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Learning Strategies Resource Guide
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46
Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.
WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.
Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.
● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.
HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.
the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.
Learning Strategies iv .
6. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. determining what they WANT to learn. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. All contributions are accepted and recorded. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. Questioning. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Brainstorming. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. iv . Questions are tools for engaging attention. K-W-L. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. 2. Think-Along. directed reading. It includes accessing prior knowledge. and confirming. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. 3. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. investigating ideas. reflecting on associations.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. 5. Exploring Text 1. purpose. Cloze. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. 7. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. and reformulating knowledge. and encouraging deeper understanding. The letters K. W. A. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. assessing knowledge. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. 4. Prediction. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW.
or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. a radio dramatization. Wordless Books. Sketch to Stretch. 10. B. thinking about. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. or structured overviews. 9. schema diagrams. or a video production. divides them into sections. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. well structured stories or informational pieces. concept maps. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. Big Books. a puppet show. Schema Stories. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. The teacher selects short. or sometimes with minimal print. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. Semantic Mapping. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps.8. semantic webs. and places the parts in an envelope. clusters. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. v . Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Expanding Meaning 1. 2.
reactions. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. Personal Journals. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. clarifying. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. Someone is designated to speak first. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Written Conversation. question generating. and insights. Problem Solving. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. Partner Reading. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. b. writing. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. or to say something related to the text. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. or questions. a. feelings. Say Something. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. or doing both. or between two students. but they talk about their perceptions. or problem solving. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. using invented spelling. 7. 4. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. and predicting. 8. Each person listens and responds with comments. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. sometimes they each read silently. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions.3. 6. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. questions. 5. and perplexing questions. 9. vi . Reciprocal Teaching. ideas for exploration. Dialogue Journals. Journals and Logs. Responding to Reading as Writers. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together.
insights. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text.c. editing. and questions to extend learning. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. vii . letters to the editor. and revise their work. get suggestions from other students. After discussion. Students are engaged in thinking. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. topic. Traveling Journals. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. and presenting their written work. question. Authoring Cycle. Literature Study. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. sharing. Readers’ Theatre. 11. 14. invitations. the individuals write to one another. There are pen pal letters. Spelling Strategies. notes. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. writing. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. d. reading. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. Learning Logs. and friendly letters. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. or common theme. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. Letters. letters of application. Entries may include summaries. When groups of students are working together on a project. Reading Logs. 12. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. e. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. including content area or research material. After choosing a topic. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. They share. consumer awareness letters. written language. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. Different students serve as discussion leaders. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. book. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. revising. story. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. 10. or theme cycles. This strategy is similar to written conversation. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices.
Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. The praise column is for positive comments. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. or focus studies. 16. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. topics. contrast. 17. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. They may be used at the end of a class session. the end of a day. However. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. Student Research. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. or the end of a focused study. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. Text Sets. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. or a theme unit. the end of a week. Exit Slips. texts. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. and make connections in a reading discussion group. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare.15. viii . 18. a presentation.
All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. and confirming in a variety of situations. Students explore text through predicting. and analyzing and appreciating text. 1 .Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. brainstorming.
and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. or reject.E. 5. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. thinking. A.J. 6. (1990). Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. confirm.). & Brown. & Dishner. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. R. Entertain (amuse) 3. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed.K. 1. Resample text.. Cogen (Eds. Sample text. Boston: Allyn Bacon. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. stopping at logical places. Confirm or adjust prediction..S. Tierney. 2 .). E. 2. Prove.. In T. Reading. Harris & E. Determine author’s purpose.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. a. New York: The College Board. A. Repeat the steps. (1985).J. Inform (give facts) b. 8.L.L. J. 4. Readence. 7.
” Predict. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. make predictions. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. Let’s share our ideas. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. Confirm or reject the predictions. 3 . Use with the next section of the selection. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. STEPS Activate background knowledge. and validate or reject the predictions. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle.
New York: Harper & Row. whole book. (1969).K. 31.T. & Bear.. Stauffer. J. R. No book. 41. Readence. The Reading Teacher. 444-451. Boston: Allyn Bacon.G. D. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. R.J. (1988).Further information: Gill. and chapter DR-TAs.E.. 526-535.R. Tierney. (1988). J. Journal of Reading. M. 4 .).. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. & Dishner. Haggard. E. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. (1990).R.
5 . Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. Students read selection. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. some false) from the selection to be read. Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text.
Be prepared to defend your decision. 2. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. Overland Park. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. AFTER reading the selection. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. KS: Research & Training Associates. There are seven colors in each rainbow. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. (1994). Personal Group Author 1.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. Inc. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. 3. 6 . Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. 4. D. Developed by: Seltzer.
which are difficult to observe. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. Chicago: World Book. yellow.” Reprinted from: Saucier. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. and red. 16. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. blue. 125-126). It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun.J. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. green. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. the light of the moon forms a rainbow.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. (Vol. Rainbow. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. 7 . This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. (1984). W. The amount of space each color takes up varies. indigo. orange. In The World Book Encyclopedia. If the rain has been heavy. Inc. pp.
Conceptual block busting. Inc. Research Triangle Park. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. questions. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2.L. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. (1986). MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. or statements. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. 1. Reading. 8 . Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. phrases. All responses are accepted.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. words. 4. J. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. (1990). 5. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. Also. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. NC: Author. 3. Further information: Adams.
