This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Learning Strategies Resource Guide
Disseminated by Region XIV Comprehensive Center Educational Testing Service 1979 Lakeside Parkway, Suite 400 Tucker, Georgia 30084-5865 1-800-241-3865
Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida
***** Tampa, Florida 1-800-756-9003 / 813-289-8675 ***** Hato Rey, Puerto Rico 787-758-2326
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46
Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.
WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.
Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.
● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.
HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.
Learning Strategies iv .
K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. 4. It includes accessing prior knowledge. and reformulating knowledge. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Exploring Text 1. Questioning. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. and confirming. Questions are tools for engaging attention. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. 3. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. Prediction. Think-Along. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. reflecting on associations. directed reading. investigating ideas. W. 7. Brainstorming. 2. purpose. and encouraging deeper understanding. assessing knowledge. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. All contributions are accepted and recorded. A. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. K-W-L. 5. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. determining what they WANT to learn. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Cloze. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. The letters K. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. iv . 6. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). and identifying what they LEARN as they read.
thinking about. or sometimes with minimal print. 2. well structured stories or informational pieces. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. concept maps. B. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. a puppet show. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Wordless Books. divides them into sections. Sketch to Stretch. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. The teacher selects short. or structured overviews. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. Semantic Mapping. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. schema diagrams. 10. Big Books. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. Expanding Meaning 1. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. or a video production. Schema Stories. 9.8. and places the parts in an envelope. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. clusters. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. a radio dramatization. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. semantic webs. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. v .
This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. or to say something related to the text. using invented spelling. or questions. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Journals and Logs. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. or between two students. 5. clarifying. a. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. reactions. Reciprocal Teaching. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. 4. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. writing.3. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. and predicting. vi . Partner Reading. Problem Solving. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. sometimes they each read silently. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. or problem solving. b. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Written Conversation. ideas for exploration. question generating. Dialogue Journals. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. 9. Someone is designated to speak first. or doing both. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. but they talk about their perceptions. and insights. Responding to Reading as Writers. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. and perplexing questions. 7. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. 8. Personal Journals. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. Each person listens and responds with comments. 6. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. questions. Say Something. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. feelings. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts.
invitations. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. When groups of students are working together on a project. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. Literature Study. Students are engaged in thinking. written language. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. notes. Different students serve as discussion leaders. question. consumer awareness letters. e. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. Authoring Cycle. sharing. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. After choosing a topic. Traveling Journals. Learning Logs. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. letters of application. story. This strategy is similar to written conversation. get suggestions from other students. including content area or research material. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. editing. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. or common theme. Spelling Strategies. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. revising. and friendly letters. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. book. topic. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. They share. writing. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. vii . the individuals write to one another. and questions to extend learning. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. After discussion. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. or theme cycles. reading. insights. 12. Letters. 14. and presenting their written work. 10. and revise their work.c. letters to the editor. There are pen pal letters. Reading Logs. Entries may include summaries. d. Readers’ Theatre. 11.
15. the end of a day. Text Sets. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. or a theme unit. viii . 16. or the end of a focused study. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. 18. The praise column is for positive comments. texts. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. However. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. contrast. a presentation. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. They may be used at the end of a class session. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. the end of a week. Student Research. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. and make connections in a reading discussion group. topics. Exit Slips. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. 17. or focus studies.
Students explore text through predicting.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. and analyzing and appreciating text. 1 . brainstorming. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. and confirming in a variety of situations.
K. R. Resample text. 2. 6. a. 1. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar.E.). Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. or reject. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas.. New York: The College Board. Sample text. (1990). Repeat the steps. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. E. confirm.L. Entertain (amuse) 3. Confirm or adjust prediction. Boston: Allyn Bacon. (1985). 7. J. Determine author’s purpose.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Readence. A. In T. stopping at logical places. & Brown.J.L. & Dishner. Harris & E. Cogen (Eds. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind.S. Reading. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Tierney.. 2 . A. 5.. Inform (give facts) b.). thinking. Prove.J. 4. 8.
” Predict. and validate or reject the predictions. Let’s share our ideas. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. STEPS Activate background knowledge. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. 3 . “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. Confirm or reject the predictions. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. make predictions.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. Use with the next section of the selection.
R. The Reading Teacher. Journal of Reading.J. Tierney.. 4 . D.K. 444-451. 526-535. Readence.). 31. and chapter DR-TAs..R.E. M.G. No book. J.R. (1969).. & Bear.Further information: Gill. (1988). Stauffer. Boston: Allyn Bacon. New York: Harper & Row.T. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. J. 41. Haggard. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. whole book. & Dishner. R. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. (1990). E. (1988).
Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. some false) from the selection to be read. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. 5 . Students read selection. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true.
A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. D. Personal Group Author 1. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. AFTER reading the selection. 2. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. There are seven colors in each rainbow. 6 . A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. Overland Park. 4. (1994). Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. Be prepared to defend your decision. KS: Research & Training Associates.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. 3. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. Developed by: Seltzer. Inc.
It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. pp. Inc.J. green. indigo. yellow. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. 125-126). the light of the moon forms a rainbow. If the rain has been heavy. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. The amount of space each color takes up varies. orange. (Vol. 16. 7 . Rainbow. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. W. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. (1984). This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. which are difficult to observe. Chicago: World Book. and red. In The World Book Encyclopedia. blue.” Reprinted from: Saucier.
