a beginning. For some students. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. the students receive practice with each of them. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. leads the group in clarifying and. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. For the initial days of instruction. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. To illustrate. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning.

Palincsar. R. Reciprocal teaching. (1990). thinking. & Ehlmann.. P.L. D. (1991). D. Further information: Brown. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1982). A. 2(1). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc.. & Palincsar.S. Harris & E.. Inc.. Indianapolis. M.” In T.S. Strickler. Palincsar.. Reading. 1-17.Taken from: Farr. New York: The College Board.). In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. self-control training.). Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. 54 . A. & Cripe. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.T. Inc. Cooper (Eds. A. IN: PRC.J. Indianapolis. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. & Brown. A. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. S. 5-10).). Jensen. (1985). (formerly Advanced Technology. (1986).. Godt. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Peterson. B. Inc. A.S.. IN: PRC. Alexandria.

The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. and insights. 35). Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations.). Watson (Ed. It encourages shared meaning.J.. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. R. questions. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. (1987). Ideas and insights (pp. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. 176-177). & Crowley. (1991). A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. 2. P. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 55 . or teachers and students may be partners. Further information: Gilles. 1. 2. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Invitations (p. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. In D. Partner book selection. Urbana. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. C. NH: Heinemann. Students from different classrooms may be partners. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Portsmouth. Routman. Some students read aloud to each other.

The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. or questions. MO: University of Missouri. Creating classrooms for authors.. Further information: Harste. reactions. 4. 2. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. 3. K. (1988). Instead of writing. (1977). It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. 5. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. J. C. Short. D. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. After reading the identified portion of the text. Portsmouth. & Burke. NH: Heinemann. and they decide who will speak first. Columbia. 1. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings.. Each person listens and responds with comments. 56 .SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. The students take turns speaking first each time.

Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. but it is a silent communication. (1977). In D. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. 195-198). WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. C. L. . NY: Richard C. (1987). Urbana. Bloomington. and content areas. grade levels. IN: Indiana University. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. and it can be used with all ages. C. Ideas and insights. 57 . D. Written conversation. . (1991). IL: National Council of Teachers of English.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Further information: Crafton. moving forward (pp.). (1977). Katonah. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. IN: Indiana University. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. King. Owen. Burke. Whole language: Getting started . Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. Watson (Ed. Bloomington.

RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. 1. they use a variety of options. HOW: 58 . ● When they write. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. which helps them in the composing process. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. acquire input. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. and then discuss how the advice can be used. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised.

● Model appropriate interactions. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. and might use) and fields questions and comments. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading.K. Adapted from: Tierney. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing.. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. Inc.E. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed.. second edition. 3. too general. Readence. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. or discusses the process of reading or writing. J.2. reads a section of the report or story. and in the beginning. (1985).J. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. or too tentative. E. R. 2. Writing experiences contribute to reading. Reading strategies and practices. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. a compendium. & Dishner. found confusing. these conferences cannot take place. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. comments may be off-base. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. After the reader/writer’s presentation. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. 59 . End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece.

Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. spiral notebooks. and collecting data to document learning. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. variations of written conversation. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. interesting ideas to explore. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. sharing insights. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. 3. 2. 6. and questions of future consideration.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. or perplexing questions. The writer and reader are the same person. ask students. Ask. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. When everyone has finished. Try a variety of types to see what works best. WHY: HOW: 60 . ideas for exploration. 4. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. feelings. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. a stapler. are intended for sharing. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. Paper. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. opinions. 1. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared.

or any other conventions of language. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. When groups of students are working together on a project. punctuation. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. book. feelings. insights. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. Entries may include summaries. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. similar to written conversation. or common theme. Many students dialogue with their teacher. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. topic. and questions to extend learning. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. the individuals write to each other. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. However. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. 61 . and questions to share with others. insights. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. in a traveling journal. responses. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. story. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. question. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. or theme cycles.

NH: Heinemann. Short. Fulwiler. K. Portsmouth.). 280-285). C. & Burke. Whole language: Getting started . (1988). Katonah.Further information: Crafton. (1991). 62 . Portsmouth. L. . Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Harste. 163-168). . T.. (1987). moving forward (pp. J.. The journal book. NH: Boynton/Cook. NY: Richard C. (Ed. Owen.

● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it.” 63 .Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance.

Overland Park. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. 2.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. Inc. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. What was a problem in the story? 4. how? 5. Regardless of the label. and thinking processes. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. (1994). writing. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. literature log. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Did any of the characters change? If so. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. or reading response log. Who was your favorite character? Describe. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. it is a record of responses to reading literature. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. S. 64 . such as reading journal. Where did the story take place? 3. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. KS: Research & Training Associates. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8.

business letters of application. S. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. personal letters to family and friends. Overland Park. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. The sense of audience determines the format and language. 2.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. 65 . What was easy? What was difficult? 3. (1994). Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. lead a discussion about the experience. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. or to state and national legislators. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. other states. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. 1. Pen pal letters. After about ten minutes. KS: Research & Training Associates. or other countries. Inc. 4. persuasive letters. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. the school board president. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. the school superintendent. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter.

Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. Students follow these steps: 1. The students hold peer conferences. Think about experiences.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. b. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. 3. a. Conference. revising. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. 2. As a writing process. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. The teacher leads discussion about choices. sharing. editing. Write name and date on paper. d. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. The teacher holds conference. Prepare writer’s folder. and publishing. The students list two or three possibilities. b. Write “draft #1” on paper. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. Choose topic. 6. 4. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. 5. Read and write materials of one’s choice. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. drafting. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. a. Write first drafts. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. a. c. 66 WHY: HOW: . the authoring cycle includes thinking. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics.

Calkins. Active voice. & Burke. (1989). Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. Portsmouth. Portsmouth. S.. a. Invite the principal. (1992). Portsmouth. D. class books. Have an author’s party. & Mullis. NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Atwell.. D. Murray. c. (1994). 13. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. (1988). 9.7. J. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. 10. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. NH: Heinemann. Graves. K. Watson. Princeton. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. I. Writing: Teachers and children at work. 67 . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 282 928). C. or like materials. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Edit to check the form or structure. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. Harste. Overland Park. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). (1990). L. Parson. and 17. and parents. L. (1987). J. Portsmouth. punctuation. (Ed. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. D. NH: Boynton/Cook.. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. individual books. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Share the writing with other classes. Grammar. N. b. Writing in the real classroom. J. 8. Portsmouth. Moffett. (1987). KS: Research & Training Associates. Urbana. Ideas and insights. (1986). A. Portsmouth. Short. 11. The art of teaching writing. Langer. (1991). NH: Heinemann. 12. librarian. Further information: Applebee.. Inc.). Developed by: Crenshaw. (1983).

Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Editing is an important part of written communication. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. 1992. Develop own list. Use other resources. As students learn the words. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. pp. They teach and support each other. HOW: 68 .SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. 3. and spelling is a part of the editing process. Sixty years ago. They are: 1. Work with a partner. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. Create personal dictionaries. When a word ends in a silent final e. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. To encourage students to explore language structure. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). 89-90). When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Try it first. 2. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. Check four basic rules. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. When a word ends in a consonant and y.

Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations.. (1981). Spelling for whole language classrooms. Developed by: Crenshaw. Portland. KS: Research & Training Associates. (1992). IL: National Council of Teachers of English.4. Urbana. S. Winnipeg. E. Overland Park. 69 . Wilde. E.). Newark. When a word has the vowels i and e together. S. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. (Ed. Frith. & Beers. DE: International Reading Association. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed.). U. Share mnemonic strategies. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Check classroom display chart. Inc. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. the i comes before e except after c. Wilde. (1980). J. OR: Portland State University. London: Academic Press. Henderson. C. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. S. Read. NH: Heinemann. (1994). (1990). (1992). (1989). You kan red this! Portsmouth. (Eds. Cognitive processes in spelling. Further information: Buchanan.



Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.


Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.


Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.



A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.


R. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. Arno. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. 1964. Pienkowski.. 1985. Missouri. & Wood. 1984. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words.J. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. J. Give no cues or prompts. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. that is. 73 .Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. Silverstein. S. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. Share ideas in the discussion group. 1985. district teachers. 1973. A. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. D. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. S. Wood. Often. E.. Literature sets. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. This may be the best response of all. but as students gain experience. E. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk.. and cycles.. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. Keats.. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. circles.. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. (1992).

