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Learning Strategies Resource Guide
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46
Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.
WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.
Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.
● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.
HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.
Learning Strategies iv .
LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. All contributions are accepted and recorded. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. iv . determining what they WANT to learn. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. 2. It includes accessing prior knowledge. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. Think-Along. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. assessing knowledge. A. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. reflecting on associations. Questions are tools for engaging attention. K-W-L. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. 5. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. W. 6. Exploring Text 1. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. The letters K. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. 3. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. and confirming. 4. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. 7. purpose. directed reading. investigating ideas. Brainstorming. and reformulating knowledge. and encouraging deeper understanding. Cloze. Prediction. Questioning.
clusters. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying.8. B. 9. semantic webs. Semantic Mapping. well structured stories or informational pieces. Wordless Books. 2. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. 10. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. divides them into sections. or sometimes with minimal print. Schema Stories. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. thinking about. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Big Books. The teacher selects short. schema diagrams. or a video production. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. a radio dramatization. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. v . students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. Expanding Meaning 1. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. a puppet show. Sketch to Stretch. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. and places the parts in an envelope. or structured overviews. concept maps. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development.
This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Someone is designated to speak first. or problem solving. or doing both. or between two students. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. 5. feelings. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. clarifying. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Say Something. or questions. and insights. but they talk about their perceptions. Journals and Logs. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. writing. Partner Reading. Personal Journals. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. 9. and perplexing questions. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Each person listens and responds with comments. Reciprocal Teaching. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. 4. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. Each person receives a text for reading and responding.3. vi . using invented spelling. ideas for exploration. b. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. 8. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Written Conversation. and predicting. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. 6. Dialogue Journals. or to say something related to the text. Responding to Reading as Writers. a. question generating. 7. sometimes they each read silently. reactions. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. questions. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. Problem Solving. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else.
Readers’ Theatre. This strategy is similar to written conversation. Letters. letters of application. including content area or research material. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. Authoring Cycle. and revise their work. e. sharing. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. vii . After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. get suggestions from other students. revising. 14. There are pen pal letters. invitations. Literature Study. 11.c. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. letters to the editor. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. consumer awareness letters. Students are engaged in thinking. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. and questions to extend learning. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. story. and presenting their written work. written language. They share. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. and friendly letters. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. 12. question. Learning Logs. writing. Different students serve as discussion leaders. insights. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. editing. 10. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. Traveling Journals. Reading Logs. or theme cycles. the individuals write to one another. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. When groups of students are working together on a project. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. After choosing a topic. Entries may include summaries. Spelling Strategies. d. notes. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. book. After discussion. reading. topic. or common theme.
Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. The praise column is for positive comments. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. or a theme unit. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). contrast. texts. Student Research. or focus studies. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. However. Text Sets. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. 17. viii . Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. the end of a week. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. 18. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. topics. the end of a day. 16. a presentation. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Exit Slips. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. or the end of a focused study. They may be used at the end of a class session. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare.15.
and confirming in a variety of situations. Students explore text through predicting. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. and analyzing and appreciating text. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. 1 . brainstorming.
. thinking. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Resample text. Cogen (Eds. Repeat the steps. 1. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. 4. or reject. stopping at logical places. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. (1985). Determine author’s purpose. Confirm or adjust prediction.). & Brown.J. New York: The College Board. 7.J. 2 . Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. a.S. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas.L. Tierney. Inform (give facts) b. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. J. A. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.L. Readence.. Prove. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. Harris & E. In T. confirm. A. (1990). 8.).. 6. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. Entertain (amuse) 3. & Dishner.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Reading.K. Sample text. 2. 5. R. E.E.
” Predict. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. make predictions. Use with the next section of the selection. “Why do you think so?” Read silently.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. Confirm or reject the predictions. Let’s share our ideas. and validate or reject the predictions. 3 . STEPS Activate background knowledge.
J.T. & Dishner.Further information: Gill. 444-451. New York: Harper & Row. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. 4 . Tierney. R. (1969).. and chapter DR-TAs.R.). Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. D.G.R. Readence. (1990).K.E. Stauffer. M. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Journal of Reading. 526-535. J. 41.. No book. whole book. 31. R. E. (1988).. The Reading Teacher. (1988). Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. & Bear.J. Haggard.
YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. some false) from the selection to be read. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. Students read selection. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. 5 . PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true.
4. Inc. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. 2. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. D. There are seven colors in each rainbow. Personal Group Author 1. KS: Research & Training Associates. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. Overland Park. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. 3. Developed by: Seltzer. Be prepared to defend your decision. AFTER reading the selection. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. (1994). 6 .
which are difficult to observe. Inc. yellow. 125-126). This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. and red. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. Chicago: World Book. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors.” Reprinted from: Saucier. pp. 7 . and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. orange. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. W. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. indigo. (Vol. blue. In The World Book Encyclopedia.J. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. Rainbow. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. green. The amount of space each color takes up varies. 16. (1984). If the rain has been heavy.
This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. Also. 1. 4. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Further information: Adams. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. 3. NC: Author. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. Reading. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. 5. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. or statements.L. 8 . Research Triangle Park. questions. words. Inc. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. All responses are accepted. (1990). Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. J. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. (1986). phrases. Conceptual block busting. The leader asks how terms are similar or different.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts.