Inc. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. Research Triangle Park. Conceptual block busting. 1. J. or statements. 4. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. (1990). Also. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. questions. (1986). Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. 5. 8 . Further information: Adams. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. words.L. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. phrases. NC: Author. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. All responses are accepted. 3. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. Reading. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts.
to listen to one another’s responses. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. . Initial associations with the concept. assessing language use in expressing ideas. During this phase. 3. Through this procedure. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. etc. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. It includes accessing prior knowledge. students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. the teacher says. 2. Reflections on initial associations. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. . Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . or changed as a result of the discussion. the students are asked. 1. etc. (you hear this word. the picture. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. reflecting on associations. Reformulation of knowledge. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. . elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. During the second phase.). deleted. . After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. the teachers asks. . GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. There are three phases to the PReP. . and to become aware of their changing ideas.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. phrase. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . and reformulating knowledge. “Based on our discussion. “What made you think of . In this first phase. (the word. In a brief introduction. see this picture. the teacher writes these responses on the board. have you any new ideas about .” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded.
. Langer & Nicolich. They may also link the concept with another concept. 13(4). & Nicolich. .).. suffixes. IN: PRC.. References: Langer. D. 153-156). Langer. (1990). & Smith-Burke. or analogies. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). (formerly Advanced Technology. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. words that sound like the stimulus word. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. Newark. attributes. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences.A. (1982). R. B. (1981). Indianapolis.T. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. M. 10 . S. DE: International Reading Association. J. . If the student has little prior information about the concept. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp.. 1981). Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. Inc. or root words). evidencing high integration of ideas. Peterson.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. M. Strickler. or defining characteristics.. Journal of Reading Behavior. J. 1981.A. & Cripe. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. Inc.) Taken from: Farr. definitions. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. responses generally take the form of examples. 1982.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text.
K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. b. W. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. c. Group instruction. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. a. Third. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. what questions they want answered. 11 . The letters K. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. 1. and what they have learned from reading the text. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. determining what they WANT to learn. In this way. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. Second. First. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. In classroom testing. 1986). When disagreements and questions emerge. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector.
3. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). R. Roehler. 564-570. Anderson. Reading. New York: Longman..2. Taken from: Godt.J.. R. Jensen. & Smith. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. & J.C. C. D.C. Indianapolis. P. Duffy. 12 . Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks.E. Assessment of learning. (1984). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. Reference: Ogle. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. As they read. Spiro. Mason (Eds. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept.). Anderson. Hillsdale. D. (formerly Advanced Technology. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. E. 4. & W. Further information: Anderson. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information.T. & Ehlmann. After the group introduction to the topic. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. (1986). Individual reflection.L. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. (1977). IN: PRC. 39(6).W.. Inc.M. M. In G. Inc. L. At this time. (1991).).). Montague (Eds. In R. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. The Reading Teacher.
The Reading Teacher.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 564-570. 39(6). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. (1986).M. D. 13 .
Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies.C. M. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. (1991). gray 1. jumps 3. T. & Gee.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. spits poison 2. description 2. eats spiders Categories 1. The Reading Teacher. 45(4). has a long tongue 3. eats bugs 2. 14 .W. 303.. small animals 1. food 3. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson.
1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. word length clues. the book Alexander and the Terrible. very [bad] day. horrible. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. no good. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. including random deletion (every __nth word). The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. For example. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. As the teacher reads aloud. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. provides many alternatives for discussion. the teacher lists them on the board. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). 2. relates to children’s experiences. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). Very Bad Day (Viorst. 1. During the completion of the oral cloze. Horrible. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. No Good. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words).” 3. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days.
horrible. L.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. (1980). Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. C.Z. December). (1977. 34(2).G. Cloze instruction research. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. newspapers. (1982). DE: International Reading Association. very bad day. F. or lyrics to popular songs. 4. & Readence. Cloze activities for primary readers. (1980). Newark. Rye. Alexander and the terrible. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. 300-302. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. 16 . no good. Schoenfeld. J.. 218-220). Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading.A. New York: Macmillan. (1989). Reference: Viorst.W. J. Students share their predictions and justify their choices.E. J. magazines. Jongsma. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. Helping children learn to read (pp. Working in teams of two or three. The Reading Teacher. Further information: Blachowicz. (1972). Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall. Exeter. E. Searfoss. The Reading Teacher. 147-151.L.
There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. and dogs into butter and other eating. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. pick and eggs to . There were There were horses to pigs. There were sheep. feed and care for. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. feed and care for. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. cats. . ducks. cats. chickens. . and dogs to feed and care for. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. pigs. pick and were so many interesting explore. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. were sheep. After supper. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . chickens. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. There were horses to chickens. geese. ducks.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. pigs. After supper. there the coal oil lamp. There was cream to eating. 17 . there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. cats. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. After supper. ducks.
t ll st r 18 . g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. There were t and cows to milk. c ts. th r l l mp. geese. ch ck ns. ducks. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. . Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. There were horses to r . chickens. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. and dogs to feed and care for. pigs. d cks. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. There chickens. cats. cats. After supper. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . c l m lk. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. There was cream to c eating. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. T feed and care for. There gather. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. pigs. There After supper. ducks. so many interesting things to do. p gs. There horses to ride and cows to milk.
1. creative thinking. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. and their writing. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. and encouraging deeper understanding. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. and after reading. investigating ideas. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . their reading. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. assessing knowledge. the following questions may help students before.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. interpreting. during. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. and using text and in solving problems. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes.
