region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

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Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

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Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.


● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.


the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.


Learning Strategies iv .

Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. A. 3. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. iv .LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. Questioning. K-W-L. and encouraging deeper understanding. assessing knowledge. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). 6. 5. 2. purpose. Exploring Text 1. and reformulating knowledge. reflecting on associations. W. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Think-Along. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. Brainstorming. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. The letters K. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Cloze. determining what they WANT to learn. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. directed reading. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. investigating ideas. 4. All contributions are accepted and recorded. 7. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. and confirming. It includes accessing prior knowledge. Prediction.

They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. clusters. 2. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. semantic webs. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Sketch to Stretch. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. v . 10. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. concept maps. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. a radio dramatization. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. well structured stories or informational pieces. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. a puppet show. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. Semantic Mapping. or structured overviews. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. schema diagrams. and places the parts in an envelope. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. The teacher selects short.8. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. divides them into sections. or a video production. or sometimes with minimal print. 9. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Wordless Books. B. Schema Stories. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. Big Books. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. thinking about. Expanding Meaning 1.

They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. ideas for exploration. 8. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. but they talk about their perceptions. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Dialogue Journals. b. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. questions. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Each person receives a text for reading and responding.3. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. and predicting. 7. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. Written Conversation. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. a. 9. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. Partner Reading. 4. or between two students. question generating. Journals and Logs. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. vi . Responding to Reading as Writers. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. Personal Journals. writing. clarifying. 5. and perplexing questions. Each person listens and responds with comments. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. sometimes they each read silently. Problem Solving. feelings. using invented spelling. or to say something related to the text. Say Something. and insights. or problem solving. reactions. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. Reciprocal Teaching. or doing both. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. 6. Someone is designated to speak first. or questions. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing.

11. Literature Study. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Readers’ Theatre. Reading Logs. After choosing a topic. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text.c. Learning Logs. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. Spelling Strategies. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. Different students serve as discussion leaders. After discussion. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. Entries may include summaries. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. 10. and revise their work. insights. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. letters of application. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. Letters. topic. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. Traveling Journals. or theme cycles. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. writing. reading. question. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. the individuals write to one another. Authoring Cycle. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. revising. including content area or research material. d. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. and questions to extend learning. Students are engaged in thinking. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. e. and friendly letters. invitations. vii . Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. notes. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. book. or common theme. and presenting their written work. written language. editing. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. This strategy is similar to written conversation. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. consumer awareness letters. 12. 14. sharing. There are pen pal letters. get suggestions from other students. When groups of students are working together on a project. story. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. letters to the editor. They share.

Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. 16. or a theme unit. texts. topics. Student Research. or focus studies. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. 17. a presentation. The praise column is for positive comments. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. 18. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. They may be used at the end of a class session. viii . Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. contrast. or the end of a focused study. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. the end of a week. However. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. the end of a day. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. Text Sets. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare.15. Exit Slips. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines.

All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. brainstorming. and confirming in a variety of situations. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. Students explore text through predicting.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. and analyzing and appreciating text. 1 .

. 7. Tierney. Harris & E. 2. Resample text. 1. Inform (give facts) b. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. Boston: Allyn Bacon.L. Confirm or adjust prediction. stopping at logical places. or reject.). Reading. J.J. Determine author’s purpose. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. (1990). Entertain (amuse) 3. a. & Dishner.K. thinking. Sample text.E. 6. & Brown. (1985).PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. E.. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. New York: The College Board. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.S. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c.J. 2 . confirm. R.. A.L.). Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Readence. Repeat the steps. Prove. 8. Cogen (Eds. 5. A. In T. 4.

Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. and validate or reject the predictions.” Predict. STEPS Activate background knowledge. Confirm or reject the predictions. Use with the next section of the selection. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. 3 . “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. make predictions. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. “Why do you think so?” Read silently.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. Let’s share our ideas. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections.

(1988). J. whole book. No book. R. Stauffer. The Reading Teacher.. Tierney. E.E.. Readence.Further information: Gill. Journal of Reading. Boston: Allyn Bacon.. New York: Harper & Row. J. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. R. & Bear.). 444-451. Haggard. (1990). (1988). and chapter DR-TAs.R. M. 4 . Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. & Dishner.G. 41. D. 526-535. (1969). Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed.T.J.R. 31.K.

5 . The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. some false) from the selection to be read. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. Students read selection.

THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. (1994). Overland Park. Inc. There are seven colors in each rainbow. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. 4. D.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. 3. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. AFTER reading the selection. KS: Research & Training Associates. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. Developed by: Seltzer. 2. Be prepared to defend your decision. 6 . Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. Personal Group Author 1.

The amount of space each color takes up varies. (1984). the light of the moon forms a rainbow. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. yellow. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. Inc. W. pp. indigo. green. Rainbow. which are difficult to observe. and red. 16. orange.J. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. Chicago: World Book.” Reprinted from: Saucier. 7 . But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. If the rain has been heavy. In The World Book Encyclopedia. blue. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. 125-126). (Vol.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun.

phrases.L. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. (1986). Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. (1990). it may be used to review and evaluate learning. words. Also. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Conceptual block busting. Further information: Adams. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. J. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. 8 . NC: Author. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. Research Triangle Park. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. 5. or statements. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. questions. All responses are accepted. Reading. 4. 1. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. 3. Inc.

the picture. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. etc. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . During this phase. etc. the teachers asks. Initial associations with the concept.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. Reflections on initial associations. see this picture. the teacher writes these responses on the board. the teacher says. “Based on our discussion. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. to listen to one another’s responses. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. . they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. It includes accessing prior knowledge. deleted. reflecting on associations. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. “What made you think of . 1. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. During the second phase. phrase. Through this procedure. . . have you any new ideas about . students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. In this first phase. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. 2. There are three phases to the PReP. (the word. 3. the students are asked.). and reformulating knowledge. . . assessing language use in expressing ideas. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. (you hear this word. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. In a brief introduction.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. or changed as a result of the discussion. .Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. and to become aware of their changing ideas. Reformulation of knowledge.