It includes accessing prior knowledge. 2. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. . reflecting on associations. the teacher writes these responses on the board. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text.). PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. During the second phase. the students are asked. see this picture. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. and reformulating knowledge. to listen to one another’s responses. . students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. (the word. Reformulation of knowledge. Initial associations with the concept. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. have you any new ideas about . or changed as a result of the discussion.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. and to become aware of their changing ideas. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . the teachers asks. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. assessing language use in expressing ideas. “Based on our discussion. Through this procedure. In this first phase. . During this phase. . and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. the teacher says. “What made you think of . etc. . After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. the picture. phrase. (you hear this word. 3. In a brief introduction.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. 1. Reflections on initial associations. There are three phases to the PReP. . etc. deleted.
suffixes. words that sound like the stimulus word. 13(4). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). J. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. Peterson. definitions. (1990). responses generally take the form of examples. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1.T. 10 .). D.A. . & Smith-Burke. 1981). or analogies. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. & Cripe. B. Inc. DE: International Reading Association. . responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. References: Langer. evidencing high integration of ideas. Strickler. Journal of Reading Behavior. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. (formerly Advanced Technology. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text... LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. R. M. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . IN: PRC. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. S. If the student has little prior information about the concept. (1981).. 153-156). Langer & Nicolich.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. Newark. Indianapolis. Inc. Langer. They may also link the concept with another concept. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. & Nicolich. attributes..A. or root words). J.) Taken from: Farr. M. or defining characteristics.. 1981. 1982. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. (1982).
This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. Second. and what they have learned from reading the text. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. 1. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. determining what they WANT to learn. W. Group instruction. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. c. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. Third. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. 11 . Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. what questions they want answered. In classroom testing. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. b. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. a. In this way. 1986). The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. When disagreements and questions emerge. First. The letters K. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility.
Roehler. P.C.). R. (1991). Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. Reference: Ogle. & J. Taken from: Godt. The Reading Teacher. Duffy. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks.E. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions.W. 4. & Smith. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. D.T. Montague (Eds.J. IN: PRC..2. 564-570. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. (1977).L. Anderson. Inc.C. In G. Further information: Anderson. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. C. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge.. Mason (Eds. Spiro. & W. & Ehlmann. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. At this time. Assessment of learning. D.). 3. (formerly Advanced Technology. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Indianapolis. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.). R.M. As they read. 39(6). the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). New York: Longman. Jensen. (1984). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. Reading. 12 . Individual reflection. (1986). L. Hillsdale.. After the group introduction to the topic. M. Anderson. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. In R. Inc. E.
D. 564-570. (1986). The Reading Teacher. 39(6).M.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. 13 .
C. eats spiders Categories 1. eats bugs 2. has a long tongue 3. spits poison 2. description 2. jumps 3.W. (1991). 14 . food 3. gray 1. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. 45(4). 303.. & Gee. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. M.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. small animals 1. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. T. The Reading Teacher.
selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. word length clues. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). the cloze procedure has taken many forms. 1. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. Horrible. the teacher lists them on the board. provides many alternatives for discussion. No Good. For example. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. horrible. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. including random deletion (every __nth word). very [bad] day. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. relates to children’s experiences. no good. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. During the completion of the oral cloze. 2. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin).” 3. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. the book Alexander and the Terrible. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. As the teacher reads aloud. Very Bad Day (Viorst. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting.
The Reading Teacher. 16 . (1982). J. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. 4. (1989).E. NJ: Prentice Hall.G. J. Schoenfeld. December). (1977. Newark. Cloze activities for primary readers. Rye. 147-151. very bad day. (1980). 300-302. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. Helping children learn to read (pp. Further information: Blachowicz. L. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. Cloze instruction research. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. 34(2). Exeter. 218-220).A. The Reading Teacher. DE: International Reading Association. (1972). J.W. E. horrible.L. Reference: Viorst. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. New York: Macmillan. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. magazines. newspapers. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. Searfoss. Alexander and the terrible.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. & Readence.Z. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. F. or lyrics to popular songs. no good. C. Working in teams of two or three. (1980). Englewood Cliffs.. Jongsma.
and dogs to feed and care for.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. ducks. ducks. After supper. There were sheep. 17 . There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. After supper. geese. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. and dogs into butter and other eating. After supper. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . cats. There were horses to chickens. . feed and care for. there the coal oil lamp. pigs. pigs. There was cream to eating. pick and eggs to . There were There were horses to pigs. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. cats. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. pick and were so many interesting explore. cats. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. chickens. feed and care for. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. were sheep. . chickens. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. ducks.
cats. t ll st r 18 . There were t and cows to milk. geese. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. After supper. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. d cks. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. chickens. There gather. pigs. cats. ducks. th r l l mp. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . c ts. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. There After supper. ducks. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. There were horses to r . Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. c l m lk. . g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. T feed and care for. ch ck ns. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. There was cream to c eating. There horses to ride and cows to milk. p gs. so many interesting things to do. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. and dogs to feed and care for. There chickens. pigs.
Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. and their writing. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. assessing knowledge. the following questions may help students before. their reading. during. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Questions are tools for engaging attention. interpreting. investigating ideas. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. and after reading. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . then questioning is an important part of exploring text. and encouraging deeper understanding. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. creative thinking. and using text and in solving problems. 1. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge.
? What else could you do . . then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. F. ? How do you know that .). . (1995). ? What if . L. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. & Kelly. a path to critical thinking. Boston. .P. P. refer to the section on literature response logs. 3. Inc. Urbana. The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). . . . Questioning. If the focus is on literary text. Further information: Munkins. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.2.. ? Reference: Christenbury. ? Why did you . (1983). .D. 20 . . . Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. . . ? How did you decide . . Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think .
