region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

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Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

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Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.


● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.


the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.


Learning Strategies iv .

Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. 5. Questioning. 4. Cloze. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. 2. 3. Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. and reformulating knowledge. It includes accessing prior knowledge. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. A. and encouraging deeper understanding. Exploring Text 1. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. and confirming. assessing knowledge.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. All contributions are accepted and recorded. The letters K. directed reading. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. 7. Prediction. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. Questions are tools for engaging attention. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. investigating ideas. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text. reflecting on associations. Think-Along. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. K-W-L. iv . Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. 6. Brainstorming. determining what they WANT to learn. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. purpose. W.

10. v . semantic webs. Expanding Meaning 1. 9. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. clusters. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. The teacher selects short. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. or structured overviews. schema diagrams. a puppet show. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. Semantic Mapping. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. or a video production. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. 2. Sketch to Stretch. concept maps. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. Schema Stories. Wordless Books. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. a radio dramatization. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. thinking about. Big Books. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. B. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. divides them into sections.8. and places the parts in an envelope. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. or sometimes with minimal print. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. well structured stories or informational pieces.

question generating. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. Someone is designated to speak first. writing. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. using invented spelling. Personal Journals. 8. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. 7.3. Dialogue Journals. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. clarifying. and insights. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. ideas for exploration. a. or to say something related to the text. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. questions. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Journals and Logs. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. or questions. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. 6. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. reactions. or between two students. 9. or problem solving. 5. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. vi . and perplexing questions. Written Conversation. Problem Solving. 4. or doing both. sometimes they each read silently. Responding to Reading as Writers. b. Each person listens and responds with comments. These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. Say Something. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. Partner Reading. and predicting. Reciprocal Teaching. feelings. but they talk about their perceptions.

topic. They share. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. written language. vii . Entries may include summaries. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. and friendly letters. After discussion. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. Letters. insights. Learning Logs. There are pen pal letters. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. get suggestions from other students. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. 11. or common theme. sharing. consumer awareness letters. or theme cycles. When groups of students are working together on a project. reading. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. letters of application.c. Reading Logs. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. invitations. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. book. This strategy is similar to written conversation. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. notes. Students are engaged in thinking. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. 10. the individuals write to one another. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. editing. Authoring Cycle. Traveling Journals. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. Literature Study. e. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. d. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. Spelling Strategies. and questions to extend learning. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. 14. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. letters to the editor. and presenting their written work. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. including content area or research material. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. writing. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. 12. story. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. Readers’ Theatre. After choosing a topic. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. question. and revise their work. revising. Different students serve as discussion leaders.

PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. The praise column is for positive comments. Student Research. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. the end of a day. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. the end of a week. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. contrast. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. or focus studies. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. 16. topics. Exit Slips. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. They may be used at the end of a class session. Text Sets. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. or a theme unit. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. texts. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). and make connections in a reading discussion group. 17. However.15. 18. a presentation. viii . or the end of a focused study. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic.

and confirming in a variety of situations. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. and analyzing and appreciating text.Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. brainstorming. Students explore text through predicting. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. 1 .

Inform (give facts) b. Cogen (Eds. (1985).. 2. & Brown. Harris & E. Sample text. 8. 2 .L. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom.L. E. & Dishner. 7. A. Entertain (amuse) 3. A. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. Resample text. Prove. (1990). Tierney. R.). 5. Determine author’s purpose. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar. J.). 6. or reject.K. stopping at logical places. a.J. New York: The College Board. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c..PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. thinking.. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. confirm. Repeat the steps.E. Readence.J. In T. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed.S. Reading. 1. 4. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Confirm or adjust prediction.

3 . STEPS Activate background knowledge. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. make predictions. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. and validate or reject the predictions. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading.” Predict. Confirm or reject the predictions. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. Use with the next section of the selection. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction. Let’s share our ideas.

31. whole book. & Dishner. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process.R. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. Readence. and chapter DR-TAs. (1988). The Reading Teacher. Journal of Reading. 526-535. (1990).Further information: Gill.G. Stauffer. 444-451. D. & Bear. (1988). R. (1969).T.. New York: Harper & Row. Boston: Allyn Bacon. 4 . Haggard. J. M.). No book. R.K...R.E. 41. Tierney. J. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed.J. E.

Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject. some false) from the selection to be read.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. Students read selection. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true. 5 .

KS: Research & Training Associates. Personal Group Author 1. 3. read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. Overland Park. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. D. 2.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. AFTER reading the selection. Be prepared to defend your decision. Inc. 6 . Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. 4. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. Developed by: Seltzer. There are seven colors in each rainbow. (1994).

But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. If the rain has been heavy. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon. 7 . 16. W. orange. Inc. In The World Book Encyclopedia.J. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet.” Reprinted from: Saucier. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. The amount of space each color takes up varies. which are difficult to observe. blue. green. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. (1984). Chicago: World Book. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. and red. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. indigo.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. 125-126). Rainbow. This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. (Vol. yellow. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. pp.

