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Learning Strategies Resource Guide
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46
Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.
WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.
Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.
● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.
HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.
Learning Strategies iv .
Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. determining what they WANT to learn. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. 3. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Cloze. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. A. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. The letters K. reflecting on associations. Questioning. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. All contributions are accepted and recorded. 6. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Exploring Text 1. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. Think-Along. W. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. 5. It includes accessing prior knowledge. Questions are tools for engaging attention. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Brainstorming. 4. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). investigating ideas. directed reading. and reformulating knowledge. 7. and confirming. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. purpose. iv . 2. K-W-L. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. and encouraging deeper understanding. Prediction. assessing knowledge. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW.
These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. a puppet show. and places the parts in an envelope. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. or sometimes with minimal print. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. 9. clusters. Semantic Mapping. thinking about. Schema Stories. Big Books. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. The teacher selects short.8. 10. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. or a video production. 2. well structured stories or informational pieces. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. divides them into sections. or structured overviews. Wordless Books. Sketch to Stretch. concept maps. B. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. schema diagrams. a radio dramatization. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. semantic webs. v . The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Expanding Meaning 1.
Responding to Reading as Writers. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. vi . 8. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. Each person listens and responds with comments. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. and predicting. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. feelings. Partner Reading. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. but they talk about their perceptions. Dialogue Journals. question generating. or problem solving. b. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. 5. or doing both. or to say something related to the text. or questions. and perplexing questions. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. a. Reciprocal Teaching. Journals and Logs. Personal Journals. Someone is designated to speak first. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. 9. ideas for exploration. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. 4. clarifying. questions.3. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. writing. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. and insights. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. reactions. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. 7. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. or between two students. sometimes they each read silently. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. 6. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. Problem Solving. Written Conversation. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. using invented spelling. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. Say Something.
the individuals write to one another. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. book. sharing. 10. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. question. Authoring Cycle. letters to the editor. Literature Study. Traveling Journals.c. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Spelling Strategies. and presenting their written work. reading. Readers’ Theatre. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. 11. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. Different students serve as discussion leaders. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. Reading Logs. e. There are pen pal letters. notes. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. Learning Logs. This strategy is similar to written conversation. revising. including content area or research material. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. writing. 12. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. invitations. Entries may include summaries. story. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. Letters. topic. or theme cycles. get suggestions from other students. d. written language. and friendly letters. vii . Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. insights. or common theme. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. letters of application. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. They share. After discussion. and revise their work. Students are engaged in thinking. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. After choosing a topic. When groups of students are working together on a project. editing. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. and questions to extend learning. 14. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. consumer awareness letters.
A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. topics. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. or a theme unit. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. 16. and make connections in a reading discussion group. However. texts. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). viii . The praise column is for positive comments. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. Text Sets. Student Research. 18. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. 17. the end of a week. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. the end of a day. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. a presentation. contrast.15. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. Exit Slips. or focus studies. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. They may be used at the end of a class session. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. or the end of a focused study.
Students explore text through predicting.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. brainstorming. and confirming in a variety of situations. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. and analyzing and appreciating text. 1 .
New York: The College Board.L. 7. (1985). Entertain (amuse) 3. confirm. Confirm or adjust prediction. 2. thinking. 8.. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed.L. Reading.E. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. Readence. Boston: Allyn Bacon. 2 . Resample text. Inform (give facts) b. A. R. (1990). & Brown. 5. & Dishner. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. 6.. Tierney.). Prove.. In T. Cogen (Eds. or reject. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. 4.K.J.J.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Repeat the steps.S.). Harris & E. Sample text. Determine author’s purpose. E. stopping at logical places. A. 1. J. a.
The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. 3 . The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. and validate or reject the predictions. Use with the next section of the selection. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection.” Predict. make predictions. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. Let’s share our ideas. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. STEPS Activate background knowledge. Confirm or reject the predictions.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection.
444-451. J. New York: Harper & Row.G. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. E.R. and chapter DR-TAs. & Bear. (1988). The Reading Teacher. Journal of Reading. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.J.R. Stauffer.Further information: Gill. (1969).E. R.. M. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. (1988). R..T.. D. & Dishner. whole book. No book. (1990). J.K.). 41. Boston: Allyn Bacon. 4 . 526-535. Haggard. Tierney. 31. Readence.
Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. 5 . Students read selection. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. some false) from the selection to be read.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text.
read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. 3. AFTER reading the selection. Personal Group Author 1. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. There are seven colors in each rainbow. Overland Park. (1994). Be prepared to defend your decision. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. 4. 2. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. KS: Research & Training Associates. D. 6 . Developed by: Seltzer. Inc. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support.
‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. In The World Book Encyclopedia.” Reprinted from: Saucier. If the rain has been heavy. Rainbow. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. 16. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. which are difficult to observe. yellow.J. indigo. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. pp. blue. 125-126). (1984). The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. Chicago: World Book. green. 7 . It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. orange. W. The amount of space each color takes up varies. (Vol. and red. Inc.