)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. 1. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . (the word. reflecting on associations. (you hear this word. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. and reformulating knowledge. the teacher writes these responses on the board. During the second phase. phrase. . have you any new ideas about . or changed as a result of the discussion.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. . assessing language use in expressing ideas. The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. There are three phases to the PReP. the teacher says. see this picture. deleted. the students are asked. During this phase. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. etc. In a brief introduction. Reformulation of knowledge. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. It includes accessing prior knowledge. to listen to one another’s responses. Reflections on initial associations. etc. 3. . and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. the picture. . . After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. . Initial associations with the concept. 2. the teachers asks. students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know.). Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. “Based on our discussion. Through this procedure. “What made you think of . and to become aware of their changing ideas. In this first phase. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience.
J..). Newark. or defining characteristics.. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . (1982).. D. or analogies. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. responses generally take the form of examples. B.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts.. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. Strickler. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. Langer. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). & Smith-Burke. They may also link the concept with another concept. Inc. & Nicolich.T. IN: PRC. R. & Cripe. (formerly Advanced Technology. 1981). J. If the student has little prior information about the concept. References: Langer. attributes. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. definitions. Langer & Nicolich.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. DE: International Reading Association. 1981. words that sound like the stimulus word. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. M.. 153-156). Peterson. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. S.A. 13(4). or root words). (1981). or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. . evidencing high integration of ideas. 1982. M. suffixes. (1990).) Taken from: Farr.A. 10 . Inc. Indianapolis. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. Journal of Reading Behavior. .
and what they have learned from reading the text. W. 1. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. 1986). First. Third. a. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. Second.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. Group instruction. In this way. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. what questions they want answered. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. c. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. 11 . the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. The letters K. determining what they WANT to learn. When disagreements and questions emerge. In classroom testing. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. b. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature.
The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise.2.). Indianapolis. 3. R. New York: Longman. D. & Ehlmann. Inc.). Individual reflection. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge.L. & W. In R. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. IN: PRC. 564-570. 4. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. (1991). Further information: Anderson. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition.). Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved.W. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. (1977). Spiro. Taken from: Godt. Anderson. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. D. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks.E.. Reference: Ogle. Anderson. (1984). & J. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. C. Mason (Eds. Inc. Assessment of learning. Hillsdale. (1986). 12 . Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). E. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. (formerly Advanced Technology. As they read. At this time.C. M. Duffy. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. Roehler.. After the group introduction to the topic. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions.J.T. P.C. The Reading Teacher. 39(6). Reading. L.. In G. Jensen.M. & Smith. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. R. Montague (Eds.
13 .WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 564-570.M. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. D. (1986). The Reading Teacher. 39(6).
303. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies.W. 14 . spits poison 2. The Reading Teacher. has a long tongue 3. 45(4). T. jumps 3. small animals 1. eats spiders Categories 1. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. description 2. & Gee. (1991). gray 1.. M. food 3.C. eats bugs 2.
The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. including random deletion (every __nth word). and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). horrible. the book Alexander and the Terrible. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). word length clues. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. As the teacher reads aloud. No Good. very [bad] day. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. 1. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . provides many alternatives for discussion. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. relates to children’s experiences. no good. For example.” 3. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. the teacher lists them on the board. Horrible. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. 2. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. During the completion of the oral cloze. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. Very Bad Day (Viorst.
16 . Exeter. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. L.L. Working in teams of two or three. Jongsma. Searfoss. & Readence.G. 34(2). Rye. E. horrible. The Reading Teacher. New York: Macmillan.Z. The Reading Teacher. Schoenfeld. (1972).W.E. Alexander and the terrible. Students share their predictions and justify their choices. J. J. Further information: Blachowicz. 147-151. 300-302. 218-220). Helping children learn to read (pp. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. (1980). Englewood Cliffs. J.. no good. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. C. Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. newspapers. Newark. magazines. December). DE: International Reading Association. Reference: Viorst. or lyrics to popular songs.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. (1982). Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. Cloze instruction research. (1989).A. (1977. F. 4. very bad day. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. (1980). Cloze activities for primary readers. NJ: Prentice Hall.
geese. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. After supper. ducks. ducks. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. cats. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. After supper. pick and were so many interesting explore. There were horses to chickens.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. there the coal oil lamp. pick and eggs to . Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. There were There were horses to pigs. 17 . was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. and dogs to feed and care for. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. feed and care for. chickens. feed and care for. . were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. After supper. pigs. cats. chickens. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. were sheep. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. . There was cream to eating. There were sheep. and dogs into butter and other eating. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . pigs. ducks. cats.
there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. cats. There horses to ride and cows to milk. There were horses to r . Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. There After supper. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. There chickens. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. ch ck ns. ducks. T feed and care for. and dogs to feed and care for. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . c l m lk. There gather. c ts. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. t ll st r 18 . d cks. pigs. so many interesting things to do. cats. There were t and cows to milk. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. th r l l mp.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. pigs. chickens. geese. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. . After supper. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. ducks. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. p gs. There was cream to c eating. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d .
Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. interpreting. the following questions may help students before. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. and their writing. assessing knowledge. during. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. their reading. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. Questions are tools for engaging attention. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. creative thinking. and after reading. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. 1. and encouraging deeper understanding. investigating ideas. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. and using text and in solving problems. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking.
? What if . refer to the section on literature response logs. The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). . Questioning. Inc. P. . . & Kelly. Boston. ? How do you know that .D. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. .. Urbana. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. ? Why did you . . .). Further information: Munkins. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . . . F. 3. a path to critical thinking. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions.P. . Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed.2. . (1995). . 20 . ? Reference: Christenbury. If the focus is on literary text. ? How did you decide . ? What else could you do . . (1983). L.