This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. 8 . Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. (1986). it may be used to review and evaluate learning. Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. Inc. Reading. Conceptual block busting. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.L. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. or statements. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. 1. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. Research Triangle Park. 4. (1990). NC: Author. phrases. 3. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. questions. 5. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. Further information: Adams. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. All responses are accepted. Also. J. words.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols.

and to become aware of their changing ideas. the teacher writes these responses on the board.” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. 3. During this phase. . etc. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. .)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. . to listen to one another’s responses. reflecting on associations. . The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. 1. elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. Initial associations with the concept. (you hear this word. assessing language use in expressing ideas. Reflections on initial associations. students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. “Based on our discussion. they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. and reformulating knowledge. have you any new ideas about . After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. “What made you think of . In a brief introduction. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. the teacher says. There are three phases to the PReP. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . During the second phase. the students are asked. or changed as a result of the discussion. etc. Through this procedure. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text. 2. the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied.).Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. the picture. see this picture. the teachers asks. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. . The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . deleted. phrase. (the word. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. . Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. It includes accessing prior knowledge. In this first phase. Reformulation of knowledge. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text.

they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. J. . 1982. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. Inc. or analogies. or root words). DE: International Reading Association.. 1981. 10 . R. . 1981). Peterson. & Smith-Burke. suffixes. S. References: Langer. They may also link the concept with another concept. Langer. IN: PRC. 13(4). words that sound like the stimulus word.. Strickler. based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge. If the student has little prior information about the concept. & Nicolich.T. (1990). Inc. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. M.. If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed. responses generally take the form of examples. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). D. definitions. Langer & Nicolich.. Indianapolis. J.evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension.A. & Cripe. 153-156). B. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1982). evidencing high integration of ideas.A.. Journal of Reading Behavior. or defining characteristics. attributes.). M.) Taken from: Farr. Newark.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . (1981). If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp.

c. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. a. W. determining what they WANT to learn. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. When disagreements and questions emerge. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. In this way. Group instruction. 1. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. what questions they want answered. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. First. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. Second. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. b. 11 . In classroom testing. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. 1986). WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. Third. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material. The letters K. and what they have learned from reading the text.

Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. Montague (Eds. 564-570. Roehler. Anderson. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. 4.M. Indianapolis. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. & Smith. C. D. & W. Taken from: Godt. 3. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. P. & J. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading. (formerly Advanced Technology. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Jensen.. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. New York: Longman. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. Further information: Anderson.2.E. M. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions. Reading.. At this time. Hillsdale. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. As they read. The Reading Teacher. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. Reference: Ogle. Mason (Eds. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. R.). Anderson. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. E. (1984).J. In G. D. (1986). Individual reflection. Spiro. IN: PRC.L.. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks.). After the group introduction to the topic. 12 . Duffy. Assessment of learning. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept.W.). R. (1991). They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. In R. (1977). L.T.C. & Ehlmann. Inc. Inc.C. 39(6). Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).

K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle.M. D. 39(6). 564-570. The Reading Teacher. 13 . (1986).

The Reading Teacher. eats spiders Categories 1. T. has a long tongue 3.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. (1991). M. 14 . 45(4). small animals 1. jumps 3. gray 1. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies..W. description 2. & Gee. spits poison 2.C. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1. food 3. 303. eats bugs 2.

The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). the book Alexander and the Terrible. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. provides many alternatives for discussion. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words). As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. For example. very [bad] day.” 3. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. 2. During the completion of the oral cloze. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). Horrible. 1. the teacher lists them on the board. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns).CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. Very Bad Day (Viorst. As the teacher reads aloud. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . word length clues. including random deletion (every __nth word). The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. No Good. horrible. The students give reasons why their answers make sense. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. relates to children’s experiences. the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. no good.

Englewood Cliffs.L. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. C. F.Z. NJ: Prentice Hall. Working in teams of two or three. or lyrics to popular songs. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. (1980). The Reading Teacher. no good. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. very bad day. Reference: Viorst. Exeter. DE: International Reading Association. (1989). Students share their predictions and justify their choices. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. Rye. Further information: Blachowicz. (1980). newspapers.W. Schoenfeld. L. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading. (1977. Searfoss. 4.A. December).. Newark. Cloze activities for primary readers. magazines.G. Helping children learn to read (pp. 147-151. (1982). The Reading Teacher. Alexander and the terrible.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph. J. 16 . Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. E. J. Jongsma. New York: Macmillan. J. 300-302. 218-220).E. (1972). 34(2). & Readence. horrible. Cloze instruction research.

there the coal oil lamp. geese. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. pick and eggs to . there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. pigs. There were horses to chickens. ducks. . were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. pick and were so many interesting explore. cats. There were sheep. and dogs into butter and other eating. pigs. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. ducks. After supper. feed and care for. chickens. There were There were horses to pigs. were sheep. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . chickens. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. After supper. After supper. ducks.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. There was cream to eating. . feed and care for. 17 . and dogs to feed and care for. cats. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. cats.

cats. cats. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. There chickens. T feed and care for. ducks. nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. c l m lk. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. There were horses to r . There horses to ride and cows to milk. There After supper. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. pigs. pigs. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . so many interesting things to do. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. d cks. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. There was cream to c eating. p gs. t ll st r 18 . c ts. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. and dogs to feed and care for. chickens. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . ducks. After supper. . ch ck ns. There gather. th r l l mp. There were t and cows to milk. geese.

Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . and encouraging deeper understanding. assessing knowledge. and after reading. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. Questions are tools for engaging attention. investigating ideas. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. their reading. the following questions may help students before. interpreting. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. during. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. and their writing. 1. then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. creative thinking.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. and using text and in solving problems.