The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. (1990). Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Reading. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. or statements. 1. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. 3. questions. (1986). words. Inc. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. 5. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. Further information: Adams. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. Also. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. 4.L. NC: Author. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. 8 . All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. phrases. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. All responses are accepted. Research Triangle Park. Conceptual block busting. J.
they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. 2. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . During the second phase. (the word. In this first phase. During this phase. . students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. and to become aware of their changing ideas. 1. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. reflecting on associations. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. see this picture. “What made you think of . and reformulating knowledge. etc. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . or changed as a result of the discussion.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. Reformulation of knowledge. It includes accessing prior knowledge. 3. phrase. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. assessing language use in expressing ideas.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. the students are asked. (you hear this word. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. deleted. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. the teacher writes these responses on the board. “Based on our discussion. . The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. . . . Through this procedure. the teacher says. . The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. There are three phases to the PReP. the picture. to listen to one another’s responses. the teachers asks. etc. Initial associations with the concept. Reflections on initial associations. have you any new ideas about . In a brief introduction. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas.). and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text.
References: Langer.T. 1982. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. evidencing high integration of ideas. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. D.. Peterson.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. .. J. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. Strickler.) Taken from: Farr.A. 153-156). Journal of Reading Behavior.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. . If the student has little prior information about the concept. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. Langer & Nicolich.. Indianapolis. responses generally take the form of examples. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich.. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. & Nicolich. IN: PRC. M.. 13(4). R. attributes. Inc. Newark. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction.A. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. They may also link the concept with another concept. DE: International Reading Association. B. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. (1982).). (1990). suffixes. S. (formerly Advanced Technology. 10 . 1981). M. & Cripe. or analogies. Langer. Inc. or root words). (1981). & Smith-Burke. 1981. or defining characteristics. words that sound like the stimulus word. definitions. J. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when .
W. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. 11 . after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. c. Group instruction.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. and what they have learned from reading the text. what questions they want answered. In this way. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. 1986). L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. The letters K. 1. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. In classroom testing. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. Second. b. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. Third. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. determining what they WANT to learn. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. a. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. When disagreements and questions emerge. First. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle.
C. In G..M. Anderson. M. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find.J.T. After the group introduction to the topic. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information.E.C. Inc. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. The Reading Teacher. In R. Individual reflection. R. (formerly Advanced Technology. L. 12 . Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. Anderson. & Smith. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. P. 39(6). 564-570.).W. Jensen. (1991). Reading. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. E.2. & J.). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. (1984). R. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge.). (1977). Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. Roehler. Inc. Spiro. C.. As they read. Assessment of learning. 3. Indianapolis. & W. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Further information: Anderson. Reference: Ogle. (1986). D. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. Montague (Eds. & Ehlmann.L. Hillsdale. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. New York: Longman. Mason (Eds. D. Taken from: Godt. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion.. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. At this time. IN: PRC. Duffy. 4. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved.
564-570.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. The Reading Teacher. D. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.M. 13 . 39(6). (1986).
Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. gray 1. T. 14 .C. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. eats spiders Categories 1. (1991). 45(4). description 2.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. The Reading Teacher. spits poison 2. eats bugs 2. small animals 1. jumps 3. & Gee. food 3.. has a long tongue 3. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson.W. 303. M.
selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). including random deletion (every __nth word). During the completion of the oral cloze. No Good. word length clues. the book Alexander and the Terrible. horrible. provides many alternatives for discussion. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. very [bad] day. no good. For example. 1. As the teacher reads aloud. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. Horrible.” 3. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. relates to children’s experiences. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. the teacher lists them on the board. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). 2. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. Very Bad Day (Viorst.
Schoenfeld. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. Alexander and the terrible. Exeter. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading.W.A.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. (1972). New York: Macmillan. 4. December). F. Reference: Viorst.G. Englewood Cliffs. 300-302. (1982). Cloze instruction research. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure.Z. & Readence. DE: International Reading Association. (1980). NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Rye. The Reading Teacher. C. very bad day. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. Searfoss. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. Newark. J. The Reading Teacher. L. no good. newspapers. Helping children learn to read (pp. 16 . magazines. (1989).. (1980). J. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. 218-220). or lyrics to popular songs. 147-151. Working in teams of two or three.L. Further information: Blachowicz. Jongsma. Cloze activities for primary readers. J. horrible. E. 34(2). (1977. NJ: Prentice Hall.E. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas.
pick and were so many interesting explore. pigs. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. cats. cats. pick and eggs to . After supper. After supper. feed and care for. There were There were horses to pigs. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. After supper. chickens. feed and care for. pigs. There was cream to eating. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. There were horses to chickens. and dogs into butter and other eating. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. were sheep. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. 17 .Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. geese. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . ducks. . cats. ducks. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. chickens. ducks. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. . There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. There were sheep. and dogs to feed and care for. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. there the coal oil lamp.
ducks. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d .Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. pigs. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. cats. geese. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. t ll st r 18 . and dogs to feed and care for. p gs. c ts. There chickens. chickens. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. d cks. th r l l mp. There was cream to c eating. There were t and cows to milk. c l m lk. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. There horses to ride and cows to milk. There were horses to r . T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. There After supper. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. cats. After supper. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. There gather. pigs. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. so many interesting things to do. ch ck ns. . ducks. T feed and care for.
A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. and after reading. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. during. investigating ideas. creative thinking. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. assessing knowledge. 1. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. interpreting. and their writing. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. and encouraging deeper understanding. Questions are tools for engaging attention. their reading. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. the following questions may help students before.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. and using text and in solving problems.
