region XIV comprehensive center

Learning Strategies Resource Guide

Disseminated by Region XIV Comprehensive Center Educational Testing Service 1979 Lakeside Parkway, Suite 400 Tucker, Georgia 30084-5865 1-800-241-3865
Educational Testing Service ESCORT Center for Applied Linguistics Litton/PRC, Inc. DREAM, Inc. David C. Anchin Center, University of South Florida

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i LEARNING STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPLORING TEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Directed Reading Thinking Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Prediction Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Rainbows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre Reading Plan (PReP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — K-W-L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cloze ● .............................................................. Example — Variation of Cloze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv 1 2 3 5 6 8 9 11 14 15 17 19 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 38 39 40 42 43 45 46

Questioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ReQuest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — ERRQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Think-Along . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Think-Along in Math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Bibliography of Wordless Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schema Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Schema Story Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Math Schema Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXPANDING MEANING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Semantic Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping Before Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping After Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping for Vocabulary Development . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Semantic Mapping as a Study Skill Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page Sketch to Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partner Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Say Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Written Conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Responding to Reading as Writers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Journals and Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Math Learning Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guiding Questions for Reading Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authoring Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spelling Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Literature Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Suggestions for Literature Response Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Readers’ Theatre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Text Set Project Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Student Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Planning Guide for Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Ideas for Writing a Research Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Teaching Planning Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Guidelines for Individual Research Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ● Example — Evaluation Form for Research Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Praise-Question-Polish (PQP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exit Slips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 48 50 52 55 56 57 58 60 63 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 80 81 83 84 85 86 87 88 89

INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Strategies are ways for learners to solve problems encountered in constructing meaning in any context. Unlike skills, strategies chosen by learners are modified to fit the demands of the learning situation. Strategic learners know how and when to alter, modify, combine, and test individual strategies against their prior knowledge, beliefs, and experiences. Strategy teaching does not require commercial materials, nor does it need to be a separate part of the curriculum; it does not consist of “tricks” or isolated activities.1 Rather, strategic instruction is a process that involves teaching students to read using procedures used by good readers, to write using approaches used by good writers, and to problem solve using techniques used by good problem solvers.

WHY USE LEARNING STRATEGIES?
Both research and common sense provide a rationale for using learning strategies with students. There has been a shift in focus for curriculum and instruction based on practical research that has gained attention nationally. To address the implications of the GOALS 2000: Educate America Act and to promote the implementation of the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA), there is a need to restructure and provide support for effective teaching and learning for all. Using learning strategies supports the purpose of the Improving America’s School Act, as stated in the introduction: The purpose . . . [is] . . . ensuring access of children [from the earliest grades] to effective instructional strategies and challenging academic content that includes intensive complex thinking and problem-solving experiences (Section 1001, (d)(3)). Research findings also indicate that the following actions particularly benefit low achieving students: ● Emphasizing meaning and understanding. Teachers who give priority to understanding and meaning help students to comprehend what written text says “between the lines,” assist students to communicate in writing thoughts that an audience would care to know, and demonstrate what mathematical procedures mean and how to tackle unfamiliar problems. ● Embedding skills in context. In each subject area, the teacher presents skills within the context of application. Comprehension skills are connected with the text being read, writing skills are a part of the act of composing, and math problems are solved with selected mathematical tools in context.

Pressley, M., Goodchild, F., Fleet, J., Zajchowski, R., & Evans, E. (1989). The challenges of classroom strategy instruction. The Elementary School Journal, 89(3), 301-335.

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● Encouraging connections between subject areas and between school and life outside of school. Teachers focus on making connections between subject areas and between what is learned in school and the students’ home experiences.2 The materials included in this resource book were selected to emphasize effective teaching and learning practices, to develop a shared meaning about educational jargon, and to provide alternatives to programs that focus on basic skills for at-risk students.

HOW TO USE THE STRATEGIES
This resource book includes examples of strategies that assist learners in the construction of meaning. For students to become genuinely strategic, they must participate in authentic learning opportunities that reflect their needs and access their prior knowledge. The learning strategies described here are not necessarily specific to any content area but emphasize communication and problem solving throughout the curriculum. Communication is the heart of language learning and reading and writing are tools for learning about the world. Because there are multiple ways of knowing, there are multiple ways of communicating and sharing understanding. Although problem solving is an organizational framework for mathematics instruction, it is essential for understanding science, social studies, language, and other content areas. Problem solving, according to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, is “a process by which students experience the power and usefulness of mathematics in the world around them. It is a method of inquiry and application” (NCTM Standards, p. 23). When educators view the problem-solving process as inquiry and application, it is logical for them to use it as a foundation, complementary to communication, for curriculum planning. Some of the ideas presented in this resource book are strategies, while others are demonstrations and some are activities, but all are intended to be invitations for learning. An effective learning strategy is applicable to a range of grade levels, students needs, and content areas. Demonstrations, activities, or instructional experiences become strategies when the learners assume ownership and adapt the experiences to meet their individual needs. The format used in this resource book for introducing a strategy includes a definition (WHAT), a rationale (WHY), and a procedure or method of operation (HOW). Examples are included with some of the learning strategies. Although the learning strategies included are cross-categorical because they include communication and problem solving, they seem to fit two general categories: exploring text and expanding meaning. The section on exploring text includes ideas that are connected to specific text selection, and the section on expanding meaning includes extensions and applications for understanding text. The learning strategies are organized to engage students in exploring written text, oral text, and illustrations and to extend their understanding and help them expand meaning by making personal connections and sharing learning. Some of the strategies are designed for group work, some are suggested for partners, and some are for individual engagement. Many of
Knapp, M.S., Adelman, N.E., Marder, C., McCollum, H., Needels, M.C., Shields, P.M., Turnbull, B.J., & Zuker, A.A. (1993). Study of academic instruction for disadvantaged students: Academic challenge for the children of poverty: Volume 1: Finding and conclusions (Contract No. LC88054001). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget and Evaluation.

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the strategies that focus on specific text include suggestions for group involvement before, during, and after the reading of content area materials. Given the social nature of learning, the strategies for expanding meaning include the sharing of personal interpretations through collaborative inquiry. The long-term goal of strategic teaching is to help students construct meaning through selfregulated use and adaptation of a wide repertoire of strategies. Teachers are encouraged to reflect and adapt these learning strategies to meet their students’ needs as they become strategic learners. All of the experiences described are appropriate for assessment and evaluation purposes.

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Learning Strategies iv .

A. All contributions are accepted and recorded. and encouraging deeper understanding.LEARNING STRATEGIES DESCRIPTIONS The following descriptions provide an overview of the strategies discussed in this resourse book. iv . Examples of teaching reading as thinking include prediction. K-W-L. Questioning. purpose. directed reading. This procedure has been adapted to serve different purposes. investigating ideas. Exploring Text 1. assessing knowledge. 6. Students observe as the teacher thinks aloud while reading a text. The learner generates a hypothesis about the type. determining what they WANT to learn. reflecting on associations. W. The letters K. 5. and reformulating knowledge. 7. 3. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Think-Along. and confirming. K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling that they KNOW. 4. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. Questions are tools for engaging attention. Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. Cloze. Brainstorming. Brainstorming is a way to value prior knowledge and prior experience by inviting students to associate concepts with a selected topic. Prediction. 2. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. or scope of a text to provide a framework for transacting with the text to confirm comprehension. The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning reading to their students. It includes accessing prior knowledge. Group members review and discuss the related ideas and determine how to organize and use the information. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. Pre Reading Plan (PReP). A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Selected deletion is a way to assess the learner’s sense of language and to support prediction and confirmation strategies. This is a basic strategy for using prior knowledge to understand text.

Sketch to Stretch. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. 2. schema diagrams. Semantic Mapping. well structured stories or informational pieces.8. Semantic webbing may be used to follow a sketch to stretch activity. Schema Stories. Students may do a listening activity and draw what they visualize. and places the parts in an envelope. Groups of students work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece. The teacher selects short. Big Books. After brainstorming and discussing associations on particular topics. or a video production. or they may read a text and represent their understanding through illustrations. 10. clusters. B. semantic webs. Visual representations of connected ideas may be labeled as semantic maps. a puppet show. a radio dramatization. Prior experience with text is helpful in developing a schema for identifying. thinking about. or sometimes with minimal print. divides them into sections. They are valuable resources to encourage language knowledge and usage and also to assess oral and written language development. These enlarged texts are designed for shared reading time so that students can be aware of print and how it works. and talking about story structure to encourage comprehension. Expanding Meaning 1. 9. big books may be used to provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. Student responses may include writing a narrative with or without dialogue or creating a script for a play. These are books that tell a story in pictures without words. or structured overviews. Sketching may be used to assess students’ knowledge of sequential order or main idea and details. students can use semantic mapping to organize the information in categories. Wordless Books. Predicting and confirming strategies may be used with big books that have predictable patterns and interesting plots. Although the primary purpose is to share the enjoyment of stories or poetry. Representing ideas through drawing provides students an alternative way of responding to text. v . concept maps.

These journals are like diaries that record personal thoughts. or to say something related to the text. Say Something. vi . Personal Journals. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. This strategy gives readers and writers a sense of authorship by involving students in sharing their writing with peers. One person starts the conversation and often asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. The writer and reader are the same person and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. or two-way responding that may focus on specific needs or issues. The interactive format extends the discussion between a teacher and a student. using invented spelling. a. feelings. over a period of time to explore understanding and inquiry related to reading. Each person listens and responds with comments. questions. Partner reading encourages the sharing of ideas. or questions. 4. Problem Solving. Someone is designated to speak first. Development of student capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective critical thinkers about what they read and hear. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication.3. Young children can participate by drawing pictures. 8. Responding to Reading as Writers. writing. Sometimes partners take turns reading aloud. They may reread the text to clarify understanding or answer questions. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. Dialogue Journals. and insights. or between two students. 6. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. Written Conversation. sometimes they each read silently. and predicting. reactions. but they talk about their perceptions. question generating. b. This is a reading activity that invites conversation and discussion by partners or small groups of students. Partners of different ages and abilities work well together. 9. and perplexing questions. Each person receives a text for reading and responding. The collaboration assists both readers and writers in the composing process as they listen and respond to the written work. clarifying. The participants decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas. Journals and Logs. or problem solving. 5. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation. 7. The teacher may be a student’s partner to assess individual needs and strengths. ideas for exploration. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. Reciprocal Teaching. Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is essential as an approach to finding solutions to problems. Partner Reading. or doing both.

Students are engaged in thinking. and presenting their written work. or common theme. They share. the individuals write to one another. The teacher reads and responds to the group communication. invitations. including content area or research material. 11. When groups of students are working together on a project. students think about what they want to say and begin a first draft of those ideas. story. Reading aloud for a collective purpose is a variation of shared reading experiences. Letters. Learning Logs. vii . insights. General reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about anything they are reading. topic. notes. Reading response logs are important components of reading discussion groups in which students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion about specific text. Reading Logs. letters to the editor. Multiple drafts are kept in writing folders to monitor progress. The journal may travel from person to person or remain in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. Different students serve as discussion leaders. Spelling Strategies. and messages that students may write to real people for real reasons. After choosing a topic. written language. 10. writing. These logs are an example of using writing as a way of knowing. Literature discussion groups give students a chance to talk about their perceptions and interpretations of a selected text. group members decide how far they will read and what they will consider for the next discussion time. and revise their work. Spelling strategies are ways that students focus on the conventions of 13. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. 14. letters of application. This strategy is similar to written conversation. There are pen pal letters. Traveling Journals. revising. This is a framework for using the processes of reading and writing throughout the curriculum. editing. Authoring Cycle. Self-editing is encouraged before an outside editor reviews the work. reading. and friendly letters. get suggestions from other students. or they may focus on one particular lesson or idea. After discussion. Scripts may be adapted from predictable language stories or those with distinctive dialogue. e. Readers’ Theatre. or theme cycles. After reading the selection and responding in a literature log. they meet to discuss ideas and insights. sharing. book. d. 12. consumer awareness letters. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. Rehearsal demonstrates the importance of listening to others and of feeling the rhythm of blended voices. Literature Study. Readers’ theatre is a group project that gives students the opportunity to work together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. and questions to extend learning. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic in the learning log and use it for reflection and selfevaluation. question.c. Entries may include summaries.

Related poetry may be included as text sets as well as different versions of particular fairy tales or collections of books by the same author. The praise column is for positive comments. Exit Slips. Self-selected research promotes active engagement of students in focused study. Student Research. 16. Text Sets. text sets may be a collection of different books on a related topic. a presentation. Praise-Question-Polish (PQP). texts. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. They may be used at the end of a class session. contrast.15. Many of the questions that students want to research cut across disciplines. viii . the end of a week. Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. However. Reading and writing are important tools in content area learning. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. or the end of a focused study. and make connections in a reading discussion group. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. the end of a day. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. topics. The text sets used in literature study circles are usually multiple copies of the same text to provide a focus for shared meaning. or focus studies. 17. Using sets of different texts encourages students to compare. or a theme unit. Students need the opportunity to explore and share their discoveries by presenting their knowledge through various media. 18.

and confirming in a variety of situations. and analyzing and appreciating text. questioning as a framework for reading and understanding. All of the ideas are related to gaining meaning from specific texts or topics related to texts. 1 .Exploring Text The learning strategies and experiences that are included in this section begin with the assumption that reading is a thinking process that connects prior knowledge with predicting and confirming strategies when dealing with text. Students explore text through predicting. using cloze procedures for specific and general purposes. brainstorming.