2. ? How do you know that . Questioning. Further information: Munkins. Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. ? Reference: Christenbury. . . (1995). Inc. (1983). L. & Kelly. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. ? What else could you do . a path to critical thinking. Boston. Urbana. . . . . . . P.). . . refer to the section on literature response logs. ? What if . . F. . If the focus is on literary text.. ? Why did you . The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). 3.D.P. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . 20 . ? How did you decide . IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
and/or small groups. 3. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. teams. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. In addition. 4. 21 . By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. 6. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. 5. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. 2. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. the teacher models good questioning strategies. but it can also be used with pairs. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. and the student answers as fully as possible. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. the exchange of questions stops. teams. and small groups.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. After they have both read the passage. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. When the student has finished answering.
Inc.. & Cripe. Inc. & Ehlmann. B. Inc. ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Strickler. (1991).. (1990). IN: PRC. D. (formerly Advanced Technology.). Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). 123-126. M. D. P. Peterson. 13. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). S. Journal of Reading. 22 . Indianapolis. IN: PRC..Taken from: Godt. Indianapolis. Manzo. Jensen. Reference: Farr. R. Inc.V. (formerly Advanced Technology.. (1969). A..T.).
(1985).E. D.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. S. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. Inc. 2. Raphael.. Inc. T. B. Stephenson. IN: PRC. (1990). Raphael. DE: International Reading Association. QARS revisited. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure.E. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE).. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. 36. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). T. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH).. & Cripe. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1982). Newark. Indianapolis.). The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. The Reading Teacher. R. 2. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). 23 . Strickler. Question-answering strategies for children.
Read. they share oral retellings with their partners. they have to think about what they know in a different context. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. Crenshaw. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. New York: Richard C. Crowley. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. 2. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. S. & D. Respond.). (1979) Columbia. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. C. Developed by: Watson. orally. Students read the text silently. Pyle (Eds. If students are working individually. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. After reading. Students generate questions about the reading. Gilles. the teacher demonstrates the process. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. Read. M. P. 44-45). 5. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. Estimate. MO: University of Missouri. read. D. students react.. Henrichs. F. & Gilles. In C. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. D. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. respond. or with a partner in paired reading. M. Reynolds. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. After a text has been chosen and distributed. Respond. (1988). What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. Question. ERRQ. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. and question. Owen Publishers. When students formulate questions. 1. 3. Bixby. Further information: Watson. 24 .
R. 44-47. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Farr. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. B. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. 26(2). Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. Educational Leadership. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. Journal of Reading. 25 . Prediction of what might occur next. After the demonstration. (1989). 1. (1983). Make a list on the chalkboard. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Further information: Davey. 47(3).THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. 94. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. WHY: HOW: 2. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning.
What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. D. Inc.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. Overland Park.P. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. 26 . (1970). I wonder if I will ever get married. KS: Research & Training Associates. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. Dutton. (1994). F. The king who rained. New York. NY: Windmill Books and E.
What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. R. to include the entire school. Overland Park. There is only one classroom per grade. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. (1994). How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. KS: Research & Training Associates. 27 . I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. Inc. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served.
he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. nouns. 2. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. 3.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. adjectives. repetition. stopping at natural points for student interaction. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. Using texts that include rhyme. At the end of this reading. and other conventions of print. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. word order. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. cumulative structure. 4. The teacher reads the text aloud. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. 1. punctuation symbols. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. WHY: HOW: 28 . The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. verbs. Big print and big pictures get attention.
MD 21157 Rigby. Jefferson City. Department 436. Department DF. Crystal Lake. MO 65102 Wright Group. Box 797. Western Publishing. San Diego. 400 Hahn Street. Box 7501. NY 11577 Random House. 2 Computer Drive West. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Westminster. Chicago. 10949 Technology Place. IL 60014 Scholastic. P. Roslyn Heights.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. 200 South Service Road. P. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. IL 60656 Learning Well.O.O. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Albany. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. CA 92127 29 .
to other classes. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. 1.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. 30 . Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. Some choose to write dialogue. or characters. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. setting. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. 2. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. creating dialogue for the characters. or for parents’ programs.
Anno’s journey. . . New York: Puffin. (1982). . . Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1986). San Diego. Carl goes to daycare. Anno. Briggs. Bobo’s dream. Carl goes shopping. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. (1968). (1975). New York: Dial Books. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1980). Felix. (1993). DePaola. M. New York: Philomel. (1991). (1980). M. Good dog. A. New York: Philomel. (1980). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. R. . . (1985). Window. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Harcourt. Goodall. Florian. (1993). The city. The knight and the dragon. (1989). Anno’s alphabet. (1983). The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. T. New York: Crowell. (1981). Carl. . (1970). (1979). Baker. Day. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Jacko. The snowman. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. . M. (1974). J. M. Creepy castle. Anno’s animals. San Diego. New York: Philomel. . (1991). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. New York: Random House. . Four Winds. New York: Harcourt. Carl’s afternoon in the park. (1972). D. J. Anno’s USA.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. Bang. New York: Harper & Row. New York: Sandcastle. (1978). Pancakes for breakfast. 31 . San Diego.