. . Boston. . . ? Reference: Christenbury. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . a path to critical thinking.D. Urbana. & Kelly. The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?).. . then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions.P.). refer to the section on literature response logs. L. . (1983). Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. 3. . . . ? What else could you do . Inc. . 20 . F. Questioning. ? How did you decide . ? Why did you . ? What if . (1995). . ? How do you know that . P. Further information: Munkins. MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. . If the focus is on literary text.2.

the student asks as many questions as he or she can. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. and the student answers as fully as possible.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. and/or small groups. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. In addition. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. teams. 3. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. 6. 5. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. the exchange of questions stops. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. 2. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. 21 . teams. When the student has finished answering. and small groups. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. the teacher models good questioning strategies. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. After they have both read the passage. The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. 4. but it can also be used with pairs. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending.

123-126.... D.). ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Inc. D. Strickler. IN: PRC.T. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc. R. Manzo. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). S.). B. (formerly Advanced Technology. M. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1969)..V.. IN: PRC. 22 . Peterson. 13. Jensen. (1991). Journal of Reading. Indianapolis.Taken from: Godt. & Cripe. & Ehlmann. A. (1990). Inc. Reference: Farr. P. Inc. Indianapolis.

IN: PRC. Question-answering strategies for children. Raphael.E. DE: International Reading Association.E. 2. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH). Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). R. 36. Stephenson. (formerly Advanced Technology. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR).. B. (1982). 23 .. Raphael. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME).Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure. Inc. QARS revisited. T. & Cripe. Inc. The Reading Teacher. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. (1990). D. (1985).). Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). Indianapolis. Newark. Strickler. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). S. The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD.. T. 2.

& D. P. Respond. MO: University of Missouri. When students formulate questions. 24 . They are urged to consider how the text affects them. In C. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. After reading. and question. Question. they share oral retellings with their partners. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. Read. D. or with a partner in paired reading. Crenshaw. 1. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. M. M. orally. 3. & Gilles. they have to think about what they know in a different context.. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. Crowley. ERRQ. (1979) Columbia. 5. Pyle (Eds. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. respond. After a text has been chosen and distributed. Owen Publishers. If students are working individually. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. 44-45). (1988). 2. Read. S. D. Gilles. read. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. students react. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. Respond. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding. Students read the text silently. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. Henrichs. Developed by: Watson. F.). the teacher demonstrates the process. C. New York: Richard C. Further information: Watson. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. Students generate questions about the reading. Estimate. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. Bixby. Reynolds.

Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. 26(2). 25 . B. 94. 44-47. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. WHY: HOW: 2. Educational Leadership.THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. After the demonstration. Further information: Davey. (1989). 47(3). 1. Farr. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. Make a list on the chalkboard. Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. (1983). Journal of Reading. R. Prediction of what might occur next.

NY: Windmill Books and E. (1994). I wonder if I will ever get married. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. (1970). Inc. D. Dutton. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road.P. The king who rained. KS: Research & Training Associates. 26 . Overland Park.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. F. What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. New York.

R.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. Inc. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. to include the entire school. Overland Park. How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. 27 . How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. KS: Research & Training Associates. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. There is only one classroom per grade. (1994).

Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. word order. punctuation symbols. The teacher reads the text aloud. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. stopping at natural points for student interaction. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. Big print and big pictures get attention. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. 2. At the end of this reading. adjectives. Using texts that include rhyme. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). WHY: HOW: 28 . and other conventions of print. 3. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. verbs.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. nouns. The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. 1. repetition. cumulative structure. 4. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group.

Crystal Lake. 400 Hahn Street. IL 60656 Learning Well. MO 65102 Wright Group. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. Western Publishing. Department DF.O. NY 11577 Random House. P. 2 Computer Drive West. 2931 East McCarthy Street. Roslyn Heights. MD 21157 Rigby. Albany. IL 60014 Scholastic. CA 92127 29 . Westminster. San Diego. 200 South Service Road. Box 797. 10949 Technology Place. Box 7501.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. Department 436. Chicago.O. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. P. Jefferson City.

or for parents’ programs. Some choose to write dialogue. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. 1. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library.WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. creating dialogue for the characters. or characters. 30 . 2. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. to other classes. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. setting. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures.

. M. (1991). Briggs. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1972). (1970). J. Florian. San Diego. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. D. Anno. Jacko. The snowman. (1980).BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. (1986). Day. New York: Harcourt. Carl goes to daycare. New York: Crowell. . Four Winds. (1982). M. J. 31 . The city. New York: Puffin. (1974). . . The knight and the dragon. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1975). Bobo’s dream. New York: Harcourt. San Diego. (1968). (1991). Carl. (1979). (1981). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. . Creepy castle. Window. Adventures of Paddy Pork. New York: Dial Books. (1993). DePaola. (1989). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Bang. New York: Philomel. Baker. New York: Sandcastle. Anno’s journey. Goodall. A. Pancakes for breakfast. Carl’s afternoon in the park. (1983). San Diego. Felix. Anno’s animals. (1978). Carl goes shopping. New York: Philomel. Anno’s USA. . New York: Random House. (1980). . (1985). M. T. CA: Green Tiger Press. Anno’s alphabet. New York: Philomel. M. . . (1993). New York: Harper & Row. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. . New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. Good dog. CA: Green Tiger Press. R. (1980).