Further information: Munkins.). refer to the section on literature response logs. . & Kelly.D. . Boston. . Questioning. ? How did you decide . 20 . L.P. . ? Reference: Christenbury. . The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). F. P. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. . ? Why did you . . MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.. (1983). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Inc. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . . a path to critical thinking. ? What if .2. 3. (1995). . ? How do you know that . If the focus is on literary text. . . ? What else could you do . Urbana. .
content area texts and prose materials work equally well. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. and/or small groups. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. 4. teams.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. and small groups. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. teams. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. but it can also be used with pairs. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. the exchange of questions stops. and the student answers as fully as possible. 21 . 5. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. When the student has finished answering. 3. In addition. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. 6. After they have both read the passage. the teacher models good questioning strategies. 2.
D. Reference: Farr.. Journal of Reading... Strickler. Inc.). IN: PRC. A. (1991).. D.T. Peterson. S. 123-126.). (1969). Inc. (formerly Advanced Technology. Inc. B. Indianapolis.Taken from: Godt. Manzo. P. M. Indianapolis. IN: PRC. & Ehlmann. (formerly Advanced Technology. R. 13. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). & Cripe.. Inc. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).V. (1990). 22 . Jensen. ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning.
Strickler. 2. DE: International Reading Association. T. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). 36. Inc. Raphael. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). D.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. (1982). R.E. Inc. Stephenson. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN).. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). Raphael. (1990). The Reading Teacher.). Question-answering strategies for children. B. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide).. & Cripe. 23 . QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. Newark.E. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. IN: PRC. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1.. (formerly Advanced Technology. Indianapolis. 2. QARS revisited. (1985). T. S.
Estimate. respond.). P. In C. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. Read. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. orally. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. read. When students formulate questions. Respond. Henrichs. If students are working individually. Crowley. After reading. D. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. M. Students read the text silently. D. Owen Publishers. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. 2. Gilles. S. (1988). and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. & Gilles. Crenshaw. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. Students generate questions about the reading. 3. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. 44-45). Pyle (Eds. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. After a text has been chosen and distributed. the teacher demonstrates the process. & D. they share oral retellings with their partners. Reynolds. or with a partner in paired reading. Respond. ERRQ. Read. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. students react. F.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. Further information: Watson. MO: University of Missouri. 24 . and question. Bixby. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. 1. New York: Richard C. Question. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. C. 5. (1979) Columbia. Developed by: Watson. they have to think about what they know in a different context. M. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion.. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference.
(1989). Teaching good habits with think-alongs. 25 . 94. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. WHY: HOW: 2. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. 1. B. R. Farr. Journal of Reading.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. 44-47. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Educational Leadership. Prediction of what might occur next. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. (1983). 26(2). Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. After the demonstration. 47(3). Activation and connection of prior knowledge. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Make a list on the chalkboard. Further information: Davey. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters.
Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. D. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. F. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. The king who rained. Overland Park. NY: Windmill Books and E. Inc. Dutton. (1970). 26 . I wonder if I will ever get married. KS: Research & Training Associates. New York. (1994). What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer.P.
Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. to include the entire school. Overland Park. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. R. KS: Research & Training Associates. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. 27 . How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. (1994). There is only one classroom per grade. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. Inc. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served.
1. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). stopping at natural points for student interaction. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. verbs. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. cumulative structure. adjectives.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. and other conventions of print. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. At the end of this reading. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. repetition. Big print and big pictures get attention. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. Using texts that include rhyme. WHY: HOW: 28 . Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. 2. The teacher reads the text aloud. word order. 4. punctuation symbols. nouns. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. 3. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed.
IL 60656 Learning Well. P. San Diego.O. Box 7501. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. Western Publishing. MD 21157 Rigby. P. Roslyn Heights.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers.O. CA 92127 29 . 2 Computer Drive West. 200 South Service Road. NY 11577 Random House. Jefferson City. Chicago. Albany. Department DF. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. IL 60014 Scholastic. Department 436. Westminster. 400 Hahn Street. 10949 Technology Place. Crystal Lake. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Box 797. MO 65102 Wright Group.
There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. or characters.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. 1. Some choose to write dialogue. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. 30 . Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. setting. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. 2. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. to other classes. or for parents’ programs. creating dialogue for the characters. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations.
Anno. M. New York: Dial Books. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. Briggs. . Four Winds. New York: Puffin. CA: Green Tiger Press. J. Bang. San Diego. Goodall. R. New York: Crowell. . The knight and the dragon. (1989). M. San Diego. Jacko. San Diego. . DePaola. . Anno’s USA. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Good dog. Bobo’s dream. (1970). The city. Carl goes to daycare. (1982). New York: Philomel. (1985). Pancakes for breakfast. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. . (1993). T. A. New York: Philomel. (1983).BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. (1974). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Felix. New York: Harcourt. 31 . Day. Window. (1981). The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. The snowman. New York: Philomel. . Carl. (1991). CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Harcourt. Carl’s afternoon in the park. (1991). Anno’s animals. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. New York: Harper & Row. J. Baker. CA: Green Tiger Press. Anno’s alphabet. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. M. M. Adventures of Paddy Pork. New York: Random House. (1968). (1979). (1980). (1980). (1972). . . Florian. . Creepy castle. (1993). Anno’s journey. Carl goes shopping. New York: Sandcastle. . (1978). (1980). (1975). (1986). D.
