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Cellular Concept

EE 424 Communication

Abdel Fattah Sheta

Part III-

Wireless Communications

The Cellular Concept

Early Mobile Radio
Large Coverage Area using:
Single High Power Transmitter
Antenna Mounted on a tall Tower

• Good Coverage
• Difficult to reuse the same frequencies throughout the system
due to significant interference (No spectrum sharing a lot of
bandwidth is dedicated to a single call)

Limited capacity
• 1947 – 1977
• 1946 FCC allocates 33 FM channels in 33, 150 , 450 MHz bands
• 1960 Direct dialing from automobile in home area

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 1

Cellular Concept

The Cellular Concept Cont’d.

• developed by Bell Labs 1960’s-70’s

• areas divided into cells
• The cell is served by a base station with lower power
• Each cell gets portion of total number of channels
• Neighboring cells assigned different groups of channels, to
minimize interference
• The available channels can be reused as many times as
necessary as long as the interference between co-channel
stations is kept below acceptable levels
• Cells using the same channels should be spaced enough to
reduce co-channel interference

The First Generation (1G)

USA Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)

• used FDMA with 30 KHz FM-modulated voice channels.
• The FCC initially allocated 40 MHz of spectrum to this
system which was increased to 50 MHz shortly after service
introduction to support more users.
• This total bandwidth was divided into two 25 MHz bands, one
for mobile-to-base station channels and the other for base
station-to-mobile channels.

Europe Total Access Communication System (ETACS)

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Cellular Concept

The Second Generation (2G)

Many of the first generation cellular systems in Europe were

incompatible, and the Europeans quickly converged on a uniform
standard for second generation (2G) digital systems called GSM.

(GSM) Groupe Spéciale Mobile changed to

Global Systems for Mobile

In USA two standards in the 900 MHz cellular frequency

IS-54, which uses a combination of TDMA and FDMA
and phase-shift keyed modulation

IS-95, which uses direct-sequence CDMA with binary

modulation and coding.

• In Japan The digital cellular standard is similar to IS-54

and IS-136 but in a different frequency band

• The GSM system in Europe is at a different frequency

than the GSM systems in the U.S.

• Incompatible standards makes it impossible to roam between

systems nationwide or globally without a multi-mode phone
and/or multiple phones (and phone numbers).

• The second generation digital cellular standards have been

enhanced to support high rate packet data services [15]
(2.5 G) GSM systems provide data rates of up to 100 Kbps
by aggregating all timeslots together for a single user.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 3

Cellular Concept

The 3G
• Add broadband data to support video, internet access and other high
speed data services for mobile devices.

• It is based on a wideband CDMA

• The standard, initially called International Mobile

Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000), provides different data rates
depending on mobility and location, from 384 Kbps for pedestrian
use to 144 Kbps for vehicular use to 2 Mbps for indoor office use.
• The 3G standard is incompatible with 2G systems
• Service providers must invest in a new infrastructure before they can
id 3G service.

• The first 3G systems were deployed in Japan.

• In fact 3G systems have not grown as anticipated in Europe, and it

appears that data enhancements to 2G systems may satisfy user

The Cellular Concept

Frequency Re-use
• Cells with the same letter use
h same set off frequencies
f i
• A cell cluster is outlined in bold
• A cell cluster is replicated over
the coverage area
• Cluster size N = 7 cells
• Frequency reuse factor = 1/7
(each cell contains one
of the total number of channels

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 4

Cellular Concept

Cell Shape

• The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as the

footprint and is determined from field
measurement or propagation prediction models

• A real footprint is amorphous in nature

• A cell must be designed to serve the weakest

signal in the footprint.

• Regular shapes:
Equilateral triangle and
• adjacent circles can not be overlaid upon a map without
leaving gaps or creating overlapping regions.

Cell Shape
Ex. hexagon geometry cell shape
• Designed to serve the weakest mobiles within the footprint
(typically located at the edge)

• The hexagon has the largest area of the three regular shapes.

• Simplistic model, Universally adopted

• fewest number of cells can cover a geographic region

• Approximate circular shape

no gaps
no overlap systematic system design
equal area

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 5

Cellular Concept

Geometry of a Hexagon


Surface area is 6R2 √3 / 4

Base Station Location

• Base station location:

• At the center of the cell (Omni-directional antenna)
• At the vertices of three cells (directional antennas)

Practical considerations usually do not allow base stations to be

placed exactly as they appear in the hexagonal layout (~1/4 cell
radius away from the ideal location)

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Cellular Concept

Cluster Size and System Capacity

Assume the following system parameters:

K Number of channels in a cell
N Number of cells/cluster (Cluster size)
M Number of times the cluster is repeated
S = KN Number of channels in a cluster
C Total number of channels
C = MkN = MS