. changes. New York: McElderry Books. (1981). (1978). New York: Dutton. The great ape. (1975). Ah-choo. New York: Margaret K. April fools. . T. Mayer. New York: Viking Press. a dog. . Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. New York: Macmillan. . New York: Dial Books. (1967). New York: Macmillan. Paddy under water. Take another look. New York: Macmillan. (1982). . New York: Dial Books. (1988). New York: Macmillan. Paddy to the rescue. . (1971). and a frog. Naughty Nancy goes to school. . McElderry Books. Hoban. Humages. F. (1990). Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. New York: Atheneum. (1985). New York: Margaret K. New York: Dutton. . (1986). (1981). New York: Dutton. . . CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Macmillan. New York: Macmillan. . 32 . San Diego. New York: Dial Books. CA: Green Tiger Press. San Diego. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. Changes. (1984). a frog. New York: Macmillan. The story of a farm. M. M. . (1977). (1986). (1983). Hanimals. and a friend. Lavinia’s cottage.. (1984). Puss in boots. McElderry Books. a dog. . The story of a castle. . Little red riding hood. Krahn. San Diego. Hutchins. A boy. A boy. New York: Greenwillow. (1977). (1976). . CA: Green Tiger Press. . New York: Macmillan. (1974). . (1979). (1982). . P. Paddy goes traveling. (1971). Story of an English village. (1989). Humands. Look again. (1982). Mariotti.

Dreams. N. Rain. (1982). New York: Dial Books. New York: Dial Books. (1982). (1991). New York: Dutton. . (1980). (1978). New York: Greenwillow. The bear and the fly. (1985). New York: Crown Publishers. . New York: Harper. B. . D. Tafuri. Vincent. (1985). New York: Puffin. Tuesday. . New York: Dial Books. Hiccup. P. Sunshine. New York: Doubleday. 33 . New York: Clarion Books. Spier. Winter. P. First snow. (1987). J. (1976). (1978). (1984). Frog. where are you? New York: Dial Books. (1980). Wiesner. New York: Dial Books. Ormerod. New York: Doubleday. (1976). Frog on his own. Frog goes to dinner. (1981). New York: Greenwillow. (1988). . E. (1986). McCully. New York: Harper. G. Deep in the forest.. Do not disturb. (1977). Oops. Picnic. Moonlight. Junglewalk. . . New York: Greenwillow. . New York: Puffin. Breakfast time. Turkle. Ernest and Celestine.

Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. 4. well structured stories or informational pieces. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. 1. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. The teacher selects short.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions. they try to determine the sequence. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. 5. divides them into sections. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. 2. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. They agree or disagree which is the first part. and places the parts in an envelope. WHY: HOW: 34 . Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. 6. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. If the group has trouble deciding. 3.

Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole. J. Oxenbury. New York: Weathervane Books. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. (1984). 35 . The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book. Just so stories. New kid on the block. S. Columbia. The read-aloud treasury. (Eds. D..). & Calmenson. J.. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen.Developed by: Watson. NH: Heinemann. (1977). MO: University of Missouri. R.. Kipling. (1978). Prelutsky. (1988). C. (1985). Further information: Harste. E. New York: Alfred A. (1988). J. K. New York: Scholastic. Knopf. & Burke. Short. 340-345). H. Portsmouth. New York: Barnes & Noble. New York: Doubleday. (1974). Haugaard.

This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. since the other swans couldn’t read. 2. He loved the beautiful Serena. Sam had been writing in a diary. 36 . fishing. or journal. 4. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. This example is a variation of using schema story. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. 3. Sometimes he drew a picture. but without a trumpet sound. The trumpet of the swan. so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. but most of all. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. New York: Harper & Row. so she ignored him. who had a real problem.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. 1. the things that he had seen. E. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. (1970). On one of these trips. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. to keep a daily log of his experiences. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site.B. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. That baby was Louis. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. When the eggs in the nest hatched. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. and exploring. he couldn’t get her attention. For some time. However. and the thoughts that he had had. Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day.

5. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. S. Developed by: Crenshaw. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. 37 . (1994). KS: Research & Training Associates. His faith and determination eventually brought success. Sensing the severity of the problem. Overland Park. Inc. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. He also wanted to win Serena’s love.

Developed by: Burns-Stowers.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. KS: Research & Training Associates. 2. (1994). Overland Park. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. America. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow.. Twelve hours later.000 pounds. America. At 320 feet and 8. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals.000 pounds. Amazing to say the least! 3. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2. Mr. seemed to be a perfect dessert. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. Inc. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size.000 pounds. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4. 38 . a very large. at 7 p. roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. It was 7 a.000 pounds. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. After eating several prominent landmarks.m. The local police and fire departments.000 pounds.m. The water tower was the next item on his menu. R. 4. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower. 1. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown. he doubled in size. which were in the path of the monster.

39 . The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. and focused conversations. letters.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. partner reading. story maps. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching. and the authoring cycle. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. logs. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. and sketches to represent understanding. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals.

Draw a box or circle around the word or term. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. 4. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. 3. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. WHY: HOW: 40 .SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map.” “plot mapping. 5. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. the general steps involved are: 1. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. add new related ideas to the map. Here students see how words or ideas are related. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity.” and “semantic networking. During discussion. 2. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge.

Inc. Other sources: Hanf. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. 41 . (formerly Advanced Technology. Jensen.. & Pittelman. IRA Service Bulletin. & Ehlmann.T.) Reference: Heimlich. (1971).D. J. D. Journal of Reading.. DE: Reading Aids Series. M. Inc. IN: PRC. (1986)..E. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).Taken from: Godt. Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. S.A. Newark. P. (1991). Indianapolis. M.

various high-interest. (1986). List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. P. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context.). Discuss each word. J. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. Reference: Heimlich. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. filmstrips. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. (formerly Advanced Technology. D. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. & Ehlmann. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading. (1991). low-vocabulary reading materials. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color.) Have students review the other materials (e. posters. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. Newark. Jensen.T. When the semantic map is completed.. pictures. IRA Service Bulletin. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. Taken from: Godt. . M. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc.E. stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. These materials could include posters. 42 . Have students read the textbook material.. IN: PRC. 4. 3. filmstrips. DE: Reading Aids Series. Inc. and textbook or basal materials.. Indianapolis. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. 2.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . S..D. & Pittelman. .g. 1. maps. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. easy-toread trade books.

2. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. after reading 1. how the characters feel or react. Louise’s friend. . write key concepts or themes from the story. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Write their ideas on the map. . For example. important problems and episodes in the story. Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . McCall Capt. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). On lines drawn from the circle. and outcomes of the story.

. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. (1980). Paterson.D. New York: Avon Books. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. 44 . If appropriate. IN: PRC. J. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map.E. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1991). (1986). M. & Ehlmann.. Inc. Taken from: Godt.3. D.). As students find new information through this guided reading. S. IRA Service Bulletin. K.. Newark. add it to the map. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. With the students. Jensen. DE: Reading Aids Series.T. & Pittelman. Jacob have I loved. 4. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. Indianapolis. P. Inc. have students role-play or act out the story. Reference: Heimlich.

4. DE: Reading Aids Series. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map. . Reference: Heimlich. S. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. .. in small groups or as a whole group. 3. 45 . “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. Have students suggest labels for these categories. for vocabulary development 1. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. IRA Service Bulletin. Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. Newark. pointing out relationships and differences among words.D. Discuss the group’s semantic map. & Pittelman. (1986). An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING .E. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. if possible. Have students. J. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. As the instructor.

D. & Pittelman. Secondary categories. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. In this final step of the procedure. Next. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. 1. 3. IRA Service Bulletin. 46 . DE: Reading Aids Series. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories.) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it. S. J. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. Reference: Heimlich. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. Identification of main idea. . students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map. Support details. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. Newark. (1986). The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. (If sections in the text have not been labeled. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. 2. .E.. Before reading the textbook.

J. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. Short. Portsmouth. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class... Siegel. hearing. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well. Further information: Harste.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read. C. It can be an individual or group experience. Burke.. 1. 47 . 2. K. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind.. IN: Indiana University. or viewing a text.. (1988). individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. heard. Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. Bloomington. or viewed. K. & Feathers. C. J. M. After reading. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Students sketch while they are listening. 353-357). After revisiting the text. Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. To demonstrate this strategy. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. (1984). Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. The drawings may be used to generate writing. They may listen to a text being read aloud. NH: Heinemann. 3. & Burke.

selecting possible solutions. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. trying out solutions. determining a desired outcome.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. 1972) in any curricular area. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. (If the article contains a solution. 23). Divide the article up into five sections. acting on ideas. p. evaluating the outcomes. then defining it more clearly. exploring. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. choosing strategies to use. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. Have each person read one section of the article to the group. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. 48 . you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. as described in mathematical terms. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. Problem solving. and looking at the effects. and revising where necessary. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue. critical thinkers about what they read and hear.

and creativity. Reference: Cohen. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. 49 . & Stein. J. B.D. 5). Chicago: Rand McNally and Co.. (1984). Based on: Bransford.Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. Thinking (p. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. New York: Freeman.S. J. learning. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. (1972).

Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. First. such as numbers. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Unfortunately. It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. There are two major ways of using objects. students must experience tangible realities. Many problems are based on actions. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. or manipulatives in problem solving. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. they guess the answer. test to see if it is correct. spot missing data. Using or making a table. materials. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. In this way. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. Making a picture or diagram. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. which requires physical models for real understanding. 50 . Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. When problem solvers use this strategy. For some students. Making an organized list. By taking an active role in finding the solution. Acting out problems. Making a guess and checking the result.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking.

S. systematic repetition. (1988). Simplifying the problem. . Making a number table often reveals patterns and. P. is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. Hoogeboom. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. activities for learning problem-solving strategies.. for this reason. This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. then . & Hyde. A. visual. else. or behavioral. . . A. then . .” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. (1987). .” or “if . the solver must make a series of computations. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. . Adapted from: Hyde. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. Mathwise. Portsmouth. Sunnyvale. CA: Creative Publications. . J. then. R. However. NH: Heinemann. & Clyne. Using logical reasoning. M. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. NH: Heinemann Educational Books.” or “if something is true.Using or looking for a pattern. Working backwards. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. . Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths.. A pattern may be numerical. To solve certain problems. Inc. . A pattern is a regular. there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. R. especially when they begin to solve complex problems.” or “if something is not true. then . & Goodnow. starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. The problem solver 1. (1991). .. Portsmouth. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. 51 . . By identifying the pattern.

Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. reread. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. new vocabulary. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. and predicting. As they become more proficient. question generating. Furthermore. Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. across paragraphs. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. Text can be summarized across sentences. ask for help). When students generate questions.. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. When the students are asked to clarify. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts).g. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words. To do this successfully.g. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. are not making sense. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. clarifying. unclear referent words. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e.. subheadings. and in fact the passage. 52 . The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. and across the passage as a whole.

The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. the students receive practice with each of them. the dialogue begins. 3. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. through modeling and instruction. and over time the teacher. predicts the upcoming content. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. 1. 53 . For the initial days of instruction. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. For some students. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. For example. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand. 2. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. leads the group in clarifying and. points out anything that may have been unclear. This is a beginning. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. but it is important that every student participate at some level.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. To illustrate. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. finally. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue.