After everyone reads the text silently. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. 4. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. 3. Sloyer. 5. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. NH: Heinemann. Creating classrooms for authors. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Urbana. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. J.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. 2. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Short. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. Portsmouth. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. C. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts.. As rehearsal continues. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. 74 . & Burke. (1982). talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. S. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. K. When performing. (1988).. In the process. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience.

For example. D. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. Hannalee. 1. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. New York: Clarion Books. P. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. (Lincoln’s own writings. the Ku Klux Klan. 2. In content areas. List how books were alike or different. 1991). Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. Be ever hopeful. Lincoln: A photobiography. Decide how to share information with the larger group. author. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. Following are different ways to choose text sets. illustrations. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. 4. (1988). Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. New York: Morrow. and make connections in a reading discussion group. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. 5. New York: McGraw-Hill.) 75 . Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen.). 3. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. (1964). (Photos and text about Lincoln. (1987). (1982). M. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators.) Freedman. contrast. R. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. Talk about differences and likenesses.) Neely. (Ed. Hannalee.) Fehrenbacher.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. or genre. (For reference and browsing. Explore the various books in the text set collection. New York: New American Library. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings.

social issues.To this list. historical fiction. Steel. 76 . Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. (1973). realism. G. (1969). Strega Nona: An old tale. George. New York: Windmill Books. F. Lang. Tattercoats: An old English tale. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. (1959). 3. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. (1981). or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. Sylvester and the magic pebble. Slake’s limbo. New York: Scribner. New York: Bradbury Press. (Reteller). New York: Bradbury Press. New York: Viking Press. Of course. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. poetry. nonfiction trade books. F. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. other genres such as biography. Snow bound. J. Hatchet. T. and informational books could be used. (1976). J. A. New York: Harper & Row. Paulsen. NJ: Prentice-Hall. National Geographic articles. Scarsdale. (1975). My side of the mountain. (1987). For example. Mazer. 1990). New York: Delacorte Press. H. 2. Holman. Scarsdale. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. Julie of the wolves. high fantasy. W. Englewood Cliffs. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. (1972). (Reteller). New York: Dutton. (1974). Steig. (Reteller).

Danziger. & Popov.. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. E. (1987). Dillon... Cracker Jackson. A summer day. New York: Scholastic. Gould.. Burns. The sun’s day. (1986). New York: Viking Kestral. Anno’s sundial. (1988). (1980). but for different age groups. months. 5. NY: Beekman Publishers. G. Coats. (1989). Woodstock. (1977). P. Hayashi. Briggs.. Calendar art: Thirteen days. (1985). — 77 . The Great Gilly Hopkins. (1978). New York: Greenwillow Books. E. Gerstein. (1987). M. Brown. and refrain).. New York: Philomel. A minute is a minute. Peterson. Dillon. Chicago: Children’s Press. M. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell.. R. B. Through the year with Harriet. A. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. D. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. In The Face of Danger). Nixon. New York: Bantam Books. (1985). Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. (1986). Text Set for Younger Children Carle. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. A Place to Belong. Werner.. This book is about time. L.. R. New York: Crown Publishers. Fisher. (1988). Kirst. L. Caught in the Act. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. All in a day. New York: Philomel.. (Dates variable). D. The very hungry caterpillar. Anno. Scarsdale. New York: Macmillan. G. Calvi. 4. B. (1988). Boston: Little. M. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). Z. J. (1978). Neasi. New York: Four Winds Press. The oak tree. Brooks. Time. (1987). L. years from around the world. New York: Harper & Row. (1987). & Co. Sendak. weeks. New York: Philomel. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. Florian.Family problems Byers. & Maestro. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. M. K. M. B. N. Text Set for Older Children Anno. rhyme.. D. New York: Crowell. Carle. Chengliang.