The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. teams. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. but it can also be used with pairs. teams.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. 21 . and small groups. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. After they have both read the passage. 6. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. the exchange of questions stops. 4. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. the teacher models good questioning strategies. and/or small groups. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. 3. 5. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. 2. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. In addition. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. and the student answers as fully as possible. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. When the student has finished answering. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending.
S.. & Cripe. 123-126. Jensen. Inc. (1991). Indianapolis. Indianapolis.T. ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. A.). 13. Inc. Inc. D. Peterson. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1969). (formerly Advanced Technology.. (1990). IN: PRC. 22 . B.. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).V. IN: PRC. D. M. & Ehlmann. Manzo. R. Inc. P. Strickler. Reference: Farr.. Journal of Reading. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).)..Taken from: Godt.
Strickler. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Indianapolis. Stephenson. DE: International Reading Association. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. (1990). Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. R.. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1.. The Reading Teacher. (1985). D. S.E. (formerly Advanced Technology. Raphael. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). 2.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. 23 . QARS revisited.. Inc. & Cripe. Newark. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). (1982). IN: PRC.E. Inc. Question-answering strategies for children. 2. B. T. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. T. 36. Raphael.).
They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. & D. P. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. the teacher demonstrates the process. Students read the text silently. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. 24 . Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. (1979) Columbia. F. After reading. If students are working individually. Reynolds. M. they share oral retellings with their partners. Read. & Gilles. Owen Publishers..). and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. Estimate. 3. orally. New York: Richard C. After a text has been chosen and distributed. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. or with a partner in paired reading. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. they have to think about what they know in a different context. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. Question. and question. students react. Respond. 5. 44-45). S. In C. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. D. MO: University of Missouri. Further information: Watson. Bixby. 2. D. 1. Pyle (Eds. respond. Read. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. When students formulate questions. Gilles. ERRQ. Crowley. Respond. C. Students generate questions about the reading. Henrichs. Crenshaw. read. Developed by: Watson. M. (1988). They are urged to consider how the text affects them.
It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. 94. 26(2). Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Journal of Reading. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Make a list on the chalkboard. 25 . 44-47. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Farr. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Further information: Davey. B. 47(3). Activation and connection of prior knowledge. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. R. (1983). Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. After the demonstration. (1989). 1. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Prediction of what might occur next. Educational Leadership. WHY: HOW: 2.
26 . Dutton. F. Overland Park. D. (1994). Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. The king who rained. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. I wonder if I will ever get married.P. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. KS: Research & Training Associates. Inc. (1970). NY: Windmill Books and E. New York.
27 . Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. Inc. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. (1994). we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. There is only one classroom per grade.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. to include the entire school. Overland Park. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. KS: Research & Training Associates. R. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue.
Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). natural language flow and familiar subject matter. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. word order. verbs. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. cumulative structure.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. At the end of this reading. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. 1. stopping at natural points for student interaction. repetition. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. Using texts that include rhyme. 4. and other conventions of print. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. nouns. adjectives. WHY: HOW: 28 . he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. 3. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. Big print and big pictures get attention. The teacher reads the text aloud. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. 2. punctuation symbols.
Box 797. IL 60014 Scholastic. MO 65102 Wright Group. Roslyn Heights. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Western Publishing.O. Chicago. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. San Diego. Crystal Lake. Box 7501. Jefferson City.O. P. CA 92127 29 . P. 200 South Service Road. 400 Hahn Street. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. NY 11577 Random House. Department DF. 2 Computer Drive West. 10949 Technology Place. 2931 East McCarthy Street. MD 21157 Rigby. Westminster. IL 60656 Learning Well.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Department 436. Albany.
Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. setting. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. or characters. 1. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. Some choose to write dialogue. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. to other classes. creating dialogue for the characters. 30 . or for parents’ programs. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. 2. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder.
Carl goes to daycare. Bobo’s dream. . (1980). Briggs. J. New York: Harcourt. M. D. M. (1970). A. . Creepy castle. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. (1975). The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. Four Winds. (1983). (1985). (1978). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. 31 . Good dog. Anno’s USA. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Window. (1993). San Diego. M. Carl goes shopping. Florian. J. . (1993). R. New York: Harper & Row. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. . M. The city. New York: Random House. Carl. . Anno’s journey. (1980). Carl’s afternoon in the park. San Diego. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Anno’s alphabet. New York: Harcourt. . Pancakes for breakfast. (1980). Day. (1968). Baker. (1986). Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1991). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. The snowman. (1981). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Philomel. Goodall. Jacko. . New York: Sandcastle. (1972). (1982). Felix. Bang. CA: Green Tiger Press. San Diego. (1974). (1979). Anno’s animals. (1989).BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. Anno. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Dial Books. New York: Crowell. New York: Puffin. The knight and the dragon. . (1991). New York: Philomel. DePaola. . New York: Philomel. T. . The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book.