The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. 6. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. teams. After they have both read the passage. teams. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. 4. 21 . In addition. and small groups. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending. When the student has finished answering. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. the teacher models good questioning strategies. the exchange of questions stops. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. and/or small groups. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. 5. 2. 3. and the student answers as fully as possible. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. but it can also be used with pairs. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1.
123-126. (formerly Advanced Technology. M. (1969). Peterson. ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Inc. Reference: Farr. & Cripe. Manzo. B. S. Inc. Journal of Reading. (1991). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). D. (1990). IN: PRC..V.T.Taken from: Godt. & Ehlmann. Indianapolis. Indianapolis. Inc. (formerly Advanced Technology. Jensen. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).). Inc. A.. 22 .. R. D. Strickler. 13.. P.. IN: PRC.).
Strickler. 36. & Cripe. Stephenson. T. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). (formerly Advanced Technology. R. Inc. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). The Reading Teacher. (1982).. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. 23 . T. Indianapolis. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE).E.. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). IN: PRC. Question-answering strategies for children. 2. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. D.).. S. 2. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. Raphael.E.Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. Raphael. Inc. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. B. Newark. (1985). Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). QARS revisited. (1990). DE: International Reading Association. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1.
2. D. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. Gilles. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. F. and question. Read. they share oral retellings with their partners. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. respond. Question. Crenshaw. P.. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. MO: University of Missouri. they have to think about what they know in a different context. If students are working individually. Pyle (Eds. the teacher demonstrates the process. (1979) Columbia. Henrichs. Read. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. New York: Richard C. Owen Publishers. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. 5. & D. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding.). Bixby. In C. 24 . orally. When students formulate questions. Students generate questions about the reading. 3. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. Developed by: Watson. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. S. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. D. & Gilles. Reynolds. Respond. M. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. Estimate. After reading. After a text has been chosen and distributed. C. students react. M. 44-45). (1988).Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. Respond. or with a partner in paired reading. ERRQ. Students read the text silently. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. read. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. Further information: Watson. Crowley. 1.
1. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Further information: Davey. (1989). 47(3). It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. (1983). Journal of Reading. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Make a list on the chalkboard. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. Educational Leadership. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. 25 . WHY: HOW: 2. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. 44-47. B. 94. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. R. After the demonstration. Farr.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. 26(2). Prediction of what might occur next.
D. F. (1970). Inc. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. NY: Windmill Books and E. The king who rained. 26 . (1994).P.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. Dutton. KS: Research & Training Associates. New York. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. Overland Park. I wonder if I will ever get married. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train.
Inc. How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. 27 . R. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. KS: Research & Training Associates. (1994). I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. Overland Park.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. There is only one classroom per grade. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. to include the entire school. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served.
1. word order. WHY: HOW: 28 . Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. The teacher reads the text aloud. verbs. and other conventions of print. repetition. Big print and big pictures get attention. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. 2. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. At the end of this reading. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. nouns. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. punctuation symbols. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. stopping at natural points for student interaction. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. cumulative structure. adjectives.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). Using texts that include rhyme. 3. 4. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. natural language flow and familiar subject matter.
IL 60656 Learning Well. 10949 Technology Place. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. Chicago. CA 92127 29 . Box 797. NY 11577 Random House. Box 7501. Roslyn Heights. Department DF. 400 Hahn Street. IL 60014 Scholastic. P. Crystal Lake. Jefferson City. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. P. 200 South Service Road. MD 21157 Rigby. Western Publishing. San Diego.O.O. Westminster. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. Albany. 2931 East McCarthy Street. MO 65102 Wright Group. Department 436. 2 Computer Drive West.
Some choose to write dialogue. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. setting. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. creating dialogue for the characters. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. or for parents’ programs. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. 2. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. 1. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures. to other classes. or characters.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. 30 .
Carl goes shopping. (1970). Bobo’s dream. M. Pancakes for breakfast. (1978). New York: Crowell. R. (1993). New York: Sandcastle. (1989). New York: Puffin. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. A. (1982). New York: Random House. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. Anno’s alphabet. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Harcourt. New York: Philomel. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. New York: Philomel. M. (1981). . (1986). (1972). CA: Green Tiger Press. Felix. (1980).BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. Good dog. Jacko. . . The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. (1979). DePaola. San Diego. Anno’s USA. . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The city. (1975). (1991). Four Winds. Window. New York: Harper & Row. . Anno’s animals. Day. New York: Dial Books. San Diego. Carl goes to daycare. J. (1991). (1968). Carl. Baker. The knight and the dragon. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Creepy castle. (1985). (1974). Goodall. . The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. The snowman. . . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Carl’s afternoon in the park. (1980). M. T. D. J. San Diego. CA: Green Tiger Press. . Anno. 31 . (1980). New York: Harcourt. Anno’s journey. (1993). M. Briggs. New York: Philomel. Florian. Bang. . (1983). Adventures of Paddy Pork.