(1986). New York: Dutton. Little red riding hood. (1982). Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. F. (1981). New York: Viking Press. (1971). (1975). Changes. a dog. (1986). . New York: Dutton. New York: Dial Books. Take another look. New York: Macmillan. A boy. New York: Macmillan. (1977). New York: Dial Books. . M. Ah-choo.. The story of a castle. (1977). . . Humands. Puss in boots. San Diego. (1988). . April fools. New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. (1982). The mystery of the giant’s footprints. . New York: Margaret K. New York: Macmillan. The great ape. McElderry Books. New York: Macmillan. New York: McElderry Books. . CA: Green Tiger Press. CA: Green Tiger Press. San Diego. (1971). San Diego. New York: Atheneum. and a frog. Mayer. (1984). and a friend. Humages. (1984). T. (1982). Paddy goes traveling. . . New York: Macmillan. Paddy under water. A boy. CA: Green Tiger Press. Paddy to the rescue. . (1985). (1983). (1981). New York: Margaret K. Hoban. . New York: Dutton. Look again. . Mariotti. Lavinia’s cottage. . . New York: Greenwillow. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. M. (1990). McElderry Books. (1989). . (1967). P. New York: Macmillan. Story of an English village. changes. The story of a farm. . Naughty Nancy goes to school. (1978). a frog. Krahn. a dog. . (1979). New York: Dial Books. Hanimals. 32 . (1974). (1976). Hutchins. .
Tuesday. First snow. New York: Greenwillow. Moonlight. New York: Puffin. P. Rain. Vincent. New York: Dial Books. D. (1978). where are you? New York: Dial Books. J. (1991). Wiesner. (1986). Frog goes to dinner. Sunshine. New York: Greenwillow. Breakfast time. (1980). Picnic. . . (1987). Hiccup. McCully. . G. . New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Clarion Books. Spier. Ormerod. (1976). Turkle. . New York: Puffin. New York: Doubleday. (1984). (1985). Oops.. (1976). (1977). The bear and the fly. (1978). New York: Dial Books. (1988). New York: Harper. (1982). Junglewalk. Ernest and Celestine. Do not disturb. New York: Dial Books. B. New York: Doubleday. Winter. New York: Harper. 33 . (1985). (1980). (1982). E. Tafuri. . (1981). Frog. . N. New York: Dutton. New York: Greenwillow. P. . Deep in the forest. New York: Dial Books. Frog on his own. Dreams.
If the group has trouble deciding. 3. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. WHY: HOW: 34 . and places the parts in an envelope. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. They agree or disagree which is the first part. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. 1. 2. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. The teacher selects short.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. divides them into sections. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. well structured stories or informational pieces. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. they try to determine the sequence. 5. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. 4. 6. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section.
(1977). The read-aloud treasury. C. Portsmouth. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. (Eds. Haugaard. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book.). Further information: Harste. 35 . E.. New York: Scholastic. (1985). Oxenbury. New York: Weathervane Books. MO: University of Missouri. (1984). New York: Doubleday. New York: Alfred A. Short. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. Knopf. & Burke. J. (1974). Prelutsky. New kid on the block. S. (1978). & Calmenson. (1988). Just so stories. H. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. R. J. D.Developed by: Watson. 340-345). (1988). J.. NH: Heinemann. Kipling. New York: Barnes & Noble. K. Columbia..
E. New York: Harper & Row. Sam had been writing in a diary. and exploring. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. so she ignored him. to keep a daily log of his experiences. since the other swans couldn’t read. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. Sometimes he drew a picture. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. and the thoughts that he had had. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. When the eggs in the nest hatched. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. On one of these trips. 4.B. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. but without a trumpet sound. (1970). 3. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. 2. This example is a variation of using schema story. who had a real problem. He loved the beautiful Serena. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. the things that he had seen. For some time. fishing. or journal. The trumpet of the swan. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. but most of all. he couldn’t get her attention. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. That baby was Louis. However. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. 1. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. 36 .
S. Inc. KS: Research & Training Associates. 37 . Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Sensing the severity of the problem.5. Developed by: Crenshaw. His faith and determination eventually brought success. Overland Park. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. (1994).
Monster devastated the town of Anytown. at 7 p. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. KS: Research & Training Associates. 38 .000 pounds. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1.. which were in the path of the monster. At 320 feet and 8.000 pounds. It was 7 a. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. he doubled in size. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. Inc. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. 4. Mr.m. Amazing to say the least! 3. America. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow.000 pounds. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. 2. a very large. R. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. (1994). 1.000 pounds. After eating several prominent landmarks. Twelve hours later. America. The water tower was the next item on his menu. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. seemed to be a perfect dessert. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. Overland Park.m.000 pounds. The local police and fire departments. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home.
Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. and the authoring cycle. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. 39 . and focused conversations. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. story maps. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. partner reading. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. and sketches to represent understanding. logs. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. letters.
Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. 5. add new related ideas to the map. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Here students see how words or ideas are related. 4. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. 3. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. WHY: HOW: 40 . During discussion. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know.” “plot mapping.” and “semantic networking. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. 2. the general steps involved are: 1. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner.
Inc.E.D.) Reference: Heimlich. (1991). IN: PRC. Newark. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. Indianapolis. & Ehlmann. Jensen.. DE: Reading Aids Series. (formerly Advanced Technology. 41 . S. D. Inc. P.T. Other sources: Hanf. J. IRA Service Bulletin. (1971). M. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Pittelman.A. (1986). Journal of Reading.Taken from: Godt... M.
E. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. D. These materials could include posters. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. P. easy-toread trade books. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color.. S.. When the semantic map is completed. & Ehlmann. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. & Pittelman. filmstrips. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading. various high-interest. low-vocabulary reading materials. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.). Reference: Heimlich. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). (formerly Advanced Technology. (1986). DE: Reading Aids Series. Discuss each word. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. posters. 1. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. maps.. 3.. IRA Service Bulletin.T. J. Indianapolis. IN: PRC. Have students read the textbook material. Inc. and textbook or basal materials. pictures.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .) Have students review the other materials (e. 4. Newark. . before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. M. . Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map.D. Inc. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. Taken from: Godt. Jensen. 2. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. 42 . (1991). filmstrips.g.
Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). . For example. 2. and outcomes of the story. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 .Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . . important problems and episodes in the story. how the characters feel or react. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. On lines drawn from the circle. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. after reading 1. Write their ideas on the map. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. Louise’s friend. write key concepts or themes from the story. McCall Capt.
K. IN: PRC. & Ehlmann.. Inc. have students role-play or act out the story. add it to the map. J.). With the students.T. (1991). (1986). Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Indianapolis.E. S.D. & Pittelman.. As students find new information through this guided reading. P. Inc. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. Jensen. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. New York: Avon Books. Reference: Heimlich.. Newark. If appropriate. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. D.3. 4. (1980). The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. IRA Service Bulletin. 44 . M. DE: Reading Aids Series. (formerly Advanced Technology. Paterson. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. Taken from: Godt. Jacob have I loved.
Have students. for vocabulary development 1. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. 45 . Have students suggest labels for these categories. . An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. (1986). J. 3. in small groups or as a whole group. Discuss the group’s semantic map.. & Pittelman. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. 4. pointing out relationships and differences among words. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. DE: Reading Aids Series. Newark. if possible.E. As the instructor. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Reference: Heimlich. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept.D. IRA Service Bulletin. S. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. .
Before reading the textbook. S.E. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. 1. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. . 46 . (1986). students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. Next. & Pittelman. IRA Service Bulletin. . Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. In this final step of the procedure.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. DE: Reading Aids Series. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Newark. 3. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. 2. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. Secondary categories. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. Support details.. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it.D. J. Identification of main idea. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. Reference: Heimlich.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .
J.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. (1988). The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. 2. & Feathers. 353-357). The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. Burke. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. (1984). or viewing a text. Bloomington. K. K. C. IN: Indiana University. Siegel. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. They may listen to a text being read aloud. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. 47 . After revisiting the text. To demonstrate this strategy. & Burke. heard. The drawings may be used to generate writing.. J. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. 3. Students sketch while they are listening. or viewed. After reading. NH: Heinemann. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Short.. 1. Portsmouth. Further information: Harste.. It can be an individual or group experience.. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. C. M. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material.. hearing. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read.
as described in mathematical terms.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. trying out solutions. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. Divide the article up into five sections. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. 1972) in any curricular area. and revising where necessary. 23). Problem solving.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. (If the article contains a solution. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. acting on ideas. 48 . choosing strategies to use. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. determining a desired outcome. exploring. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. selecting possible solutions. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. and looking at the effects. then defining it more clearly. p. evaluating the outcomes.
New York: Freeman.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. learning.S. Based on: Bransford. and creativity. (1972). J. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously.D. Reference: Cohen. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. (1984). The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. 49 . & Stein.. B. 5). J. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. Thinking (p.
Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. Using or making a table. or manipulatives in problem solving. Making a guess and checking the result. 50 . objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. such as numbers. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Making a picture or diagram. spot missing data. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. materials.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. they guess the answer. Unfortunately. By taking an active role in finding the solution. which requires physical models for real understanding. Acting out problems. When problem solvers use this strategy. In this way. For some students. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Many problems are based on actions. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Making an organized list. First. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. There are two major ways of using objects. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. students must experience tangible realities. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. test to see if it is correct. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems.
J. then .” or “if something is true. . However. . A pattern may be numerical. Sunnyvale. visual. then . & Goodnow. & Clyne. the solver must make a series of computations. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. else. Simplifying the problem. especially when they begin to solve complex problems. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. then. (1987). (1988). Inc. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. NH: Heinemann. for this reason. . P. M.Using or looking for a pattern.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. (1991). Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. Hoogeboom. . . S. & Hyde. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . . By identifying the pattern. R. R. The problem solver 1. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. A. Portsmouth.. To solve certain problems. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. Using logical reasoning. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. . 51 . . Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. Working backwards. then . NH: Heinemann Educational Books. .” or “if .. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. A. or behavioral.” or “if something is not true. Mathwise. A pattern is a regular. Portsmouth.. Adapted from: Hyde. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. . CA: Creative Publications. . systematic repetition. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed.
. clarifying. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. and in fact the passage. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e.g. ask for help). The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. As they become more proficient. question generating. 52 . When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. new vocabulary. When students generate questions. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. unclear referent words. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. Furthermore. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph.g.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. When the students are asked to clarify. and predicting. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. are not making sense. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages.. subheadings. To do this successfully. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. reread. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. across paragraphs. Text can be summarized across sentences. and across the passage as a whole. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next.
As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. 2. but it is important that every student participate at some level. the students receive practice with each of them. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. 1. the dialogue begins. To illustrate. 53 . They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. For some students. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. points out anything that may have been unclear. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. predicts the upcoming content. For example. 3. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. This is a beginning. For the initial days of instruction. through modeling and instruction. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. and over time the teacher.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. leads the group in clarifying and. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. finally.
