-- Recycling – Hot Topic or Just Hot Air?

A Recycling Process Waiting in the Shadows
A Work in Progress – April 2007 Edition

Graham Bates Portland VIC 3305 Tel: Mob: 03 5523 2313 0418 569000

Email: icebergs@internode.on.net

RECYCLING – HOT TOPIC OR JUST HOT AIR

Version 1 Copyright - Graham Bates 2007 P O Box 1254 Portland Victoria 3305

Version 1 submitted to Mr Greg Strada, Consultant Engineer and The Hon. David Hawker MP, Federal Member for Wannon on

GRAHAM BATES

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RECYCLING – HOT TOPIC OR JUST HOT AIR

Executive Summary_______________________________ 6

The Cogeneration Story____________________________ 7

Cogeneration and Desalination _____________________ 12

Conclusion _____________________________________ 16

GRAHAM BATES

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Glossary – Volume Measurements 1 gallon (Brit) = 4.54 litres 1 cu metre (m3 ) = 1,000 litres 1 1 Megalitre (ML) = 1 million litres, = 1,000 cubic metres. 1 Megalitre covers approx 1 square kilometre to a depth of 1 millimetre. 1 Megalitre is about equal to the volume of 1 Olympic sized swimming pool. 2

Glossary - Terms Energy required to thermodynamically separate salt from seawater. = 0.8 KWhr/m3 i.e. 0.8 KWhr/ kilolitre of fresh water. 3 Cost of thermodynamic potable water production via MED technology. = approx AUD 0.32 per kilolitre. BOOT – Build, Operate, Own and Transfer. In this type of Joint Venture, a Private Consortium is contracted to design, Build, Own and Operate the Desal Plant/facility for a fixed contracted period of time, guaranteeing supply of potable water of a specified quality for a fixed term. The facility is then Transferred to the Public Sector Partner. During the contractual period the Public Partner agrees to buy water a fixed price, quality and for an agreed quantity. BTU – British Thermal Unit = 1,055 Joules Kilowatt – 1,000 watts – 1 watt = 1 Joule/sec = 3.412 BTU/hr PPM – Parts Per Million TDS – Total Dissolved Solids – Most nations recommend tds levels of less than 500 parts per million (ppm) as suitable water for human consumption. SWRO – Sea Water Reverse Osmosis BWRO – Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis
1

Water Desalination International website: http://www.waterdesalination.com/measure.html DPI Victoria Website: http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/vrosite.nsf/pages/pavs ABC Science Home website: http://www.abc.net.au/science/expert/realexpert/desalination/02.htm

2

3

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Executive Summary
This report continues on from another paper, ‘The Clever Country – Dying of Thirst’.4 Whilst the first paper provided some of the major consequences of the ongoing drought, this paper provides a sound basis for those economic elements in addressing the drought. Australian Industries, Community, Media and Political Leaders, are providing significant support by on-going implementation of recycling strategies such as: 1. 2. 3. 4. Scrap metal and Aluminium cans. Glass and plastics. Stormwater and sewage water. Paper products and cardboard.

There is one area, however, that is being seriously overlooked as a massive recycling source – Energy. Whilst Mr. Malcolm Turnbull, the Minister for the Environment made news with a plan to replace all incandescent light-bulbs in the nation with the newer miniflouro types as a pro-active energy saving measure, we still need to do much more. This paper provides information about the following processes of Energy/Heat Recycling, which can be sourced from: 1. 2. Large Scale Manufacturing Industries using massive amounts of Electricity or Heating in their processes. This energy may be captured in the form of heat and reused in other energy dependant processes either within the same facility or in a purposebuilt facility nearby. This process is known as Cogeneration. 3. In the current severe drought situation that we are facing in the Southern parts of Australia, this cogeneration process can be put to good use through constructing Desalination Plants. At the conclusion of this paper, the reader will have an appreciation of how valuable a resource Hot Air can truly become.

4.

4

The Clever Country – Dying of Thirst, Graham Bates 2007
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The Cogeneration Story
Cogeneration is also known as Combined Heat & Power (CHP). It is simply an efficient, clean and reliable method of generating power and thermal energy from a single Fuel source. The most obvious everyday example of this principle is the motor vehicle.
“An example of a cogeneration process would be the automobile in which  the primary fuel (gasoline) is burned in an internal combustion engine ‐ this  produces both mechanical and electrical energy (cogeneration).   These combined energies, derived from the combustion process of the carʹs  engine, operate the various systems of the automobile, including the drive‐ train or transmission (mechanical power), lights (electrical power), air  conditioning (mechanical and electrical power), and heating of the carʹs  interior when heat is required to keep the carʹs occupants warm.   This heat, which is manufactured by the engine during the combustion  process, was “captured” from the engine and then re‐directed to the  passenger compartment.”  5

In conventional powerhouses (Electricity Plants) that do not use cogeneration technology, efficiency levels are low – in the order of approx 33%. All the fuel is burned up to produce the electricity, and the heat byproduct of this process is simply wasted. In typical Cogeneration Electrical Plants, this heat is captured from the electrical generating process and used for other purposes, the efficiency levels increases upward from between 50% to 70%. Higher efficiency levels equate to lower costs – and to lower GHG emissions. This can best be illustrated courtesy of the EC-ASEAN Cogeneration Conference Papers from the Asian Tour of 2002.6

5

EcoGeneration Solutions website: http://www.cogeneration.net/whatiscogeneration.htm

6

EC-ASEAN Asian Conference website: http://www.cogen3.net/presentations/asean/cogen_tech_env_benefits.pdf

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This graphic of ‘Conventional Systems’, versus the ‘Cogeneration System’ clearly demonstrates the substantial benefits in accelerating the development of Cogeneration Systems. 7 Whilst not directly applicable to the proposal of constructing a desalination plant at Portland, it provides an overwhelming case for incorporating this type of design into our Gippsland Power Stations such as Loy Yang, and any others that do not meet these simple criteria.

