Jessie
Widder
 November
2,
2009
 ECS
101‐
Section
014
 


MID­TERM­
Take
Home
Exam



 
 Within
the
topic
of
engineering
there
are
many
disciplines
that
people
choose
 to
specialize
in.
Each
discipline
is
geared
towards
a
specific
topic.
Some
examples
we
 have
gone
into
detail
in
class
are
chemical,
civil,
biological,
structural,
 environmental,
and
computer
engineering.
There
are
many
more
that
are
not
 studied
at
Syracuse
and
some
that
are
even
branched
off
from
the
ones
mentioned
 above.
Although
each
discipline
specifically
focuses
on
a
certain
topic,
every
 engineer
needs
the
basic
knowledge
of
each
discipline
in
order
to
get
work
down.
 Many
projects
cannot
just
be
solved
with,
for
example,
an
environmental
engineer.
 Many
times
they
need
the
help
of
chemical
and
civil
engineers
too.
 Stress
and
strain
are
two
very
important
problems
all
types
of
engineers
 need
to
consider
when
approaching
a
new
project.
Stress
is
defined
as
force
per
unit
 area.
It
is
often
thought
of
as
force
acting
through
a
small
area
within
a
plane.
There
 are
many
different
types
of
stresses,
for
example,
true
stress,
conventional
stress,
 thermal
stress,
etc.,
but
when
the
term
strain
is
used
alone
it
usually
refers
to
the
 linear
strain
in
the
direction
of
the
applied
stress.
Strain
is
defined
as
the
 deformation
resulting
from
the
stress.
Along
with
stress,
there
are
many
different
 types
of
strain.
Each
depends
on
how
the
object
reacts
to
the
stress
that
is
applied.
 The
most
obvious
discipline
that
has
to
deal
with
stress
and
strain
is
civil
 engineering.
Civil
engineering
deals
with
the
design,
construction
and
maintenance
 of
the
physical
and
naturally
built
environment.
This
includes
project
such
as
bridge,
 roads,
canals,
dams,
and
of
course,
buildings.
When
describing
the
definition
of
civil
 engineering
in
one
word
many
would
say
building
or
constructing.
It
is
very
 common
for
civil
engineers
and
structural
engineers
to
work
together
when
 approached
with
a
new
assignment.
When
constructing
projects
such
as
ones
 civil/structural
engineers
partake
in,
understanding
the
concept
stress
and
strain
is
 vital.
When
looking
at
stress,
you
need
to
take
into
 account
the
direction
the
stress
is
coming
from
and
the
 strain
that
is
going
to
result
from
it.
There
is
compressive
 and
tensile
stress.
Compressive
stress
(depicted
to
the
 right)
that
when
applied
acts
towards
the
center
of
that
 material.
When
a
material
is
experiences
to
compressive
stress
then
this
material
is
 under
compression.
Most
of
the
time
compressive
stress
applied
to
bars,
columns,
 etc.
and
leads
to
shortening.
This
stress
increases
until
it
 reaches
compressive
strength.
On
the
other
hand
tensile
 stress
(seen
on
the
left)
is
the
type
of
stress
in
which
the
 two
sections
of
a
material
on
either
side
of
a
stress
plane
 tend
to
elongate.
This
stress
increases
and
turns
into
 tensile
strength,
which
is
just
defined
as
the
amount
of
force
required
to
pull
 something
such
as
a
structural
beam
to
the
point
where
it
breaks.
When
civil
 engineers
are
building
something
and
decide
to
use
cement
they
need
to
make
sure