S. Tierney.L.. Determine author’s purpose.. stopping at logical places. (1985).. A. 1. Prediction is a way of focusing interest and establishing a purpose for reading a particular text — to confirm or expand understanding. 8. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Prove. Inform (give facts) b. 2 . In T. Persuade (attempt to influence reader’s opinion) c. 2.J. or reject. a.E.). Repeat the steps. Readence. 5. Cogen (Eds. Reading strategies and practices — A compendium (3rd ed. 6. Boston: Allyn Bacon. R. Entertain (amuse) 3.K. J. Resample text. thinking. Harris & E. confirm. A.). Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote reading with your mind. 4.L. (1990). Reading. Confirm or adjust prediction. E. & Dishner. & Brown.J. New York: The College Board. Sample text. 7.PREDICTION WHAT: Prediction is a process used by readers to combine their knowledge with textual information to generate a hypothesis about what will happen next. Make prediction based on prior knowledge and textual information. Guide students to apply strategy in all content areas. WHY: HOW: Further information: Palinscar.

and validate or reject the predictions. Let’s share our ideas. Think about what you already know about the topic of the selection. The students read a section of the text such as an episode or episodes in a story. The role of the teacher is to guide students through a selection in order for them to formulate questions for themselves. 3 . Use with the next section of the selection. “Look at the picture and the title on the first page of the selection. The strategy should be done over a period of time during which the teacher models and gradually reduces guidance until students begin to use the strategy independently. “What predictions can you prove? Why or Why not?” Repeat the cycle. make predictions.Example DIRECTED READING THINKING ACTIVITY Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) is a useful strategy to get students to make inferences while reading. Many teachers find it useful to write predictions and modifications on the board to focus the discussion as they progress through the selection. Confirm or reject the predictions. STEPS Activate background knowledge.” Predict. “Why do you think so?” Read silently. The final instructional objective is that the students be able to independently apply the DRTA strategy to all their reading selections. “What do you think the selection will be about? What do you think will happen next?” Support the prediction.

444-451. New York: Harper & Row. 526-535.). 41.J.. J. R. D. Haggard. The Reading Teacher. and chapter DR-TAs. Boston: Allyn Bacon.K.G. Journal of Reading. 31. (1969). M.R.Further information: Gill..T. R. Directing reading maturity as a cognitive process. (1988). 4 . (1990)..E. Tierney. (1988). No book. Readence.R. Stauffer. & Dishner. E. J. Reading strategies and practices—A compendium (3rd ed. whole book. Developing critical thinking with the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity. & Bear.

some false) from the selection to be read. The Prediction Guide makes use of students’ prior knowledge about a topic. Students read selection. YES NO Adapted from: Handout developed by the North Kansas City School District Chapter 1 Program. Students check their predictions and confirm or reject.Example PREDICTION GUIDE The Prediction Guide is a preparatory activity that focuses students’ interests and helps them establish purposes for reading a particular section of a text. 5 . Students read the statements and sort them into YES/NO columns PRIOR to reading. PROCEDURE: Teacher compiles statements (some true.

read each statement and place a check in the first column for each statement with which you agree. place a check on the third line beside the statements the author would support. 2. 3. A rainbow can be formed by the light of the moon. Personal Group Author 1. Overland Park. (1994). 4. 6 . There are seven colors in each rainbow. A rainbow forms in the part of the sky opposite the sun. Be prepared to defend your decision. Inc.Example RAINBOWS DIRECTIONS: BEFORE reading the selection about rainbows. KS: Research & Training Associates. Developed by: Seltzer. AFTER reading the selection. THEN share your decision with group members and make a group decision. Be ready to cite evidence from the text to support your arguments. Each color in the rainbow takes up the same amount of space. D.

If the rain has been heavy. ‘All the colors of the rainbow’ is an expression that means a brilliant display color. and depends chiefly on the size of the raindrops in which a rainbow forms. LUNAR RAINBOW — occasionally. W. The amount of space each color takes up varies. which are difficult to observe. It forms in that part of the sky opposite the sun. 125-126). blue. pp.RAINBOWS “RAINBOW is an arch of brilliant colors that appears in the sky when the sun shines after a shower of rain. the bow may spread all the way across the sky. (1984). This rainbow differs from the sun’s only in intensity of color. (Vol. yellow. 7 . Chicago: World Book. the light of the moon forms a rainbow. Rainbow. The seven colors that appear in each rainbow are violet. In The World Book Encyclopedia. But these colors blend into each other so that the observer rarely sees more than four or five clearly. green. Inc.” Reprinted from: Saucier. 16. and its two ends seem to rest on the earth.J. orange. indigo. The feebleness of the light creates faint colors. and red. The reflection and refraction of the sun’s rays as they fall on drops of rain cause this interesting natural phenomenon.

Southeastern Educational Improvement Laboratory. Research Triangle Park. (1986). or statements. The leader asks how terms are similar or different. Group members call out concepts that they associate with the topic. All associations and terms are accepted and recorded on paper or a transparency. This experience is related to semantic webbing and the individuals or group members may draw a semantic web to organize ideas for further study. Ideas may be generated by these questions: ● What does this mean? ● What do you know about WHY: HOW: ? 2. J. it may be used to review and evaluate learning. Brainstorming is a way to assess and value prior knowledge and experience. Group members work together to explore concepts and relationships. words. Members of the group review the display of written responses and think about how they might fit into categories or groups that have similarities. 1. 4. Reading. The leader may summarize or add some concepts or suggest names for categories. Further information: Adams. Teacher’s aspirations for school improvement. Inc. phrases. Topics for brainstorming may include symbols. 3. 5. NC: Author. Conceptual block busting. All responses are accepted.BRAINSTORMING WHAT: Brainstorming is an exercise that involves groups of students in free association of concepts. Choose a topic or concept to brainstorm. Also.L. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. (1990). questions. 8 .

the picture. After all students have had an opportunity to think and tell about what triggered their ideas. the teacher writes these responses on the board. It includes accessing prior knowledge. see this picture. . they gain the insight that permits them to evaluate the usefulness of these ideas in the reading experience. 1. . (you hear this word. During the second phase. or picture to initiate group discussion about a key concept in the text. GROUP DISCUSSION The PReP calls for a group discussion before students read the text. and reformulating knowledge. In a brief introduction. . have you any new ideas about . “Based on our discussion.Pre Reading Plan (PReP) WHAT: The Pre Reading Plan is a three-step demonstration for teachers to use before assigning textbook reading to their students. or changed as a result of the discussion. deleted. the students are asked. etc. (the word. .” As each student freely associates and tells what ideas initially came to mind. assessing language use in expressing ideas. and to become aware of their changing ideas. and refines predictions to assist individuals in confirming and comprehending text. “What made you think of . the teacher puts the prereading activity in context by introducing the topic to be studied. the teacher says.). . The teacher reviews the assigned text to select a word. and determining the need for additional background information to assist students in understanding the text. The instruction given reminds students of what they already know about a topic. . elicits group elaboration of shared language and concepts. 2. the teachers asks. During this phase. 3. etc. “Tell me anything that comes to mind when . Readers have an opportunity to access their prior knowledge and to elaborate and evaluate their ideas. Through this procedure. (the response given by each of the students during phase 1)?” This phase encourages students to think about the associations they have made. reflecting on associations.)?” This phase allows students to tell about associations that have been expanded. Teachers are assisted in making instructional decisions by assessing students’ prior knowledge about a given topic. In this first phase. to listen to one another’s responses. Reflections on initial associations. students have their first opportunity to make associations between the key concept and what they already know. phrase. Because they have had a chance to probe their memories and 9 WHY: HOW: . Initial associations with the concept. Reformulation of knowledge. There are three phases to the PReP. PReP helps teachers and students assess what students already know about a concept and encourages student to refine predictions about concepts in the text.

. attributes. responses generally focus on low-level associations with morphemes (prefixes.T. Langer. or root words). or defining characteristics. evidencing high integration of ideas.. Prior knowledge and its effect on comprehension. (A more complete description of the levels or organization of knowledge can be found in Langer & Nicolich. Inc. Journal of Reading Behavior. S. (formerly Advanced Technology. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). 1982. & Nicolich. (1981). Categorization of knowledge into levels provides teachers with diagnostic information in planning for instruction. responses generally take the form of examples. Strickler.” generally take the form of superordinate concepts. LEVELS OF RESPONSE There seem to be three levels of response during phase 1 and phase 3. & Cripe. M. DE: International Reading Association. R. If the student has little prior information about the concept. words that sound like the stimulus word. or analogies. they will read and reformulate their ideas in light of the reading task. responses to “Tell me anything that comes to mind when .A. J. (1982). M. Indianapolis. or firsthand (but not quite revelant) experiences. Newark. 153-156).) Taken from: Farr. & Smith-Burke. IN: PRC. Reader meets author/bridging the gap (pp. J. (1990). definitions.A. B. Previous studies have shown these levels to be more important than IQ or standardized reading test scores in predicting student recall of a particular passage (Langer & Smith-Burke. The responses elicited during phase 3 are often more refined than those elicited during phase 1. Langer & Nicolich. 1981). suffixes. 13(4).evaluate their ideas in terms of the text. 10 . If the student has some knowledge about the concept being discussed.. 1981.. .. Inc. They may also link the concept with another concept. Peterson.). based on the amount and organization of students’ prior knowledge.. If the student has much prior knowledge about the concept being discussed. D. References: Langer.

First. In classroom testing. The initial group portion of this strategy involves three basic components. The letters K. In this way. 11 . 1986). L stand for three activities students engage in when reading to learn: recalling what they KNOW. Second. b. When disagreements and questions emerge. The categories of information identified will be useful in processing the information they read and in future reading of a similar nature. they should be asked to categorize the information they have generated. It has also been useful in helping teachers better communicate the active nature of reading in group settings. The strategy was developed to translate current research findings about the active. c. Group instruction. after students have volunteered all that they can think of about the concept. W. the teacher engages students in a discussion of what they as a group already know about the concept the teacher or the students have selected to introduce the lesson. Third. This strategy is designed to help students develop a more active approach to reading expository material.K-W-L WHAT: K-W-L is a strategy that models the active thinking needed when reading expository text. after the students are somewhat familiar with this process. and identifying what they LEARN as they read. they should be asked to anticipate the categories of information they would expect to have included in an article on the topic. the teacher notes them and suggests that students may want to include them on the center column as questions they want to have answered. K-W-L has been shown to be an effective tool to help students become more active thinkers and to help them remember better what they read (Ogle. the benefits of group instruction are combined with individual student commitment and responsibility. WHY: HOW: The strategy is designed for group instruction and can be used with either whole classes or smaller groups. Teachers first model and stimulate the kinds of thinking needed for learning and then give students individual opportunities to list what they know. constructive nature of reading into an instructional lesson format. The teacher may need to identify one general category that incorporates two or more pieces of information on the board to model the building of chunks or categories. what questions they want answered. 1. and what they have learned from reading the text. a. The teacher lists this information on the chalkboard or overhead projector. It can be used in all curricular areas and at all grades in which students are reading expository material. determining what they WANT to learn.

C. students should be asked individually to list what they feel confident they KNOW about the concept. 4. E. & W.W.).. Duffy.2. In G. students should jot down information they learn as well as new questions that emerge. Children’s preconceptions and content-area textbooks. P. (formerly Advanced Technology. Comprehension instruction: Perspectives and suggestions.J.E. Taken from: Godt. Montague (Eds. C. the text can either be read as a unit or be broken into sections for reading and discussion.). Inc. the teacher should help students raise those questions that have emerged during the discussion or that come from thinking of the major categories of information they expect to find. The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. (1991). 39(6). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reference: Ogle. (1986). Reading. Schooling and the acquisition of knowledge. IN: PRC. K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text.L. Anderson. 564-570. (1984). & Smith. D. Depending on the length and difficulty of the text and the class composition. R. The Reading Teacher. Assessment of learning.C. R. If some have not been answered satisfactorily. & Ehlmann. Students should be directed to read the text once they have focused both on what they know and what they want to find out from reading. D. In R.T. Indianapolis. After the group introduction to the topic. 12 .M. Their questions should be reviewed to determine how they were resolved. Inc. 3. New York: Longman. (1977). At this time. Spiro. Hillsdale. & J.. The final step in the process is to engage the students in a discussion of what they have learned from reading.). Anderson. They can also write down the categories they think are most likely to be included. Mason (Eds. L. M. students should be encouraged to continue their search for information. Further information: Anderson. Roehler.. As they read. Individual reflection. Jensen. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide).

564-570. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. D.M. The Reading Teacher.WHAT SO WHAT? NOW WHAT? K What we know (What we think we know) W What we want to learn L What we learned Adapted from: Ogle. 39(6). 13 .

W. how are they different? Where do toads live in the winter? In the summer? What do toads eat? How do toads protect themselves? How far can they jump? L What we learned and still need to learn Toads 1.C. eats bugs 2. what toads do Reprinted from: Olson. food 3. Content reading instruction in the primary grades: Perceptions and strategies. 14 . spits poison 2. description 2. (1991). 303. T. M. has a long tongue 3. 45(4). jumps 3.Example K-W-L K-W-L worksheet for a science selection on toads K What we know W What we want to find out Are toads the same as frogs? If not. & Gee. The Reading Teacher.. eats spiders Categories 1. gray 1. small animals 1.

no good. For example. the cloze procedure has taken many forms. No Good. relates to children’s experiences. horrible. assessing comprehension in a contextual setting. The paragraph each student receives should be on his or her independent reading level. and builds enthusiasm for the prediction process. 1. The students give reasons why their answers make sense.” 3. selected deletion (deleting selected words or parts of words such as verbs or nouns). word length clues. Very Bad Day (Viorst. The teacher introduces the students to the prediction procedure used in completing cloze passages by using an oral cloze with the students. The oral cloze procedure involves deleting selected content words from a high interest selection. including random deletion (every __nth word). Since its introduction by Wilson Taylor in 1953. the teacher lists them on the board. the book Alexander and the Terrible.CLOZE WHAT: Cloze refers to the procedure of using reading material from which words or partial words have been systematically deleted. 1972) is a good choice for an oral cloze because it is humorous. provides many alternatives for discussion. Students may want to tape-record different versions to keep oral records of “Alexander’s Different Terrible Days. limited cloze (deleted words are randomly listed in the margin). the teacher should stress “taking risks” in making predictions by emphasizing that there are many correct answers. macrocloze (deleting an entire story part). the children supply possible words for each of the words in brackets: I went to sleep with gum in my [mouth] and now there’s gum in my [hair] and when I got out of [bed] in the morning I tripped on the [skateboard] and by mistake I dropped my [sweater] in the sink while the [water] was running and I could tell it was going to be a terrible. The cloze procedure has various instructional uses such as developing reading comprehension and use of context clues. During the completion of the oral cloze. very [bad] day. The teacher distributes a cloze paragraph to each student. and evaluating the readability of texts to select appropriate instructional materials. Students read WHY: HOW: 15 . As students supply possible answers for the words in brackets. As the teacher reads aloud. Horrible. 2. The student completes the cloze passage by using context clues to predict the missing words. and oral cloze (the teacher reads aloud a selection that contains deleted content words — students supply possible words).