Hanimals. T. The great ape. (1978). Humands. P. . (1981). New York: Dutton. (1971). CA: Green Tiger Press. . Hutchins. a dog. (1983). (1974). Puss in boots. . . . New York: Macmillan. (1982). Look again. Krahn. (1985). New York: Macmillan. Paddy goes traveling. . F. (1984). (1989). Changes. New York: Macmillan. and a frog. . New York: Dutton. (1986). . New York: McElderry Books. San Diego. Mariotti. (1977). New York: Macmillan. (1984). New York: Viking Press. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. New York: Dial Books. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. A boy. (1990). Naughty Nancy goes to school. New York: Dial Books. Mayer. McElderry Books. . New York: Dutton. changes. . Story of an English village. CA: Green Tiger Press. McElderry Books. . San Diego. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. New York: Margaret K. (1979). Humages. M. . (1986). Little red riding hood. (1982). . New York: Margaret K. . (1982). The story of a castle. New York: Macmillan. San Diego. A boy. Paddy to the rescue. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Atheneum. Paddy under water.. (1971). M. (1975). (1988). The story of a farm. Ah-choo. (1977). a dog. Lavinia’s cottage. New York: Macmillan. . New York: Dial Books. . 32 . (1976). a frog. Take another look. New York: Greenwillow. . Hoban. and a friend. (1967). New York: Macmillan. (1981). . New York: Macmillan. April fools.
33 . D. Junglewalk. N. (1978). New York: Dial Books. where are you? New York: Dial Books. (1980). Frog on his own. (1976). Ormerod. Hiccup. . New York: Dial Books. P. McCully. . P. Ernest and Celestine. Deep in the forest. New York: Greenwillow. Do not disturb. Frog. New York: Dial Books.. Sunshine. New York: Doubleday. New York: Clarion Books. Turkle. Tuesday. (1982). (1986). New York: Dutton. . . (1977). (1976). Moonlight. (1988). B. Winter. . . Spier. Oops. New York: Doubleday. (1985). (1984). New York: Harper. E. Frog goes to dinner. First snow. G. . (1991). J. Rain. Vincent. New York: Greenwillow. Dreams. (1978). New York: Puffin. New York: Greenwillow. Wiesner. . New York: Puffin. New York: Dial Books. New York: Harper. Picnic. (1980). Breakfast time. (1981). Tafuri. (1982). (1985). The bear and the fly. (1987). New York: Crown Publishers.
WHY: HOW: 34 . Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. If the group has trouble deciding. They agree or disagree which is the first part. well structured stories or informational pieces. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. divides them into sections. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. 6. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. 3. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. 1.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. and places the parts in an envelope. The teacher selects short. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. 4. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. they try to determine the sequence. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. 2. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. 5. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order.
New York: Barnes & Noble.). New York: Alfred A. Further information: Harste. NH: Heinemann. & Burke. 340-345). C. (1978). J. S. (1988).Developed by: Watson. New York: Scholastic. (1988). D. & Calmenson. Prelutsky. The read-aloud treasury. (1974). E.. Knopf. (1985). Portsmouth. J. Kipling. H. J. Oxenbury. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. Columbia. K. (1984). New York: Doubleday. Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole.. Haugaard. Just so stories. (Eds. 35 . MO: University of Missouri. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1977).. New kid on the block. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. Short. R. New York: Weathervane Books.
and exploring. When the eggs in the nest hatched. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. For some time. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. This example is a variation of using schema story. but without a trumpet sound. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. since the other swans couldn’t read. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. (1970). This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. That baby was Louis. he couldn’t get her attention. On one of these trips. or journal. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. fishing. who had a real problem. the things that he had seen. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. New York: Harper & Row. He loved the beautiful Serena.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. to keep a daily log of his experiences. 4. The trumpet of the swan. 3.B. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. E. Sometimes he drew a picture. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. but most of all. 1. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. 2. and the thoughts that he had had. 36 . Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. Sam had been writing in a diary. However. so she ignored him.
Inc. S. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. Overland Park. 37 . His faith and determination eventually brought success. Developed by: Crenshaw. (1994). Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena.5. KS: Research & Training Associates. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Sensing the severity of the problem.
(1994). Monster devastated the town of Anytown. 4. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. The local police and fire departments. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. 1. 2.. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4.000 pounds. Mr. seemed to be a perfect dessert. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. After eating several prominent landmarks. America.000 pounds. R.m. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. a very large. Inc.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. at 7 p. 38 .m. Twelve hours later. KS: Research & Training Associates. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. The water tower was the next item on his menu. which were in the path of the monster. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. It was 7 a. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. Overland Park. he doubled in size. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size.000 pounds. Amazing to say the least! 3. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation.000 pounds. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. America. At 320 feet and 8.000 pounds. Developed by: Burns-Stowers.
and the authoring cycle. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. logs. and focused conversations. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. partner reading. story maps. and sketches to represent understanding. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. 39 .Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. letters.
4. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. add new related ideas to the map. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. During discussion. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. 5.” “plot mapping.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. 3. the general steps involved are: 1. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. 2. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner.” and “semantic networking. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. Here students see how words or ideas are related. WHY: HOW: 40 . and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map.
IRA Service Bulletin. IN: PRC. Journal of Reading.A.D. S.) Reference: Heimlich. 41 . (1971). & Pittelman. D. M. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Indianapolis. M. Jensen. Inc. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking.Taken from: Godt.. (1991).T.E. (formerly Advanced Technology. & Ehlmann. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Newark. J.. DE: Reading Aids Series. Inc. (1986).. Other sources: Hanf. P.
J. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. Jensen. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. Inc. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. 3. 4. and textbook or basal materials. IN: PRC. & Pittelman. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. When the semantic map is completed.) Have students review the other materials (e. Discuss each word. maps.T. various high-interest. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. . Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook.g. pictures. D. S. Have students read the textbook material. Taken from: Godt. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. 1. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. M. Indianapolis. (formerly Advanced Technology. . List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. P. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. filmstrips. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color.. IRA Service Bulletin. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). 42 . Reference: Heimlich.). & Ehlmann. (1986). easy-toread trade books. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. DE: Reading Aids Series.E. Inc. posters. low-vocabulary reading materials.. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading.D. filmstrips. (1991). Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. 2.. These materials could include posters.. Newark.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .
important problems and episodes in the story. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. McCall Capt. after reading 1. write key concepts or themes from the story. how the characters feel or react. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. and outcomes of the story. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). . For example. 2. . Louise’s friend. On lines drawn from the circle. Write their ideas on the map. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story.
Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. Jacob have I loved.3. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. New York: Avon Books. Jensen. Taken from: Godt. 44 . If appropriate. With the students. Paterson. IN: PRC. (1980). S.. Indianapolis. Newark.T. D.D. M. K. add it to the map. (1991). As students find new information through this guided reading. have students role-play or act out the story. J. DE: Reading Aids Series. & Ehlmann.. (formerly Advanced Technology. IRA Service Bulletin.). & Pittelman. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. P. Reference: Heimlich. (1986). 4. Inc. Inc. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map.E.
. Have students. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. in small groups or as a whole group. Newark. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story.. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. IRA Service Bulletin.E. Discuss the group’s semantic map. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Have students suggest labels for these categories. for vocabulary development 1. 3. S. (1986). brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. pointing out relationships and differences among words. 4. J. DE: Reading Aids Series.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. . 45 . & Pittelman. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2.D. if possible. As the instructor. Reference: Heimlich. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list.
. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. Support details. Next. Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. & Pittelman. Before reading the textbook. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. Identification of main idea. In this final step of the procedure.E. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter.. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. Secondary categories. Reference: Heimlich. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. (1986). There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. 3. DE: Reading Aids Series. 2. S. J. 1. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. .D. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Newark.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . IRA Service Bulletin. 46 . students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map.
After reading. J. Portsmouth. 3. NH: Heinemann. Siegel. After revisiting the text..SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. To demonstrate this strategy. & Feathers. M.. C. Burke. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. 1. 353-357). students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. Further information: Harste. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. (1988). The drawings may be used to generate writing. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. J. Bloomington. K. K. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. (1984). Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. 47 . WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. They may listen to a text being read aloud. hearing. or viewing a text. Students sketch while they are listening. Short. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. C. or viewed. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. 2. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. heard. IN: Indiana University. & Burke... Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group.. It can be an individual or group experience.
Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. trying out solutions. 48 . 1972) in any curricular area. choosing strategies to use. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. as described in mathematical terms.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. 23). but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. then defining it more clearly. Problem solving. Divide the article up into five sections. and looking at the effects. and revising where necessary. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. p. evaluating the outcomes. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. acting on ideas. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. determining a desired outcome. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. (If the article contains a solution. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. exploring. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. selecting possible solutions.
Thinking (p. Reference: Cohen. 5).. 49 . B. (1984).D. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. and creativity. Based on: Bransford.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. J. learning.S. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. J. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. (1972). New York: Freeman. & Stein.
Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. Making an organized list. materials. 50 . Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. In this way. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. By taking an active role in finding the solution. Using or making a table. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Making a picture or diagram. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. For some students. There are two major ways of using objects. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. they guess the answer. spot missing data. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. test to see if it is correct. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. Acting out problems. Many problems are based on actions. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. or manipulatives in problem solving. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Unfortunately. students must experience tangible realities. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. Making a guess and checking the result. When problem solvers use this strategy. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. such as numbers. which requires physical models for real understanding. First. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry.
To solve certain problems. A.. then . systematic repetition. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. A. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. Working backwards. else. . but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. (1988). J.. visual. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. & Hyde. Sunnyvale. Inc. . R. However. By identifying the pattern. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . M.. . & Goodnow. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. Simplifying the problem. A pattern may be numerical. . Hoogeboom. S. for this reason. R. Adapted from: Hyde. . Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. & Clyne. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. . the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. then . NH: Heinemann. . P. then. Using logical reasoning. (1991). . . activities for learning problem-solving strategies. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving.” or “if something is true. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. 51 . Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern.” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. Portsmouth. the solver must make a series of computations. Mathwise. . The problem solver 1. (1987). A pattern is a regular. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. . NH: Heinemann Educational Books. CA: Creative Publications.Using or looking for a pattern. or behavioral. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler.” or “if . Portsmouth.” or “if something is not true. especially when they begin to solve complex problems. then .
Text can be summarized across sentences. and in fact the passage. subheadings.. 52 . they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. ask for help). they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. To do this successfully. reread. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. across paragraphs. When the students are asked to clarify. Furthermore. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. new vocabulary. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. and predicting.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. When students generate questions. clarifying. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. question generating. and across the passage as a whole. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. unclear referent words. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity.g. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next.g. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. As they become more proficient. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. are not making sense.. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly.
the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. leads the group in clarifying and. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. finally. 3. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. For example. To illustrate. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. 2. and over time the teacher. the dialogue begins. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. predicts the upcoming content. but it is important that every student participate at some level. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. For the initial days of instruction. This is a beginning. 53 . providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. points out anything that may have been unclear. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. through modeling and instruction. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. For some students. the students receive practice with each of them. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. 1. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read.