D. or root words). DE: International Reading Association. evidencing high integration of ideas. 1981). LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. J. S. R. 13(4). If the student has little prior information about the concept. IN: PRC. Newark.A.A. (1990). words that sound like the stimulus word. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. B. Peterson.. attributes. Langer.. Inc. They may also link the concept with another concept..T. & Nicolich. definitions. (formerly Advanced Technology. or analogies.). Inc. 1982. (1982). Langer & Nicolich. 10 . J. Journal of Reading Behavior. 153-156).” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. References: Langer.. . Strickler. Indianapolis.. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. & Smith-Burke. M. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. & Cripe. or defining characteristics. (1981). . (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. responses generally take the form of examples. M. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. suffixes. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when .) Taken from: Farr. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). 1981.

and what they have learned from reading the text. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. b. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. 11 . K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. First. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. In this way. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. 1986). they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. c. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. In classroom testing. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. a. The letters K. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. Second. determining what they WANT to learn. 1. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. what questions they want answered. Third. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. Group instruction. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. When disagreements and questions emerge. W. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process.

2. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. R. Mason (Eds..C. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. Reference: Ogle. Roehler. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).W. E.E. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. Indianapolis.). Hillsdale. 12 . (1977). Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition.T. Further information: Anderson.C. D. Assessment of learning. Spiro.). & W. P. M. (formerly Advanced Technology. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading... As they read. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. C. 4. In G. Inc. Reading. Inc. Jensen. Taken from: Godt. New York: Longman. (1984). 39(6). After the group introduction to the topic. & Smith. Montague (Eds. (1986). Anderson. R. In R. IN: PRC. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge.). (1991). Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. D. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. & Ehlmann. The Reading Teacher. Duffy.J.M. L. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Anderson. Individual reflection. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. 564-570. At this time. 3. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.L. & J.

WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 564-570. (1986). 13 .M. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. 39(6). D. The Reading Teacher.

W. spits poison 2. food 3.C. 45(4). has a long tongue 3. eats spiders Categories 1. M. eats bugs 2. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. T. small animals 1. description 2. jumps 3. (1991). what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. gray 1. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. 303. & Gee. The Reading Teacher..Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. 14 .

The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. relates to children’s experiences. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. 1. the book Alexander and the Terrible. the teacher lists them on the board. 2. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). During the completion of the oral cloze. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. very [bad] day. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . For example. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. horrible. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. Horrible.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. word length clues. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues.” 3. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). As the teacher reads aloud. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. including random deletion (every __nth word). no good. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. provides many alternatives for discussion. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. Very Bad Day (Viorst. No Good. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process.

E. J. Reference: Viorst. 218-220).G. The Reading Teacher. The Reading Teacher. Englewood Cliffs. (1977. (1982). Schoenfeld. NJ: Prentice Hall. Newark.E. DE: International Reading Association. very bad day.Z. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. Further information: Blachowicz. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. L.L.A. New York: Macmillan.. & Readence. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. F. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. J. newspapers. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Helping children learn to read (pp. J. (1989). Rye. or lyrics to popular songs. horrible. C. Alexander and the terrible. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. 16 . (1980). Working in teams of two or three. 34(2). (1980). Exeter. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. (1972). magazines. Jongsma. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. 4. no good. Cloze activities for primary readers. Cloze instruction research. 300-302. Searfoss.W. December). 147-151.

Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. ducks. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. were sheep. There were horses to chickens. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. cats. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. pigs. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. There were There were horses to pigs. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There were sheep. pick and eggs to . . pigs. pick and were so many interesting explore. After supper. geese. After supper. ducks. there the coal oil lamp. and dogs into butter and other eating. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. There was cream to eating. chickens. 17 . were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. feed and care for. cats. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. ducks. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. After supper. feed and care for. cats. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. . and dogs to feed and care for. chickens.

pigs. ducks. There horses to ride and cows to milk. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. T feed and care for. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. d cks. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. c l m lk. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. There gather. ducks. so many interesting things to do. ch ck ns. After supper. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. t ll st r 18 . there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. chickens. geese. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. and dogs to feed and care for.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. There was cream to c eating. . Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. There After supper. There chickens. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. There were t and cows to milk. pigs. p gs. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . cats. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. There were horses to r . th r l l mp. cats. c ts.

and their writing. during. Questions are tools for engaging attention. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. 1. assessing knowledge. and using text and in solving problems. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. investigating ideas. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. their reading. and after reading. interpreting. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. the following questions may help students before. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. and encouraging deeper understanding.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. creative thinking.

(1983). then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions. . . . 20 . Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. Inc. 3. & Kelly. ? How did you decide . . The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). Further information: Munkins. (1995).D.P. L. . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. . Questioning. ? What if . ? Why did you . . a path to critical thinking. . Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . .2.. . Urbana. . If the focus is on literary text. ? What else could you do . MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. F. refer to the section on literature response logs. Boston.). ? How do you know that . . ? Reference: Christenbury. P.