NH: Heinemann Educational Books.W. Students share their predictions and justify their choices.A. or lyrics to popular songs. E. December). (1980). The Reading Teacher. very bad day. (1989). NJ: Prentice Hall. Further information: Blachowicz. the teacher distributes copies of selected paragraphs that contain underlined words. Cloze activities for primary readers. Cloze instruction research. F. Jongsma. J.their paragraph silently to predict as many possible answers that make sense in each of the blanks in the paragraph.G. Rye.Z. Alexander and the terrible. 218-220). Schoenfeld. Using materials on the students’ independent reading level from content areas. (1977. magazines. 34(2). Instructional uses of the cloze procedure. the students read the paragraphs together and record possible synonym substitutions above each of the underlined words. The Reading Teacher. 300-302. Helping children learn to read (pp. & Readence. (1972). horrible. New York: Macmillan. newspapers. (1982). DE: International Reading Association. (1980). 147-151. Exeter. 4. Searfoss.E. Reference: Viorst. L. Englewood Cliffs. Cloze procedure and the teaching of reading..L. 16 . J. Newark. Working in teams of two or three. The teacher emphasizes that there are many correct answers. no good. C. J.

There was cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. pigs. feed and care for.Example VARIATIONS OF CLOZE Sample Text Once upon a time there was a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm because there were so many interesting things to do. cats. were sheep. There were trees to climb and ponds to explore. There were to climb and ponds were sheep. . Random Deletion Once upon a time to do. There were fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to gather. and dogs eggs to cooking and cows to milk. feed and care for. pick and were so many interesting explore. There were horses to chickens. ducks. There were sheep. After supper. was cream to cooking was a little girl Sherry who loved to were so many interesting explore. 17 . geese. After supper. chickens. cats. there to prepare for stories by the light the coal oil lamp. and dogs to feed and care for. cats. ducks. there was always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. pick and eggs to . were fruits and vegetables into butter and other always time to . chickens. pigs. there the coal oil lamp. There to prepare for always time to and food geese of tell there there to to visit churn gather named ride there there things to trees was visit her grandparents’ farm because to climb and ponds and cows to milk. After supper. There were There were horses to pigs. and dogs into butter and other eating. were fruits and vegetables stories by the light Limited Cloze Once upon a time because was a little girl Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm to do. ducks. There was cream to eating. There were horses to ride and cows to milk. .

After supper. There were horses to r . nd th r f nd p nds t w r p. geese. There After supper. T her grandparents’ to climb and ponds were sheep. t ll st r 18 . There chickens. T feed and care for. Th r m t nd f th nd v g t bl s t lw ys t m g th r. There fruits and vegetables to pick and eggs to cream to churn into butter and other food to prepare for cooking and eating. Initial consonant clues Once upon a time t farm because t t g t light o was a little girl n were so many interesting t Sherry who loved to v to do. ducks. so many interesting things to do. . there w prepare for cooking a Initial consonant clues Once w r t f c th d p n tr s t t m th r s sh w s th r l ttl w r g rl n m d Sh rry wh s m ny xpl r . p gs. ch ck ns. g ch rn b tt r w s nd c re f r. Th r k ng l ght ft r s pp r. cats. and dogs t pick and eggs to g the coal oil lamp. there a little girl named Sherry who loved to visit her grandparents’ farm trees to climb and ponds to sheep. c l m lk. There horses to ride and cows to milk. Th r nt r st ng th ngs t h rs s t p ck d t t se. chickens. th r l l mp. There was cream to c eating. always time to tell stories by the light of the coal oil lamp. pigs. ducks. Th r fr ts nt w r l v d t r d nd v s t h r d . d cks. There were t and cows to milk. c ts. were fruits and vegetables into butter and other f always time to t to stories by the explore. pigs. There gather. and dogs to feed and care for. cats.Selected Deletions Particular verbs: was and were Once upon a time there because there explore. Th r nd c ws nd d gs t ggs t f r s by pr p r gr ndp r nts’ f rm b c cl mb w r w s cr t ng.

then questioning is an important part of exploring text. Teachers create appropriate questions as instructional cues and students ask questions to gain knowledge. Before reading: ● ● ● ● What is the topic? What do I already know about this? How is the text organized? What do the illustrations tell me? WHY: HOW: During reading: ● What kind of information am I learning? ● Which of these details are important? ● How does this information fit with what I already know? After reading: ● ● ● ● What are the main points? What does the author want me to know? What do I do with this information? What else do I want or need to find out? 19 . creative thinking. A good question can give direction to learners to examine their thinking. and after reading. interpreting. during. and their writing. Questions may range from those that focus on recall of information to those that emphasize critical. Teachers use questions to gain information about students’ understanding. Questioning as a strategy requires demonstration and use of questions that focus on meaning. assessing knowledge.QUESTIONING WHAT: If inquiry reflects the natural curiosity of children and adults. and using text and in solving problems. The effective questioner demonstrates and uses questions that serve different purposes. their reading. Appropriate questions help students develop metacognition and assist them in problem-solving strategies. Questioning is used to involve students in experiencing. investigating ideas. 1. and encouraging deeper understanding. If the focus is on gaining factual information from text. the following questions may help students before. Questions are tools for engaging attention.

F. . ? How did you decide . & Kelly. . .. . L. (1983). MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers. Some of the following prompts may be useful: ● ● ● ● ● ● What do you think . Teaching thinking through effective questioning (2nd ed. 20 . refer to the section on literature response logs. Urbana.D. ? What if . ? What else could you do . 3. Inc. Questioning. ? How do you know that .2. . ? Why did you . . Further information: Munkins. P. .). Boston. ? Reference: Christenbury. then the following questions may help students to think about what they are reading: ● What does the title mean? ● What is the author trying to tell me? ● What do I think this story or poem means? For additional questions.P. (1995). . . . If the focus is on literary text. a path to critical thinking. The challenge for teachers is to move students from literal recall questioning (What do I know?) to self-generated questioning that values thinking (What do I think or what do I want to know and why?). . . IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

The Request Procedure consists of the following steps: 1. the procedure encourages the exchange of content information and ideas. Through teacher modeling of good questioning behavior. The teacher facilitates follow-up discussion of the material. Students are told they will read a story and take turns asking each other questions over a specified section to improve their understanding of what they read. The selection can be read one sentence at a time or a paragraph at a time. the teacher and student read the next sentence or paragraph and proceed as before. Both the student and the teacher silently read a common selection from the text. In addition. When the student has processed enough information to make predictions about the rest of the selection. 3. This procedure can be done with an individual student and the teacher or with pairs. The teacher encourages the student to ask questions about the text material and to set his or her own purposes for reading. and small groups. 1969) is designed to improve the student’s reading comprehension by providing an active learning situation for the development of questioning behaviors. The teacher answers the questions clearly and completely. 21 . By forming questions that call upon the student’s grasp of text structures. The procedure is indirectly diagnostic. by noting the kinds of questions the student asks for each kind of text structure. teams. 6. but it can also be used with pairs. The teacher then asks directed questions: “What do you think the rest of the assignment is about?” “Why do you think so?” The student reads the rest of the assignment. 2. Then it is the teacher’s turn to ask the questions about the same sentence or paragraph. teams. the student asks as many questions as he or she can. Both the student and the teacher need copies of the reading materials. the exchange of questions stops. When the student has finished answering. content area texts and prose materials work equally well. the student gains insight into how good readers ask themselves questions as they are reading. The teacher chooses a story or passage to be read by the student and the teacher. the teacher models good questioning strategies. 4. 5. The ReQuest Procedure was originally devised as a remedial procedure involving an individual student and the teacher. After they have both read the passage. and/or small groups. and the student answers as fully as possible.Example ReQuest The ReQuest (Reciprocal Questioning) Procedure guides a student through as many sentences as necessary to enable the student to comprehend the rest of the passage successfully. The ReQuest Procedure (Manzo. the teacher can determine whether the student is comprehending.

ReQuest: A method for improving reading comprehension through reciprocal questioning. Strickler.Taken from: Godt. & Cripe. Inc.. (1969)...). 22 . Inc. P. Inc. (1991).. IN: PRC. 123-126. Indianapolis. 13. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). (formerly Advanced Technology. S. (1990). D. Manzo.T. Reference: Farr. Inc. (formerly Advanced Technology. M. Reading assignment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Indianapolis. D. A. B. Jensen. Journal of Reading. IN: PRC. & Ehlmann.. R.V.). Peterson.

(1990). S. (formerly Advanced Technology. QAR © IN THE BOOK © IN MY HEAD © Right There © Think & Search (Putting it together) © Author and Me © On My Own References: Farr. 23 . Strickler. QARS revisited. Newark. The IN-MY-HEAD category can include answers that require: 1. & Cripe. Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). 36.). (1982). T. Raphael. Inc. B. Stephenson. The Reading Teacher.. Questions that can be answered without reading the text (ON MY OWN). D. Answers that require the reader to put together material from the text (THINK AND SEARCH).Example QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP (QAR) To follow up on the development of questioning behaviors. IN: PRC. R.. The IN-THE-BOOK category can be expanded to include: 1.. 2. Question-answering strategies for children. T. 2. Answers that are stated in the text (RIGHT THERE). The teacher helps the student decide if the questions they asked can be answered from IN-THE-BOOK or INMY-HEAD. (1985). The QAR strategy helps students clarify the different sources of information available to answer questions during the ReQuest Procedure.E.E. the teacher may introduce students to the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). Students to think about what they already know and how that information fits in with the information the author provides in the text (AUTHOR AND ME). Raphael. Inc. DE: International Reading Association. Indianapolis.

D. Developed by: Watson. MO: University of Missouri. Owen Publishers. or they may ask general questions about the whole piece. Students read the text silently. C. Crowley. Gilles. M. F. Reynolds. If students are working individually. read. & D. Bixby. Further information: Watson. & Gilles. The teacher explains that ERRQ stands for estimate. Read. After a text has been chosen and distributed. or with a partner in paired reading. Readers who are given choices about a text are more willing to make a commitment to explore meaning. they may create questions about each of the marked portions. Estimate. Whole language strategies for secondary students (pp. 44-45). S. They identify the text portions with a light pencil mark. Students generate questions about the reading. and Question) is a reading strategy that involves students’ questioning of text to gain meaning. ERRQ is designed to help students link new information to their own experiences. (1979) Columbia. 5. Pyle (Eds. they have to think about what they know in a different context. When students formulate questions. they retell everything they can remember to themselves or write their responses down for future reference. (1988). After reading. they share oral retellings with their partners.). 3. They respond to the information by reacting to it and forming a question about it. the teacher demonstrates the process. Respond. M. D. 24 . Crenshaw. If students have marked the text by paragraphs or smaller portions of text. What comes to mind as they read? What images or feelings are evoked? If students are working with partners. students react. What images come to mind as they read? Does the text remind them of anything from their experience? 4. 2.. In C. Students look over the text and estimate how far they can read and maintain understanding.Example ERRQ ERRQ (Estimate. and question. New York: Richard C. Respond. The teacher may need to demonstrate different types of questions and discuss the appropriateness of each in accessing information. P. Henrichs. orally. The questions help to organize information and give the teacher a way to understand the reader’s comprehension. 1. The teacher may collect the questions for evaluation purposes. Question. ERRQ. Read. Students estimate how far they can read with understanding and then read that portion. They are urged to consider how the text affects them. respond.

Students may tape-record and listen to their think-aloud experience to check which strategies they used. Further information: Davey. Journal of Reading. After the demonstration. 94. Students observe the teacher thinking aloud while reading a text. Interrupt the reading by verbalizing the ideas that are evoked by the text. Think-Aloud: Modeling the cognitive process of reading comprehension. (1983). Select a short story or informational passage to read aloud to students while they follow along with their own copies. R. Students need demonstrations of thinking processes to activate their own construction of meaning. B. It is an attempt on the part of the teacher to model the thinking process that any good reader engages in when reading. Making personal connections with text is important in becoming a transactional reader. Were some repeated or used more than others? Make a checklist for use in doing think-alongs in small group settings. Educational Leadership. Activation and connection of prior knowledge. (1989). 25 . 44-47. 1. A need to reread for confirmation or clarification of meaning. WHY: HOW: 2. 26(2). Make a list on the chalkboard. 47(3).THINK-ALONG WHAT: A think-along is a teaching demonstration that makes the invisible thinking process of reading visible. Teaching good habits with think-alongs. Thinking aloud may include: • • • • • Repetition or elaboration of details of setting or characters. Prediction of what might occur next. Discuss the strategies that were demonstrated. Farr. ask the students what they noticed about your thinking process as the text was analyzed. Cognitive confusion of events or word meanings.

F. Inc. I wonder if I will ever get married. (1970). KS: Research & Training Associates. The king who rained.P. Dutton. New York. D. an electric? Is this the kind of train the speaker means? Daddy says there are forks in the road. Where will I live? Why does a train have to be held up? What kind of train — a diesel. Teacher: Thinking: My big sister’s getting married and she says I can hold up her train. NY: Windmill Books and E. 26 . What are forks doing in the road? Did they come from someone’s dinner table? Do they have three or four prongs? Are there other kinds of forks that I don’t know about? Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Seltzer. Overland Park.Example A THINK-ALONG IN READING Gwynne. (1994).

(1994). How do I go about obtaining this information? A planning group will canvas the rooms to ask for the enrollment of each classroom. we need to figure out how many boys and girls are to be served. KS: Research & Training Associates.Example A THINK-ALONG IN MATH Teacher: The fifth grade students at University Elementary School are planning a party. R. Overland Park. I need to check for reasonableness and submit the answer so planning for the party can continue. Using my calculator I will add up the number of students in each grade to find the total number of students. to include the entire school. There is only one classroom per grade. 27 . How will this information be recorded? The number of students will be written on a list showing each grade. Inc. What is the total number of students at University Elementary School? My calculator has given me the answer. I wonder how many boys and girls are in each classroom? To plan refreshments for the party. Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Teacher: Thinking: Developed by: Burns-Stowers.