A. M..S. S. P.. Inc. 2(1). Reading.. IN: PRC. Inc. (1982). Cooper (Eds. self-control training. A.Taken from: Farr. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1986). 1-17. A. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed. (1985). In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. Jensen. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Harris & E.. & Ehlmann. B. Strickler. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). IN: PRC. Indianapolis.S. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. Indianapolis. Inc.T. & Cripe. D. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. (1991). New York: The College Board. Inc. 5-10). A. 54 . (formerly Advanced Technology. Peterson. D.J. Palincsar. Reciprocal teaching.). Further information: Brown. & Brown. & Palincsar. thinking.).. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.. R. Godt. Palincsar. Alexandria.” In T.S. A. (1990).L..).
Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. P. 55 . Partner book selection. 2. and insights. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding.). NH: Heinemann. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. It encourages shared meaning. Urbana. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. Students from different classrooms may be partners. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. Routman. (1987). WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. 2. Invitations (p. (1991). 176-177). Some students read aloud to each other. R. or teachers and students may be partners. In D.J. 1. Watson (Ed. C. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently.. 35). & Crowley. The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. Further information: Gilles. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. questions. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. Ideas and insights (pp. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. Portsmouth.
Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. The students take turns speaking first each time. 4. 5. (1988). NH: Heinemann. After reading the identified portion of the text. Instead of writing. (1977). 56 . D. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. MO: University of Missouri. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. 1.. 2. and they decide who will speak first. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. or questions. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. Short. reactions. & Burke. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text.. 3. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. K. C. Portsmouth. Each person listens and responds with comments. J. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. Further information: Harste.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. Creating classrooms for authors. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. Columbia.
Written conversation.). (1977). Owen. D. In D. Bloomington. (1977). (1991). grade levels. Further information: Crafton. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. NY: Richard C. 57 . Katonah.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. King. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. and it can be used with all ages. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. Urbana. Whole language: Getting started . but it is a silent communication. moving forward (pp. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. C. 195-198). L. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. C. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. . . (1987). Watson (Ed. and content areas. IN: Indiana University. Burke. Bloomington. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. Ideas and insights. IN: Indiana University.
Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. ● When they write. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. they use a variety of options. acquire input. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. HOW: 58 . ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. 1. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. which helps them in the composing process. and then discuss how the advice can be used. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised.
found confusing. J. Inc. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. and might use) and fields questions and comments. & Dishner. 59 . E.K. (1985). a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. and in the beginning. a compendium. second edition. Adapted from: Tierney. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. ● Model appropriate interactions. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing.E. 3. Writing experiences contribute to reading. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. these conferences cannot take place. Reading strategies and practices. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. comments may be off-base.. 2. or discusses the process of reading or writing..2. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. After the reader/writer’s presentation. reads a section of the report or story. Readence. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. or too tentative. R. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. too general.J.
ideas for exploration. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. Paper. feelings.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. sharing insights. are intended for sharing. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. variations of written conversation. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. a stapler. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. spiral notebooks. and questions of future consideration. 4. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. The writer and reader are the same person. or perplexing questions. 2. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. 3. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. Try a variety of types to see what works best. 6. 1. WHY: HOW: 60 . Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. ask students. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. and collecting data to document learning. Ask. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. When everyone has finished. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. opinions. interesting ideas to explore.
However. the individuals write to each other. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. When groups of students are working together on a project. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. or theme cycles. feelings. 61 . Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. or any other conventions of language. Entries may include summaries. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. or common theme.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. in a traveling journal. story. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. insights. and questions to extend learning. insights. responses. punctuation. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. question. topic. and questions to share with others. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. Many students dialogue with their teacher. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. similar to written conversation. book.
(1991). (1988). Portsmouth. 280-285). Owen. J. NH: Boynton/Cook. The journal book. (1987). Katonah. NY: Richard C. 62 . Whole language: Getting started . . Creating classrooms for authors (pp. C. & Burke. (Ed.. L.. Fulwiler. Portsmouth.). Short. T.Further information: Crafton. NH: Heinemann. . K. Harste. moving forward (pp. 163-168).
Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon.” 63 . ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five. (This activity could be used for many figures.
Did any of the characters change? If so. What was a problem in the story? 4. S. Regardless of the label. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. 64 . (1994). Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. how? 5. Overland Park. Where did the story take place? 3. or reading response log. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. Inc. 2. such as reading journal. Who was your favorite character? Describe. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. literature log.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. and thinking processes. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. KS: Research & Training Associates. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. writing. it is a record of responses to reading literature.
KS: Research & Training Associates. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. The sense of audience determines the format and language. After about ten minutes. persuasive letters. lead a discussion about the experience. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. other states. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. 4. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. the school board president.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. personal letters to family and friends. Inc. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. the school superintendent. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Pen pal letters. 65 . Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. (1994). Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. Overland Park. 2. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. or to state and national legislators. or other countries. S. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. business letters of application. 1.
the authoring cycle includes thinking. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. Think about experiences. The students hold peer conferences. and publishing. 5. b. d. editing. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. 2. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. b. 4. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. sharing. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. c. As a writing process. a. 6.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. Choose topic. a. Prepare writer’s folder. Read and write materials of one’s choice. The teacher leads discussion about choices. Write name and date on paper. The students list two or three possibilities. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. Students follow these steps: 1. 66 WHY: HOW: . The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. a. Write first drafts. Write “draft #1” on paper. revising. drafting. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. 3. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. The teacher holds conference. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. Conference. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b.