(1985). . changes. Hanimals. (1984). New York: Dutton. (1977). (1983). Ah-choo. a frog. Krahn. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1982). . New York: Macmillan. . T. . F. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1984). (1978). a dog. New York: Dutton. New York: Greenwillow. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. (1989). New York: Macmillan. . (1990). Paddy goes traveling. New York: McElderry Books. . Lavinia’s cottage. Mayer. P. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. . (1971). (1979). (1988). Look again. McElderry Books. Naughty Nancy goes to school. New York: Dial Books. (1975). Puss in boots. Paddy under water. and a frog. The story of a castle. M. Changes. M. (1981). . and a friend. a dog. New York: Macmillan. (1982). New York: Macmillan. San Diego. . . New York: Macmillan. Hoban. Hutchins. Take another look. New York: Macmillan. San Diego. (1981). Humages. New York: Margaret K. . New York: Dutton. . . New York: Macmillan. April fools. San Diego. Little red riding hood. (1976). . (1967). CA: Green Tiger Press.. . The great ape. (1982). New York: Atheneum. . Mariotti. (1986). (1974). Paddy to the rescue. New York: Dial Books. . . (1977). (1986). New York: Dial Books. McElderry Books. (1971). The story of a farm. New York: Viking Press. New York: Macmillan. 32 . New York: Margaret K. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. A boy. Story of an English village. Humands. A boy.
(1977). (1984). Moonlight. (1991). . (1985). Winter. . New York: Harper. Frog goes to dinner. G. New York: Dial Books. Spier. Sunshine. Frog. (1976). E. Vincent. 33 . P. B. (1976). Breakfast time. Dreams. J. Do not disturb. (1988). Turkle. New York: Doubleday. (1982). N. . New York: Greenwillow. The bear and the fly. Tuesday. Hiccup. Ormerod. (1980). New York: Greenwillow. New York: Dutton. New York: Clarion Books. (1981). Rain. Junglewalk. First snow. (1978). New York: Doubleday. (1987). Wiesner. Tafuri. New York: Greenwillow. Picnic. New York: Dial Books. . New York: Dial Books. Oops. Deep in the forest. . . McCully. Ernest and Celestine. (1985). (1980). New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Dial Books. P. D. (1986). where are you? New York: Dial Books. . (1978). Frog on his own. New York: Puffin. . New York: Harper.. (1982). New York: Puffin.
reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. 3. divides them into sections. The teacher selects short. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. and places the parts in an envelope. well structured stories or informational pieces. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. 1. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. 4.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. 6. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. they try to determine the sequence. 2. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. WHY: HOW: 34 . If the group has trouble deciding. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. 5. They agree or disagree which is the first part.
& Burke. Further information: Harste. New York: Doubleday. J. Short. R. J. 35 . (1985). A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. H. New York: Weathervane Books. & Calmenson. Haugaard. New York: Alfred A. (1988). Just so stories. New kid on the block. E.. (Eds. Oxenbury.Developed by: Watson. Prelutsky. C. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. Knopf. (1988). (1978). Portsmouth. K. (1977). New York: Scholastic. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1984). J. S. The read-aloud treasury. D. 340-345).. (1974).. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. MO: University of Missouri. Kipling.). NH: Heinemann. Columbia. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. That baby was Louis. E. He loved the beautiful Serena. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. 4. to keep a daily log of his experiences. On one of these trips. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. 3. but most of all. he couldn’t get her attention. the things that he had seen. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. The trumpet of the swan. Sometimes he drew a picture. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. so she ignored him. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. and the thoughts that he had had. 1. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. fishing. but without a trumpet sound. However. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. For some time. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. since the other swans couldn’t read. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. (1970).Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. or journal. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. 36 . Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. Sam had been writing in a diary. When the eggs in the nest hatched. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. who had a real problem. and exploring. 2. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. This example is a variation of using schema story. New York: Harper & Row.B. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him.
He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. KS: Research & Training Associates. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. 37 . Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. His faith and determination eventually brought success. Inc. Developed by: Crenshaw. S. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Sensing the severity of the problem.5. Overland Park. (1994).
At 320 feet and 8. at 7 p. Inc.m.000 pounds. he doubled in size. The local police and fire departments. Overland Park. KS: Research & Training Associates. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. 4. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1.000 pounds. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight.000 pounds. which were in the path of the monster. a very large.000 pounds. Mr. After eating several prominent landmarks. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. Amazing to say the least! 3. seemed to be a perfect dessert. America. 2. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. America. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. (1994). Twelve hours later. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. It was 7 a. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. The water tower was the next item on his menu. 38 . He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. R..Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home.m. 1. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size.000 pounds.
The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. and focused conversations. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. and sketches to represent understanding.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. story maps. and the authoring cycle. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. partner reading. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. 39 . The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. logs. letters. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding.
Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. 4. 5. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Here students see how words or ideas are related. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map.” and “semantic networking. WHY: HOW: 40 . learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. 2. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. add new related ideas to the map.” “plot mapping. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. 3.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. During discussion. the general steps involved are: 1.
Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. & Pittelman. Jensen.T. (1986). M.E. Journal of Reading. IRA Service Bulletin. (1991). 41 . Other sources: Hanf. Indianapolis. (formerly Advanced Technology.A. Inc.D. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). IN: PRC. Inc.) Reference: Heimlich. DE: Reading Aids Series.Taken from: Godt... & Ehlmann. S. P. M.. Newark. D. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. (1971). J.