The teacher reads the book again and invites the students to read along. Using texts that include rhyme. The large visual display of conventional print along with the complementary illustration helps students to see interesting structural patterns and graphic arrangements. but the value is diminished if the text is not interesting. he or she encourages a discussion about personal connections made by the students. stopping at natural points for student interaction. Increasing the size of pictures and print makes it possible for children to see the illustrations and the words as the teacher reads aloud and shares the text. or other predictable features assists students in developing confidence in their ability to construct meaning. Students may notice interesting letter similarities. The teacher invites students’ questions and comments after the reading is completed. adjectives. The teacher introduces a big book by showing the title and asking students to predict the content (“What do you think this book will tell us about ___________?”). Big book sets include multiple copies of small books for individual and group reading after the text has been shared in a large group.BIG BOOKS WHAT: Big books are enlarged texts designed to be used in shared reading time. 3. The teacher reads the text aloud. cumulative structure. Big books should have predictable patterns or interesting plots so that students can have a worthwhile experience. These large texts are used to make children aware of print and how it works. verbs. repetition. 2. WHY: HOW: 28 . Big print and big pictures get attention. At the end of this reading. 1. and other conventions of print. 4. word order. nouns. Big books provide a linguistic framework for language learning within the context of a story or connected text. natural language flow and familiar subject matter. punctuation symbols.

Western Publishing. San Diego. Box 797. CA 92127 29 . Department DF. Chicago. Box 7501. Crystal Lake. P. Westminster. 10949 Technology Place. 200 South Service Road. Albany. 400 Hahn Street. IL 60656 Learning Well. Department 436. Roslyn Heights. 2 Computer Drive West.THEN WHAT: The teacher invites students to select individual ways of extending the story or retelling information in visual or written forms. NY 12212 Goldencraft-Children’s Press. MO 65102 Wright Group. NY 11577 Random House. Sources for big books: Delmar Publishers.O. Jefferson City. P. MD 21157 Rigby. 2931 East McCarthy Street. 5440 North Cumberland Avenue. IL 60014 Scholastic.O.

others prefer to write a narrative account of the plot. or developing scripts for puppet shows or readers’ theatre. to other classes. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: Students may present their creative projects to the rest of the class. Students may also create their own wordless books for the class library. Other possibilities include writing narratives of story plots. Perhaps personal enjoyment with no requirements for responding is the best idea. or for parents’ programs. 1. 30 .WORDLESS BOOKS WHAT: These are books that use pictures and either minimal print or no print at all to tell a story or to present information. The absence of print focuses attention on constructing meaning from the illustrations. There are numerous ways to use these picture books with groups and individuals. Students may work together as partners or within a small group to share their perceptions of the illustrations. Some students like to look at a wordless book and then tell the story or make comments about the information into a tape recorder. creating dialogue for the characters. Some choose to write dialogue. or characters. 2. setting. Books without words are used to encourage language knowledge and use and also to assess oral and written language development because students demonstrate their linguistic knowledge and experiential background as they construct meaning. They may respond by writing a group description of the ideas generated by the pictures.

. New York: Dial Books. Carl goes shopping. M. (1980). New York: Philomel. (1993). . (1980). CA: Green Tiger Press. Anno’s alphabet. . Carl’s afternoon in the park. J. (1993). Adventures of Paddy Pork. (1982). Window. Pancakes for breakfast. . New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. New York: Sandcastle. (1970). D. Baker. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. (1979). (1980). M. Florian. New York: Philomel. New York: Harcourt. R. (1975). Carl. (1974). Anno’s animals. . San Diego. Day. CA: Green Tiger Press. Briggs. Felix. Bobo’s dream. New York: Philomel. The knight and the dragon. . (1981). (1991). New York: Random House. (1991). A. New York: Crowell. 31 .BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORDLESS BOOKS Alexander. DePaola. The grey lady and the strawberry snatcher. J. Good dog. Creepy castle. The further adventures of a little mouse trapped in a book. (1978). New York: Harper & Row. New York: Puffin. . Anno. . New York: Harcourt. CA: Green Tiger Press. The snowman. Anno’s journey. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The story of a little mouse trapped in a book. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. M. Jacko. . San Diego. (1968). M. The city. (1983). Carl goes to daycare. (1985). Anno’s USA. (1986). (1989). Four Winds. San Diego. T. Goodall. Bang. (1972). New York: Farrar Straus Giroux. .

(1981). Mayer. . Hanimals. a dog. Who’s seen the scissors? New York: Dutton. F. (1979). (1988). (1977). (1989). . . . . (1984). New York: Margaret K. . Ah-choo. (1976). Little red riding hood. (1977). Mariotti. New York: Margaret K. 32 . A boy.. The mystery of the giant’s footprints. New York: Macmillan. New York: Atheneum. New York: Macmillan. San Diego. (1971). . (1982). . April fools. and a friend. Paddy goes traveling. (1971). . Paddy under water. (1983). CA: Green Tiger Press. (1982). McElderry Books. Puss in boots. New York: Dutton. . San Diego. . . P. New York: Macmillan. Krahn. New York: Macmillan. Changes. . Hoban. (1981). New York: Macmillan. CA: Green Tiger Press. New York: Dutton. Hutchins. New York: Greenwillow. . A boy. (1967). Lavinia’s cottage. CA: Green Tiger Press. (1985). New York: Dial Books. Take another look. Arthur’s adventure in the abandoned house. and a frog. McElderry Books. (1982). The great ape. San Diego. New York: Macmillan. . The story of a castle. T. Look again. changes. (1974). Story of an English village. a dog. (1975). . New York: Macmillan. Humands. Paddy to the rescue. (1986). The story of a farm. New York: Dial Books. (1990). Naughty Nancy goes to school. New York: Viking Press. . (1984). . New York: Macmillan. New York: Dutton. a frog. M. New York: McElderry Books. (1986). Humages. New York: Dial Books. (1978). M.

Do not disturb. Frog goes to dinner. Dreams. Spier. (1980). Vincent. Frog on his own. . Sunshine. Rain. (1982). McCully. . New York: Clarion Books. Ernest and Celestine. (1978). New York: Crown Publishers. New York: Doubleday. New York: Dial Books. (1980). (1982). (1977). Hiccup. Oops. . The bear and the fly. B. (1985). N. Wiesner. New York: Puffin. (1976). . New York: Dial Books. Junglewalk. (1985). P. (1986). Picnic. (1978). Turkle. New York: Puffin. (1988). . . New York: Dial Books. Breakfast time. E. New York: Dial Books. Tafuri. P. where are you? New York: Dial Books. . 33 . Ormerod. . New York: Harper.. First snow. G. (1981). (1976). Winter. D. New York: Dutton. J. (1991). Frog. Moonlight. Tuesday. New York: Greenwillow. Deep in the forest. New York: Greenwillow. New York: Doubleday. New York: Greenwillow. (1987). New York: Harper. (1984).

give members of it a copy of the complete story to confirm their decisions.SCHEMA STORIES WHAT: Schema stores are based on students’ understanding of story elements and the use of language. and places the parts in an envelope. The leader of a group takes the story parts from the envelope and gives a different section to each member of the group. After individuals have had time to read and think about their portions of text. 5. The experience of arranging parts of a story into a logical sequence assists students in making predictions and confirming language knowledge. This process continues until the group agrees on the sequential order of the parts. divides them into sections. Members of the group try to determine who has the beginning of the story. The teacher selects short. and the one who thinks s/he has the first section. 6. 3. 1. well structured stories or informational pieces. they try to determine the sequence. If the group has trouble deciding. reads aloud his/her section to the rest of the group. The important aspect of this strategy is the attention paid to the structure and language of the story rather than the sequential order. Students work in small groups to arrange and discuss one complete story or story summary. The leader may suggest that they think about what could have happened before and after their section of text. Whole stories are divided into parts for students to arrange in logical order. Invite small groups to share their experiences and insights. The parts are not in sequential order so that the participants can determine the logical sequence. WHY: HOW: 34 . 2. 4. Group members work together to determine the sense or schema of the piece and arrange the parts in order. They agree or disagree which is the first part. Form groups and choose a leader and a recorder from each group. Each person in the small group reads his/her part silently.

Prelutsky. New York: Doubleday. K. New York: Weathervane Books.Developed by: Watson. J. Haugaard. (1978). Knopf. E. (1985). J. (1988). New York: Alfred A. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. The read-aloud treasury. 35 . (1977). 340-345). New York: Scholastic. Portsmouth. Further information: Harste. Short. New kid on the block. C. Just so stories. H. (Eds. & Burke.. Columbia. (1974). Oxenbury. A treasury of Hans Christian Andersen. NH: Heinemann. (1988).. S. MO: University of Missouri. J. D. New York: Barnes & Noble. (1984). Kipling. R. & Calmenson. The Helen Oxenbury nursery story book..). Possible sources for schema stories and materials: Cole.

so she ignored him. (1970). so spring and fall were the best times to plan on a few days of camping. and exploring. New York: Harper & Row. Sam had been writing in a diary. Sam gave Louis a slate to hang around his neck and taught him to read and write. A summary of a familiar story may be used to introduce a story before reading or to review the plot after reading. the things that he had seen.Example SCHEMA STORY SUMMARY White. That baby was Louis. Sometimes he drew a picture. This summary of The Trumpet of the Swan is divided in five parts so that a group can make decisions about the sequence of the sections to check their understanding or to use their linguistic knowledge for making connections. However. During the summer he and his parents were kept busy entertaining guests at their ranch. 3. Sam observed the cygnets’ (baby swans) first swimming lesson and noticed one cygnet in particular. E. he couldn’t get her attention. Louis still couldn’t make himself understood. but most of all. but he always ended his journal by asking himself a question. 2. 4. Louis was different from the rest of his noisy brothers and sisters because he couldn’t make a sound. He loved the beautiful Serena. since the other swans couldn’t read. but without a trumpet sound. The trumpet of the swan.B. Sam returned to the pond the next morning to observe the trumpeter swans and did not know that they were also observing him. Delete the numbers before distributing the parts to individuals in the group. and the thoughts that he had had. or journal. fishing. 36 . Every night at bedtime he wrote about the events of the day. he enjoyed the camping trips to Canada that he and his father took when they could get away from the ranch. to keep a daily log of his experiences. For some time. This example is a variation of using schema story. who had a real problem. Student-written summaries may be used after the teacher has demonstrated the procedure. On one of these trips. Sam Beaver loved living on a ranch in western Montana. This event began an interesting and exciting adventure that Sam recorded in his diary. The family tried to help him but they were unsuccessful. 1. When the eggs in the nest hatched. he discovered a nest of trumpeter swans. when Sam was exploring the swamps and woods around the Canadian camp site.

Sensing the severity of the problem. He also wanted to win Serena’s love. Louis’ father crashed into a music shop and stole a brass trumpet to give his son a voice so that he could woo Serena. Louis felt obligated to pay off his father’s debt for damages and stolen property. His faith and determination eventually brought success. (1994). 37 . Louis learned to play the trumpet and found employment as a musician in Boston and Philadelphia to earn enough money to repay the music shop owner. Developed by: Crenshaw.5. so he had to leave his home and family to find ways of making a living. Inc. Overland Park. KS: Research & Training Associates. S.

000 pounds. The numbers are deleted before distributing the parts to different individuals. Who knows if he will eat other things and continue to grow. Eating them caused him to grow to 160 feet tall and to weigh in at 4. R. Developed by: Burns-Stowers. Monster devastated the town of Anytown. seemed to be a perfect dessert. which were in the path of the monster. On a cold and windy day in Anytown. a very large. he doubled in size. KS: Research & Training Associates. Amazing to say the least! 3. After eating several prominent landmarks. America. The creature stood an awesome 40 feet tall and weighed 1. He doubled both his height and weight after eating the Anytown water tower.000 pounds. The amazing thing about him was that each day he would double in size. 1. Overland Park. 2.. at 7 p. he was 80 feet tall and weighed 2.m.m. At 320 feet and 8. It was 7 a.Example MATH SCHEMA STORY This story is divided into four parts for students to read and arrange in logical order. Mr.000 pounds. The water tower was the next item on his menu. 4. and it added to his size of 160 feet and 4.000 pounds. 38 . Twelve hours later. America. ugly creature emerged from the river to explore the possibilities of finding a home. (1994). roaming back and forth destroying everything in sight. when he lumbered from the river to start his investigation. Inc. The local police and fire departments.000 pounds. the monster decided to settle in what was left of Anytown.

and sketches to represent understanding. The ideas and activities that are included in this section assist learners in that process. Organizing concepts in visual form emphasizes the arrangement of related ideas and includes semantic webbing. story maps. Literature study in discussion groups encourages shared meaning. partner reading. Text sets and research projects are useful for connecting student questions and interest. and focused conversations. 39 . logs. The suggestions are arranged from simple to more complex involvement but are not necessarily meant to be sequential. and the authoring cycle. The last two items in this section are evaluative forms that invite learners to expand meaning by reflecting on what they learned or what they want to do next to expand their meaning. letters. Problem solving focuses on thinking processes applicable to all content areas. Writing is both an individual and group process of expanding meaning through reading response experiences such as journals. there is the hope that they are expanding meaning and understanding. Meaning is expanded through social interactions with others in reciprocal teaching.Expanding Meaning When students are exploring text.

” “plot mapping. Students’ ideas are listed on the semantic map in categories that organize the words in a reasonable and related manner. learn new words and find new meanings for words they already know.” The procedure activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge and generally involves brainstorming and discussion of how new information links to this prior knowledge. add new related ideas to the map. The maps can be used for vocabulary and comprehension development as a prereading or postreading activity. ● Orally share ideas together to generate a class semantic map. 4. WHY: HOW: 40 . Encourage students to think of as many words or ideas as they can that relate to the selected word or topic. Discussion of the semantic map is perhaps the most important part of the activity. focus on the ideas most appropriate to the lesson being taught. ● Brainstorm ideas in a small group to share in large group discussion. While there are a number of variations to semantic mapping. the general steps involved are: 1. for a number of years it has been known as “semantic webbing. Here students see how words or ideas are related.” and “semantic networking. These details or related words or ideas are written around the main word or topic. Draw a box or circle around the word or term. and help students to identify those ideas that do not appropriately fit the map. 2.SEMANTIC MAPPING WHAT: Semantic maps or webs are diagrams that help students see how words or topics are related to one another. Write the chosen vocabulary word or story topic on the blackboard. Students may: ● Write their ideas on paper and then share those ideas in group discussion. 3. 5. During discussion. Semantic mapping is not a new instructional strategy.