After they have both read the passage. the teacher models good questioning strategies. When the student has finished answering. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. the exchange of questions stops. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. and/or small groups. 6. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. 5. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. 3. but it can also be used with pairs. and the student answers as fully as possible. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. 21 . By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. teams. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. 4. teams. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. In addition. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. and small groups. 2. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher.

Taken from: Godt.. & Cripe. (formerly Advanced Technology. B. A. Indianapolis. Inc. P. Journal of Reading. IN: PRC. Peterson.). 123-126. D. (1991). Manzo.).. Inc.. (1990).. IN: PRC. & Ehlmann. S. Strickler. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Inc. M. 22 . Inc. 13. (1969).T.V. (formerly Advanced Technology. Jensen. D.. Indianapolis. R. Reference: Farr. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).

2. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). IN: PRC. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). DE: International Reading Association. T. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). Indianapolis.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1.E. (1985). Stephenson. Raphael. (1990).. S. (1982).). Question-answering strategies for children. 36. & Cripe. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). The Reading Teacher. Inc..E. R. D. (formerly Advanced Technology. Raphael. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure.. Strickler. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. T. QARS revisited. Inc. Newark. 2. B. 23 . The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME).

they share oral retellings with their partners. P. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. (1988). Reynolds. Further information: Watson. respond. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. M. they have to think about what they know in a different context. D. (1979) Columbia. Read. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. Developed by: Watson. Students generate questions about the reading. Respond. S. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. Students read the text silently. Bixby. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. 5. Estimate. & D. and question. Owen Publishers. students react. 24 . In C. M.. the teacher demonstrates the process. 2. F. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. or with a partner in paired reading. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. Crowley. Question. Gilles. After reading. C. orally. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. New York: Richard C. Crenshaw. MO: University of Missouri. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. ERRQ.). 3. After a text has been chosen and distributed. & Gilles. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. Respond. If students are working individually. Henrichs. D. 1. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. Read. read. When students formulate questions. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. 44-45). Pyle (Eds.

Prediction of what might occur next. 25 . It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. WHY: HOW: 2. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. 47(3). Make a list on the chalkboard. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Further information: Davey. R. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. (1983). Farr. Journal of Reading. (1989). Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. 1. After the demonstration. 94. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. 26(2). Educational Leadership. B. 44-47. Teaching good habits with think-alongs.

F. 26 . Overland Park.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. (1970). Inc. Dutton. KS: Research & Training Associates. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. (1994). NY: Windmill Books and E. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. The king who rained. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. D. I wonder if I will ever get married. New York.P.

How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. R. Overland Park. There is only one classroom per grade. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. (1994). Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. to include the entire school. KS: Research & Training Associates. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. 27 .Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. Inc. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party.

The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. Using texts that include rhyme. At the end of this reading. punctuation symbols. WHY: HOW: 28 . word order. verbs. The teacher reads the text aloud. and other conventions of print. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. adjectives. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. cumulative structure. nouns. 3. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. 4. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. Big print and big pictures get attention. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. repetition. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. 2. 1. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. stopping at natural points for student interaction.

Box 797. P. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Department DF. P. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue.O. San Diego. Department 436. Chicago. Crystal Lake. MD 21157 Rigby. Roslyn Heights. Jefferson City. 400 Hahn Street. 200 South Service Road. IL 60014 Scholastic. NY 11577 Random House.O. 10949 Technology Place. Western Publishing. 2 Computer Drive West.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Box 7501. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. MO 65102 Wright Group. CA 92127 29 . Westminster. IL 60656 Learning Well. Albany.

Some choose to write dialogue. 2. or characters. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. or for parents’ programs. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. 30 . There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. creating dialogue for the characters. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. to other classes. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. 1.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. setting.

New York: Philomel. J. Four Winds. (1993). T. M. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1980). 31 . (1980). Pancakes for breakfast. Anno’s animals. New York: Harcourt. Carl goes to daycare. Anno. (1989). . Carl goes shopping. The knight and the dragon.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. The snowman. San Diego. . (1993). CA: Green Tiger Press. CA: Green Tiger Press. . New York: Dial Books. . (1968). Felix. R. A. (1985). Window. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. New York: Harcourt. New York: Philomel. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Bobo’s dream. New York: Philomel. New York: Crowell. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. . Good dog. Briggs. (1972). Goodall. The city. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. M. J. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. (1982). San Diego. New York: Puffin. (1986). Bang. (1975). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. D. Day. Carl. . (1983). Anno’s journey. (1970). Anno’s alphabet. Creepy castle. M. San Diego. (1980). Florian. (1979). (1978). . New York: Sandcastle. Jacko. M. (1974). . Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1981). Carl’s afternoon in the park. New York: Random House. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Baker. (1991). (1991). Anno’s USA. New York: Harper & Row. DePaola. . .