A cluster has N cells with unique channels

Cluster Size & System Capacity

Cluster size N (with cell size const) more clusters

are required to cover a given area C
Co-channel cells become closer

Cluster size N (with cell size const) the ratio between

cell size and the distance between co-channel cells is large

Design Objectives for Cluster Size

1. High spectrum efficiency
• many users per cell
• small cluster size gives much bandwidth per cell

2. High performance
• Little interference
• Large cluster sizes

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Cellular Concept

The effect of decreasing cell size

• Increased user capacity
• Increased number of handovers per call
• Increased complexity in locating the subscriber
• Lower power consumption in mobile terminal:
· Longer talk time,
· Safer operation
• Different propagation environment, shorter delay spreads
• Different cell layout,
· lower path loss exponent, more interference
· cells follow street pattern
· more difficult to predict and plan
· more flexible, self-organizing system needed (cf. DECT
vs. GSM)

Transmit Power Constraint

• The power transmitted by each base station

d to be
b llarge enoughh to cover its
i own cell,
but small enough to not cause too much
interference in the co-channel cells

• As cells get smaller, transmit power is reduced

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Cellular Concept

Cluster Size and System Capacity Cont.

• There are only certain cluster sizes and cell layout

which are possible in order to connect without gaps
between adjacent
dj cells

• N = i2 + ij + j2 where i and j are non-negative integers

• Example i = 2, j = 1
– N = 22 + 2(1) + 12 = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7

Typical Cluster Sizes

N = 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 21 ……………

Frequency Reuse Again

• Frequency Reuse is the core concept

of cellular mobile radio

• Users in different geographical areas

(in different cells) may
simultaneously use the same

• Frequency reuse drastically increases

user capacity
i and spectrum efficiency
ffi i

• Frequency reuse causes mutual

interference (trade off link quality
versus subscriber capacity)

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 9

Cellular Concept

Frequency Reuse

Nearest co-channel

Example N=19
(i=3, j=2)
To find the nearest co-
channel neighbors of a
particular cell:
• move i cells along any
chain or hexagon.
• then turn 60 degrees
counterclockwise and
move j cells.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 10

Cellular Concept

Nearest co-channel

Example 3.1

• 33 MHz bandwidth is allocated to a particular FDD

cellular telephone system. Two 25 kHz simplex channels
to provide full duplex voice and control channels,

(1) compute the number of channels available per cell if

a system uses
(a) 4-cell reuse, (b) 7-cell reuse (c) 12-cell reuse.

If 1 MHz of the allocated spectrum is dedicated to control

(2) determine an equitable distribution of control channels
and voice channels in each cell for each of the three

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Cellular Concept

Example 2.1

Total bandwidth 33 MHz

Channel BW=25 kHz×2 simplex channels =50 kHz/duplex channel
Total available channels = 33,000/50
33 000/50 = 660 channels

(a) For N= 4,
total number of channels available per cell 660/4 = 165 channels.

(b) For N= 7, total number of channels available per cell = 660/7 =

95 channels.

(c) For N= 12,

total number of channels available per cell = 660/12 = 55
1 MHz = 20 control channels

Channel Assignment Strategies

• Fixed Channel Assignments

– Each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channels.

– If all the channels in that cell are occupied, the call is

blocked, and the subscriber does not receive service.

– Variation includes a borrowing strategy: a cell is allowed to

borrow channels from a neighboring
g g cell if all its own
channels are occupied.

– This is supervised by the Mobile Switch Center: Connects

cells to wide area network; Manages call setup; Handles

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Cellular Concept

Channel Assignment Strategies

• Dynamic Channel Assignments

• Voice channels are not allocated to different cells permanently.

• Each time a call request is made, the serving base station

requests a channel from the MSC.

• MSC then allocates a channel to the requested call according to

l i h taking
ki into
i account different
diff factors:
f frequency
f re-use
of candidate channel and cost factors.

• Dynamic channel assignment is more complex (real time), but

reduces likelihood of blocking


• Reasons for handover

Moving out of range
Load balancing

• Handover scenarios
Intra-cell handover (e.g., change frequency due to narrowband
Inter-cell, intra-BSC handover (e.g., movement across cells)
SC iintra-MSC
SC hhandover
d ((e.g., movement across BSC)
Inter MSC handover (e.g., movement across MSC)

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Cellular Concept

• Designers must specify an optimum
signal level at which to initiate a
• Margin (Δ) is defined Δ = handoff
threshold - Minimum acceptable signal Improper handoff situation
to maintain the call
• If Δ too small:
Insufficient time
to complete handoff
before call is lost Proper handoff situation
More call losses
• If Δ too large:
Too many handoffs
Burden for MSC

Call Dropped

Handoff is not made and call is dropped if:

• Large
a ge delay
de ay by tthee MSC
SC in assigning
ass g g a handoff.
a do .