Paddy goes traveling. The great ape. Hanimals. New York: Macmillan. (1974). P. and a frog. . Mayer. New York: Macmillan. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. Humands. . . a dog. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. New York: Dutton. M. (1990). CA: Green Tiger Press. Mariotti. CA: Green Tiger Press. F. San Diego. (1984). (1982). (1977). A boy. Take another look. (1979). M. Humages. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. New York: Dutton. (1977). . McElderry Books. San Diego. (1981). A boy. New York: Macmillan. (1988). CA: Green Tiger Press. McElderry Books. . New York: Margaret K. (1985). New York: Macmillan. 32 . New York: Dutton. . Ah-choo. a dog. (1982). (1981). (1989). New York: Margaret K. . Naughty Nancy goes to school. Look again. Puss in boots. (1971). New York: McElderry Books. Hutchins. . New York: Macmillan. . Little red riding hood. Story of an English village. . (1984). (1976). (1986). . Paddy to the rescue. . . . New York: Dial Books. . Changes. (1978). New York: Macmillan. (1983). . . April fools. New York: Greenwillow. (1971). New York: Viking Press. New York: Atheneum.. (1975). Paddy under water. (1967). T. . changes. New York: Macmillan. The story of a castle. a frog. San Diego. New York: Dial Books. Hoban. and a friend. (1986). New York: Dial Books. (1982). Lavinia’s cottage. New York: Macmillan. Krahn. The story of a farm.
where are you? New York: Dial Books. (1980). (1978). New York: Doubleday. Frog on his own. First snow. New York: Harper. . (1977). Wiesner. Ormerod. (1988). Winter. New York: Dial Books. New York: Crown Publishers. G. The bear and the fly. New York: Dial Books. (1985). Frog goes to dinner. New York: Harper. P. New York: Dutton. New York: Clarion Books. Breakfast time. Deep in the forest. McCully. . Turkle. Moonlight. . . New York: Greenwillow. New York: Greenwillow. D. Ernest and Celestine. N. . Vincent. Oops. New York: Dial Books. Rain. (1980). New York: Doubleday. (1976). Dreams. Hiccup. Do not disturb. (1991). New York: Puffin. Sunshine. (1981). New York: Dial Books. Picnic. . E. J. 33 . (1982). Frog. (1987). (1984). (1985). (1976).. New York: Puffin. (1982). Spier. New York: Greenwillow. (1978). Tafuri. . Tuesday. P. (1986). Junglewalk. B. .
4. they try to determine the sequence. WHY: HOW: 34 . Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. divides them into sections. 1. and places the parts in an envelope. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. 5. The teacher selects short. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. 2. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. well structured stories or informational pieces. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. They agree or disagree which is the first part. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. 6. If the group has trouble deciding. 3. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence.
H. & Burke. (1974). (1988). Columbia. K. MO: University of Missouri.. New York: Scholastic. J. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. New York: Doubleday. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1984). S. E. 340-345). Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. (1988). Prelutsky. (Eds. Short. New York: Alfred A. New York: Barnes & Noble. & Calmenson. (1977). J. R. NH: Heinemann. Knopf. D. (1985). Portsmouth... Kipling. Just so stories. (1978).). C. Oxenbury. Further information: Harste. New York: Weathervane Books. The read-aloud treasury. Haugaard. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. J. 35 .Developed by: Watson. New kid on the block.
who had a real problem. 36 . but without a trumpet sound. (1970). Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. On one of these trips. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. or journal.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. the things that he had seen. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. 1. The trumpet of the swan. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. Sam had been writing in a diary. and exploring. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. to keep a daily log of his experiences. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. That baby was Louis. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. 4. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. When the eggs in the nest hatched. since the other swans couldn’t read. Sometimes he drew a picture. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. 3. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. he couldn’t get her attention. This example is a variation of using schema story. E. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. so she ignored him. and the thoughts that he had had. He loved the beautiful Serena. fishing. For some time. 2. New York: Harper & Row. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular.B. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. However. but most of all.
His faith and determination eventually brought success. (1994). Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Overland Park. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. KS: Research & Training Associates. Developed by: Crenshaw. Inc. 37 . He also wanted to win Serena’s love.5. S. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. Sensing the severity of the problem.
Monster devastated the town of Anytown.000 pounds. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4.000 pounds. he doubled in size.. seemed to be a perfect dessert. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. 1. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight.m. Amazing to say the least! 3.000 pounds. R. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. Inc. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. It was 7 a. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. at 7 p. which were in the path of the monster.000 pounds. After eating several prominent landmarks. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. 2. Twelve hours later. KS: Research & Training Associates.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. a very large. Overland Park. America. (1994). The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. The water tower was the next item on his menu. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4.000 pounds. 38 . America. Mr. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. At 320 feet and 8.m. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. The local police and fire departments. 4.
Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. and focused conversations. and the authoring cycle. partner reading. 39 . logs. and sketches to represent understanding. letters. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. story maps. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas.
The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity.” and “semantic networking.” “plot mapping. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. WHY: HOW: 40 . the general steps involved are: 1. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. During discussion. add new related ideas to the map. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. 3. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. 2. Here students see how words or ideas are related. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. 5. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. 4. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another.
. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. DE: Reading Aids Series. IRA Service Bulletin. (1986). Newark. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). S. Other sources: Hanf.Taken from: Godt. M. Indianapolis.T. (1991).A. Inc. J. & Pittelman. Jensen.. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Ehlmann.E.D.) Reference: Heimlich. M.. Inc. Journal of Reading. 41 . D. (1971). IN: PRC. (formerly Advanced Technology. P.