D. Harris & E. & Cripe. thinking. & Palincsar. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Inc. B. Strickler. Inc. Godt. A. Inc. IN: PRC. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities.Taken from: Farr. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1986). In Teaching reading as thinking (pp.T.). Reciprocal teaching.J. Alexandria. Cooper (Eds. Reading.S. 2(1). S.. self-control training.). Peterson.. Inc. & Brown. Palincsar.L. (1985).. Palincsar.. (formerly Advanced Technology. A. (1990). Indianapolis. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).. IN: PRC. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. & Ehlmann.. 5-10). R.S.” In T.). A. Jensen. (1991). A. New York: The College Board. P. (1982). A. M. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Indianapolis. 1-17. Further information: Brown. 54 . D..S.
Partner book selection.J. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Routman. In D. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. or teachers and students may be partners. Some students read aloud to each other. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. Further information: Gilles.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. R. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. 176-177). P. Portsmouth. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. 55 . others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Students from different classrooms may be partners. 2. Invitations (p. C. (1987). (1991). NH: Heinemann. 35). 1. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Watson (Ed. questions. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment.). Urbana. Ideas and insights (pp. and insights. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. & Crowley.. It encourages shared meaning. 2.
reactions. Columbia. Instead of writing. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. MO: University of Missouri. and they decide who will speak first. After reading the identified portion of the text. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. Creating classrooms for authors. or questions. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. The students take turns speaking first each time. Further information: Harste. 56 . The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. & Burke. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. 2. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. 1.. Each person listens and responds with comments. Short. 5. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. NH: Heinemann. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. (1988). C. D.. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Portsmouth. 4. 3. K. (1977). J.
and it can be used with all ages. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. Further information: Crafton.). Bloomington. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. Katonah. IN: Indiana University. Whole language: Getting started . L. (1977). Owen. Bloomington. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. Written conversation. (1977). C. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. C. Urbana. D. Burke. NY: Richard C. and content areas. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. (1991). . but it is a silent communication. (1987). moving forward (pp. Ideas and insights. In D. King. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. . IN: Indiana University. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. grade levels. Watson (Ed. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 195-198). 57 . Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling.
● When they write. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. which helps them in the composing process. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. they use a variety of options. acquire input. 1. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. and then discuss how the advice can be used.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. HOW: 58 . This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written.
The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. or discusses the process of reading or writing. or too tentative. Reading strategies and practices. J. & Dishner. comments may be off-base. Writing experiences contribute to reading. ● Model appropriate interactions.. Readence. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. 2. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. too general. found confusing. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. and might use) and fields questions and comments. R. E. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. 3. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. reads a section of the report or story. these conferences cannot take place. 59 . and in the beginning. second edition. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. Inc.J. After the reader/writer’s presentation.2. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. Adapted from: Tierney.K. (1985).E.. a compendium.
Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Ask. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. spiral notebooks. are intended for sharing. When everyone has finished. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. interesting ideas to explore. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. 3. ask students. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. a stapler. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. 4.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. The writer and reader are the same person. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. Try a variety of types to see what works best. 1. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Paper. variations of written conversation. opinions. or perplexing questions. 2. ideas for exploration. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. feelings. sharing insights. and questions of future consideration. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. 6. and collecting data to document learning. WHY: HOW: 60 . ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together.
or any other conventions of language. or common theme. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. When groups of students are working together on a project. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. and questions to extend learning. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. Many students dialogue with their teacher. topic. However. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. in a traveling journal. book. insights. Entries may include summaries.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. insights. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. story. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. or theme cycles. punctuation. feelings. the individuals write to each other. 61 . ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. question. similar to written conversation. responses. and questions to share with others. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts.
). (1987). Short. NH: Boynton/Cook.. NY: Richard C. . C. moving forward (pp. . 163-168). The journal book. (Ed. L. J. Katonah. K. Portsmouth. T. Owen. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Fulwiler. (1991). 62 . 280-285).. & Burke.Further information: Crafton. Harste. NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. (1988). Whole language: Getting started .
(This activity could be used for many figures. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon.” 63 .
What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. (1994). 64 . The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. S. Overland Park. Inc. Where did the story take place? 3. Regardless of the label. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. or reading response log. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. KS: Research & Training Associates. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. Who was your favorite character? Describe.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. it is a record of responses to reading literature. how? 5. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. such as reading journal. What was a problem in the story? 4. and thinking processes. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. writing. literature log. Did any of the characters change? If so. 2.
(1994). Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. Overland Park. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. or other countries. personal letters to family and friends. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. KS: Research & Training Associates. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. persuasive letters. other states. 2. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. 4. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. The sense of audience determines the format and language. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. business letters of application. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. After about ten minutes. S. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. 65 . What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. lead a discussion about the experience. or to state and national legislators. the school board president. Inc. the school superintendent. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. 1. Pen pal letters.
The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. 5. Prepare writer’s folder. the authoring cycle includes thinking. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. The teacher holds conference. revising. As a writing process. The teacher leads discussion about choices. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. Write name and date on paper. 4. 2. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. and publishing. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. a. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. 66 WHY: HOW: . Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. a. The students list two or three possibilities. b. Students follow these steps: 1. Write “draft #1” on paper. The students hold peer conferences. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. editing. 6. Think about experiences. Read and write materials of one’s choice. Conference. c. drafting. 3. Write first drafts. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. b. a. Choose topic. sharing.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. d.