T. Have students read the textbook material. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading.g. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). S. J. posters. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. (1986). 4.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. Jensen. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. 42 . (1991). library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map.) Have students review the other materials (e. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. and textbook or basal materials. Newark. Inc. filmstrips. various high-interest.E. These materials could include posters. Discuss each word. . P. filmstrips. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. 2. & Pittelman. IRA Service Bulletin. M. low-vocabulary reading materials. Reference: Heimlich. . & Ehlmann. maps. DE: Reading Aids Series. 3. Indianapolis. (formerly Advanced Technology. Taken from: Godt.D. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. When the semantic map is completed. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk.). before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. easy-toread trade books.. 1. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. IN: PRC. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color.. D. pictures. Inc. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic.
and outcomes of the story. 2. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . Write their ideas on the map. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. write key concepts or themes from the story. how the characters feel or react. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. McCall Capt. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. Louise’s friend. . Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. after reading 1. For example. . important problems and episodes in the story. On lines drawn from the circle.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .
. (1986). With the students. Inc. D. S. DE: Reading Aids Series. If appropriate. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. 44 . (1991). have students role-play or act out the story. Inc. Jensen.E.3. & Pittelman. Newark. IRA Service Bulletin. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). & Ehlmann. Paterson.). New York: Avon Books. M.. Taken from: Godt. Indianapolis. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map.T. Reference: Heimlich. 4. P. As students find new information through this guided reading. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. (formerly Advanced Technology. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story.. Jacob have I loved. (1980). add it to the map.D. IN: PRC. J. K. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.
Discuss the group’s semantic map. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. pointing out relationships and differences among words. 3. (1986). As the instructor. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. Have students.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. Have students suggest labels for these categories. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. 4. J.E. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. . & Pittelman. in small groups or as a whole group. Newark. IRA Service Bulletin. 45 . An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. . DE: Reading Aids Series. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.D. Reference: Heimlich. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. for vocabulary development 1. if possible. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. S. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept..
J. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. IRA Service Bulletin. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Before reading the textbook. S. Identification of main idea.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .E. Secondary categories. 3. In this final step of the procedure. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. .D. 1. DE: Reading Aids Series. (1986). Newark. 46 . 2. Reference: Heimlich. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups.. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. .) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. Next. & Pittelman. Support details.
.. heard. hearing.. Burke. To demonstrate this strategy. 353-357). or viewing a text. Portsmouth. K. & Burke. J. Siegel. They may listen to a text being read aloud.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. C.. NH: Heinemann.. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. M. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. 1. 3. J. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. Short. Bloomington. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. (1988). (1984). 47 . K. Further information: Harste. C. The drawings may be used to generate writing. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. After reading. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. IN: Indiana University. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. or viewed. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Students sketch while they are listening. & Feathers. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. It can be an individual or group experience. 2. After revisiting the text.
Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. (If the article contains a solution. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. then defining it more clearly. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. 23). acting on ideas. selecting possible solutions. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. p. evaluating the outcomes. 48 . but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. trying out solutions. and revising where necessary. as described in mathematical terms. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. exploring. choosing strategies to use. and looking at the effects. 1972) in any curricular area. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. critical thinkers about what they read and hear.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. Divide the article up into five sections. Problem solving. determining a desired outcome.
Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. New York: Freeman. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. & Stein.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. B. 49 . (1972). learning. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems.D. Based on: Bransford.S. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. 5). and creativity. J. J.. Thinking (p. Reference: Cohen. (1984).
Acting out problems. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. Many problems are based on actions. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. For some students. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Unfortunately. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. spot missing data. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. such as numbers. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Using or making a table. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. which requires physical models for real understanding. In this way. 50 . test to see if it is correct. There are two major ways of using objects. students must experience tangible realities. By taking an active role in finding the solution. materials. When problem solvers use this strategy. Making a picture or diagram. Making an organized list. they guess the answer. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. First. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. or manipulatives in problem solving. Making a guess and checking the result. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution.
especially when they begin to solve complex problems. . Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. By identifying the pattern. Portsmouth. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. M. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. . then. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. . & Clyne. . A. . S. (1988). . The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem.” or “if something is true. for this reason. then . . or behavioral. The problem solver 1. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. the solver must make a series of computations. Simplifying the problem. else. & Hyde. & Goodnow. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. R. . 51 . the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. . The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. Portsmouth. P. A pattern is a regular. systematic repetition. then . This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution.” or “if .. NH: Heinemann. Inc. . (1987). To solve certain problems. Mathwise. CA: Creative Publications. Using logical reasoning. . there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . (1991). A.” or “if something is not true. J. Adapted from: Hyde. R.. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. NH: Heinemann Educational Books.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. Working backwards. then . Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. A pattern may be numerical.Using or looking for a pattern. visual. However. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. Hoogeboom. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern.. Sunnyvale.
they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. subheadings. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing.. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. reread. question generating. ask for help). 52 . These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. When students generate questions. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess.g. Furthermore. As they become more proficient. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. and across the passage as a whole.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings.g. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. unclear referent words.. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. Text can be summarized across sentences. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. across paragraphs. new vocabulary. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). When the students are asked to clarify. and in fact the passage. To do this successfully. are not making sense. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. clarifying. and predicting. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity.
WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. the dialogue begins. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. To illustrate. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. predicts the upcoming content. For example. 1. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. 3. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. For the initial days of instruction. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. but it is important that every student participate at some level. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. points out anything that may have been unclear. leads the group in clarifying and. and over time the teacher. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. 2. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. the students receive practice with each of them. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. 53 . For some students. This is a beginning. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. through modeling and instruction. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. finally. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read.