Alexandria. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). Further information: Brown..). and concept development: Strategies for the classroom..Taken from: Farr. D. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. R. Godt. Indianapolis. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. thinking. D. Peterson. Indianapolis.L. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. & Brown. Harris & E. Cooper (Eds. & Cripe.T. 1-17. S. (1982). Inc. Palincsar. Reciprocal teaching. A. IN: PRC. New York: The College Board. A.J. B. Inc. & Ehlmann.. IN: PRC.).” In T. (1990).S.. Jensen. A. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). (1991). & Palincsar. (1985). Strickler.S. A.. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. Palincsar. (1986). self-control training. 2(1)..S. P. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed.. (formerly Advanced Technology. A. Inc. 54 . 5-10). Inc. M. (formerly Advanced Technology.). Reading.

). 1. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. It encourages shared meaning. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. 35). The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. Further information: Gilles. Partner book selection. Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. Invitations (p.. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. 2. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. R. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. Portsmouth.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else. questions. 2. Routman. (1987). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. Ideas and insights (pp. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. & Crowley. P. Watson (Ed. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. NH: Heinemann. 176-177). and insights. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. C. or teachers and students may be partners.J. Urbana. (1991). Some students read aloud to each other. The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. 55 . In D. Students from different classrooms may be partners. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations.

3. Portsmouth. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. Instead of writing. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. and they decide who will speak first. K. & Burke. (1988). They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. Columbia. NH: Heinemann. The students take turns speaking first each time... 1. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. Each person listens and responds with comments. D. or questions. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. reactions. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. MO: University of Missouri. Creating classrooms for authors. 2. 5. 56 . J. (1977). Further information: Harste. Short. C. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. 4.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. After reading the identified portion of the text.

grade levels. C. . Bloomington. IN: Indiana University. Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. 195-198). Written conversation. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. King. Burke. and it can be used with all ages. Katonah. Bloomington. 57 . Further information: Crafton. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. L. Urbana. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. and content areas. (1987).). but it is a silent communication. . One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. NY: Richard C. Whole language: Getting started . WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. moving forward (pp. Ideas and insights. In D. (1991). Watson (Ed.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. (1977). IN: Indiana University. D. C. (1977). Owen. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

acquire input. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. HOW: 58 . Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. they use a variety of options. ● When they write. which helps them in the composing process. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. ● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. and then discuss how the advice can be used. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. 1.

comments may be off-base. found confusing. After the reader/writer’s presentation.. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. Writing experiences contribute to reading. (1985). second edition. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece.J. J. R. E. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. 3. Adapted from: Tierney. 59 . 2. and might use) and fields questions and comments. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. Readence. too general. Inc.K. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. or too tentative.2.. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. Reading strategies and practices.E. these conferences cannot take place. reads a section of the report or story. and in the beginning. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. a compendium. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. or discusses the process of reading or writing. ● Model appropriate interactions. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. & Dishner.

and collecting data to document learning. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. 2. sharing insights. Paper. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. 4. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. 6. ask students. spiral notebooks. 3. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. or perplexing questions. When everyone has finished. a stapler. opinions. interesting ideas to explore. variations of written conversation. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. Ask. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. 1. are intended for sharing. and questions of future consideration. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. The writer and reader are the same person. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. Try a variety of types to see what works best. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. WHY: HOW: 60 . Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. ideas for exploration. feelings. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5.

The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. and questions to extend learning. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. the individuals write to each other. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. question. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. When groups of students are working together on a project. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. story. responses. or any other conventions of language. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. Many students dialogue with their teacher. 61 . and questions to share with others. in a traveling journal. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. punctuation. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. feelings. or common theme. insights. However. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. or theme cycles. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. topic. Entries may include summaries. Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. similar to written conversation. insights. book. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing.

(1988). Owen. Portsmouth. (1991). NY: Richard C. Short. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. .. moving forward (pp. & Burke. .). NH: Heinemann. K. 280-285). NH: Boynton/Cook. Fulwiler. L. Whole language: Getting started . The journal book.Further information: Crafton. T.. (Ed. 163-168). Portsmouth. (1987). Harste. Katonah. J. 62 . C.

(This activity could be used for many figures.” 63 . ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. ● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five.

Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. or reading response log. Where did the story take place? 3. Who was your favorite character? Describe. S. What was a problem in the story? 4. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. KS: Research & Training Associates. how? 5.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. 2. such as reading journal. and thinking processes. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. Regardless of the label. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. literature log. writing. Inc. 64 . (1994). Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. Overland Park. it is a record of responses to reading literature. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. Did any of the characters change? If so. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9.

the school superintendent. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Inc. or other countries. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. 1. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. or to state and national legislators. 65 . Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. business letters of application. The sense of audience determines the format and language. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. KS: Research & Training Associates. (1994). 4. persuasive letters. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. 2. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. S. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. After about ten minutes. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Pen pal letters. Overland Park. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. other states. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. lead a discussion about the experience. the school board president. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. personal letters to family and friends.

As a writing process. a. c. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. a. 6. Write name and date on paper. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. b. Conference. 66 WHY: HOW: . and publishing. Read and write materials of one’s choice. editing. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. b. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. d. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. The teacher leads discussion about choices. Students follow these steps: 1. the authoring cycle includes thinking. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. The students hold peer conferences. 3. The teacher holds conference. drafting. The students list two or three possibilities. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. sharing. a. Write “draft #1” on paper. Prepare writer’s folder. 2. Write first drafts. The teacher circulates among students to check progress.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. 4. 5. Think about experiences. Choose topic. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. revising.

IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Portsmouth. class books. Langer. Edit to check the form or structure. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. N.. Calkins. L. (1989). Have an author’s party. NH: Heinemann. 67 . Developed by: Crenshaw. NJ: Educational Testing Service. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. J. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. J. (1992). NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. (1983). D. 13. librarian. or like materials. L. & Mullis. Celebrate and share one’s work with others.. Portsmouth. Active voice. Portsmouth. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). Share the writing with other classes. Invite the principal. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. D. The art of teaching writing. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. Murray. & Burke. (1991). C. Portsmouth. 10. Parson. Writing: Teachers and children at work. a. A. Portsmouth. (1987). Overland Park. 8. b. NH: Heinemann. Writing in the real classroom. NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. D. Watson. Atwell. (1994). Short. K. 12. NH: Heinemann. (Ed. 11. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection.7. and 17. 9. Moffett. I. (1990). punctuation. Inc. (1988). Urbana.. and parents. Ideas and insights. NH: Boynton/Cook.. individual books. S. Grammar. (1987).). J. Further information: Applebee. c. Graves. (1986). Portsmouth. Princeton. ED 282 928). Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. NH: Heinemann. Harste. KS: Research & Training Associates.

change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. They teach and support each other. 89-90). 1992. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Develop own list. have them try several spellings of a particular word. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. When a word ends in a silent final e. HOW: 68 . 2. Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. pp. 3. As students learn the words. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. Work with a partner. Check four basic rules. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Editing is an important part of written communication. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. and spelling is a part of the editing process. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. Sixty years ago. They are: 1. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. To encourage students to explore language structure. Create personal dictionaries.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Use other resources. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. Try it first. When a word ends in a consonant and y.

Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. DE: International Reading Association. (1990). Spelling for whole language classrooms. E. U.. Winnipeg.). the i comes before e except after c. C. (1980). Urbana. Inc. (1992). S. Wilde. (Eds. London: Academic Press. Newark. Developed by: Crenshaw. J. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. Wilde. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. OR: Portland State University. Read. You kan red this! Portsmouth.). S. Check classroom display chart. Overland Park. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. S. NH: Heinemann. Frith. 69 . (1994). & Beers. Share mnemonic strategies. Cognitive processes in spelling. Further information: Buchanan. KS: Research & Training Associates. Portland. (1992). (1981). E. Henderson. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. (Ed. When a word has the vowels i and e together.4. (1989).



Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.


Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.


Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.



A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.


1964. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage. 1985. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton. Arno.. 1985. Often. Give no cues or prompts. They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean.. district teachers. (1992). Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. Wood. E. Silverstein. 1984. This may be the best response of all. that is. S.J.. A. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. but as students gain experience.. 1973. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. Literature sets. Missouri. Pienkowski. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk.. circles. 73 . D. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. E.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. J. & Wood. and cycles.R. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. Share ideas in the discussion group. Keats. S. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent..

Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. Portsmouth. C. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. 3.. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. 4. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. In the process. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. As rehearsal continues. Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. NH: Heinemann. Short. Urbana. When performing. & Burke. S. Distribute copies of the script to each reader. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. 2. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices.. J. Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. After everyone reads the text silently. K. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages. Sloyer. Creating classrooms for authors. 74 . Suggest some good resources for scripts. 5. (1982). talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. (1988).READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading.

(Photos and text about Lincoln. P. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton.) Neely. (1987).). New York: Clarion Books. New York: Morrow. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty. 4. contrast. Explore the various books in the text set collection. (1964). author. the Ku Klux Klan. Talk about differences and likenesses. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships. (Ed.) 75 . Lincoln: A photobiography.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. 1991). Following are different ways to choose text sets. 1. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. (1988). (Sequel to Turn Homeward. M. and make connections in a reading discussion group. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. 2. Hannalee. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. Be ever hopeful. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. New York: New American Library. 3.) Fehrenbacher. (1982). and blacks and whites after the Civil War. New York: McGraw-Hill. D. For example. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. 5. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. List how books were alike or different.) Freedman. R. In content areas. or genre. Hannalee. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. (For reference and browsing. (Lincoln’s own writings. Decide how to share information with the larger group. illustrations.

Strega Nona: An old tale. Englewood Cliffs. Of course. and informational books could be used. (1972). New York: Bradbury Press. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. F. realism. historical fiction. (1974). Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts.To this list. Snow bound. Julie of the wolves. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. 76 . T. National Geographic articles. Mazer. 3. New York: Scribner. F. Scarsdale. Scarsdale. students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. nonfiction trade books. (1973). other genres such as biography. (Reteller). Tattercoats: An old English tale. New York: Windmill Books. (1987). H. New York: Viking Press. G. social issues. (Reteller). 2. New York: Delacorte Press. Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. Hatchet. George. New York: Bradbury Press. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. New York: Dutton. poetry. New York: Harper & Row. (1959). W. (1969). or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. Slake’s limbo. the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. Lang. Holman. Steel. (1975). For example. high fantasy. A. Sylvester and the magic pebble. (Reteller). J. (1976). (1981). My side of the mountain. Paulsen. 1990). J. Steig. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias.