Inc. (1992). (1988). D. The art of teaching writing. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. J. Parson. 13. D... NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. Calkins. Ideas and insights. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Graves. Watson. NH: Heinemann. Harste. Langer. Portsmouth. and parents. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. c. L. b. S. C. N. (Ed. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 10. D. Portsmouth. Edit to check the form or structure. Atwell. (1987). NH: Heinemann. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Urbana. Developed by: Crenshaw. Portsmouth. Murray. Moffett. J. I. (1994). KS: Research & Training Associates. 8. a. (1990). Writing in the real classroom. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Short. Portsmouth. NH: Heinemann. Invite the principal. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. NH: Boynton/Cook. (1989). punctuation. individual books. (1983).. Start another topic and keep the cycle going.. 67 . Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. Princeton. Active voice. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. A. ED 282 928). (1987).). Grammar. 11. 9. Portsmouth. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. 12. (1986).7. Have an author’s party. J. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Share the writing with other classes. Portsmouth. K. L. Overland Park. Writing: Teachers and children at work. librarian. and 17. (1991). & Burke. Further information: Applebee. or like materials. Portsmouth. class books. & Mullis.
These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. When a word ends in a silent final e. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. They are: 1. 2. 3. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. Develop own list. Try it first. When a word ends in a consonant and y. To encourage students to explore language structure. 89-90). pp. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. and spelling is a part of the editing process. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. HOW: 68 . but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. Create personal dictionaries. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. They teach and support each other. Sixty years ago. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. Use other resources. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. Work with a partner. Check four basic rules. As students learn the words. 1992. Editing is an important part of written communication.
Further information: Buchanan. Henderson.4. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. Check classroom display chart. Portland. (1980). Share mnemonic strategies. KS: Research & Training Associates. Newark. Urbana. Overland Park. Wilde. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. Developed by: Crenshaw. Frith. S. E. DE: International Reading Association. & Beers. Inc. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson.). These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. (1992). OR: Portland State University. 69 . E. (Ed. the i comes before e except after c. Wilde. You kan red this! Portsmouth.). (Eds. (1992). (1989). S. NH: Heinemann. Read. C. (1990). Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. Winnipeg. Cognitive processes in spelling. U. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Spelling for whole language classrooms. London: Academic Press.. J. S. (1981). When a word has the vowels i and e together. (1994).
Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.
Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?
Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?
Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.
S. Silverstein. Missouri. & Wood.. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. circles. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. D.. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. This may be the best response of all. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each.R. 1973. Pienkowski.. Share ideas in the discussion group. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. 1984.. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Keats. J. 73 . 1985. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason.. district teachers. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. and cycles. Arno. A. S. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton. E. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. (1992). Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree.. but as students gain experience. Literature sets. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words.J. Give no cues or prompts. 1985. E. 1964. that is. Often. Wood.
. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. J. Short. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. In the process. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. 3. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Creating classrooms for authors. Urbana. Sloyer. (1988). (1982). S. NH: Heinemann.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. C. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. As rehearsal continues. 74 . & Burke. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. When performing. K.. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Portsmouth. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. 5. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. After everyone reads the text silently. 4. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 2.
This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings.) 75 . (1987). Explore the various books in the text set collection. Lincoln: A photobiography. (Lincoln’s own writings.) Neely. List how books were alike or different. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. (Photos and text about Lincoln.).) Freedman. Decide how to share information with the larger group. author. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. the Ku Klux Klan. R. Be ever hopeful. 2. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. or genre. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. New York: Clarion Books. 3. New York: New American Library. (1964). contrast. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. 1. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Following are different ways to choose text sets. New York: McGraw-Hill. 5. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. (For reference and browsing. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. 1991). New York: Morrow. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. For example. Talk about differences and likenesses. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. (1988). In content areas. Hannalee. (Ed. illustrations.) Fehrenbacher. M. P. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. Hannalee. (1982). 4. D. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available.
New York: Harper & Row. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. historical fiction. Scarsdale. F. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Mazer. Snow bound. New York: Bradbury Press. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. J. George. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. 1990). (1981). Hatchet. (Reteller).To this list. Slake’s limbo. For example. Of course. F. Steel. and informational books could be used. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. New York: Viking Press. (1969). NJ: Prentice-Hall. National Geographic articles. A. Scarsdale. Paulsen. Lang. high fantasy. J. H. 2. (Reteller). a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. nonfiction trade books. T. (1987). 3. 76 . Tattercoats: An old English tale. Steig. New York: Windmill Books. G. (1974). Sylvester and the magic pebble. poetry. Julie of the wolves. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. Strega Nona: An old tale. (1975). (1972). (Reteller). Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. My side of the mountain. W. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. (1959). realism. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. (1973). Holman. social issues. New York: Bradbury Press. other genres such as biography. (1976). New York: Scribner. New York: Delacorte Press. New York: Dutton. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. Englewood Cliffs.