7

EC-ASEAN Asian Conference website, page 5: http://www.cogen3.net/presentations/asean/cogen_tech_env_benefits.pdf
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These are the figures which clearly illustrate the differences in Plant efficiency between the low efficiency Separate Production Types and those using the more efficient Cogeneration package systems.8

8

EC-ASEAN Asian Conference website, page 6: http://www.cogen3.net/presentations/asean/cogen_tech_env_benefits.pdf
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With the recent ‘heating up’ of the Environmental Issues surrounding Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, Cogeneration should be a primary consideration in everything to do with Power and Energy usage.
“A CHP unit supplying electricity and heat to an industrial site or building  will use around 30‐40% less primary fuel than conventional separate  generation.    In a country like the UK with a baseload of coal‐fired generation, this  represents a reduction in CO2 emissions of around 50%.”  9

In Australia, we also have a major baseload of coal-fired power generation stations.

9

EC-ASEAN Asian Conference website, page 52: http://www.cogen3.net/presentations/asean/cogen_tech_env_benefits.pdf
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Schematic Diagram of the Loy Yang Power Station Operations

The Loy Yang Power Station has a website10 explaining in fairly simple detail about their generating capacities and methods. There is no mention of ‘Cogeneration Processes’ in any of the plant specifications. Whilst some of the heat from the power generating process is utilized in the coal drying to better prepare the brown coal for combustion, it is unclear whether this complex fits within the ‘Conventional’ or the ‘Cogeneration’ system classification. Note the 4 cooling towers, with steam plumes, used to cool the feedwater circulating through the boiler system. Details of the amount of cement used in their construction are impressive – but there are no details of operating temperatures within this cooling system – or any plans to re-use this energy as heat source for further processing.

10

The Loy Yang Powerstation website: http://www.loyyangpower.com.au/

GRAHAM BATES

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Cogeneration and Desalination
The particular method discussed within this paper is a Desalination process known as Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) or Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE). Much of the source for this material is from the Middle East and India, where desalination has been successfully used to process potable water for decades.

The Reliance Refinery in India – 4 x MED Units producing 12,000 m3/day or  12 Megalitres/day.  11

This is a small production unit, however, larger units and multiple unit clusters have the potential to produce over 180 Megalitres/day. These Low Temperature (LT) units have many attractive features that ideally suit the Plant proposed for the Portland Bay site. We have 2 of the major cost saving elements already in place, highlighted in bold type below.

11

Conference of the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Centre 2004, Scientific Paper : Review of MED Fundamentals and Costing, by A. Ophir and F. Lokiec
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The ability of low temperature distillation plants to make effective use of low cost, low

grade heat, or, where available, even zero cost waste heat, reduces to a minimum the motive energy requirements of these installations. Low grade heat is available through cogeneration schemes with diesel generator, steam turbine, nuclear power reactors and gas turbine power plants. Waste heat is also obtained through waste heat recovery from industrial cooling waters and exhaust gases, from solid waste incinerators, solar ponds and geothermal waters. 12

Typical evaporator effect assembly.

13

The Paper by Ophir and Lokiec has numerous additional features that make this type of desalination plant an even more attractive prospect.

12

Conference of the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Centre 2004, Scientific Paper : Review of MED Fundamentals and Costing, by A. Ophir and F. Lokiec; p. 70
13

Ibid, p. 71
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In another Paper, History of Desalination Cost Estimations, by Pinhas Glueckstern14 delivered at The Conference of the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Centre 2004, the energy costs (49 cents/kilolitre) will be significantly reduced by the combined use of: 1. 2. Waste heat – from the Portland Aluminium Smelter, and Geothermal hot water – from the proven resource approx 1,300 metres beneath Portland.

Breakdown of comparative unit water cost (1980 ‐ 1990) 

Costings are in USD terms. Whilst the relative power and fuel oil costs are no longer accurate in 2007, they are represented as a constant and therefore apply for every type of desalination process in this comparison. Further comprehensive data can be gathered from a major reference through The Middle Eastern Desalination research Centre website at: http://www.medrc.org.om/

14

Conference of the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Centre 2004, Scientific Paper; History of Desalination Cost Estimations, by Pinhas Glueckstern, p 5.
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In the graph below, there is a cost breakdown based upon Technology and unit water cost. 15 Technology: Unit water cost, cent/m3 MSF 101-150 MED 76-120 SWRO 69-117 BWRO 21-53

Obviously, the low end of the range refers to the lowest investment and operating cost estimates, whilst the high end refers to average values of investment and operating cost. BWRO refers to brackish water with between 6,000 and 3,500 tds figures.

Comparative unit water of medium size (10,000 ‐ 20,000 m3/d) according to  low and average cost estimates in 1996 [31] 

15

Conference of the Middle Eastern Desalination Research Centre 2004, Scientific Paper; History of Desalination Cost Estimations, by Pinhas Glueckstern, p 7.
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Conclusion
Whilst Portland is not adjacent to the major Gippsland Power Station facilities, we can still apply the principles of Cogeneration to the process and gain significant benefits to our communities. As per detail supplied in the first paper, ‘The Clever Country – Dying of Drought’, 10% of Victorian Electrical Generation Output is pumped into this Aluminium Smelter. This electrical energy is used to heat the potlines to temperatures of 960O C to produce molten Aluminium. The molten product is then transferred to the Ingot Mill where cooling takes place. The waste heat is neither captured nor used for any other significant process. Recycling heat is therefore both a Hot Topic that requires a more serious Hot Air Focus.

GRAHAM BATES

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