Burns. M. Anno’s sundial. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). G. Through the year with Harriet.. Hayashi. K. New York: Four Winds Press. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. Werner. D. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell.. E. Caught in the Act. Danziger. & Co. New York: Macmillan. A summer day. G. months.. (1978). New York: Crowell. Florian. Brown. New York: Philomel. Carle. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. L. NY: Beekman Publishers. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. Time. Text Set for Older Children Anno. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. Briggs. (1980).. D. 4.. (1986). Dillon. The sun’s day. In The Face of Danger). Text Set for Younger Children Carle. P. Gould. A Place to Belong. Anno. E. New York: Viking Kestral. Scarsdale. The oak tree. (1989). Fisher.. A minute is a minute. & Maestro. M. (1988). (1988). Nixon. All in a day. (1987). Peterson. Chengliang. A. Gerstein. (1978). Coats. & Popov. New York: Philomel.. M. rhyme. 5. This book is about time. (1985). (Dates variable). Brooks. — 77 . Dillon.Family problems Byers. (1986). M. M. New York: Philomel. (1988). N.. New York: Crown Publishers. J. New York: Greenwillow Books. L. years from around the world. B. Cracker Jackson. Neasi. and refrain). L. (1987). Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. R. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. D. (1987). Sendak. but for different age groups. Calvi. B. Boston: Little. NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. B.. Woodstock. Kirst. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. weeks.. New York: Harper & Row. The very hungry caterpillar. The Great Gilly Hopkins. R. Calendar art: Thirteen days. New York: Scholastic. (1985). New York: Bantam Books.. (1987). Chicago: Children’s Press. Z. (1977).

Tway. (Ed. Urbana. & Dudley-Marling. J. High interest easy reading. Boston. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor.— Texts by the same author (Jean George.M. Wirth.). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (Ed. Katonah. Taxel. phase II.A. Matthews. Moss. Urbana. Webb. (1992). Literature study. S. MO: University of Missouri.E. 78 . J. Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. NY: Richard C. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. (1981). H. NH: Heinemann.. New York: Richard C. & Burke. C. (1993). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Hinton.. (1988).. C. (Eds. Publishers. — — — Reference: Gilles. Roald Dahl. L. Virginia Hamilton). Owen. DC: American Council on Education.). (Ed.L.C. J. K. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Rhodes. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Moving forward. Portsmouth. N. Owen. Creating classrooms for authors. Hinton).). Short. Urbana. Urbana. Katonah. Moir. D. (1993). Students can read award winners from previous years. L. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. (1988). Washington. Portsmouth. C. Publishers. NH: Heinemann.G. (Ed. (1990).). (1992). S.). Further information: Crafton. or the male characters of S. (1991). . Norwood. Inc. (Ed. J. (1994). Whole language: Getting started .). Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. . Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual. Columbia. Reading ladders for human relations. (1992). C. E. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme. Inc. Harste. & Roser. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. Jensen. (1988).E.

MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. 79 .Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. Further information: Vacca. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. & Rasinski. (1991).. (1992). T. Case studies in whole language. R. Columbia. K.

Selecting a topic. and strategies using many learning processes. Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. 3. Criteria for topic. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. Using semantic webbing. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Determining purposes of the research project. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. 6. What do they want to find out and why? 4. Implementing the project proposal. 7. 1. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. skills. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. After the proposal has been approved. 5. Developing research procedures. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. WHY: HOW: 80 . There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. 2. Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. Writing a proposal for a research project. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. determine which subtopics are manageable. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. Identifying available resources.

games. San Bernardino. murals. displays. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. how-to books. newsletters. puzzles. topic-oriented alphabet books. time lines. 81 . Adapted from: Flores. computer programs. (1988). videotapes and audiotapes. or newspapers. posters. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. skinny books. models. CA: CSU — School of Education. B. Culminating activities. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. mobiles.8. dramatic scripts. field guides for scientific subjects. articles for class magazines.

(1988). San Bernardino. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. CA: CSU — School of Education. Older children fill it out for themselves. B.) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. 82 .

CA: CSU — School of Education. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). the purpose. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. San Bernardino. and rationales. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. 83 . ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. and the methodology of a research project. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. B. It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. issue. Adapted from: Flores. questions. (1988).

Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. (1988). San Bernardino. CA: CSU — School of Education. 84 . B. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.

Supporting real research. (1991). 85 . Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. Santa Rosa. food museum kits 6. flowcharts. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. What conclusions does it support? 4. In K. 3. tables. socio-drama folk art. Review the questions.). Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. L. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. 296). songs and dances. 2. Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. Goodman. & Y. time lines role-playing. list everything you know about your topic. Once you have chosen your research topic. interviews. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. L. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. CA: American School Publishers. Bird. Goodman (Eds. graphs. drop the ones that don’t fit. The whole language catalog (p. and clarify the ones that do.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1.

Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. K. 86 . Columbia. COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland. (1990). MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School.

ask them to try a PQP on their own. Journal of Reading. Working with at-risk learners. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. The praise column is for positive comments. It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. Record some of these on the chart. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. or focus studies. After a particular presentation or lesson. texts. topics. 551. Write students’ comments on the chart. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. 87 . Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. (1990). critically evaluate their learning.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. After recording their ideas. 3. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most. 33(7). 2.

. Additional ideas include one question they have. Moving forward. Katonah. J. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. 88 . The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. L. identified needs. Others include I learned. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. 2. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. K. (1988). I will try. 3. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. They may be used at the end of a class session. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning. give an account of the knowledge they have gained. Harste.. Whole language: Getting started . Creating classrooms for authors. the end of a week. C. or ideas were presented. the end of a day. Owen Publishers. NH: Heinemann. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. Short. NY: Richard C. and identify areas for further exploration. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. Portsmouth. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about. (1991). Inc. concepts. & Burke. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. one thing they will do to extend their learning. a presentation. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. 4. . or the end of a focused study. When the lesson or study is completed.. When all exit slips are collected. Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. and I need or I have a question. 1. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. or specific questions. or a theme unit.

89 .

Overland Park. Inc. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher. 9209 West 110th Street. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates. 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers.February.. 90 .

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