4.. & Pittelman. filmstrips. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. (1986). (1991). Indianapolis. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). pictures. Reference: Heimlich. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. & Ehlmann. M. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading.g. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk.. . Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map.) Have students review the other materials (e.. IN: PRC.E. Inc.. P.T. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard.D. D. easy-toread trade books. filmstrips. 1. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. Have students read the textbook material. Newark. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. Jensen. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word.). J.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . IRA Service Bulletin. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. various high-interest. DE: Reading Aids Series. Inc. Discuss each word. posters. 2. and textbook or basal materials. When the semantic map is completed. 42 . . maps. low-vocabulary reading materials. S. (formerly Advanced Technology. 3. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. These materials could include posters. Taken from: Godt.
Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. On lines drawn from the circle. For example. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). important problems and episodes in the story. write key concepts or themes from the story. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. Louise’s friend. McCall Capt. Write their ideas on the map. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. . and outcomes of the story. how the characters feel or react. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . after reading 1. 2.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . .
J. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). M. IN: PRC. (1980). & Pittelman. IRA Service Bulletin. have students role-play or act out the story. Jensen. Reference: Heimlich. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. 4. Inc. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. D. New York: Avon Books.T. If appropriate. Taken from: Godt. Newark. (1991). DE: Reading Aids Series.). With the students.. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications... (1986). Paterson. & Ehlmann. S. 44 . As students find new information through this guided reading.3. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. Inc. add it to the map. K. Indianapolis. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. Jacob have I loved.E. (formerly Advanced Technology. P.D.
Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Have students suggest labels for these categories. if possible. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. in small groups or as a whole group. . IRA Service Bulletin. (1986). brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . DE: Reading Aids Series. pointing out relationships and differences among words. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. J. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. 45 .D.E. As the instructor. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. & Pittelman.. 3. S. Newark. Discuss the group’s semantic map. . for vocabulary development 1. Reference: Heimlich. 4. Have students.
Newark. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. 2. 46 . (If sections in the text have not been labeled. Reference: Heimlich. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. & Pittelman. S. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. . The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter.E.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Before reading the textbook. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. J. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. 1. IRA Service Bulletin. DE: Reading Aids Series.D. In this final step of the procedure. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. Support details. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. 3. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. Secondary categories. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Next.. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. Identification of main idea. (1986). .
. & Burke. The drawings may be used to generate writing. J. heard. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. NH: Heinemann. (1988). Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. Bloomington. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. Short. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. They may listen to a text being read aloud. K.. 2. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Siegel. IN: Indiana University. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class.. After reading. C. It can be an individual or group experience. K. 47 . Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. Further information: Harste. C. or viewed. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Portsmouth. & Feathers. hearing. 3.. 1. Students sketch while they are listening. M. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. After revisiting the text. Burke. To demonstrate this strategy. J. or viewing a text. 353-357). the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations.. (1984).
PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. evaluating the outcomes. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. (If the article contains a solution. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. exploring. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. trying out solutions. then defining it more clearly. Divide the article up into five sections. 23). selecting possible solutions. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. p. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. determining a desired outcome. acting on ideas. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. and looking at the effects. 48 . A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. 1972) in any curricular area.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. choosing strategies to use. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. and revising where necessary. as described in mathematical terms. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. Problem solving.
Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. J. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. 5). B. Thinking (p. (1972). Based on: Bransford.S. Reference: Cohen. & Stein. and creativity. J. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. learning. 49 . (1984)..D. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. New York: Freeman.
Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. By taking an active role in finding the solution. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. In this way. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. materials. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. or manipulatives in problem solving. Acting out problems. There are two major ways of using objects. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. First. Using or making a table. Making a guess and checking the result. Making a picture or diagram. students must experience tangible realities. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. such as numbers. they guess the answer. Many problems are based on actions. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. Making an organized list. For some students. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. which requires physical models for real understanding. test to see if it is correct. When problem solvers use this strategy. Unfortunately. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. 50 . Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. spot missing data. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table.
Portsmouth.Using or looking for a pattern. . is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. Mathwise. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. Hoogeboom. A. & Hyde. 51 . . CA: Creative Publications. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. . especially when they begin to solve complex problems. . or behavioral. systematic repetition. & Clyne. . the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. Adapted from: Hyde. Sunnyvale.” or “if . R. Inc.” or “if something is not true. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. (1987). (1988). teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. Using logical reasoning. then . The problem solver 1. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. visual. . else. . for this reason.. then. Working backwards. then . Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. J. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. (1991).. R.” or “if something is true. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. . To solve certain problems. A pattern may be numerical. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. . then . Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. S. A. .. M. Portsmouth. . Simplifying the problem. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. & Goodnow. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. NH: Heinemann. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . However.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. P. A pattern is a regular. By identifying the pattern. the solver must make a series of computations.
they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text.g. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing.g. When students generate questions. To do this successfully. subheadings. and across the passage as a whole. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. As they become more proficient. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. are not making sense. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. Text can be summarized across sentences. and predicting. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts).. When the students are asked to clarify. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. reread. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. and in fact the passage. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. unclear referent words. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. question generating. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. new vocabulary. clarifying. ask for help). across paragraphs. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. 52 .. Furthermore. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question.
the students receive practice with each of them. 1. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. leads the group in clarifying and. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. This is a beginning. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. finally. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. For the initial days of instruction. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. but it is important that every student participate at some level.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. points out anything that may have been unclear. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. predicts the upcoming content. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. through modeling and instruction. For example. To illustrate. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. For some students. 53 . 2. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. the dialogue begins. and over time the teacher. 3. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach.