(1980). P. A summer day. — 77 . D.. M. New York: Macmillan. 4. This book is about time. (1985). Z. Werner. In The Face of Danger).. B. New York: Scholastic. The oak tree. & Maestro.. & Co... Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. New York: Four Winds Press. Caught in the Act. Brown.. Dillon. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. (1987). M. (1988). Scarsdale. years from around the world. G. New York: Bantam Books. & Popov. B. (1987). 5. Boston: Little. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. R. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). D. Chengliang. E. (1985). G. E. R. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. (1978). NY: Bradbury Press Maestro.. and refrain). Kirst. (1988).. Peterson. Sendak. Text Set for Older Children Anno. Nixon.. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. Carle. Dillon. (1989). M. Woodstock. Burns. (1977). New York: Crowell. Chicago: Children’s Press. Neasi. Brooks. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. Anno. Anno’s sundial. New York: Harper & Row. (1986). Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. NY: Beekman Publishers. (Dates variable). Fisher. (1978). J. Brendan’s best-timed birthday.Family problems Byers. Cracker Jackson. L. Hayashi. A minute is a minute. B. months. A Place to Belong.. M. New York: Philomel. A. New York: Crown Publishers. D. rhyme. All in a day. L. (1986). Jack and the Beanstalk versions. Calendar art: Thirteen days. Briggs. New York: Viking Kestral.. The very hungry caterpillar. New York: Philomel. K. (1987). weeks. Danziger. (1987). N. Time. The sun’s day. Calvi. New York: Philomel. Coats. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. L. Gerstein. Gould. M. Florian. (1988). The Great Gilly Hopkins. but for different age groups. New York: Greenwillow Books. Through the year with Harriet.
Owen. Students can read award winners from previous years.). L.).G. Norwood.). (1981). Publishers. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. Inc. Urbana. . C. DC: American Council on Education. NY: Richard C. (1992).E. Washington. Moss. J. Katonah.E.M. Moir. Urbana. High interest easy reading. (Ed. Literature study. Inc. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. MO: University of Missouri. Short. (Ed. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. NH: Heinemann. Further information: Crafton. Wirth. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. (1992). (1992). Creating classrooms for authors. C. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Portsmouth. (1988). Tway. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. N. Harste. Matthews. Urbana. Reading ladders for human relations. S. . C. Publishers. & Roser. NH: Heinemann. H.L. (Ed.. (1991). Hinton). Owen. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. Hinton. 78 . E.).C. & Burke. J. — — — Reference: Gilles. Webb. (1993). J. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning.. & Dudley-Marling.A. (1988). Rhodes. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. (Ed. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. (1994). J. Virginia Hamilton). D. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. New York: Richard C. C. L. Katonah. phase II. Portsmouth. (1990). K..). Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. Columbia. Boston. Jensen. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. or the male characters of S. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. (Eds. (1993). S. Whole language: Getting started . Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. Taxel.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. (Ed. (1988).). Roald Dahl. Urbana. Moving forward.
79 . (1991). T. Further information: Vacca. K. Columbia. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.. (1992). MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Case studies in whole language. & Rasinski. R.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland.
A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. 1. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. Criteria for topic. Identifying available resources. Selecting a topic. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. 3. skills. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. 6. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Writing a proposal for a research project. Developing research procedures.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. WHY: HOW: 80 . 5. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. 2. 7. Using semantic webbing. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. Implementing the project proposal. After the proposal has been approved. determine which subtopics are manageable. and strategies using many learning processes. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Determining purposes of the research project. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses.
how-to books. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. videotapes and audiotapes. San Bernardino. murals. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. displays. puzzles. B. computer programs. Culminating activities. models. Adapted from: Flores. time lines. skinny books. (1988). Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. newsletters. topic-oriented alphabet books. 81 . field guides for scientific subjects. or newspapers. posters. dramatic scripts. CA: CSU — School of Education.8. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. games. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. articles for class magazines. mobiles.
B.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. San Bernardino. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. (1988).) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. CA: CSU — School of Education. Older children fill it out for themselves. 82 .
issue. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. (1988). ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. San Bernardino. 83 . CA: CSU — School of Education. questions. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. and the methodology of a research project. and rationales. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. B. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. the purpose. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. Adapted from: Flores.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale.
San Bernardino. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. B. CA: CSU — School of Education. 84 . (1988).
graphs. What conclusions does it support? 4. In K. time lines role-playing. & Y. Goodman. socio-drama folk art. drop the ones that don’t fit. songs and dances. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. interviews. L. The whole language catalog (p. 85 . Goodman (Eds. CA: American School Publishers. Santa Rosa. tables. L. 2. (1991). 3. flowcharts. Review the questions.). Bird. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. 296). Once you have chosen your research topic. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. list everything you know about your topic. food museum kits 6. Supporting real research. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. and clarify the ones that do. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it.
Columbia. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. (1990). K. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. 86 .
(1990). PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. After recording their ideas. topics. The praise column is for positive comments. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. Working with at-risk learners. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. or focus studies. Journal of Reading. critically evaluate their learning. Write students’ comments on the chart. ask them to try a PQP on their own. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. texts. 33(7). Record some of these on the chart. After a particular presentation or lesson. 2. 3. 551. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. 87 .
I will try. L. J. or specific questions. Creating classrooms for authors. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. 2. NY: Richard C. or a theme unit. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. Additional ideas include one question they have.. (1991). NH: Heinemann. K. 4. Moving forward. Harste. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. Owen Publishers. the end of a week. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Portsmouth. one thing they will do to extend their learning. . When all exit slips are collected. a presentation. or ideas were presented. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. & Burke. or the end of a focused study. Inc. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. Short. . It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. the end of a day.. concepts. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. They may be used at the end of a class session. identified needs. C. and identify areas for further exploration. Others include I learned. and I need or I have a question. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. 88 . 1.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. 3. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. Whole language: Getting started . Katonah. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. When the lesson or study is completed. (1988).
90 . 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. Overland Park.February. 9209 West 110th Street. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher.. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. Inc.
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