(1985). Inc. Peterson. R. Reciprocal teaching.S. & Palincsar. A. & Ehlmann.Taken from: Farr. (1990).). S. (formerly Advanced Technology. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. New York: The College Board. Jensen.T.. Inc. IN: PRC. Further information: Brown. 54 ..). D.J. Strickler. Inc. A. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.S.. 5-10). and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.S. 1-17. Inc. A.). D. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Godt. self-control training. A. 2(1).. Indianapolis.. M. & Cripe. Palincsar. thinking. (formerly Advanced Technology. P.. Alexandria. & Brown. Indianapolis. (1991). Palincsar. (1982). A. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. (1986). IN: PRC.” In T. Harris & E. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). B. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities.L. Reading. Cooper (Eds. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp..
1. 2. Ideas and insights (pp. (1987). In D. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not.J. Students from different classrooms may be partners. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. Portsmouth. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. 176-177). Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. It encourages shared meaning. Further information: Gilles. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. and insights. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. questions. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. or teachers and students may be partners. 35). Invitations (p. (1991). 2. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. & Crowley. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions.).PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. Partner book selection. NH: Heinemann. P. Some students read aloud to each other. Urbana. They will decide how far to read and who will begin.. Watson (Ed. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. 55 . Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. C. Routman. R. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion.
Further information: Harste. 5. After reading the identified portion of the text. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Instead of writing. MO: University of Missouri. 1. 56 . NH: Heinemann. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. (1977). Portsmouth. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. The students take turns speaking first each time. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. J. Creating classrooms for authors. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. 2. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. & Burke. 3. (1988). C. K. Short. Each person listens and responds with comments. or questions. 4. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed.. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. Columbia. D. reactions.. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. and they decide who will speak first.
Watson (Ed. In D. Owen. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Written conversation. Bloomington. (1977). D. 57 . (1987). The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. (1991). The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. King. . Whole language: Getting started . Bloomington. C. Burke. L. IN: Indiana University. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. Urbana. IN: Indiana University. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. moving forward (pp. but it is a silent communication. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. and content areas. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. Katonah. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Ideas and insights. grade levels. and it can be used with all ages. Further information: Crafton. 195-198). NY: Richard C. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. (1977).). C. .
HOW: 58 . which helps them in the composing process. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. they use a variety of options.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. acquire input. and then discuss how the advice can be used. 1. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. ● When they write.
. 3. (1985). Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. or too tentative. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. & Dishner. and might use) and fields questions and comments. E.K. After the reader/writer’s presentation. and in the beginning. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. Readence. these conferences cannot take place. 59 . a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. 2. a compendium.J. second edition. ● Model appropriate interactions.2. or discusses the process of reading or writing. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. J. Writing experiences contribute to reading. Reading strategies and practices. reads a section of the report or story. comments may be off-base.. too general. Adapted from: Tierney.E. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. R. Inc. found confusing.
and questions of future consideration. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. Paper. 6. a stapler. feelings. 4. 2. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. Give the students sufficient time to think and write.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. ask students. 1. WHY: HOW: 60 . Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. are intended for sharing. When everyone has finished. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. interesting ideas to explore. The writer and reader are the same person. Try a variety of types to see what works best. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. opinions. or perplexing questions. sharing insights. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. Ask. variations of written conversation. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. 3. and collecting data to document learning. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. ideas for exploration. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. spiral notebooks. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together.
● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. insights. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. topic. or theme cycles. in a traveling journal. 61 . The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. book. question. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. However. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. responses. insights. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Many students dialogue with their teacher. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. or any other conventions of language. or common theme. similar to written conversation. and questions to share with others. Entries may include summaries. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. punctuation. feelings. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. When groups of students are working together on a project. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. the individuals write to each other. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. story. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. and questions to extend learning. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing.
T. C. . & Burke. L.). NH: Boynton/Cook. Owen. NH: Heinemann. (1991). Fulwiler. 280-285).. Portsmouth. Short. NY: Richard C. K. The journal book. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1987). Portsmouth. (1988). . Whole language: Getting started . Harste. moving forward (pp. (Ed.Further information: Crafton. J. Katonah. 163-168). 62 ..
● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills.” 63 . ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain.
writing. Were you disappointed about anything? 7.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. S. What was a problem in the story? 4. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. literature log. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. Inc. Where did the story take place? 3. Overland Park. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. 64 . Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. it is a record of responses to reading literature. KS: Research & Training Associates. or reading response log. such as reading journal. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. how? 5. (1994). Who was your favorite character? Describe. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. Regardless of the label. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. and thinking processes. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Did any of the characters change? If so. 2. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11.
Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. or other countries. After about ten minutes.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. (1994). KS: Research & Training Associates. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. 1. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. personal letters to family and friends. persuasive letters. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Inc. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Overland Park. 65 . S. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. The sense of audience determines the format and language. or to state and national legislators. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. lead a discussion about the experience. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. Pen pal letters. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. the school board president. the school superintendent. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. business letters of application. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. other states. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. 4. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. 2.
Write first drafts. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. a. 5. Read and write materials of one’s choice. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. Write name and date on paper. 4. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. b. The teacher leads discussion about choices. 66 WHY: HOW: . a. b. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. Write “draft #1” on paper. revising. Prepare writer’s folder. editing. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. the authoring cycle includes thinking. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. Think about experiences. 3. 2. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. The students hold peer conferences. a. Conference. sharing. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. c. As a writing process. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. and publishing. 6. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Choose topic. The teacher holds conference. Students follow these steps: 1. drafting. The students list two or three possibilities. d.