. (1989). New York: Atheneum. The story of a farm. A boy. New York: Margaret K. A boy. . Little red riding hood. Krahn. . . The story of a castle. San Diego. New York: McElderry Books. . Mariotti. . New York: Macmillan. a dog. New York: Dial Books. New York: Macmillan. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. Paddy to the rescue. (1985). New York: Macmillan. Story of an English village. New York: Dial Books. Paddy goes traveling. The great ape. . (1982). New York: Dutton. . 32 . New York: Dutton. Ah-choo. (1990). T. Paddy under water. Humages. M. (1982). San Diego. (1971). New York: Viking Press. (1975). . New York: Macmillan. (1967). Hoban. (1977). New York: Macmillan. (1974). New York: Macmillan. . (1986). (1976). CA: Green Tiger Press. San Diego. (1986). M. (1981). . (1978). Take another look. New York: Dial Books. . changes. Mayer. a dog. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. and a friend. . (1977). . (1971). . Puss in boots. (1981). Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. . Naughty Nancy goes to school. CA: Green Tiger Press. Lavinia’s cottage. and a frog. Humands. . McElderry Books. Changes. P. (1984). (1988). (1983). (1979). McElderry Books. . New York: Macmillan. April fools. (1982). New York: Margaret K. F. . New York: Macmillan. New York: Dutton. Hanimals. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1984). New York: Greenwillow. Look again. Hutchins. a frog.

Frog. B. (1986). (1984). (1988). where are you? New York: Dial Books. Frog goes to dinner. (1981). Spier. (1982).. Oops. . . New York: Puffin. G. (1977). New York: Dial Books. The bear and the fly. (1987). D. . (1978). New York: Greenwillow. New York: Greenwillow. (1980). N. Ernest and Celestine. (1976). New York: Dutton. Junglewalk. Picnic. New York: Harper. (1985). P. Deep in the forest. Tuesday. New York: Harper. Vincent. New York: Crown Publishers. (1976). New York: Dial Books. (1980). Hiccup. E. New York: Doubleday. New York: Dial Books. . Winter. . Ormerod. (1985). (1982). (1991). McCully. . (1978). Dreams. P. Wiesner. . Tafuri. New York: Doubleday. Rain. . Do not disturb. New York: Dial Books. Moonlight. Sunshine. First snow. J. 33 . New York: Greenwillow. New York: Puffin. New York: Clarion Books. Frog on his own. Turkle. Breakfast time.

give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. they try to determine the sequence. The teacher selects short. and places the parts in an envelope. 1. well structured stories or informational pieces. They agree or disagree which is the first part. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. If the group has trouble deciding. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. 6. 3. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. 4. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. WHY: HOW: 34 . The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. divides them into sections. 5. 2. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language.

Just so stories. (1985). C. New York: Weathervane Books. MO: University of Missouri. Prelutsky. E.). Knopf. Portsmouth. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. (Eds. & Burke.Developed by: Watson. (1974). Further information: Harste. S. Oxenbury. (1988). H. (1978). The read-aloud treasury.. & Calmenson. 35 . R. Haugaard. Columbia. Kipling. 340-345). J. J. J... New York: Doubleday. New York: Barnes & Noble. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. New kid on the block. New York: Scholastic. NH: Heinemann. New York: Alfred A. (1984). D. (1988). K. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. (1977). Short.

he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. but most of all. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. On one of these trips. fishing. who had a real problem. 3. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. E. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. (1970). Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. Sometimes he drew a picture. to keep a daily log of his experiences. He loved the beautiful Serena. since the other swans couldn’t read. When the eggs in the nest hatched. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. This example is a variation of using schema story. For some time. The trumpet of the swan. 1. 4. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. and exploring. or journal. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. However. New York: Harper & Row. the things that he had seen. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. he couldn’t get her attention. Sam had been writing in a diary. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. 2. but without a trumpet sound.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. so she ignored him. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. That baby was Louis. 36 . During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group.B. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. and the thoughts that he had had. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections.

S. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. KS: Research & Training Associates. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. His faith and determination eventually brought success.5. Sensing the severity of the problem. Inc. Developed by: Crenshaw. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. 37 . Overland Park. (1994). He also wanted to win Serena’s love.

000 pounds. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. which were in the path of the monster.. 2. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. at 7 p. It was 7 a. Twelve hours later. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. Overland Park. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower.m.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. Mr. Inc. 1. The water tower was the next item on his menu. The local police and fire departments. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home.000 pounds. seemed to be a perfect dessert. (1994). Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4.000 pounds.000 pounds. America. Amazing to say the least! 3. America. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. 38 . a very large. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. KS: Research & Training Associates. At 320 feet and 8. After eating several prominent landmarks.m. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. 4.000 pounds. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. he doubled in size. R.

The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. letters. story maps. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. and the authoring cycle. and sketches to represent understanding.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. logs. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. and focused conversations. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. partner reading. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. 39 .

” “plot mapping. 3. Here students see how words or ideas are related. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. 2. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. 5. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. the general steps involved are: 1. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. add new related ideas to the map. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. 4. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another.” and “semantic networking. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. During discussion. WHY: HOW: 40 .

. & Pittelman.. S.) Reference: Heimlich. J. M. D. & Ehlmann. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Inc. Newark. 41 .A. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). (formerly Advanced Technology. IN: PRC. P. Inc. Journal of Reading. Jensen. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. (1971). (1991).E. M.Taken from: Godt. IRA Service Bulletin. DE: Reading Aids Series. Other sources: Hanf.T.. Indianapolis.D. (1986).

filmstrips. 1. Jensen. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk..E. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. Inc. posters.. maps. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. (1991). and textbook or basal materials. . low-vocabulary reading materials. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. Reference: Heimlich. Indianapolis. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. filmstrips. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. 42 . Discuss each word. DE: Reading Aids Series. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. J. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook.g. 3. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic.. (1986). before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. & Ehlmann.D. These materials could include posters. Have students read the textbook material. M.. . Newark. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. When the semantic map is completed. (formerly Advanced Technology.) Have students review the other materials (e. 2. Inc. S. P. IN: PRC. & Pittelman. easy-toread trade books. IRA Service Bulletin. pictures. various high-interest. Taken from: Godt. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading.T.). Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. 4. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . D.

Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . important problems and episodes in the story. and outcomes of the story. For example. Write their ideas on the map. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. write key concepts or themes from the story. . how the characters feel or react. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. 2. after reading 1. Louise’s friend. . McCall Capt. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. On lines drawn from the circle. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 .

T. Taken from: Godt. Inc. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. J. S. With the students. K.D. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. (1991). & Pittelman.. Paterson. D.. (formerly Advanced Technology. Newark. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. If appropriate. P. As students find new information through this guided reading.. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). IN: PRC. 4. Indianapolis. (1986). have students role-play or act out the story. Jacob have I loved. IRA Service Bulletin.). M. add it to the map. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. 44 . Inc. DE: Reading Aids Series. Reference: Heimlich.E.3. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. Jensen. New York: Avon Books. & Ehlmann. (1980).

in small groups or as a whole group. pointing out relationships and differences among words. IRA Service Bulletin. DE: Reading Aids Series. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. Newark. S. . if possible. 3. 4. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. Have students suggest labels for these categories. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. Discuss the group’s semantic map. Reference: Heimlich. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. As the instructor. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.D. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. (1986). .E. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. & Pittelman. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. 45 . you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. for vocabulary development 1. Have students.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . J.. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map.

Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. J. Secondary categories. Support details. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. S. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. In this final step of the procedure. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . 1. & Pittelman. . 3.. . (1986). Identification of main idea. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. Newark. 46 . 2. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter.D. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. Next. Before reading the textbook.E. IRA Service Bulletin. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. DE: Reading Aids Series. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Reference: Heimlich. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. (If sections in the text have not been labeled.

(1988). 47 . Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. Portsmouth. M.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. Bloomington. Short. hearing.. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. It can be an individual or group experience. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. K. & Feathers. & Burke. K. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. They may listen to a text being read aloud. NH: Heinemann. or viewing a text. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Siegel. IN: Indiana University.. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. J. 353-357). students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. heard. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. To demonstrate this strategy. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. 2. After revisiting the text. (1984). C. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read.. The drawings may be used to generate writing.. C. 1. Burke. Students sketch while they are listening. or viewed.. Further information: Harste. After reading. 3. J. Creating classrooms for authors (pp.

Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. selecting possible solutions. and looking at the effects. evaluating the outcomes. Problem solving. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. 48 . critical thinkers about what they read and hear.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. choosing strategies to use. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. 1972) in any curricular area. p. Divide the article up into five sections. acting on ideas. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. then defining it more clearly. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. as described in mathematical terms. determining a desired outcome. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. (If the article contains a solution.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. 23). This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. trying out solutions. and revising where necessary. exploring.

and creativity. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. 49 .S. Reference: Cohen. 5). J. Thinking (p. Based on: Bransford.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. New York: Freeman..D. (1984). J. B. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. & Stein. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. (1972). learning. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co.

Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. By taking an active role in finding the solution. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. materials. Making a guess and checking the result. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. which requires physical models for real understanding. Many problems are based on actions. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. Making a picture or diagram. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. In this way. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. Using or making a table. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. or manipulatives in problem solving. Unfortunately. test to see if it is correct. First. spot missing data. Making an organized list. There are two major ways of using objects. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. For some students. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. Acting out problems. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. When problem solvers use this strategy. such as numbers. 50 . students must experience tangible realities. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. they guess the answer.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects.

.” or “if . A pattern may be numerical. . CA: Creative Publications. the solver must make a series of computations. By identifying the pattern. & Clyne. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving.Using or looking for a pattern. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. Hoogeboom. Working backwards. (1991). 51 . To solve certain problems. M. . The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . then. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. Portsmouth. Inc. .” or “if something is not true. J. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Mathwise. NH: Heinemann. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. R. S. Simplifying the problem. P.. or behavioral. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. Using logical reasoning. else. . Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. A. .” or “if something is true. for this reason. . A pattern is a regular. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. then . Adapted from: Hyde. . activities for learning problem-solving strategies. visual. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem.. The problem solver 1. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. Portsmouth. & Hyde. then . R. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. . systematic repetition. & Goodnow. (1987).” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. especially when they begin to solve complex problems. A. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. (1988). . Sunnyvale. .. then . However.

The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. As they become more proficient. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. and across the passage as a whole.. and in fact the passage. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. unclear referent words. and predicting. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. subheadings. reread. Furthermore. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess.. When students generate questions. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages.g. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. clarifying. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. 52 . and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next.g. When the students are asked to clarify. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. across paragraphs. To do this successfully. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. ask for help). Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. new vocabulary. Text can be summarized across sentences. are not making sense. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. question generating.

the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. This is a beginning. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. For some students. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. the dialogue begins. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. 1. and over time the teacher. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. but it is important that every student participate at some level. points out anything that may have been unclear. predicts the upcoming content. 3. through modeling and instruction. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. For example. leads the group in clarifying and. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. finally. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. For the initial days of instruction. To illustrate. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. 2. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. 53 . the students receive practice with each of them. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read.