D.D.E. & Ehlmann. (1986). Inc. (1971). (1991). Mapping: A technique for translating reading into thinking. M. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. IRA Service Bulletin. M. P. Indianapolis.T. Jensen. J. DE: Reading Aids Series. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Newark. Other sources: Hanf.. (formerly Advanced Technology. IN: PRC. Inc. Journal of Reading..Taken from: Godt. & Pittelman. S..A.) Reference: Heimlich. 41 .

and textbook or basal materials.. low-vocabulary reading materials. library books) to find additional information that fits or relates to the categories on the semantic map. (1991). before reading The activity integrates information from several sources to build students’ background knowledge for a topic to be studied. List key vocabulary words on the blackboard. 3. Have students use the semantic map to write a summary of the important facts and details about the topic. (1986). posters.g.T. filmstrips. & Ehlmann. Write these ideas on the map in chalk of a different color. Write the topic on the blackboard and draw a circle around the word. S. Write each key word on the semantic map as a category heading.. The instructor prepares for this activity by choosing several materials that provide information on the topic. 4. pictures. These materials could include posters. (The different colored chalk indicates information from different sources. & Pittelman. Discuss each word. 1. maps. D. Newark. listing details students already know about these category headings in colored chalk. DE: Reading Aids Series. Taken from: Godt.. Write this information in white chalk to indicate that the information came from the textbook. use the map to help students summarize or recap the information about the topic.) Have students review the other materials (e. J. P. Reference: Heimlich. Have students read the textbook material. various high-interest. Indianapolis.E. When the semantic map is completed. including a context phrase or sentence for each word. Ask students to skim the basal textbook to find the key words in context. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. easy-toread trade books. IRA Service Bulletin. Discuss the uses or meanings of those words in the text and write those ideas on a semantic map in white chalk. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Inc. 42 . stopping at the end of each section to add information to the semantic map. 2.).. (formerly Advanced Technology. . . Jensen. IN: PRC.D. M. filmstrips.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Inc.

Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . after reading 1. . Write their ideas on the map. marries Caroline © THEME Louise goes to work in Appalachia © Louise marries widower and settles in Appalachia © © © CHARACTERS SETTING Mother Father Louise plain quiet thoughtful ignored by family Caroline beautiful talented successful center of attention Louise feels disappointed and sad but she finds happiness 43 . For example. Provide enough context for the upcoming reading to help students make predictions about what they think will happen in this story. important problems and episodes in the story. Have students suggest ideas for each of these concepts or themes based on what they remember from reading the story. Louise’s friend. Wallace Aunt Trudy Rass Island Chesapeake Bay EVENTS © World War II brings hardships Captain Wallace marries Aunt Trudy JACOB HAVE Twins I LOVED Caroline receives money from aunt to study music Louise leaves school to help support family © McCall. On lines drawn from the circle. Introduce any key vocabulary words in context and then have students read the story silently. and outcomes of the story. Tell students they are going to read a story about ______ (topic). . Write the title of the story in the center of the blackboard and draw a circle around it. McCall Capt. 2. how the characters feel or react. these concepts or themes can include how the characters look. write key concepts or themes from the story.

DE: Reading Aids Series. If appropriate. Newark. Inc. Jacob have I loved. recap the story by reviewing the semantic map. Reference: Heimlich. With the students. K. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. Inc. IN: PRC. (1980)... Paterson. S. New York: Avon Books.3. Indianapolis. have students role-play or act out the story. (1991). add it to the map. The map can also be used to structure a writing activity in which students write a summary of the story using the information on the map. As students find new information through this guided reading. Have students reread the story (orally or silently) to look for other important information not included on the map. 44 .E. Have students use the completed map to guide retelling of the story. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). M. D. (formerly Advanced Technology. (1986). P. 4. & Pittelman. J.T. & Ehlmann. IRA Service Bulletin.D..). Jensen. Taken from: Godt.

J.Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. These words are written on a sheet of paper or on the blackboard in a list. As the instructor. Have students.. brainstorm a list of words related to the key word or concept. S. 4. (1986). Write the word or concept to be studied on the blackboard and ask students to think of as many words as they can related to that word or concept. Discuss the group’s semantic map. Have students point out new words they learned from this map as well as new meanings for words they already knew. 45 . . Have students suggest labels for these categories. An alternate way to initiate the activity is to ask. IRA Service Bulletin. “What do you think of when you see the word ___________ (topic)?” 2. DE: Reading Aids Series. you may add words or ideas to appropriately complete the group semantic map. pointing out relationships and differences among words. in small groups or as a whole group. Reference: Heimlich. & Pittelman. Students may also be asked to write a paragraph or short story using the words or concept from the semantic map.E. Construct the group semantic map by writing the brainstormed words in categories around the key word or concept. . Newark. for vocabulary development 1. if possible. Have students look for words in the semantic map as they read an appropriate story. 3.D.

(If sections in the text have not been labeled. as a study skill strategy Semantic mapping may be used as a study skill strategy to guide the processing of textbook material with either individuals or groups. The map provides immediate feedback about whether students need to reread the chapter to add more information to any of the categories. The principal parts of the textbook chapter will form the secondary categories in the semantic map. Identification of main idea. Students then think of all they already know about the topic and decide what they expect to find in the chapter. the secondary categories must be summarized and labeled. .) The secondary categories organized around the main idea complete the structure of the map and provide a picture of the thinking that has taken place. . J. Before reading the textbook. & Pittelman.D. Secondary categories. students hypothesize what the basic parts of the chapter will be and then skim the chapter for the accuracy of their hypotheses. DE: Reading Aids Series. 46 .Example SEMANTIC MAPPING . Students may place a question mark after each category label so they know what information to target during reading. Labels for the secondary categories are then written on the map. 2. 3. Support details. Newark. Reference: Heimlich. Semantic mapping: Classroom applications. In this final step of the procedure. 1. Next. students read the chapter for details and complete the map by adding the details from memory. students write three or four questions about the topic on the other side of the map.. The completed map provides a graphic summary of the information in the chapter. There are three basic steps to design a map of content information from a text. S. The title or main idea is written on a sheet of paper and a shape is drawn around it.E. IRA Service Bulletin. (1986).

After reading. Bloomington. Students sketch while they are listening. & Feathers. It can be an individual or group experience. Visual imagery helps students to see what they are thinking and understanding. the teacher may read aloud a poem or a short story and invite students to sketch any pictures or images that come to mind. Students may listen to a taped story and sketch their ideas or read a short text and illustrate the meaning in a series of pictures. 353-357). Copies of the text may be distributed for the students to read. Students talk about the meaning of their sketches and generate discussion about the author’s ideas and the similarities or differences in individual interpretations. NH: Heinemann. Burke. J.. 47 . WHY: HOW: Developed by: Harste. J. Further information: Harste. (1984). Sketch to stretch is an alternative way of responding to text by retelling a story or expanding informational concepts through drawings or sketches. individual students are invited to illustrate the concepts or ideas that are important to them. K. Short. The drawings may be used to generate writing. (1988). The teacher reads aloud a descriptive passage from a story or chooses a poem to share with the class. hearing.. & Burke. heard. 3. Portsmouth. M. C.. Siegel. K. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. students may revise their illustrations to refine details or to expand the meaning gained from reading the material. or they may view a video and draw their responses as well.. or viewing a text. 2. 1. or viewed. C. IN: Indiana University. They may listen to a text being read aloud. The teacher gives them additional time to complete their sketches and asks if they would like to share them with a partner or in a small group. After revisiting the text.. To demonstrate this strategy.SKETCH TO STRETCH WHAT: Representing ideas through drawing provides another way of responding to text that students have read.

and looking at the effects. exploring. you may wish to keep the section on the solution so participants can come up with their own solution. 1984) WHY: HOW: IDEAL APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING Have participants form groups of five. Choose a newspaper article on a problem or social issue.) Consistent with the IDEAL approach to problem solving. Problem solving. and revising where necessary. This requires that the reader participate by preparing and delivering the reading. determining a desired outcome. 48 . Divide the article up into five sections. is “a method of inquiry and application to provide a consistent context for learning and applying mathematics” (NCTM Standards. Teachers nurture problem finding and problem solving by encouraging students to ask questions. p. A simplified version includes: I D E A L Identifying the problem Defining the problem Exploring strategies Acting on ideas Looking for the effects (Bransford. as described in mathematical terms. (If the article contains a solution. the participants work together — first identifying the problem. The basics of the 21st century include problem solving and communication. 23). selecting possible solutions.PROBLEM SOLVING WHAT: Problem solving is a method of inquiry and is a means of using “thinking processes to resolve a known or defined difficulty” (Cohen. acting on ideas. Problem solving is often viewed as a series of steps that include defining or describing a problem. evaluating the outcomes. then defining it more clearly. trying out solutions. choosing strategies to use. critical thinkers about what they read and hear. Development of students’ capacities for problem solving in all areas of learning is necessary to achieve the goal of helping students become more effective. 1972) in any curricular area. but it also requires the listeners to pay careful attention to details. Have each person read one section of the article to the group.

& Stein.D. Based on: Bransford. New York: Freeman.. 5).Have groups share their collaborative results and their thinking processes. (1972). J. Successful problem solving uses many skills simultaneously. The ideal problem solver: A guide for improving thinking. Reference: Cohen. and creativity. What distinguishes this model from traditional lessons on teaching critical reading skills is the application of these skills in a reading context that presents real or simulated problems. B. 49 . Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. Thinking (p. learning.S. J. (1984).

Unfortunately. Guessing and checking is particularly helpful when a problem presents so many pieces of data that making an organized list becomes a major task. such as numbers. Making an organized list. textbooks often suggest pictorial representations when concrete actions would be more appropriate for students’ level of thinking. or manipulatives in problem solving. Many problems are based on actions. Making an organized list helps problem solvers organize their thinking about a problem. Because patterns often become obvious when data are organized in a table. Whether studying computational concepts such as angular measure or area or considering perceptual ideas such as symmetry. test to see if it is correct. materials. and identify data that are asked for in the problem. Problem solvers find that making tables helps them keep track of data. The table is used to keep track of data and could also be used for identifying a number pattern. and make another guess if the previous one was incorrect. Problem solvers can also use this strategy to get started and may then find another strategy that can be used. Using or making a table. which requires physical models for real understanding. A second method of using manipulatives is particularly related to geometry. Accurate modeling of the problem requires students to carry out these actions to discover a solution. they guess the answer. this strategy is often used in conjunction with other strategies. Making a picture or diagram. A table is an orderly arrangement of data. When problem solvers use this strategy. students must experience tangible realities. spot missing data. For some students.Example PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES Using objects. First. By taking an active role in finding the solution. It also provides a systematic way of recording computations made with given data or recording combinations of given items. students are more likely to remember the process they used and be able to use it again for solving similar problems. objects can be used to represent various aspects of a problem or situation. Pictures and diagrams must be compatible with the schemata that students have in their mind. Recording work in an organized list makes it easy to review what has been done and to identify important steps that must yet be completed. There are two major ways of using objects. In this way. Acting out problems. they gradually come closer and closer to a solution by making increasingly more reasonable guesses. 50 . It is important that they help the problem solver understand and visualize the data in the problem. Making a guess and checking the result. it may be helpful to use an available picture or make one when trying to solve a problem.

& Clyne. . starting with data presented at the end of the problem and ending with data presented at the beginning of the problem. Portsmouth. Sometimes students can solve a problem just by recognizing a pattern. Inc. Logical reasoning is really used for all problem solving. M. Simplifying the problem. Portsmouth. P. Students will find it helpful to be able to make problems simpler. . especially when they begin to solve complex problems. CA: Creative Publications. & Hyde. activities for learning problem-solving strategies. then.Using or looking for a pattern. However. A pattern is a regular. . (1988).” The data given in the problems can often be displayed in a chart or matrix. A. Looking for patterns is a very important strategy for problem solving and is used to solve many different kinds of problems. Problem solving and literature source: Griffiths. R. Making a number table often reveals patterns and. the solver must make a series of computations. .. systematic repetition. then . This kind of problem requires formal logical reasoning as the problem solver uses deductive reasoning to attack the problem. The simpler representation may even reveal a pattern that can be used to solve the problem. or behavioral. . Sunnyvale. S. Adapted from: Hyde.” or “if something is true.” or “if something is not true. NH: Heinemann. else. then . is frequently used in conjunction with the “look for a pattern” strategy. Working backwards. visual. Using logical reasoning.. . A pattern may be numerical. J. NH: Heinemann Educational Books. Mathwise. Books you can count on: Linking mathematics and literature. 51 .” or “if . (1987). Making a problem simpler may mean reducing large numbers to small numbers or reducing the number of items given in a problem. . . & Goodnow. teaching mathematical thinking and problem solving. but often they will have to extend a pattern to find a solution. The simpler representation of the problem may then suggest what operation or process can be used to solve the more complex problem. A. By identifying the pattern. for this reason. This strategy is used when the answer is given but a reconstruction of the parts that made up this answer is needed. . R. (1991). The problem solver 1.. Hoogeboom. To solve certain problems. . there are types of problems that include or imply various conditional statements such as: “if . . then . the problem solver can predict what will come next and what will happen again and again in the same way.

question generating. 52 . reread.g. and questions embedded in the text are useful means of anticipating what might occur next. The predicting strategy facilitates use of text structure as students learn that headings. they are able to integrate paragraphs and passages. The teacher and students take turns assuming the role of teacher in leading this dialogue. They then pose this information in question form and self-test to ascertain that they can indeed answer their own question.g. students must activate the relevant background knowledge that they already possess regarding the topic. clarifying. subheadings. The students have a purpose for reading: to confirm or disprove their hypotheses. Question generating is a flexible strategy to the extent that students can be taught and encouraged to generate questions at many levels. the opportunity has been created for the students to link the new knowledge they will encounter in the text with the knowledge they already possess. The dialogue is structured by the use of four strategies: summarizing. their efforts are generally focused on sentences within a paragraph.. Text can be summarized across sentences. ask for help). Predicting occurs when students hypothesize what the author will discuss next in the text. When students first begin the reciprocal teaching procedure. They are taught to be alert to the effects of such impediments to comprehension and to take the necessary measures to restore meaning (e. When the students are asked to clarify. they first identify the kind of information that is significant enough to provide the substance for a question. When students generate questions. are not making sense. Question generating reinforces the summarizing strategy and carries the learner one more step along in the comprehension activity. and across the passage as a whole.RECIPROCAL TEACHING WHAT: Reciprocal teaching is an instructional activity that takes place as a dialogue between teachers and students regarding segments of text. their attention is called to the fact that there may be many reasons why text is difficult to understand (e. and unfamiliar and perhaps difficult concepts). across paragraphs. and predicting. new vocabulary. To do this successfully. and in fact the passage. STRATEGIES Summarizing provides the opportunity to identify and integrate the most important information in the text. they may not be particularly uncomfortable that the words.. unclear referent words. These students may believe that the purpose of reading is saying the words correctly. Furthermore. As they become more proficient. Clarifying is an activity that is particularly important when working with students who have a history of comprehension difficulty.