. K. NH: Heinemann. D. Writing: Teachers and children at work. Portsmouth. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. class books. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Overland Park. Calkins. C. D. (1989). Harste.7. J. and 17. individual books. Parson. Ideas and insights. punctuation. I. c. a. Share the writing with other classes. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. & Burke. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters.). b. Have an author’s party. (1994). (1987). 11. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. L. Writing in the real classroom. 8. 10. Developed by: Crenshaw. Portsmouth. NH: Boynton/Cook. Invite the principal. Portsmouth. (1991).. The art of teaching writing. (1992). A. Princeton. Short. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. ED 282 928). Langer. NH: Heinemann. J. (1983). L. Grammar. Further information: Applebee. J. N. (1986). Inc. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. (1990). & Mullis. Portsmouth. 9.. D. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. librarian. Portsmouth. Portsmouth. (1988). (Ed. Graves. 13. or like materials. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). KS: Research & Training Associates. 12. Portsmouth. Murray. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Active voice.. and parents. Edit to check the form or structure. Atwell. (1987). Watson. NH: Heinemann. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Moffett. NH: Heinemann. Urbana. 67 . S. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences.
They teach and support each other. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. pp. Check four basic rules.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. They are: 1. Create personal dictionaries. When a word ends in a silent final e. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. Work with a partner. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Try it first. When a word ends in a consonant and y. 1992. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. 3. Editing is an important part of written communication. and spelling is a part of the editing process. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. As students learn the words. Sixty years ago. HOW: 68 . Use other resources. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. To encourage students to explore language structure. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. have them try several spellings of a particular word. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. 2. 89-90). Develop own list. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i).
4. Share mnemonic strategies. E. (1989). (1981). Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. Read. (1992). Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. S. London: Academic Press. Wilde. Further information: Buchanan. Wilde. S. OR: Portland State University. Portland. S. U. (1980). Check classroom display chart. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. (Eds. J. (1994). You kan red this! Portsmouth..). Winnipeg. When a word has the vowels i and e together. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. (Ed. Frith. KS: Research & Training Associates. (1992). Spelling for whole language classrooms. C. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. Cognitive processes in spelling. Henderson. Newark. Urbana. NH: Heinemann. 69 . (1990).). the i comes before e except after c. Overland Park. DE: International Reading Association. Developed by: Crenshaw. & Beers. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Inc. E.
Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.
Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?
Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?
Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.
. 1973. S. Arno. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. E.. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. J. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. but as students gain experience. E. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Pienkowski.R. Wood. 1964. 73 . Often. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. Give no cues or prompts. Share ideas in the discussion group. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Silverstein. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. circles. & Wood. A. Literature sets. and cycles. 1984.J.. S.... Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. (1992). Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. D. that is. district teachers. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. 1985. This may be the best response of all. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. Missouri. 1985. Keats. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.
J. When performing. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices.. S. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. K. 74 . Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Creating classrooms for authors. After everyone reads the text silently. NH: Heinemann.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. 3. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. As rehearsal continues. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. (1988). Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Portsmouth. C.. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. 2. Suggest some good resources for scripts. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Urbana. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. & Burke. 5. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Short. 4. Sloyer. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. (1982). In the process.
Decide how to share information with the larger group. 2. For example. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. Hannalee. 1. (For reference and browsing. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. R. Talk about differences and likenesses. (Lincoln’s own writings. New York: Clarion Books. (1988). (1987). New York: McGraw-Hill.) Neely. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. New York: New American Library. Explore the various books in the text set collection. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. (1982). Following are different ways to choose text sets. and make connections in a reading discussion group. the Ku Klux Klan. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen.). a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. 1991). P. M. 3. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. Hannalee. D. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. Lincoln: A photobiography. Be ever hopeful. 4. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. List how books were alike or different. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. (Photos and text about Lincoln. (1964).TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. In content areas. Students should form groups and do the following: 1.) 75 . (Ed. author. illustrations. or genre. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. New York: Morrow. contrast. 5.) Freedman.) Fehrenbacher.
NJ: Prentice-Hall. (1972). (1959). Englewood Cliffs. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. F. A. high fantasy. Slake’s limbo. George. New York: Windmill Books. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. Lang. Strega Nona: An old tale. For example. W. Snow bound. New York: Delacorte Press. Holman. (1976). 2. Julie of the wolves. nonfiction trade books.To this list. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. J. Paulsen. (Reteller). (Reteller). (1969). New York: Bradbury Press. New York: Dutton. New York: Harper & Row. Hatchet. H. G. Of course. social issues. realism. New York: Viking Press. New York: Bradbury Press. (1981). Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. 3. 76 . (Reteller). or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. My side of the mountain. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. F. Mazer. Tattercoats: An old English tale. (1987). students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. Steel. historical fiction. Scarsdale. Steig. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. other genres such as biography. Sylvester and the magic pebble. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. National Geographic articles. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. 1990). poetry. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. T. (1973). J. and informational books could be used. New York: Scribner. (1974). (1975). Scarsdale.