Palincsar. (formerly Advanced Technology. D. Cooper (Eds. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc. (formerly Advanced Technology.).Taken from: Farr. (1991). 5-10). Reading. & Palincsar. Indianapolis. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc.. 54 . S. & Ehlmann. Indianapolis. (1986). IN: PRC.. A. 1-17. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind.” In T.L. (1982). IN: PRC. R.). Reciprocal teaching. Peterson. Alexandria.). A... (1985). VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Harris & E. M.S. A. Inc.. (1990).J. Godt. New York: The College Board.S. thinking. A. Strickler. Jensen. & Brown. Palincsar. Further information: Brown. Inc. A.. & Cripe.T. P. B. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.S.. D. self-control training. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. 2(1).

Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. 2. 2.. R. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. Urbana. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. 35). Ideas and insights (pp. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. & Crowley. Routman. C. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. It encourages shared meaning. or teachers and students may be partners. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. (1991). Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. Partner book selection. Portsmouth. questions. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. Watson (Ed. Further information: Gilles.). (1987). 55 . NH: Heinemann. 176-177). In D. P. Students from different classrooms may be partners. and insights.J. Invitations (p. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. 1. Some students read aloud to each other. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction.

1.. & Burke. The students take turns speaking first each time. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion.. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. (1977). (1988). 5. D. 3. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. reactions. K. 2. After reading the identified portion of the text. 56 . or questions. and they decide who will speak first. Creating classrooms for authors. NH: Heinemann. MO: University of Missouri. Each person listens and responds with comments. 4. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. C. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. Short. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. Portsmouth. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. Columbia. J. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. Further information: Harste. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. Instead of writing.

IN: Indiana University. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. and it can be used with all ages. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Ideas and insights. IN: Indiana University. and content areas. C. Written conversation. Katonah. D. Urbana. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. Further information: Crafton. In D. (1977). King. Burke. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. Owen. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. . moving forward (pp. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. Bloomington. 195-198). Watson (Ed. L. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. . (1987). Bloomington. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. 57 . (1991). This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. C. grade levels. Whole language: Getting started . but it is a silent communication.). NY: Richard C. (1977).

Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. acquire input. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. 1. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. they use a variety of options. and then discuss how the advice can be used. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. ● When they write.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. which helps them in the composing process. HOW: 58 .

reads a section of the report or story. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. these conferences cannot take place. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. and might use) and fields questions and comments. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. Readence. or discusses the process of reading or writing.E. Writing experiences contribute to reading.. Reading strategies and practices.K. or too tentative. 3.2. Inc. too general. After the reader/writer’s presentation. a compendium. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing..J. second edition. 59 . comments may be off-base. E. 2. R. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. (1985). & Dishner. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. and in the beginning. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. ● Model appropriate interactions. Adapted from: Tierney. J. found confusing.

3. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. Ask. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. feelings. 1. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. Try a variety of types to see what works best. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. are intended for sharing. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. Paper. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. ask students. interesting ideas to explore. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. opinions. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. ideas for exploration. WHY: HOW: 60 . and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. 2. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. a stapler. When everyone has finished. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. 4. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. variations of written conversation. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. sharing insights. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. and questions of future consideration. 6. or perplexing questions. The writer and reader are the same person. spiral notebooks. and collecting data to document learning.

punctuation. book. Many students dialogue with their teacher. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. responses. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. similar to written conversation. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. However. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. insights. in a traveling journal. and questions to share with others. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. feelings. and questions to extend learning. or theme cycles. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. topic. When groups of students are working together on a project. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. story. or common theme. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. Entries may include summaries. 61 . Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. question. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. or any other conventions of language. insights. the individuals write to each other. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading.

163-168). L. 280-285). (1987). K..). (1991). NH: Boynton/Cook. Katonah. Portsmouth.Further information: Crafton. . Portsmouth.. NH: Heinemann. Fulwiler. NY: Richard C. The journal book. Short. T. Owen. . J. C. (Ed. Harste. moving forward (pp. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Whole language: Getting started . 62 . (1988). & Burke.

● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. (This activity could be used for many figures.” 63 .Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon.

Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. and thinking processes. it is a record of responses to reading literature. S. or reading response log. writing. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. such as reading journal. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. how? 5. (1994). KS: Research & Training Associates. literature log. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Did any of the characters change? If so. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. 64 . Who was your favorite character? Describe. What was a problem in the story? 4. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. 2. Overland Park. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. Where did the story take place? 3. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. Inc. Regardless of the label.

KS: Research & Training Associates. S. lead a discussion about the experience. Inc. 65 . other states. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. After about ten minutes. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. 2. 4. or other countries. (1994). Overland Park. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. personal letters to family and friends. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Pen pal letters. or to state and national legislators. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. the school board president. persuasive letters. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. business letters of application. the school superintendent. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. 1. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. The sense of audience determines the format and language. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft.

An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. 5. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. The students list two or three possibilities. a. drafting. Write name and date on paper. and publishing. Write “draft #1” on paper. c. Choose topic. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. b. The teacher leads discussion about choices. revising. a. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. sharing. Students follow these steps: 1. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. Read and write materials of one’s choice. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. b. 4. The teacher holds conference. Prepare writer’s folder. editing. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. a. 6. Conference.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. The students hold peer conferences. Write first drafts. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. As a writing process. the authoring cycle includes thinking. 66 WHY: HOW: . d. 3. Think about experiences. 2.