(1986). Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind.. B. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. D. 1-17. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.T.Taken from: Farr. A. & Palincsar. self-control training. P. Inc. M. (formerly Advanced Technology. Indianapolis. Alexandria.). (1982). S. D. Strickler. Peterson. (1991). Inc. 5-10). Inc. 54 . (1990). (formerly Advanced Technology..).L. & Ehlmann.J. A. R. Indianapolis. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). A. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. & Cripe.S. New York: The College Board. Palincsar. A. 2(1). Further information: Brown. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.. & Brown. Inc. Reciprocal teaching. Palincsar. Harris & E.S... Cooper (Eds. IN: PRC. Reading.). Godt. (1985).. IN: PRC. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).S. thinking.” In T.. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. A. Jensen.
Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. 1. Routman. Invitations (p. 176-177). R. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Some students read aloud to each other. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Portsmouth. Ideas and insights (pp.). Watson (Ed. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. & Crowley.. (1987). A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. questions. C. It encourages shared meaning. NH: Heinemann. P. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. 35). Partner book selection. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Further information: Gilles. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. Students from different classrooms may be partners. and insights. Urbana.J. In D. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. (1991). Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. or teachers and students may be partners. 2. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. 55 . 2.
& Burke. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. NH: Heinemann. and they decide who will speak first. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. Short. 3. 4. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. (1977). students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Portsmouth. Each person listens and responds with comments. 1. Further information: Harste. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. or questions. 56 . The students take turns speaking first each time. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Instead of writing. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. 2. Columbia. D. J. After reading the identified portion of the text.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation... The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. MO: University of Missouri. K. C. 5. Creating classrooms for authors. reactions. (1988). They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed.
King. 195-198). Further information: Crafton. In D. Bloomington. (1991). Whole language: Getting started . Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. D. Katonah. (1977).WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. 57 . . and it can be used with all ages. moving forward (pp. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. IN: Indiana University. Bloomington. Watson (Ed. Burke. but it is a silent communication. NY: Richard C. L. Owen. Urbana. Written conversation. and content areas. . C.). One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. Ideas and insights. IN: Indiana University. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. grade levels. (1977). One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. (1987). Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. C. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas.
Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. they use a variety of options. which helps them in the composing process. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. and then discuss how the advice can be used. HOW: 58 . This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. acquire input. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. ● When they write. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. 1. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences.
and might use) and fields questions and comments. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions.J. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. After the reader/writer’s presentation. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. a compendium. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading... or too tentative. R. these conferences cannot take place. comments may be off-base. Reading strategies and practices.2. too general. (1985). & Dishner. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. and in the beginning. 59 . The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. 2. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. 3. found confusing. Readence. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece.K. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. Adapted from: Tierney. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. or discusses the process of reading or writing. J. reads a section of the report or story. Writing experiences contribute to reading. E. ● Model appropriate interactions. Inc. second edition.E.
or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. ask students. feelings. 2. a stapler. 3. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. The writer and reader are the same person. or perplexing questions. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. are intended for sharing. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. Try a variety of types to see what works best. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. and questions of future consideration. interesting ideas to explore. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. 1. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Paper. spiral notebooks. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. 6. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. When everyone has finished. WHY: HOW: 60 . 4. opinions. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. variations of written conversation. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. and collecting data to document learning. ideas for exploration. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. sharing insights. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. Ask.
insights. punctuation. When groups of students are working together on a project. 61 . responses. question. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. story. or common theme. the individuals write to each other. in a traveling journal. similar to written conversation. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. book. and questions to share with others. Many students dialogue with their teacher. or any other conventions of language. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. feelings. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. However. topic. Entries may include summaries. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. insights. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. and questions to extend learning. or theme cycles. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations.
Further information: Crafton. NH: Boynton/Cook. Owen. Portsmouth. L. C. (1987). K. J. Portsmouth. (1988). The journal book. (Ed. T. 280-285).. NY: Richard C. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1991). Harste. Whole language: Getting started ..). . Katonah. 163-168). moving forward (pp. Short. . & Burke. Fulwiler. 62 . NH: Heinemann.
● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. (This activity could be used for many figures.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known.” 63 .Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain.
writing. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. S. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. Who was your favorite character? Describe. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. how? 5. such as reading journal. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. or reading response log. (1994).Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. Inc. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. 2. it is a record of responses to reading literature. Regardless of the label. Did any of the characters change? If so. literature log. What was a problem in the story? 4. Where did the story take place? 3. Overland Park. and thinking processes. 64 . KS: Research & Training Associates.
Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. Pen pal letters. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. After about ten minutes. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. Overland Park. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. The sense of audience determines the format and language. 65 . Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. personal letters to family and friends. KS: Research & Training Associates. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. S. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. (1994). persuasive letters. the school superintendent. business letters of application. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. lead a discussion about the experience. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. or other countries. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. 1. other states. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. or to state and national legislators. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. the school board president. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. 2. Inc. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. 4. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes.
b. 5. 66 WHY: HOW: . Students follow these steps: 1. Conference. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. a. 2. 4. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. a. As a writing process. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. Write name and date on paper. Prepare writer’s folder. d. The students list two or three possibilities. Write first drafts. drafting. 3. and publishing. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. Write “draft #1” on paper. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. The teacher leads discussion about choices. c. a. the authoring cycle includes thinking. Read and write materials of one’s choice. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. The students hold peer conferences. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. b. The teacher holds conference. 6. revising. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. editing. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. Think about experiences. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. sharing. Choose topic.