& Popov. Kirst. — 77 . NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. Gerstein. (1988). (Dates variable). M. B. Gould. Scarsdale.. The following two book lists both use time as a theme... Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts.. 4. The sun’s day. A. Sendak. K. years from around the world. Anno. Danziger. & Co. New York: Bantam Books. New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Philomel. New York: Philomel. Caught in the Act. G. (1988). Dillon. Neasi. Calendar art: Thirteen days. This book is about time. L. but for different age groups.. J. Through the year with Harriet. P. (1986). M. Brown. Florian. Nixon. 5.. M. (1989). The oak tree. rhyme. Calvi. The very hungry caterpillar. New York: Scholastic. B.. (1985). Anno’s sundial. (1980). (1985). E. New York: Philomel. Chicago: Children’s Press. The Great Gilly Hopkins. Dillon. & Maestro. All in a day. months. NY: Beekman Publishers. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. Fisher. E. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. Boston: Little. Time. Cracker Jackson. (1978). Peterson. Woodstock.. Briggs. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. Burns. M. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. A summer day.. New York: Four Winds Press. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. (1977). New York: Crowell. Werner. B. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions).. L. (1988). R. N. (1987). R. In The Face of Danger).Family problems Byers. weeks. Coats. (1986). D. Text Set for Older Children Anno. A minute is a minute. (1987).. New York: Macmillan. G. Hayashi. New York: Viking Kestral. New York: Greenwillow Books. Brooks. New York: Harper & Row. (1978). The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. A Place to Belong. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. Z. (1987). Chengliang. M. D. and refrain). Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. Carle. (1987). D. L.
C. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers.). Matthews. MO: University of Missouri.E. L. (Ed. J. D. (1994). Columbia. . Urbana.). Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. Inc. (1991).). (Ed. (1992). (1992). L. (Ed.). Boston.. (1993). & Roser. H. (1992). C. (1988). J. Virginia Hamilton). (1981).). MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Wirth. . Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. C. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Publishers. Moving forward. or the male characters of S. (Eds. (1993).A.. J. C. 78 . (1988). Reading ladders for human relations. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. NH: Heinemann. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Jensen. (Ed. Whole language: Getting started . Owen. Taxel. NH: Heinemann. Creating classrooms for authors. Katonah. Further information: Crafton. Moss. Roald Dahl.C. Publishers. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Washington. Portsmouth. NY: Richard C. Short. J. Hinton). Hinton. Tway. (Ed. E. Portsmouth. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. K. (1990). & Burke. Inc. Owen. Literature study. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. Norwood. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. High interest easy reading. Katonah.M. Students can read award winners from previous years. (1988). Harste. S. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Urbana. New York: Richard C. phase II. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. N. Rhodes..E. S. Webb.). generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. Urbana.G. Moir. — — — Reference: Gilles. Urbana. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. & Dudley-Marling. DC: American Council on Education.L. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students.
K.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. Further information: Vacca. (1992). & Rasinski. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. 79 . Columbia. (1991). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. R.. Case studies in whole language. T.
students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. 2. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. determine which subtopics are manageable. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. After the proposal has been approved. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Writing a proposal for a research project. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. 1. Implementing the project proposal. Criteria for topic. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Developing research procedures. and strategies using many learning processes. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. 5. Determining purposes of the research project. skills.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. Using semantic webbing. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. WHY: HOW: 80 . A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Selecting a topic. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. 6. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). 7. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. Identifying available resources. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. 3.
time lines. dramatic scripts. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. videotapes and audiotapes. how-to books. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. newsletters. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. displays. topic-oriented alphabet books. or newspapers. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. B. skinny books.8. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. puzzles. models. Adapted from: Flores. mobiles. CA: CSU — School of Education. articles for class magazines. games. field guides for scientific subjects. murals. posters. Culminating activities. (1988). San Bernardino. computer programs. 81 .
) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. San Bernardino. B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. Older children fill it out for themselves. 82 . CA: CSU — School of Education. (1988).Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children.
San Bernardino. (1988). Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. CA: CSU — School of Education. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. issue. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. B. 83 . Adapted from: Flores. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. and rationales. questions. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). the purpose.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. and the methodology of a research project. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives.
B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. CA: CSU — School of Education. San Bernardino.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. 84 . (1988).
Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. 2. CA: American School Publishers. songs and dances. time lines role-playing. food museum kits 6. (1991). flowcharts. Goodman. Supporting real research. In K. What conclusions does it support? 4. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. list everything you know about your topic. 85 . Review the questions. 296). Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. interviews. and clarify the ones that do. tables. L. L. socio-drama folk art. The whole language catalog (p. drop the ones that don’t fit. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. Bird. Santa Rosa. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. Goodman (Eds. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. & Y. 3. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions.). What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. graphs. Once you have chosen your research topic.
86 . K. (1990). COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. Columbia.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School.
the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. Write students’ comments on the chart. critically evaluate their learning. Journal of Reading. Record some of these on the chart. After recording their ideas. 33(7). Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. 551. topics. The praise column is for positive comments. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. (1990). or focus studies. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. ask them to try a PQP on their own. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. 2. 3. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. After a particular presentation or lesson. 87 .PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. Working with at-risk learners. texts. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need.
Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. Short. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. one thing they will do to extend their learning. and I need or I have a question. or the end of a focused study. When the lesson or study is completed. Whole language: Getting started . the end of a week. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. Owen Publishers. or ideas were presented. or a theme unit.. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. C. a presentation. 88 . & Burke.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. 3. . 4. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. 2. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. NY: Richard C. Inc. They may be used at the end of a class session. Additional ideas include one question they have. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. the end of a day. (1991). Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. (1988). K. concepts. . I will try. 1. Katonah. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Others include I learned. Creating classrooms for authors. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. L. When all exit slips are collected. Moving forward. and identify areas for further exploration. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. Portsmouth. Harste. identified needs. or specific questions. NH: Heinemann.. J. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized.
February. Inc. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 90 . 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. Overland Park.. 9209 West 110th Street. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher.
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