NH: Heinemann. I.7. Portsmouth. (1992). N. Graves. D. D. Harste. NJ: Educational Testing Service. J. Atwell. A. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. or like materials. 13. Calkins. Writing in the real classroom. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Portsmouth. Developed by: Crenshaw. Princeton. 11. Urbana. Portsmouth. Overland Park. Edit to check the form or structure. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. D. NH: Heinemann. Invite the principal. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Further information: Applebee. (1990). Short. Portsmouth. (1994). L. punctuation. (1988). K. librarian. Parson. (1983). NH: Boynton/Cook. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. Portsmouth. 9. (1989). c. The art of teaching writing. Have an author’s party. Watson. (1987). L. (1986). J. 8.. Share the writing with other classes. J. KS: Research & Training Associates. Langer. Moffett. class books. 10. Ideas and insights. (Ed. b. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. 12. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.. and 17. & Mullis. & Burke. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann. NH: Heinemann.). Active voice. and parents. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. a. individual books. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. Grammar. Inc. Writing: Teachers and children at work. ED 282 928). (1987). Murray. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. S. 67 .. Portsmouth. Portsmouth. C. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. (1991). Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write..
As students learn the words. Check four basic rules. HOW: 68 . They are: 1. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Editing is an important part of written communication. When a word ends in a silent final e. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Try it first. Work with a partner. 3. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. Create personal dictionaries. When a word ends in a consonant and y. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. Sixty years ago. Use other resources.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. Develop own list. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. 1992. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. 89-90). They teach and support each other. and spelling is a part of the editing process. pp. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. To encourage students to explore language structure. 2.
U. Wilde. the i comes before e except after c. Wilde. Frith. (1990). S. Share mnemonic strategies. (1980). When a word has the vowels i and e together. C.4. (1992). OR: Portland State University.). Spelling for whole language classrooms.). Portland. J. You kan red this! Portsmouth. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. Newark. Winnipeg. Further information: Buchanan. E. (Eds. London: Academic Press. DE: International Reading Association. (1989). Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. (1992). S. Urbana. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. (1994). Inc. Cognitive processes in spelling. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Developed by: Crenshaw. Overland Park. Henderson. NH: Heinemann. & Beers. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. KS: Research & Training Associates. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. 69 .. Read. S. Check classroom display chart. E. (1981). (Ed. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed.
Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.
Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?
Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?
Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.
R. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. J. A.. Keats. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. D. Share ideas in the discussion group.. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. Often. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man... Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. district teachers. 1973. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. Give no cues or prompts. (1992). their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent.J. 1964.. 1985. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. Silverstein. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton. 1985. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason.. circles. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. and cycles. S. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. E. but as students gain experience. that is. 73 . Missouri. & Wood. Wood. Pienkowski. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. This may be the best response of all. 1984. E. S. Arno. Literature sets.
(1982). individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. 5. Sloyer. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. K. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. 4. In the process. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. C. J. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. Suggest some good resources for scripts. Urbana. 74 . Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. 3. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. & Burke. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Short. Portsmouth. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. (1988).READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. S.. After everyone reads the text silently. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. Creating classrooms for authors. 2. When performing. NH: Heinemann. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices.. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. As rehearsal continues.
or genre. R.) Neely. Lincoln: A photobiography. List how books were alike or different. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. (Ed. New York: Clarion Books. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. (Sequel to Turn Homeward. For example. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. 5. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. (1964). P. D. Be ever hopeful. (1987). M.) Freedman. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. author. New York: McGraw-Hill. Talk about differences and likenesses. New York: Morrow. (Photos and text about Lincoln. Hannalee. Following are different ways to choose text sets. 2. contrast. Hannalee. Explore the various books in the text set collection. In content areas. (Lincoln’s own writings. the Ku Klux Klan.) Fehrenbacher. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts.) 75 . 3. (1988). and blacks and whites after the Civil War.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. Decide how to share information with the larger group. 4. (1982). illustrations. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. (For reference and browsing. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton.). 1. 1991). Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. New York: New American Library. and make connections in a reading discussion group.
Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme.To this list. Scarsdale. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. New York: Scribner. 3. Englewood Cliffs. Of course. George. Strega Nona: An old tale. G. (1981). Slake’s limbo. (1959). New York: Windmill Books. (Reteller). (1976). students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. historical fiction. New York: Bradbury Press. Steig. 1990). (1969). realism. (Reteller). Julie of the wolves. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. New York: Bradbury Press. Tattercoats: An old English tale. New York: Delacorte Press. (1974). Lang. Holman. social issues. J. Paulsen. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. For example. Scarsdale. New York: Harper & Row. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hatchet. 2. Sylvester and the magic pebble. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. H. W. F. Steel. nonfiction trade books. high fantasy. A. My side of the mountain. T. (1972). New York: Viking Press. (1987). Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. (1973). New York: Dutton. National Geographic articles. (1975). 76 . and informational books could be used. poetry. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. other genres such as biography. Snow bound. (Reteller). Mazer. J. F.