For the initial days of instruction. and over time the teacher. the adult teacher is principally responsible for initiating and sustaining the dialogue. Reciprocal teaching should be introduced to students with some discussion regarding the many reasons why text may be difficult to understand.WHY: These strategies help students to construct meaning from text and to monitor their reading to ensure that they are understanding what they read. the teacher consciously tries to impart responsibility for the dialogue to the students while he or she becomes a coach. The students are then given an overall description of the procedure. and how the reciprocal teaching procedure will help the students understand and monitor their understanding as they read. HOW: THEN WHAT: After the students have been introduced to each of the strategies. This allows the teacher to provide further instruction and to model the use of the strategies in reading for meaning. 53 . through modeling and instruction. The “teacher” then summarizes the information read. points out anything that may have been unclear. predicts the upcoming content. leads the group in clarifying and. emphasizing that it takes the form of a dialogue or discussion about the text and that everyone takes a turn assuming the role of teacher in this discussion. Each strategy receives one day of introduction. As students acquire more practice with the dialogue. providing the students with evaluative information regarding the job they are doing and prompting more and higher levels of participation. For some students. They then identify main idea information in brief and simple sentences and graduate to more complex paragraphs that contain redundant and trivial information. 3. the students summarize their favorite movie or television show. 1. why it is important to have a strategic approach to reading and studying. This is a beginning. The adult teacher may wish to call upon more capable students who will serve as additional models. the person who is assuming the role of teacher will first ask a question that he or she thinks covers important information that has been read. can guide these students toward a more complete summary. finally. For example. the dialogue begins. the students receive practice with each of them. but it is important that every student participate at some level. this participation may be such that they are noting one fact that they acquired in their reading. To illustrate. To ensure a minimal level of competency with the four strategies. The other members of the group answer that question and suggest others they may have thought of. 2.

. 5-10). A. Harris & E.). Jensen. Reciprocal teaching.L. (formerly Advanced Technology..” In T. R. 54 . B.. (formerly Advanced Technology. A. IN: PRC. Strickler. Inc. Inc.S. Indianapolis. (1982). A. P. Godt. New York: The College Board. (1986). Understanding reading (Workshop leader’s guide). (1991). & Brown. Reading assessment: How do we measure understanding? (Workshop leader’s guide). Cooper (Eds. Reciprocal teaching: Activities to promote “read(ing) with your mind. (1985).. IN: PRC. S. A... 1-17. Indianapolis. Topics in Learning and Learning Disabilities. & Ehlmann. Alexandria.). Peterson. D.T. & Cripe. 2(1). & Palincsar. Inducing strategic learning from texts by means of informed.. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. thinking. Inc.S. A.). self-control training.S. Reading.Taken from: Farr. Palincsar.J. Palincsar. In Teaching reading as thinking (pp. and concept development: Strategies for the classroom. Further information: Brown. M. D. Inc. (1990).

Routman.J. Questions may arise that send the readers back to the text to find answers. others read silently and then talk about their perceptions. & Crowley. Ideas and insights (pp. In D. Partners may join other partners in a small-group setting to talk about their texts and their interpretations. Urbana. NH: Heinemann. or teachers and students may be partners. questions. P. They may take turns reading aloud or they may read silently. Select partners and texts by choice or by random assignment. (1987). Partners negotiate how they will read the text and how they will discuss shared meaning. WHY: HOW: THEN WHAT: 1. A recorder in the group in the group takes notes and the group decides how to report the questions or comments from the group discussion. Invitations (p. 55 . The value of having a partner is to talk about what is clear and what is not. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.. (1991). 2. It encourages shared meaning.PARTNER READING WHAT: Partner reading is a simple strategy of reading with someone else.). The teacher may be a reading partner with individual students to assess strengths and needs for planning appropriate instruction. They will decide how far to read and who will begin. and insights. Partner book selection. Reading together works well in multiage classrooms where partners of different ages share text and understanding. 1. 176-177). Some students read aloud to each other. Sharing a text with someone else has benefits that go beyond enjoying a story or gaining interesting information. Portsmouth. C. R. 2. Further information: Gilles. Watson (Ed. 35). Students from different classrooms may be partners.

4. C. reactions. It works best with partners but may be used with three or four. 3.. MO: University of Missouri. Instead of writing. The partners or group members decide cooperatively how far to read before stopping to talk about the author’s ideas or descriptions. 1. 2. After reading the identified portion of the text. Creating classrooms for authors. they stop and the designated speaker will say something related to the text. The partners or members of the group may decide to reread the text to clarify ideas or to answer questions before reading the next portion for further discussion. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Watson. (1977). Each student receives a copy of the text for reading and responding. J. students use oral language to share understanding or confusion. NH: Heinemann. They decide how far to read for the next section and the readers take turns and continue the cycle until the text has been completed. Each person listens and responds with comments. and they decide who will speak first. Talking about ideas is important in comprehending text. Each person may keep notes of the main ideas discussed so that a group or partner report may be shared. Short. Portsmouth. & Burke. D. (1988). or questions. 5. K.SAY SOMETHING WHAT: This is a reading strategy that invites immediate response similar to written conversation. Columbia. The students take turns speaking first each time. Verbalizing thought to someone else assists individuals in making connections with an author’s purpose for sharing information and feelings. Further information: Harste.. 56 .

Urbana. The teacher may use written conversation to check for understanding of specific content by suggesting focus questions as a prewriting experience or as a review technique for recalling or evaluating previous knowledge in various content areas. Ideas and insights. and content areas. and it can be used with all ages. (1991). Watson (Ed. but it is a silent communication. Written conversation. Bloomington. grade levels. moving forward (pp. The partner reads the comment or question and responds in writing. Burke. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Burke. Owen. This conversation continues as the writers respond to each other’s comments and questions. 195-198). D. C. 57 . Whole language: Getting started . IN: Indiana University.WRITTEN CONVERSATION WHAT: This quiet communication experience is an approved form of note passing. L. One person starts the conversation and usually asks a question before handing the paper to the writing partner. IN: Indiana University. In D. (1987). NY: Richard C. . Young children can participate by drawing pictures and using invented spelling. One sheet of paper is shared by partners as they carry on a silent conversation in writing. Written conversation is a way of thinking and sharing understanding with someone else. C. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.). Bloomington. Further information: Crafton. King. (1977). Katonah. (1977). . Anything that can be discussed verbally can be written down.

● Students are given control of questioning and other ideas that are raised. ● What they write can be interpreted in different ways by different readers. This goal includes developing students’ appreciation of the following: ● What they read has been written by someone who has certain purposes in mind and control over what has been written.RESPONDING TO READING AS WRITERS WHAT: This strategy involves having students present their own writing to their peers. and then discuss how the advice can be used. The goal is to develop readers and writers who have a sense of authorship and readership. which helps them in the composing process. WHY: Providing students with opportunities to write — including writing in response to what they read and interacting with each other about their own writing — encourages students to generate their own ideas and provides feedback on the quality of their thinking. Students give and receive responses to writing through different types of conferences. ● When they write. acquire input. Collaboration is the Key ● The role of the teacher is nontraditional. they use a variety of options. HOW: 58 . 1. ● Students act as advisors and evaluators along with the teacher. ● The key is providing peers an opportunity to get an issue on the floor. Reading and Writing in Progress Conference ● The student who requests the conference is responsible for entertaining the questions and ideas from the group.

E. After the reader/writer’s presentation. Unless these tenets are observed in the classroom. ● Encourage students to comment honestly. or too tentative. found confusing. ● The reader reports on the writing (including what he/she enjoyed. 2. Vital Conferencing Tenets: 1. these conferences cannot take place. 59 . (1985). Writing experiences contribute to reading.E. comments may be off-base. Reading strategies and practices.. Obstacles to Consider: ● Avoid center stage. Inc. ● Model appropriate interactions. too general. 3. The author may ask the readers about their recommendations and evaluation. ● The author listens as someone else represents the writing.. Readence. J.K.2. and in the beginning. Peer Author Conference ● The author and another student (the reader) present the reading. End of Book Conference The reader/writer chooses a method to share his/her writing: summarizes the piece. second edition. and might use) and fields questions and comments. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Students should have the opportunity to write extended stories and reports of their own choosing for longer than 30 minutes twice a week. R. the listener(s) responds with comments and questions. Adapted from: Tierney. reads a section of the report or story. or discusses the process of reading or writing.J. a conferencing approach requires a social setting filled with a collegial tone. & Dishner. a compendium.

Journal and log entries may be kept in manila folders. Have each group choose a discussion leader and a recorder for sharing. variations of written conversation. Show samples of journal writing or share a personal entry to demonstrate the possibilities. Realizing writing is a way of knowing. interesting ideas to explore. “What thoughts or ideas are most important at this time?” Everyone is encouraged to participate so that the experience may be shared. feelings. ● Personal journals are used like diaries to record personal thoughts and feelings. ask students. Students may choose to vary construction from the model provided. Journals and logs are often used for making personal connections. spiral notebooks. are intended for sharing. sharing insights. Dialogue journals and traveling journals. Try a variety of types to see what works best. 2. or three-ring binders or on plain sheets of paper stapled together. Keeping a journal or a log is a way to preserve one’s personal thoughts. or perplexing questions.JOURNALS AND LOGS WHAT: Journals and logs are records of thinking and give students the chance to use writing as a way of discovering what they know. ask students to form small groups to reflect on the experience. and questions of future consideration. “What did you learn about yourself?” 5. 4. Ask the students to take some time to think about a personal entry. WHY: HOW: 60 . and collecting data to document learning. 1. Discuss the experience of putting personal thoughts on paper. Give the students sufficient time to think and write. 6. and the contents are not necessarily shared with anyone else. Ask. The contents of personal journals are not usually shared with anyone else unless an idea is taken from the journal as a seed for writing that will be shared. The writer and reader are the same person. Paper. 3. Invite the group leaders to share their discussion ideas and ask students to make suggestions for using journals or logs. and masking tape are the basic materials for assembling a personal journal. opinions. ideas for exploration. a stapler. When everyone has finished.

Teachers need to demonstrate that they are readers by sharing their reading log entries with students. and questions to share with others. The teacher reads and responds to the group effort to encourage progress. Students keep track of what they have learned about a particular topic or lesson in the learning logs and use them for reflection and self-evaluation. The teacher can demonstrate the use of dialogue format while using conventional forms of language. punctuation.● Dialogue journals are used for writing ideas. story. However. Entries may include comments on the progress or the lack of it that each person is experiencing. Teachers may incorporate reading or literature logs as documentation for evaluations. insights. responses. The journal may travel from person to person in the group on a rotation schedule or it may be kept in a central location for individuals to make regular entries. to provide new invitations for extending understanding. or to suggest ways of locating assistance. ● Traveling journals are used to record group responses to particular texts. and questions to extend learning. which gives the teacher the opportunity to note the interests and abilities of individual students. ● Learning logs are another variation of writing as a way of knowing. question. topic. they may be used as an assessment tool to observe how a student uses language. They may take the form of science logs or math logs if subject areas are not integrated. or they may be focused on one particular lesson or concept. Many students dialogue with their teacher. similar to written conversation. Reading response logs are variations of journals with a particular focus and literature response logs can be specific components of literature discussion groups where students share their written responses to initiate and continue discussion in the group. 61 . or any other conventions of language. insights. Dialogue journals are another form of written conversation and are not graded for spelling. Entries may include summaries. ● Reading logs provide opportunities for students to record their thoughts and questions about what they are reading. in a traveling journal. book. the individuals write to each other. They may include responses to a variety of content materials and concepts. or theme cycles. or common theme. When groups of students are working together on a project. feelings.

. Katonah. 62 . (1987).Further information: Crafton. C. NH: Heinemann. NY: Richard C. J. & Burke. Harste.. The journal book. (1988). Whole language: Getting started . 280-285). (1991). Fulwiler. L. Short. Creating classrooms for authors (pp. Portsmouth. Owen. 163-168). T.). K. . moving forward (pp. NH: Boynton/Cook. (Ed. Portsmouth. .

● Keep a budget to show how you use your allowance. ● Make up an advertisement for a job requiring extensive math skills.) ● Which configuration is best to describe life: a line? a circle? a square? a triangle? a spiral? Explain.Example IDEAS FOR MATH LEARNING LOGS Teachers might give students any of the following assignments: ● Write math word problems using the concept being taught.” 63 . ● Take a real-life problem and describe how a computer would assist in solving it. ● List the steps you would follow to construct a five-sided polygon. ● Describe a practical application of the concept being taught. ● Write a paragraph with the title “Computers I Have Known. (This activity could be used for many figures. ● When in real life has knowing math been helpful to you? Explain. ● Describe what would happen if no one could count past five.

or reading response log. Who was your favorite character? Describe. What was a problem in the story? 4. 2. Regardless of the label. KS: Research & Training Associates. Where did the story take place? 3. What questions occurred to you as you were reading? Developed by: Crenshaw. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations.Example GUIDING QUESTIONS FOR READING LOGS A reading log has many labels. and thinking processes. Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? 12. 64 . Did any of the characters change? If so. Here are some possible questions to get students started: 1. it is a record of responses to reading literature. Would you change anything in the story? Why or why not? 8. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading. Were you disappointed about anything? 7. writing. What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? 11. Is this story like any other you have read or seen? 9. Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? 10. how? 5. S. Was there anything that surprised you? 6. (1994). Overland Park. literature log. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Inc. such as reading journal. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student.