NH: Heinemann. Katonah. C. (Ed. J. Webb.. (Ed. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. D.L. (Ed. Urbana. Urbana. Matthews. J. (Ed. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. NY: Richard C. Columbia. NH: Heinemann. L. Further information: Crafton. Moss. (1990). & Burke. Creating classrooms for authors. Hinton. Tway. S. 78 .— Texts by the same author (Jean George. J. Short. . Publishers. DC: American Council on Education.. . (1993). New York: Richard C. (1993). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1992).M. J. & Roser. Whole language: Getting started . Urbana. Owen. phase II. Taxel. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning.E. Boston. MO: University of Missouri.). Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. Inc. High interest easy reading. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Inc.). Jensen.A. Harste. Roald Dahl. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. Wirth. L. (1981). Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. C.E.). (Eds. (1994).. (1988). Portsmouth.). (1991). (1988). H. S. (1992). Norwood. N. (1988). K.).). Literature study. Katonah. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Publishers. (Ed. Washington. & Dudley-Marling. Moving forward. E. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. Students can read award winners from previous years. Moir. or the male characters of S. Hinton). IL: National Council of Teachers of English.C.G. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. Reading ladders for human relations. Urbana. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. — — — Reference: Gilles. C. Owen. Portsmouth. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. C. Virginia Hamilton). (1992). MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. Rhodes.

T. (1991).. 79 . (1992). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. K. Case studies in whole language. R. Further information: Vacca. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Columbia.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. & Rasinski.

WHY: HOW: 80 . Criteria for topic. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. skills. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. 6. Selecting a topic. 5. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. determine which subtopics are manageable.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. 2. Writing a proposal for a research project. and strategies using many learning processes. Implementing the project proposal. 1. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. 3. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. Developing research procedures. Determining purposes of the research project. After the proposal has been approved. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). What do they want to find out and why? 4. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. 7. Identifying available resources. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. Using semantic webbing. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge.

Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. mobiles. CA: CSU — School of Education. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. Adapted from: Flores. models. or newspapers. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. games. (1988). 81 . puzzles. San Bernardino. murals. videotapes and audiotapes. posters. displays. computer programs. time lines. field guides for scientific subjects. Culminating activities. topic-oriented alphabet books. how-to books. B. articles for class magazines. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities.8. skinny books. newsletters. dramatic scripts.

(1988). CA: CSU — School of Education. B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. San Bernardino. Older children fill it out for themselves.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. 82 .) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores.

CA: CSU — School of Education. 83 . subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. the purpose. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. questions. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. (1988). and the methodology of a research project. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. issue. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. San Bernardino. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. and rationales.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. Adapted from: Flores.

CA: CSU — School of Education. (1988). B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. 84 . San Bernardino.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores.

The whole language catalog (p. list everything you know about your topic. songs and dances. & Y. What conclusions does it support? 4. Supporting real research. Once you have chosen your research topic. 296). L. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. Goodman. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Bird. 3. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. socio-drama folk art. drop the ones that don’t fit. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. CA: American School Publishers.). questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. Santa Rosa. interviews. (1991). flowcharts. In K. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. L. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. and clarify the ones that do. food museum kits 6. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. 2. tables. graphs.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Goodman (Eds. Review the questions. 85 . time lines role-playing. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings.

MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. (1990). K. Columbia. 86 . COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report.

It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. texts. Write students’ comments on the chart. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. Record some of these on the chart. or focus studies. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. (1990). Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. topics. 33(7). Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. 3. Journal of Reading. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. After a particular presentation or lesson. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. The praise column is for positive comments. After recording their ideas. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. 87 . Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. Working with at-risk learners. ask them to try a PQP on their own. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. 2. 551. critically evaluate their learning.

It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. or a theme unit. and I need or I have a question. (1988).. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. C. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. & Burke. or the end of a focused study. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. J. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. 3. identified needs. NH: Heinemann. 88 . 4. 1. and identify areas for further exploration. Portsmouth. Additional ideas include one question they have. Owen Publishers. Katonah. Moving forward. L. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. I will try. . Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. K.. Harste. They may be used at the end of a class session. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. When all exit slips are collected. (1991). or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. one thing they will do to extend their learning. or specific questions. Inc. . Others include I learned. concepts. 2. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. Creating classrooms for authors. the end of a week. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. When the lesson or study is completed. Whole language: Getting started . or ideas were presented. a presentation. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. the end of a day. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. NY: Richard C. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. Short.

89 .

KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher.. Overland Park. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. 90 .February. 9209 West 110th Street. Inc.

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