A. b. L. Graves. 9. Murray. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. 10. Have an author’s party. Edit to check the form or structure. (1992). Parson. D. N. NH: Heinemann. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. 13. D. ED 282 928). C. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. (1989). Further information: Applebee. KS: Research & Training Associates. I. Calkins. Active voice. individual books. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. (1986). and parents. J. Portsmouth. 67 . & Mullis. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. NJ: Educational Testing Service. Portsmouth. Princeton. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. (1990). Urbana. Inc. D. (Ed. a. NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. Watson. Writing in the real classroom. Writing: Teachers and children at work. 11.. (1983). & Burke. 8. librarian. NH: Boynton/Cook. Portsmouth. J. (1987).). K. c. Harste. or like materials. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann.7. class books. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. (1994). NH: Heinemann. Ideas and insights. Short. Portsmouth. and 17. Portsmouth. Developed by: Crenshaw. (1987).. Langer. Portsmouth. 12. (1988)... Share the writing with other classes. Moffett. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1991). L. J. Overland Park. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). S. NH: Heinemann. punctuation. The art of teaching writing. Atwell. Invite the principal. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Grammar. NH: Heinemann.

and spelling is a part of the editing process. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. Try it first. They teach and support each other. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. pp. Develop own list. Check four basic rules. have them try several spellings of a particular word. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. As students learn the words. They are: 1. HOW: 68 . Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. 1992. Editing is an important part of written communication. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. 3. 2. Use other resources. Create personal dictionaries. Sixty years ago. When a word ends in a silent final e. Work with a partner. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. When a word ends in a consonant and y. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. 89-90). double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. To encourage students to explore language structure. Known words may be deleted and new ones included.

Further information: Buchanan. the i comes before e except after c. (1980). Wilde. Check classroom display chart. (1981). OR: Portland State University. London: Academic Press. (1992).).. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. S. & Beers. NH: Heinemann. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. C. Cognitive processes in spelling. (Ed. (1994). 69 . Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. (1992). Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. Newark. Inc. Winnipeg. Developed by: Crenshaw. E. KS: Research & Training Associates. When a word has the vowels i and e together. Overland Park. S. (1989). E. U. (Eds. J. Spelling for whole language classrooms. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations.). DE: International Reading Association. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson.4. Frith. Share mnemonic strategies. Read. You kan red this! Portsmouth. (1990). Portland. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. S. Urbana. Wilde. Henderson.



Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.


Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.


Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.



A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.


Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. Keats. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.. (1992). they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. Wood.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. circles. 1973. 73 . Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Share ideas in the discussion group.. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Pienkowski. Give no cues or prompts. This may be the best response of all. 1964. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. 1984.. Silverstein. S. but as students gain experience. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words.R. D. E. Arno. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters.. Literature sets. J.J. district teachers. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. 1985. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. Often. A. & Wood. that is. and cycles. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. S. E. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. 1985. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones.. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean.. Missouri.

Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. Sloyer. K. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. Creating classrooms for authors. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. C. 74 . WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. NH: Heinemann. (1982). In the process. Portsmouth. & Burke. When performing. 5. As rehearsal continues. Short. After everyone reads the text silently. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Urbana.. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. (1988). J. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. S. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. 2. 4. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Distribute copies of the script to each reader.. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. 3.

New York: Morrow. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. Hannalee. P. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. (Lincoln’s own writings. illustrations. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. (Ed. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. 3. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. New York: McGraw-Hill.) Fehrenbacher. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. Talk about differences and likenesses. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. Explore the various books in the text set collection. 4. List how books were alike or different. or genre. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. (1987).TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. D. author. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. New York: New American Library. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. the Ku Klux Klan. For example. and blacks and whites after the Civil War.) Freedman. Following are different ways to choose text sets. Hannalee. (For reference and browsing. (1982). Students should form groups and do the following: 1. R. (1988). Lincoln: A photobiography. Be ever hopeful. New York: Clarion Books. (1964).) 75 . (Photos and text about Lincoln. 1.). 5. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. M. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Decide how to share information with the larger group.) Neely. contrast. 2. 1991). students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. In content areas.

(1974). Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. (1975). New York: Bradbury Press. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. Of course. New York: Dutton.To this list. A. F. and informational books could be used. 76 . (Reteller). students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. (1959). T. social issues. high fantasy. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. New York: Bradbury Press. W. For example. 3. (1969). facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. Englewood Cliffs. J. NJ: Prentice-Hall. historical fiction. (1981). Tattercoats: An old English tale. Hatchet. realism. (Reteller). 2. Steel. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. Mazer. nonfiction trade books. Slake’s limbo. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. Lang. J. (1972). New York: Delacorte Press. 1990). Steig. New York: Scribner. Sylvester and the magic pebble. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. other genres such as biography. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. Paulsen. Strega Nona: An old tale. Julie of the wolves. (1987). Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. My side of the mountain. George. F. (1976). New York: Windmill Books. (Reteller). New York: Harper & Row. G. (1973). poetry. New York: Viking Press. Snow bound. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. National Geographic articles. Scarsdale. Holman. Scarsdale. H.

D. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). Briggs. Boston: Little.. New York: Harper & Row. Florian. Kirst. Danziger. In The Face of Danger). A Place to Belong. M..Family problems Byers. M. Dillon. M. B. (1987). R.. (1989). Anno’s sundial. The sun’s day. Burns. Text Set for Older Children Anno. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. New York: Macmillan. Cracker Jackson. (1985). Gould. (1978). — 77 .. (1980). The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. The very hungry caterpillar. Coats. years from around the world. (1987). (1977). Woodstock. D. (1987). & Maestro. N. All in a day. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. D. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. K. New York: Philomel. New York: Crowell. A. This book is about time. M. Brown. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. and refrain). Time. B. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. (1988). New York: Philomel. P. (1986). (1986). Hayashi.. Anno. Werner.. NY: Beekman Publishers. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. Scarsdale. Dillon. (1985). Gerstein. G. 5. Caught in the Act. weeks.. Nixon. Jack and the Beanstalk versions.. A summer day. R. Z. A minute is a minute. New York: Bantam Books. rhyme. L. (1978). 4. E. G. E. New York: Scholastic.. (Dates variable). L. The Great Gilly Hopkins. Fisher. Brooks. B. L. Chicago: Children’s Press.. but for different age groups. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. J. Through the year with Harriet. Carle. M. (1988). Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. New York: Crown Publishers. Calvi. Sendak. New York: Viking Kestral. months.. New York: Greenwillow Books. & Popov. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. Calendar art: Thirteen days. Neasi. (1988). (1987). & Co. Chengliang. New York: Four Winds Press. Peterson. The oak tree. New York: Philomel.

MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. Matthews. (1992). (Ed. Norwood. (1988). Urbana. Hinton. (1990). J. Katonah.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. NH: Heinemann. K. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Urbana. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom.).M. phase II. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (Ed. Whole language: Getting started . H.. Owen. L. Moving forward. High interest easy reading. Moss. C. Jensen.G. Portsmouth. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. (1988). N. (1988). . Moir. & Dudley-Marling. Washington.). Webb. Taxel. J. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. C. C. Wirth. (1981). (1992). (1992). S. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Reading ladders for human relations. (Ed. Urbana. New York: Richard C.. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. E. J. Virginia Hamilton). generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. (1993). (Ed. Tway.). D. . Harste. Publishers. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. (1991). L. Publishers.). MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. NY: Richard C. (Ed.). Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. Inc. Katonah. S. Inc. Urbana. Further information: Crafton. 78 . DC: American Council on Education.L.E. Roald Dahl. J.E. or the male characters of S.C. Boston. NH: Heinemann.A. C. (Eds. Short. Rhodes. Literature study. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. (1993). (1994). Hinton). Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. — — — Reference: Gilles. MO: University of Missouri.. Owen.). & Roser. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Creating classrooms for authors. Columbia. Students can read award winners from previous years. Portsmouth. & Burke.

(1991). R. Case studies in whole language. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. & Rasinski. Further information: Vacca. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. K. (1992). 79 .Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland.. T. Columbia.

and strategies using many learning processes. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. Criteria for topic. 5. Developing research procedures. 1. Using semantic webbing. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. 6. 2. WHY: HOW: 80 . 7. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. What do they want to find out and why? 4. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. skills. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Selecting a topic. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. Implementing the project proposal. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. 3. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Identifying available resources. determine which subtopics are manageable. Writing a proposal for a research project. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. After the proposal has been approved. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Determining purposes of the research project.

skinny books. newsletters. models. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. (1988). Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. dramatic scripts. or newspapers. articles for class magazines. Culminating activities. topic-oriented alphabet books.8. Adapted from: Flores. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. 81 . field guides for scientific subjects. CA: CSU — School of Education. B. computer programs. time lines. posters. San Bernardino. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. murals. how-to books. puzzles. displays. videotapes and audiotapes. games. mobiles. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.

CA: CSU — School of Education. San Bernardino. (1988). 82 . Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. Older children fill it out for themselves. B.

(1988). Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. B. and the methodology of a research project. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. CA: CSU — School of Education. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. issue. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. questions. 83 . and rationales. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. San Bernardino. the purpose. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). Adapted from: Flores. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process.

Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. (1988). CA: CSU — School of Education. B.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. 84 . San Bernardino.

CA: American School Publishers. In K.). 3. Santa Rosa. and clarify the ones that do. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. Bird. socio-drama folk art. L. time lines role-playing. Goodman. (1991). list everything you know about your topic. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. drop the ones that don’t fit. Review the questions. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. The whole language catalog (p. songs and dances. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. & Y. Once you have chosen your research topic. Goodman (Eds. L. food museum kits 6. tables. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. 2. graphs. 296). interviews. Supporting real research. 85 . What conclusions does it support? 4. flowcharts.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others.

86 . (1990).Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. Columbia. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. K.

After a particular presentation or lesson. ask them to try a PQP on their own. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. critically evaluate their learning. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. Working with at-risk learners. or focus studies. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. After recording their ideas. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. topics. 33(7).PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. 2. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. texts. 3. (1990). 551. The praise column is for positive comments. Write students’ comments on the chart. Journal of Reading. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. 87 . Record some of these on the chart.

Katonah. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. I will try. Others include I learned. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. When the lesson or study is completed. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. 2. Owen Publishers. & Burke. the end of a week. 4. identified needs. Inc. concepts. or specific questions. the end of a day. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. or the end of a focused study. or ideas were presented. C. Short. They may be used at the end of a class session. 1. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. Creating classrooms for authors. and I need or I have a question.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. J. . (1988). 88 . Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. K.. NH: Heinemann. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance.. Portsmouth. one thing they will do to extend their learning. 3. Whole language: Getting started . Moving forward. NY: Richard C. Harste. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. When all exit slips are collected. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. L. . the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. and identify areas for further exploration. or a theme unit. a presentation. (1991). Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. Additional ideas include one question they have.

89 .

9209 West 110th Street.. Inc.February. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. 90 . Overland Park.

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