Have the recorder list the major points of the discussion and share them with the larger group. Ask students to think about the different purposes for writing letters. Pen pal letters. lead a discussion about the experience. Students are invited to generate the types of letters that they would like or need to write. Knowing how to write consumer awareness letters is important when ordering materials and protesting inferior products when returning materials. What was easy? What was difficult? 3. other states. and consumer awareness letters are possibilities for developing communication proficiency. The leader or teacher may begin with the following introduction: “Think about the last letter you wrote. invite them to think about what kind of letter they would like to draft. Ask students to choose two kinds of letters they will write. personal letters to family and friends. 1. Some examples for student involvement include persuasive letters to the local newspaper editor. Learning to write letters of application is the first hurdle many job seekers face. Some have suggested that letter writing is becoming a lost art. persuasive letters. the school board president. or to state and national legislators. Inc. Students need to know that personal and business correspondence is still important. 2. 65 . The sense of audience determines the format and language. the school superintendent. After about ten minutes. Other options are pen pal letters to students in other schools. Divide them into small groups and choose someone in each group to lead the discussion and someone else to record ideas for later sharing. KS: Research & Training Associates. Facilitate whole group sharing of ideas about letter writing. Provide paper for first draft writing of a letter. 4.LETTERS WHAT: The prevalent availability of technology has affected students’ style and interest in writing letters. WHY: HOW: Developed by: Crenshaw. Overland Park. (1994). business letters of application. What was the purpose? How often do you write letters?” After individuals have shared some perceptions. or other countries. Students need to know that letter writing is an important ability that serves a number of purposes. S. Suggest partner conferences for revision and editing.

a. 6.AUTHORING CYCLE WHAT: An authoring cycle is a framework for using writing as a way of knowing in the classroom. Choose topic. Read and write materials of one’s choice. (2) The student says what s/he likes best about the work. sharing. and publishing. 2. b. and strategy lessons may be used in context to encourage writing improvement. the authoring cycle includes thinking. drafting. Prepare writer’s folder. The students hold peer conferences. Write name and date on paper. Conference. Write “draft #1” on paper. a. The teacher leads discussion about choices. The emphasis is on generating ideas and selecting the appropriate expressive language. revising. b. Students’ progress and needs are monitored by reviewing collected drafts. d. Individuals brainstorm on paper all the ideas they have related to one or both of the topics. 66 WHY: HOW: . 5. c. Students make choices about what they want to say and how to say it. The students list two or three possibilities. 4. The teacher holds conference. The students may follow the format of the teacher conference. (1) “How is it going?” (2) “What do you plan to do now?” b. Think about experiences. As a writing process. The students choose a listening partner and share ideas for two or three minutes each. (1) The student reads a piece to the teacher. editing. Students follow these steps: 1. The teacher circulates among students to check progress. (3) The teacher may ask revision questions: “Did anything give you trouble?” “Is there anything you would like to change?” “What do you plan to do next?” c. An authoring cycle is useful for helping students to view themselves as authors with important ideas to share and to develop communication abilities. 3. Write first drafts. a.

Parson. 11. Portsmouth.. a. NH: Heinemann. S. Publish on bulletin board displays or in newsletters. NH: Heinemann. Murray. NH: Heinemann. Start another topic and keep the cycle going. Inc. D. Expecting the unexpected: Teaching myself — and others to read and write. Invite the principal. or like materials. Coming to know: Writing to learn in the intermediate grades. Graves. Portsmouth. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. (1990). J. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. L. Writing: Teachers and children at work. C. 13. (Ed. Watson. Have an author’s party. b. and 17. Portsmouth. Atwell. 67 . D. NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann. Portsmouth.). librarian. L.7. and spelling: Controlling the convention of written English at ages 9. NJ: Educational Testing Service. punctuation. Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. & Burke. individual books. (1983). 10. Active voice. Edit to check the form or structure. (1989). 9. Harste. Princeton. Label additional drafts in order (draft #2). Portsmouth. 12.. Work on additional drafts using ideas from the conferences. Urbana... and parents. N. J. Langer. Revise to express the message clearly — focus on meaning. Writing in the real classroom. (1992). NH: Heinemann. Celebrate and share one’s work with others. (1987). D. The art of teaching writing. (1991). & Mullis. Calkins. Grammar. A. Portsmouth. NH: Boynton/Cook. K. J. (1994). Portsmouth. Short. Share the writing with other classes. Overland Park. NH: Heinemann. Further information: Applebee. Ideas and insights. c. class books. 8. (1988). ED 282 928). (1987). I. Moffett. (1986). Developed by: Crenshaw. KS: Research & Training Associates.

They teach and support each other. Students may ask someone other than the teacher. When a word ends in a consonant and y. but they must try at least two spellings that make sense to them. pp. Invite them to try as many forms as they wish. They keep records of progress and share these with the teacher. new dictionaries may be constructed or word files may be reviewed and reorganized. 2. These may evolve from focus words identified by individual students or may include high-frequency words that are difficult to remember. change the y to i before adding most suffixes (except those beginning with i). Discuss the following strategies with students and ask them for additional suggestions. As students learn the words. 89-90). 3. Sixty years ago. HOW: 68 . Use other resources. They are: 1. Check four basic rules. When a word ends in a single vowel and single consonant. Work with a partner. Students may work with a partner to check spelling or to learn new spelling words. and spelling is a part of the editing process. or they may use the dictionary or other printed resources. To encourage students to explore language structure. Students need options for dealing with spelling problems. This works well with partners because they can give each other hints and pretests or develop crossword puzzles to increase spelling efficiency. 1992. Students choose five focus words each week that they want to learn to spell. Create personal dictionaries. When a word ends in a silent final e. double the consonant before adding -ed or -ing if the word is a monosyllable or has stress on the final syllable. Develop own list. Try it first. drop the e before adding suffixes starting with a vowel. Known words may be deleted and new ones included. Leonard Wheat identified four basic rules that were consistent enough to spend time in learning (cited in Wilde.SPELLING STRATEGIES WHAT: WHY: Spelling strategies are ways the students focus on the conventions of written language. Editing is an important part of written communication. have them try several spellings of a particular word.

U.). (Ed. These words are printed on a display chart that is used as a handy reference for immediate visual checking as needed. OR: Portland State University.4. Portland. (Eds. Frith. Wilde. Winnipeg. S. Children’s categorization of speech sounds in English. (1992). When a word has the vowels i and e together. (1994). Newark. Spelling for whole language classrooms. Students take the role of teacher to share tips for remembering specific spellings by presenting their strategies as a mini lesson. Developed by: Crenshaw. Wilde. & Beers.). Read. the i comes before e except after c. NH: Heinemann. You kan red this! Portsmouth. E. (1980). IL: National Council of Teachers of English. KS: Research & Training Associates. Developmental and cognitive aspects of learning to spell: A reflection of word knowledge. Students brainstorm frequently used words that have difficult spelling configurations. (1981). Share mnemonic strategies. Urbana. E. London: Academic Press. 69 . (1990). Inc. C. S. DE: International Reading Association. (1992). Cognitive processes in spelling. Further information: Buchanan. (1989). Overland Park. S. Manitoba: Whole Language Consultants. Henderson. J. Check classroom display chart..

LITERATURE STUDY

WHAT: WHY:

Literature study is extensive and intensive reading for learning and for pleasure. Literature is a way to connect with the language strengths of children and to expand their thinking and experience. By sharing literature in this active and natural way, readers increase the foundations for reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1. Provide books for extensive reading. Books are chosen based on readers’ interests and on the books’ potential for helping readers make personal meaning and extend their previous experiences with literature and their desire to know. Young readers may primarily need familiar stories or those that have predictable language and experiences. Introduce the books to the group by giving short book talks. 2. Form groups of three to five readers based on their selection of books to be read. 3. Read the book to the group or negotiate a number of pages to be read. Readers are invited to keep records of their reading in reading logs, which are self-written or drawn or dictated. 4. Recognize that the intensive reading occurs in the group when the readers study and discuss the book. Begin the discussion by encouraging readers to share their impressions and ideas based on the text and problems they may have encountered in creating meaning as they read. Encourage students to think critically and “live” the action and characters. Study of literacy elements will naturally occur as discussion focuses on characters, mood, language, action, and symbols.

HOW:

Adapted from: Peterson, R. (1987). Literature groups: Intensive and extensive reading. In D. Watson (Ed.)., Ideas and insights (pp. 21-23). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Further information: Cullinan, B. (1987). Children’s literature in the reading program. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Harste, J., Short, K., & Burke, C. (1988). Creating classrooms for authors: The reading-writing connection. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Moss, J. (1984). Focus units in literature: A handbook for elementary school teachers. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Nelms, B. (Ed.). (1988). Literature in the classroom: Readers, texts, and contexts. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

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Peterson, R., & Eeds, M. (1990). Grand conversations: Literature groups in action. Richmond Hill, Ontario: Scholastic-TAB. Short, K.G., & Pierce, K.M. (Eds.). (1990). Talking about books: Creating literate communities. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Watson, D. (Ed.). (1987). Ideas and insights. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

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Example

SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE RESPONSE LOGS
A literature response log may be called a reading log, reading journal, literature log, or reading response log. Regardless of the label, it is a record of responses to reading literature. The purpose is to give readers ownership of their understanding of the text and to connect reading, writing, and thinking processes. Student responses in the log are valuable for initiating and continuing discussion in the literature study groups. Teachers may use logs as part of guided reading activities or as dialogue journals between teacher and student or student and student. Logs may also serve as documentation for evaluations. SUGGESTIONS FOR LITERATURE LOG ENTRIES: Respond to cues: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Describe one of the characters. Where did the story take place? What was a problem in the story? What were the main events? Did any of the characters change? If so, how? Was there anything that surprised you? Were you disappointed about anything? How did the author keep you interested? What do you think might happen next? Would you change the ending? Why or why not?

Reflect on personal reactions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Is this story like any other you have read or seen? Did you have strong feelings as you read this story? What thoughts went through your head while you were reading? Were you reminded of something or someone in your own life? What questions occurred to you as you were reading? What was your overall feeling about this story? Why do you think the author wrote this story? Is there any part that you would change?

Illustrate part of the text: ● ● ● ● Draw your favorite part of the story. Draw particular character(s) based on description. Draw a setting as described by the author. Assume the role of illustrator for a part of the book.

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Price/Stern/Sloan) ● Chronological (The Giving Tree. D. This may be the best response of all. those that describe particular story elements or those that they find fascinating for any reason. Harper & Row) ● Rhyme and rhythm (Over in the Meadow. their first ones are quite literal and text-dependent. Extending reading by writing ● Different ending ● Changing characters. Generate questions for discussion: Students learn how to ask discussion questions as teachers model good ones. Suggestions for other writing activities: Books without words. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) ● Interlocking (Small Talk. ● Students copy interesting passages that connect to different writing styles or exemplify particular language patterns or usage... They suggest how each word is used and what they think it could mean. 1985. district teachers. that is. S. E. Arno. Share ideas in the discussion group. and cycles. Scholastic) Reference: Crenshaw. but as students gain experience. Often. ● Author’s use of words — Students select interesting words. E. they learn more about open-ended questioning to enrich the discussion in the group. 1984. J. A. 1973. 1985.. Wood... revised plot ● Different point of view ● Student-written books Rewriting patterned language ● Repetitive (The Gingerbread Man. Silverstein.Use for vocabulary enrichment: ● Reader-selected miscues — Students select unknown words by writing the page and line number for each. & Wood. 73 . S. circles. Keats. Pienkowski.J. Literature sets..R. Freewrite: Invite students to write anything they choose. Give no cues or prompts. (1992). 1964. Missouri. Scholastic) ● Cumulative (The Napping House. An in-service presentation at Wydown Middle School for Clayton.

Some groups have the readers step forward to deliver their lines and then step back into the formation. Urbana. Portsmouth. Readers’ theatre: Story dramatization in the classroom. have them generate and adapt ideas for presentation to the larger group. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.READERS’ THEATRE WHAT: Readers’ theatre is a variation of choral reading. C. Suggest some good resources for scripts. As rehearsal continues. S. Creating classrooms for authors. Here are some suggestions for group presentation: 1. Poetry is a good way to begin because of the rhythm and imagery of the language. (1982). Short. & Burke. Rehearsal provides the opportunity to listen to others and to feel the rhythm of blended voices. WHY: HOW: Further information: Harste. Sloyer. students usually stand in a semicircle facing the audience. In the process. NH: Heinemann. talk about how to arrange the different parts or voices. Distribute copies of the script to each reader.. When performing. 5. 74 . individuals engage naturally in silent reading to track other readers’ parts. After everyone reads the text silently. Reading aloud for a focused purpose alleviates the anxiety associated with oral reading because everyone is helping in a positive way. 3. Each reader has a marked script in a folder that is held at a comfortable reading distance.. (1988). Have the students do a first draft oral reading to experience the sound of the language and the meaning that they want to express. 4. Stories with dialogue are easily adapted to script with the use of a narrator to give background information. 2. It is a group project that gives students the experience of working together to present a collaborative oral interpretation of a written text. J. K. Have groups select a recorder and reporter and discuss how to use readers’ theatre in the classroom. Several practice sessions may be necessary to establish confidence for sharing the piece with an audience. Script may be developed from predictable language stories or those with repetitive passages.

1991). Explore the various books in the text set collection. New York: Morrow. Text sets are helpful in encouraging students to compare. (1964). and make connections in a reading discussion group. 1. Decide how to share information with the larger group. P. Hannalee. (Lincoln’s own writings. or genre. author. M. a teacher might begin collecting books such as: Beatty.) Freedman. List how books were alike or different. This work of fiction authentically portrays regulators. Following are different ways to choose text sets. (Photos and text about Lincoln. Lincoln: A photobiography.TEXT SETS WHAT: WHY: Text sets are collections of books related by theme. Sharing is necessary in using text sets because all group members do not have access to each text. (1982). New York: Clarion Books. The Abraham Lincoln encyclopedia. Students should form groups and do the following: 1. (1988). Be ever hopeful. Generally two or more texts that have similar characteristics are chosen. Share discoveries from the various copies of texts. the Ku Klux Klan. New York: McGraw-Hill. D. In content areas. if students were studying Abraham Lincoln’s part in the Civil War. Hannalee. 3. (For reference and browsing. R. 2. (Ed. 5. students can read conceptually related texts and use them for text sets (Crafton. and blacks and whites after the Civil War. HOW: THEN WHAT: Text sets give students the opportunity to read two or more texts that are related in some way and then talk about the relationships.) 75 . (1987). New York: New American Library.) Fehrenbacher. Literature discussion groups are sometimes difficult to sustain because multiple copies of the same text are not available. illustrations.) Neely.). (Sequel to Turn Homeward. contrast. Abraham Lincoln: A documentary portrait through his speeches and writings. 4. Talk about differences and likenesses. For example.