Anno’s sundial. Calendar art: Thirteen days. The sun’s day.. New York: Greenwillow Books. Scarsdale. J. Coats. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). Brendan’s best-timed birthday. D. E. (1980).. Woodstock. Chicago: Children’s Press. A summer day. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. Gould. New York: Scholastic. 4. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. New York: Philomel. Boston: Little. D. (1978). Danziger. A. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. rhyme. Sendak. (Dates variable). NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. G. (1987). (1977). Neasi. D. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. The Great Gilly Hopkins. Z. P. — 77 . but for different age groups. L. Cracker Jackson. Burns. Brooks.Family problems Byers.. Peterson. All in a day. Carle. B. New York: Philomel. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. Through the year with Harriet. G. (1986). M. Hayashi. A Place to Belong. N. K. M.. NY: Beekman Publishers. Text Set for Older Children Anno. A minute is a minute. Gerstein. L. Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. New York: Crowell. The very hungry caterpillar.. (1987). Briggs. B.. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. Caught in the Act. months.. years from around the world. New York: Viking Kestral. Chengliang. New York: Crown Publishers. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. (1988). M. Time. (1987). Kirst. Anno. (1988). Dillon. (1985). The oak tree.. (1985). (1988). This book is about time. (1986). New York: Four Winds Press. New York: Harper & Row. Florian. B.. Calvi. & Popov. New York: Bantam Books. 5.. (1978). In The Face of Danger). R. and refrain).. Brown. R. M. Dillon. Werner. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. E. L. M. & Co. Fisher. weeks. Nixon. (1987). (1989). New York: Macmillan. & Maestro. New York: Philomel.
(1990). Literature study. Whole language: Getting started . Owen. J. Tway. (Ed. (1992). (1988). Owen. Publishers.E. J. (Ed.. — — — Reference: Gilles. Moss. Webb. MO: University of Missouri. L. (1988). generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. N.. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.). Urbana. or the male characters of S.E. Harste. Further information: Crafton. Hinton. C. Roald Dahl. (Ed. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. & Roser. DC: American Council on Education. (1993).). (Ed. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. S. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students.M. S. C. (1981).— Texts by the same author (Jean George. Moving forward. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Inc. Columbia. E. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. Boston. (Ed. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. . Jensen. K. Inc. 78 . IL: National Council of Teachers of English. J. (1994). (1988).L.C. Portsmouth. Short. Wirth. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Creating classrooms for authors. Matthews. Urbana. (1992). New York: Richard C. (1992). Moir. C. Students can read award winners from previous years. (Eds. Publishers. NH: Heinemann.A. Norwood. H. (1991). Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers.).).). Taxel. Rhodes. L. . Urbana. & Dudley-Marling. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. & Burke. Virginia Hamilton). Reading ladders for human relations. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. NH: Heinemann. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. NY: Richard C. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. phase II. Washington. Portsmouth. Katonah.G. Katonah.). Hinton). (1993). High interest easy reading.. Urbana. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. J. D. C.
Case studies in whole language. & Rasinski.Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. Further information: Vacca. T. (1992). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. K. Columbia.. R. (1991). MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. 79 .
5. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. and strategies using many learning processes. 6. determine which subtopics are manageable. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. WHY: HOW: 80 . skills.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Implementing the project proposal. 2. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. 3. Identifying available resources. After the proposal has been approved. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Selecting a topic. Using semantic webbing. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. Developing research procedures. 1. Determining purposes of the research project. Writing a proposal for a research project. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. 7. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. Criteria for topic. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning.
articles for class magazines. skinny books. models. B. displays. puzzles. computer programs. time lines. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. newsletters. how-to books.8. field guides for scientific subjects. Culminating activities. CA: CSU — School of Education. murals. (1988). posters. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. dramatic scripts. San Bernardino. mobiles. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. or newspapers. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. Adapted from: Flores. games. videotapes and audiotapes. 81 . topic-oriented alphabet books.
Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. CA: CSU — School of Education. San Bernardino. B. Older children fill it out for themselves. (1988). 82 .) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores.
Adapted from: Flores. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. and the methodology of a research project. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. San Bernardino. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. the purpose. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. issue. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. (1988). and rationales. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. 83 . CA: CSU — School of Education. questions. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. B. ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known.
B. CA: CSU — School of Education. 84 . (1988). Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. San Bernardino.
and clarify the ones that do. flowcharts. drop the ones that don’t fit. L. 85 . keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. songs and dances. The whole language catalog (p. graphs. tables. Once you have chosen your research topic. & Y. 3. 2. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. Santa Rosa. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Supporting real research. Goodman (Eds. 296). time lines role-playing. CA: American School Publishers. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. Bird. interviews. socio-drama folk art. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. food museum kits 6. Goodman. What conclusions does it support? 4. L. Review the questions. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. (1991). In K. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. list everything you know about your topic.).
86 . COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. (1990).Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. K. Columbia. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School.
3. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. The praise column is for positive comments. After a particular presentation or lesson. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. Write students’ comments on the chart. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. or focus studies. 33(7). and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. and identify and clarify troublesome areas.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. 2. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. 551. Record some of these on the chart. ask them to try a PQP on their own. critically evaluate their learning. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. After recording their ideas. 87 . Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. topics. Journal of Reading. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. texts. Working with at-risk learners. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. (1990). Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need.
WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. I will try. and identify areas for further exploration. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. (1991). 88 . These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. NY: Richard C. Short. Harste. the end of a day. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. . Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation.. J. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. a presentation. or ideas were presented. . Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. or specific questions. L.. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. & Burke. Whole language: Getting started . Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. Inc. or the end of a focused study. 1. and I need or I have a question. Portsmouth. Others include I learned. Creating classrooms for authors. concepts. When all exit slips are collected. Owen Publishers. Katonah. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. Additional ideas include one question they have. (1988). or a theme unit. 2. Moving forward. When the lesson or study is completed. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. They may be used at the end of a class session.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. the end of a week. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. one thing they will do to extend their learning. NH: Heinemann. 4. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. 3. K. C. identified needs.
9209 West 110th Street. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 90 .February. Inc. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher. Overland Park. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers..
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