(1987).. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. Further information: Applebee. Portsmouth. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1990). Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). (1987). Grammar. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. Writing: Teachers and children at work. D. Moffett. K. (1989). Developed by: Crenshaw. Portsmouth. Watson. and parents. (1988). Portsmouth. I. librarian. Overland Park. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. individual books. Harste. Graves. Urbana. Ideas and insights. Edit to check the form or structure. J. Inc. (1983). (Ed. Active voice. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. S. D. Atwell. Princeton. Invite the principal. Parson. Langer. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. NH: Boynton/Cook. 67 . 8. b. KS: Research & Training Associates. C. J. (1991). A. Short. NJ: Educational Testing Service. c. & Mullis. 13. Murray.). 9. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. or like materials.. a. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. D. Portsmouth. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. L. (1986).7. Writing in the real classroom. punctuation. (1994). Have an author’s party. L. Portsmouth. Portsmouth. class books. Portsmouth. Calkins. ED 282 928). 11. J. N. & Burke. Share the writing with other classes. (1992). and 17. 12. The art of teaching writing. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann.. NH: Heinemann. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. 10.. Celebrate and share one’s work with others.
Use other resources. 3. Create personal dictionaries. pp. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. Editing is an important part of written communication. To encourage students to explore language structure. Work with a partner. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Develop own list. 1992. 89-90). They teach and support each other. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. Check four basic rules. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. As students learn the words. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. and spelling is a part of the editing process. have them try several spellings of a particular word. HOW: 68 . Students may ask someone other than the teacher. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. 2. When a word ends in a silent final e. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. Sixty years ago. They are: 1. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. When a word ends in a consonant and y. Try it first. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized.
Newark.. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. Cognitive processes in spelling. Wilde. Developed by: Crenshaw. London: Academic Press. (1980). (Eds. Winnipeg. (1989). KS: Research & Training Associates. (Ed.). Read. the i comes before e except after c. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Urbana. S. Inc. Frith. (1981). 69 . J. (1992). S. S. & Beers. Spelling for whole language classrooms. Overland Park. You kan red this! Portsmouth.). OR: Portland State University. (1990). Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. Wilde. E. Check classroom display chart.4. Henderson. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. C. Portland. Share mnemonic strategies. (1992). (1994). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Buchanan. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. NH: Heinemann. When a word has the vowels i and e together. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. E. DE: International Reading Association. U.
Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.
Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?
Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?
Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.
(1992). Share ideas in the discussion group. Arno. Missouri. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words.. Pienkowski. district teachers. S. Wood. Often. Literature sets. & Wood. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. 1985. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent..J. Silverstein.. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. circles. J.R. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. E. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. but as students gain experience. and cycles. 1973. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each.. A. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters.. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. E. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. 1964. that is. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. 73 . S. D.. 1984. Keats. This may be the best response of all. Give no cues or prompts. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. 1985.
Urbana. & Burke. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. 2. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. NH: Heinemann.. (1988). S. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. Short. After everyone reads the text silently. 5. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. K. 74 . individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. Portsmouth. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. When performing. 4. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. C. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading.. Sloyer. 3. As rehearsal continues. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Creating classrooms for authors. Suggest some good resources for scripts. In the process. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. J. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. (1982). Distribute copies of the script to each reader.
and blacks and whites after the Civil War.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare.) Freedman.). (Lincoln’s own writings. D. Talk about differences and likenesses. Explore the various books in the text set collection. (For reference and browsing. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. (Sequel to Turn Homeward.) Neely. R. M. the Ku Klux Klan. New York: Morrow. (1987). Be ever hopeful. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. 3.) Fehrenbacher. (1988). New York: McGraw-Hill. 1. 5. Following are different ways to choose text sets. 1991). 4. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. (1964). Lincoln: A photobiography. and make connections in a reading discussion group. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. contrast. For example. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. or genre. 2. (Ed.) 75 . In content areas. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. List how books were alike or different. Hannalee. New York: Clarion Books. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. Decide how to share information with the larger group. illustrations. Hannalee. author. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. (1982). P. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. (Photos and text about Lincoln. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. New York: New American Library. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia.
Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. 2. Paulsen. W. New York: Windmill Books. (1959). the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. other genres such as biography. (1976). George. Steel. New York: Dutton. F. (1973). Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. realism. For example. Of course. Mazer. (1981). Hatchet. (1972). 1990). J. New York: Delacorte Press. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. 3. high fantasy. Lang. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. Scarsdale. Slake’s limbo. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. T. Englewood Cliffs. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. Strega Nona: An old tale. New York: Harper & Row. nonfiction trade books. poetry. Scarsdale. Tattercoats: An old English tale. (1969). H. 76 . (Reteller). Sylvester and the magic pebble. J. NJ: Prentice-Hall. (1987). Holman. New York: Bradbury Press. A. and informational books could be used. G. Steig. (1975). National Geographic articles.To this list. Julie of the wolves. Snow bound. My side of the mountain. F. (Reteller). Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. (1974). Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. (Reteller). social issues. New York: Bradbury Press. New York: Scribner. New York: Viking Press. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. historical fiction.