Englewood Cliffs. George. facsimiles of newspapers of the era and fiction books — could be added. Strega Nona: An old tale. Slake’s limbo. F. (1975). Genre-related text sets such as using fairy tales or folk tales allow students to compare and contrast stories to gain a better understanding of the genre itself (Moss. realism. (Reteller). National Geographic articles. (Reteller). students can discuss the theme as an entire class after they all have finished their novels. Using text sets in this way leads into research and reporting in content areas. or members of the class who have read different books with a similar theme can meet together in small groups to discuss the similarities and differences in their books. Of course. T. New York: Bradbury Press.To this list. New York: Windmill Books. (1987). the following tales all deal with magical objects: DePaola. a variety of expository texts — including encyclopedias. Julie of the wolves. poetry. New York: Harper & Row. nonfiction trade books. New York: Scribner. NJ: Prentice-Hall. (1974). Tattercoats: An old English tale. G. Some books that lend themselves to particular themes are: Survival/personal discovery George. other genres such as biography. J. Paulsen. New York: Delacorte Press. My side of the mountain. For example. (1973). Aladdin and the wonderful lamp. Scarsdale. Snow bound. Holman. (1981). (1972). Scarsdale. Teachers often can focus literature study group books around a theme. Sylvester and the magic pebble. Steig. J. 76 . Mazer. (1976). 3. Lang. New York: Dutton. H. New York: Bradbury Press. Since all students have read novels centered on a theme. F. historical fiction. high fantasy. A. (Reteller). social issues. 1990). Hatchet. 2. New York: Viking Press. Students then have opportunities to read their choice(s) and discuss a common question or compare and contrast the similarities in the texts. Steel. (1969). and informational books could be used. (1959). W.

. Anno’s sundial. Neasi. G. New York: Four Winds Press. Hayashi. (1989). Gould. The very hungry caterpillar. L. Brooks.. (1977). M. Text Set for Older Children Anno. D. B. R. (1987). In The Face of Danger). Different versions of the same story (Chicken Little stories. Boston: Little. Brendan’s best-timed birthday. Sendak. Fisher.. Gerstein. New York: Philomel.. Nixon. Florian. Burns. & Maestro. Caught in the Act. K. Other ways of grouping books for text sets are: — Texts with a similar structure (especially useful with younger children are repetitious language. (1988). B. Peterson.. (1988). New York: Philomel. New York: Crown Publishers. the Elves and the Shoemaker versions). NY: Bradbury Press Maestro. Scarsdale. D. (1985). Chicago: Children’s Press. D. (Dates variable). (1987). Chengliang. The orphan train quarter (includes A Family Apart. The following two book lists both use time as a theme. Briggs. E. L. Werner. The oak tree.Family problems Byers. Can you sue your parents for malpractice? New York: Dell. (1980). Coats. New York: Philomel. New York: Harper & Row. M. (1987). and refrain). R. months. Dillon. N. Kirst. Calvi. weeks. M. Chicken soup with rice: A book of months. Woodstock. Time. (1978). NY: Beekman Publishers. (1987). & Popov. New York: Bantam Books. rhyme. (1978). 4. & Co. The sun’s day. Carle. (1985).. Literature text sets are useful for developing math concepts. Danziger. A. New York: Viking Kestral. A summer day. G... M.. (1986). E. This book is about time. Calendar art: Thirteen days. Through the year with Harriet. Anno. Cracker Jackson. (1986). Dillon. New York: Greenwillow Books. Brown. All in a day. The Great Gilly Hopkins.. New York: Macmillan. M. B. A minute is a minute. New York: Scholastic.. L. years from around the world. 5. Text Set for Younger Children Carle. but for different age groups. Jack and the Beanstalk versions. — 77 . Z. (1988). P. A Place to Belong. J. New York: Crowell.

NY: Richard C. (Ed. J. Rhodes. and then read nominees for the current year and try to select a winner based on their criteria. E. NH: Heinemann. S. Your reading: A booklist for junior high and middle school. NH: Heinemann. Portsmouth. Various cultures or a similar culture as a theme.).E. or the male characters of S. Wirth. Fanfare: The Christopher-Gordon children’s literature annual.M.. Reading ladders for human relations. IL: National Council of Teachers of English.). H.). Urbana. Collected perspectives: Choosing and using books for the classroom. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Students can read award winners from previous years. Publishers. Readers and writers with a difference: A holistic approach to teaching learning disabled and remedial students. generate ideas for the criteria used for selection. (1992). 78 . N. Hinton. Virginia Hamilton). (1988). Publishers. (Eds.L. D. (Ed. C. Moving forward. L. & Roser.— Texts by the same author (Jean George. C. Texts with similar characters (compare the strong women characters of Mildred Taylor. Matthews. Creating classrooms for authors. Whole language: Getting started . (Ed. Urbana. Adventuring with books: A booklist for pre-k-grade 6. K. Roald Dahl. (1981). (Ed. . Books for you: A booklist for senior high students. (1990). Katonah. Hinton)..). Literature study. phase II. J. Harste. Inc. Moss. Norwood.C. L. — — — Reference: Gilles. New York: Richard C.A. Washington. Moir. Further information: Crafton. & Burke. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers.E. IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Jensen. (1988). Urbana.). (1992). Taxel. J. Webb. Inc. (1993). (1994). J. Columbia. S. High interest easy reading. Short. (1991). MA: ChristopherGordon Publishers. C. Owen. Portsmouth. Focus on literature: A context for literacy learning. Urbana. C. Tway. (1993).). . (1992). MO: University of Missouri. Boston. & Dudley-Marling. (Ed. (1988). Caldecott or Newbery Award text sets. Owen.G. Katonah.. DC: American Council on Education.

Example TEXT SET PROJECT FORM Read: Present understanding of book Record in journal Read: Interview one person about Write up interview Write original Read articles on: Write reactions to articles Project on topic (suggestions given) Find newspaper articles Possible choices ● ● ● ● ● ● Adventure Death Dog Early America — Pioneers War Survival story compare to Developed by: Copeland. 79 . & Rasinski. Case studies in whole language.. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School. Further information: Vacca. Columbia. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (1991). T. (1992). R. K.

Elicit ideas from the group for ways to gain and organize information for the research project. 3. WHY: HOW: 80 . determine which subtopics are manageable. Using semantic webbing. Extensive reading and writing are incorporated in project preparation. Many of the questions or topics that students want to research are not confined to a specific content area but rather cut across disciplines. Suggest that everyone can be a researcher and share the ideas about the components of a research project. Developing research procedures.STUDENT RESEARCH PROJECTS WHAT: Student research projects are based on student inquiry. A research proposal is an outline that structures the project and gives direction for the research. Individual choice is important to fully engage students in research investigations. Where will students look for information? Suggest that they do a library search and make a list of other sources for information. 7. Implementing the project proposal. Criteria for topic. Initiate a discussion about research by brainstorming what students know about it. Invite students to think about the reasons they have for choosing a particular question or topic. 6. skills. A curriculum based on inquiry includes the examination of various perspectives. Research projects involve students and teachers in acquiring knowledge. Research may focus on current curricula and may integrate curricular content areas. Determining purposes of the research project. 5. along with problem solving and decision making to support the research that expands meaning. What do they want to find out and why? 4. 1. Help students to narrow a topic for a focused study. There will be ongoing assessment and revision as the research progresses. students work individually or in groups to carry out the activities and methods included in the research plan. The teacher demonstrates the process of developing a proposal (see the example “Planning Guide for Research”). Ask individuals to think about something that would be a good topic or question to explore. After the proposal has been approved. and strategies using many learning processes. 2. Writing a proposal for a research project. Selecting a topic. Identifying available resources.

San Bernardino. skinny books. They may demonstrate their learning in a variety of ways. CA: CSU — School of Education. newsletters. 81 . computer programs. articles for class magazines. Students need the opportunity to share their discoveries and new knowledge with others.8. B. dramatic scripts. Some suggestions may be biographical sketches or journals. or newspapers. field guides for scientific subjects. models. videotapes and audiotapes. time lines. Adapted from: Flores. murals. mobiles. how-to books. topic-oriented alphabet books. displays. The teacher may suggest some alternatives and then ask students to think of other possibilities. (1988). Culminating activities. posters. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. puzzles. games.

(1988). CA: CSU — School of Education. B.Example PLANNING GUIDE FOR RESEARCH (May be filled out by teacher for younger children. San Bernardino. 82 . Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.) Name (individual or members of group): Theme or topic: Questions to be explored: Plan for exploration and reporting (“How will I find out? How will I share findings with others?”): Adapted from: Flores. Older children fill it out for themselves.

the purpose. questions. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance. (1988). It is a planning activity to focus energy into inquiry and guide the investigative process. ● A written proposal helps assess progress toward objectives. ● Students and the teacher collaborate on developing the proposal and on brainstorming topics. ● A written proposal provides an outline and a direction for research. CA: CSU — School of Education. Adapted from: Flores.Example IDEAS FOR WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL A proposal is a statement of the rationale. 83 . ● Writing helps with understanding of what is already known. ● The teacher models the process of developing a proposal. and rationales. B. Why Write a Proposal ● Writing makes thoughts and ideas concrete. subject to be researched ● Reasons for researching the selected topic ● What might be learned about the topic ● Methods to be used to investigate the topic (research strategies and activities) ● Resources to be used in the investigation Writing a Proposal ● The teacher explains the reasons for writing a proposal (scientific method). and the methodology of a research project. issue. Elements of a Proposal ● Identification of topic. San Bernardino.

(1988). B. San Bernardino. Whole language: A pedagogy of resistance.Example TEACHER PLANNING FORM Theme or topic: Names of those working on plan: Student plans: Teacher plans: Includes: How can I help the students accomplish their plans? What do I already know about the questions? How can I help students learn? What resources can I provide? What processes can I facilitate? What are some learning objectives? How will we evaluate? How will I learn? Adapted from: Flores. 84 . CA: CSU — School of Education.

Then list everything you don’t know and formulate a list of questions to which you would like to find answers. Goodman (Eds. Collect your data accurately from as many sources as possible and then organize and collate it. keeping in mind the nature of your research topic. graphs. Goodman. 296). What do you want to research next? Reference: Bird. Possibilities for sharing: letters to the editor poster sessions. L. interviews. L.). In K. Review the questions. socio-drama folk art. Supporting real research. Santa Rosa. 2. Brainstorm ways you can find the answers to your questions. What conclusions does it support? 4. The whole language catalog (p. (1991). Write a summary statement of your work: What were you looking for? What did you find? 5. food museum kits 6. & Y. and clarify the ones that do. You will need to determine which presentational format will best serve your data and findings.Example GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH PROJECTS 1. 3. flowcharts. questionnaires slide or video presentation debate or panel discussion models and maps diagrams. drop the ones that don’t fit. songs and dances. tables. list everything you know about your topic. Represent your learning in a way that you can share with others. time lines role-playing. Here are some ideas — feel free to use your own. 85 . Bird. Once you have chosen your research topic. bulletin board scrapbook or photo album oral histories and interviews newspaper surveys. CA: American School Publishers.

K. MO: Stephens Elementary Children’s School.Example EVALUATION FORM FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATION Rank yourself 1 (poor) to 5 (outstanding) on the following areas of your report. Columbia. 86 . (1990). COMMENTS ORAL REPORT ● Information ● Visual aids WRITTEN ● Appearance ● Information MATH PROJECT ART PROJECT GAME I learned: I would like to learn: Developed by: Copeland.

33(7). texts. Working with at-risk learners. Write students’ comments on the chart. 2. PQP is done at the end of the class period or lesson. 87 . It also provides a structure for feedback to the teacher about how much more time needs to be spent clarifying and extending meaning. WHY: HOW: Reference: Reading/Language in Secondary Schools Subcommittee of IRA. It has three columns for student responses to specific lessons. ask them to try a PQP on their own. Students react by writing or discussing three things about the lesson. 3. Journal of Reading. and the polish column is for suggested changes to improve understanding. and identify and clarify troublesome areas. The teacher may demonstrate the procedure in the following way: 1. critically evaluate their learning. After a particular presentation or lesson. Prepare a large PQP chart on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. PQP gives students time to analyze what they understand. or focus studies. Invite students to make suggestions about how to improve or polish the lesson. the question column is for recording ideas that are not clear. topics. 551. Ask students to produce a question or two about what was confusing or about information that they still need.PRAISE-QUESTION-POLISH (PQP) WHAT: PQP is a framework used to assess understanding and evaluate learning. After recording their ideas. The praise column is for positive comments. (1990). Record some of these on the chart. the teacher asks the students for positive comments: have them tell what they liked best or what part of the lesson helped them most.

one thing they will do to extend their learning. Exit slips offer them the opportunity to make learning personal. or some assistance that they need to learn more about the topic. (1991). the end of a day. These self-evaluations help the teacher to monitor students’ understanding and to provide resources for further assistance. 88 . Tell them that the slips will be collected at the end of the session. Owen Publishers. 2. or specific questions. identified needs. the teacher reviews them for information about what students have emphasized. Inc. K. When all exit slips are collected. NY: Richard C. ask students to list one or two things that they have learned and one thing that they want to know more about.. and identify areas for further exploration. Creating classrooms for authors. 1. The teacher may adapt exit slips to meet individual needs. Moving forward. Whole language: Getting started . When the lesson or study is completed. or the end of a focused study. Some exit slips have two prompts: I learned and I need. 3. Talk to students about the importance of taking responsibility for learning.EXIT SLIPS WHAT: Exit slips are self-evaluations that prompt students to review their learning. It is interesting to see if there are similarities in learning entries. They have the opportunity to think about what they have learned that they didn’t know before the information. a presentation. (1988). . Students reflect on what they learned and request further assistance if needed. Short. They may be used at the end of a class session. Additional ideas include one question they have. Katonah. WHY: HOW: Further information: Crafton. C. the end of a week. or ideas were presented. Harste. or a theme unit. . 4. L. Others include I learned. give an account of the knowledge they have gained.. & Burke. This establishes the expectation that everyone will take responsibility for learning and recording something. Portsmouth. J. I will try. NH: Heinemann. Distribute slips of paper or index cards to each student at the beginning of the class or presentation. and I need or I have a question. Students need to assume responsibility for their own learning. concepts.

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Inc.. Overland Park. 90 . 1995 A publication of the Curriculum & Instruction Option for the Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers. KS 66210-1439 (800) 922-9031 FAX (913) 451-8190 Permission to reproduce is granted by the publisher.February. 9209 West 110th Street. Prepared under contract number LC91027044 Research & Training Associates.

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