you
develop
a
 curve.
looking
something
like
the
one
shown
on
 the
right.
and
retention.
There
are
two
types
of
behaviors
that
go
along
with
this:
brittle
and
ductile.
buildings.
will
not
be
safe.
The
laws
and
concepts
of
physics
play
a
major
role
in
this
 field.
machinery
for
delivering
and
 distributing
the
water
to
the
natural
system.
You
need
to
make
 sure
there
is
enough
water
storage
capacity.
I
was
really
interested
in
Sports
Biomechanics.
air.
In
many
bodies
of
water
environmental
 engineers
build
aqueducts
to
help
the
water
travel.they
compensate
with
the
fact
that
the
compressive
strength
is
a
significant
amount
 greater
than
the
tensile
strength.
This
is
a
region
under
a
lot
of
stress.
We
are
able
to
 develop
an
understanding
of
performance
in
athletic
events
through
different
types
 .
Also.
it
is
called
a
brittle
 deformation
and
when
something
bends
or
has
a
 permanent
strain.
Stress
is
very
easy
to
 calculate
and
once
obtained
can
be
converted
to
strain
(horizontal
stress)
by
a
ratio
 called
Poisson’s
Ratio.
Because
of
this.
time.
and
 expansion
of
the
full
range
of
habitats.
This
is
a
project
and
a
project
that
definitely
 can
be
done
with
the
help
of
many
different
people.
barriers
to
eastward
seepage
of
water.
These
behaviors
depend
on
the
 magnitude
of
stress
on
the
object.
We
are
able
to
apply
the
laws
of
 mechanics
and
physics
to
the
human
performance
of
athletes.
and
the
 temperature
of
material
under
stress.
and/or
land
resources).
There
are
many
issues
with
water
pressure.
 
 Many
people
forget
that
your
body
is
intensely
studied
by
biological
 engineers.
for
example.
They
need
to
make
sure
more
pressure
is
pushed
 down
than
out
or
the
building.
slow
vice
effect).
to
provide
healthy
 water.
it
is
needed
for
environmental
engineers
too.
Water
 reservoirs
need
to
be
at
a
sufficient
height
to
provide
water
pressure
between
50
 and
80
PSI.
Another
 example
is
the
Everglades
Ecosystem.
flat
areas
of
 the
country
depend
on
Water
Towers.
it
goes
back
to
 constructing
and
building.
and
strain
together.
A
30‐ year
restoration
plan
has
been
developed.
which
is
the
fire
department
requirement.
and
land
for
human
habitation
and
for
other
organisms.
 Environmental
engineering
is
putting
together
science
and
engineering
principles
to
 improve
the
environment
(air.
rate
of
stress
 build
up
(quick
drop
vs.
Again.
water.
When
you
 put
stress.
it
is
called
as
ductile
 deformation.
That
is
a
major
reason
why
environmental
project
often
 need
a
civil/structural
engineer
helping
them
throughout
the
process.
An
interesting
subfield
in
bioengineering
is
 known
as
biomechanics.
Restoration
is
not
easy.
etc.
 methods
for
securing
water
quality
conditions.
 
 Along
with
the
obvious
relationship
between
stress
and
strain
within
the
 discipline
of
civil
engineers.
Stress
and
 strain
are
key
in
the
success
of
these
aqueducts
and
pipe
networks.
seems
to
find
their
way
to
disappoint
you
and
break
or
 deform.
 Objects.
Biological
Engineering
or
mostly
known
as
bioengineering
is
the
 application
of
engineering
principles
to
figure
out
a
way
to
approach
the
challenges
 in
the
fields
of
biology
and
medicine.
improvement.

 When
something
breaks.
and
most
 importantly
fix
up
polluted
sites.
pipe
networks
are
 constructed
to
purify
water
to
make
it
possible
to
drink.


obvious
affects
of
 building
and
constructing
to
the
more
complex
affects
of
restoring
a
national
park.
doing
very
simple
moves.
stress
and
strain
play
a
major
role
in
 all
the
different
disciplines
of
engineering.
Think
about
a
gymnast
or
even
dancers.
Knowing
to
that
exact
point
you
can
bend
your
arm
until
 you
hurt
it
or
even
calculating
the
stress
your
bones
obtain
from
jumping
up
and
 down
or
just
moving
your
feet
up
and
down.
 
 Although
at
first
it
may
not
be
obvious.
jumping
up
and
down.
It
goes
from
the
simple.
 .
Stress
and
strain
are
needed
for
this
 study
too.
bending
in
 ways
you
never
would
think
was
possible.of
modeling
and
also
computer
simulation.
Stress
and
strain
are
very
important
with
 talking
about
flexibility.

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