rhyme. M. (1988). Burns. E. M. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. New York: Philomel. and refrain). New York: Harper & Row. The very hungry caterpillar. A Place to Belong.. The Great Gilly Hopkins. K. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. In The Face of Danger). (1985). Brooks. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. Coats. Briggs. (1978). Hayashi. L. weeks.. Caught in the Act.Family problems Byers. R.. The oak tree. M. Calendar art: Thirteen days. Woodstock. M.. B. Danziger. (1988). G. Calvi. months. Boston: Little. G.. (1985). Fisher. Cracker Jackson. New York: Philomel.. New York: Four Winds Press. New York: Scholastic. Z. Florian. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. D. Chengliang. (1986).. New York: Greenwillow Books. J. Brown. Scarsdale. D. L. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. This book is about time. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). Anno’s sundial. & Maestro. — 77 . 5. Dillon. The sun’s day. A summer day. B. (1987). but for different age groups. Peterson. Chicago: Children’s Press. Sendak. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. & Co. (1978). Text Set for Older Children Anno.. (Dates variable). New York: Crowell. N. Through the year with Harriet. (1989). A minute is a minute. Gerstein. Carle. B. New York: Philomel. R. (1986). M.. (1987). Anno. A. New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Viking Kestral. (1988). Gould. Werner. (1987).. L. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. Dillon. Neasi.. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. D. & Popov. New York: Macmillan. (1980). Nixon. NY: Beekman Publishers. 4. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. All in a day. (1987). Kirst. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. (1977). years from around the world. P. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. New York: Bantam Books. Time. E.
generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. Tway. Virginia Hamilton). (1988). D. S. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. C. Katonah.). Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. E. Boston. Moss. (Ed.E.). (1988). (Ed. Portsmouth.M. L. Publishers. Roald Dahl. phase II. NH: Heinemann. MO: University of Missouri. Jensen. S.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. Urbana. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. Moir. Creating classrooms for authors. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. J. (1994). Short.C. Wirth. (1991). Harste.L. Webb.E. C.. L. (Ed. Reading ladders for human relations. (Eds. (Ed. High interest easy reading. Washington. (1992). Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Literature study. C. Inc. Norwood. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Moving forward. Katonah. Hinton. Further information: Crafton. & Roser. J. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. K. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. (1992). Owen. Students can read award winners from previous years. NH: Heinemann. . NY: Richard C. (1990). (1993). 78 . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Whole language: Getting started .). or the male characters of S.A. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. Rhodes. Hinton). Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.. — — — Reference: Gilles.). . (Ed. & Burke.G. J. Owen. Inc. & Dudley-Marling. (1993). (1981). C. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Urbana. DC: American Council on Education. (1992). H. Urbana. New York: Richard C. (1988). Urbana. Publishers. Taxel. IL: National Council of Teachers of English..). N. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Columbia.). Matthews. Portsmouth. J.
Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. 79 . Columbia. Further information: Vacca. T. Case studies in whole language. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. (1992).. & Rasinski. K. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. R. (1991).
determine which subtopics are manageable. Criteria for topic. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. Writing a proposal for a research project. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. 2. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Using semantic webbing. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. 7. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. 5. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Determining purposes of the research project. Identifying available resources.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. and strategies using many learning processes. Selecting a topic. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. skills. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. 6. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. WHY: HOW: 80 . 3. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. 1. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. After the proposal has been approved. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. Implementing the project proposal. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Developing research procedures. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. What do they want to find out and why? 4.
8. San Bernardino. displays. (1988). posters. 81 . computer programs. videotapes and audiotapes. Culminating activities. models. CA: CSU — School of Education. puzzles. Adapted from: Flores. or newspapers. B. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. articles for class magazines. games. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. skinny books. mobiles. topic-oriented alphabet books. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. time lines. field guides for scientific subjects. murals. dramatic scripts. how-to books. newsletters.
Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. B.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. 82 .) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education. (1988). San Bernardino. Older children fill it out for themselves.
CA: CSU — School of Education.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. (1988). B. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. and rationales. the purpose. 83 . ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. and the methodology of a research project. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. San Bernardino. issue. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). Adapted from: Flores. questions.
Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. San Bernardino. (1988). B. CA: CSU — School of Education. 84 .Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores.
L. The whole language catalog (p. flowcharts. graphs. What conclusions does it support? 4. Goodman (Eds. interviews. Review the questions. Supporting real research. Once you have chosen your research topic. In K. list everything you know about your topic. & Y. L. food museum kits 6. 85 . questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. (1991). tables.). Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. Bird. 2. Santa Rosa. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. Goodman. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. songs and dances. time lines role-playing. CA: American School Publishers. and clarify the ones that do. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. socio-drama folk art. drop the ones that don’t fit. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. 3. 296).
86 . MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Columbia.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. (1990). K.
and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. 3. Working with at-risk learners. After recording their ideas. topics. 2. 551. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. After a particular presentation or lesson. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. Journal of Reading. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. texts. critically evaluate their learning. or focus studies. 33(7). Record some of these on the chart. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. 87 . PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. Write students’ comments on the chart. The praise column is for positive comments. ask them to try a PQP on their own. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. (1990). Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1.
& Burke. . the end of a week. and I need or I have a question. or ideas were presented.. K. Portsmouth. identified needs. Others include I learned.. Owen Publishers. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. one thing they will do to extend their learning. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. Harste. Short. Additional ideas include one question they have. When all exit slips are collected. (1988). 88 . or a theme unit. Creating classrooms for authors. a presentation. L. I will try. concepts. NY: Richard C. Katonah. When the lesson or study is completed. Moving forward.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. (1991). 4. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. Whole language: Getting started . These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. . It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. NH: Heinemann. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. J. 3. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. 1. Inc. the end of a day. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. or specific questions. 2. or the end of a focused study. C. and identify areas for further exploration. They may be used at the end of a class session. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning.
KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher.February. Inc. Overland Park.. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 90 . 9209 West 110th Street. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.