• Threshold margin (Δ) is set too small for the handoff time in the

• Excessive delays may occur during high traffic conditions due to

computational loading at the MSC

• No channels are available on any of the nearby base stations (thus

forcing the MSC to wait until a channel in a nearby cell becomes

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 14

Cellular Concept

Handoff is Necessary?

• The base station monitors the signal level for a certain

period of time before a hand- off is initiated. So that
unnecessary handoffs are avoided.
avoided (signal drop may be
due to momentary fading).

• The length of time needed to decide if a handoff is

necessary depends on the speed at which the vehicle is

• If the slope of the short-term average received signal

level in a given time interval is steep, the handoff should
be made quickly.

Dwell Time

It is the time over which a call may be maintained

within a cell, without handoff

• Depends on:
Propagation, interference, distance between
the subscriber and the base station, and other time varying
effects. (the speed of the user and the type of radio coverage)

• Even a stationary subscriber may have a random and finite dwell

time due to fading effect.

• Statistics of dwell time are important in practical design of handoff


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Cellular Concept

Styles of Handoff
• Network Controlled Handoff (NCHO)
– in first generation cellular system, each base station constantly
monitors signal strength from mobiles in its cell
– based on the measures, MSC decides if handoff necessary
– mobile plays passive role in process
– burden on MSC

• Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO)

– present in second generation systems
– mobile measures received power from surrounding base
stations and report to serving base station
– handoff initiated when power received from a neighboring cell
exceeds current value by a certain level or for a certain period
of time
– faster since measurements made by mobiles, MSC don’t need
monitor signal strength

Intersystem Handoff

• If a mobile moves from one cellular system to

different cellular system controlled by a different
compatible MSC.

• When a mobile signal becomes weak in a given cell

and the MSC cannot find another cell within its
system to which it can transfer the call in progress.

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Cellular Concept

Prioritizing Handoff
Dropping a call is more annoying than line busy
• Guard channel concept (Decrease the probability of forced termination due to lack of
available channels)

Reserve some channels for handoffs

Waste of bandwidth
But can be dynamically predicted

• Queuing of handoff requests (due to lack of available channels)

There is a finite time interval between time for handoff and
time to drop (signal goes below the handoff threshold).
Better tradeoff between dropping call probability and network

Practical Handoff Considerations

(1) Practically, several problems arise when attempting to design for a
wide range of mobile velocities.

• High speed vehicles pass through the coverage region of a cell

within a matter of seconds, whereas pedestrian users may never
need a handoff during a call.

• Particularly with the addition of microcells to provide capacity,

the MSC can quickly become burdened if high speed users are
l being
b i passedd between
b very small
ll cells.

(2) Another practical limitation is the ability to obtain new cell sites. In
practice it is difficult for cellular service providers to obtain new
physical cell site locations in urban areas.

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Cellular Concept

The umbrella Cell Solution

• Is used to provide large area coverage to high speed users while
providing small area coverage to users traveling at low speeds.

• By using different antenna heights (often on the same building or

tower) and different power levels, it is possible to provide large
and small cells which are co-located at a single location.

• # handoffs is minimized for high speed users and provides

additional microcell channels for pedestrian users.

• If a high speed user in the large umbrella cell is approaching the

base station, and its velocity is rapidly decreasing, the base station
may decide to hand the user into the co-located microcell, without
MSC intervention.

Umbrella Cell Approach

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Cellular Concept

Cell Dragging (Pedestrian users emit very strong signal

to the base station)

• As the user travels away from the base station at a very slow
speed, the average signal strength does not decay rapidly.

• Even when the user has traveled well beyond the designed
range of the cell, the received signal at the base station may be
above the handoff threshold, thus a handoff may not be made.

Interference and traffic management problem, since the

user has meanwhile traveled deep within a neighboring cell.
To solve this problem, handoff thresholds and radio
coverage parameters must be adjusted carefully.

Interference and System Capacity

Interference is the major limiting factor in performance of cellular
radio systems
• Sources of interference:
– Mobiles in same cell
– A call in progress in a neighboring cell
– Other base stations operating in the same frequency band
– Non-cellular system leaking energy into the cellular
frequency band
• Effect of interference:
– Cross talk in voice channels
– For control channels missed or blocked calls
• The two main types are:
– co-channel interference
– adjacent channel interference

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Cellular Concept

Co-channel Interference
Co-channel cells: Cells that use the same set of frequencies

Unlike thermal noise which can be overcome by increasing the

signal-to- noise ration (SNR), co-channel interference cannot be
combated by simply increasing the carrier power of a

To reduce co-channel interference, co-channel cells must be

p y y separated
p by
y a minimum distance to p
sufficient isolation due to propagation.

Co-channel Interference
When the size of each cell is the same, and the BSs transmit
the same power, the co-channel interference ratio depends on:
• The radius of the cell (R)
• The distance between centers of the nearest co-channel
cells (D)

• Co-channel reuse ratio: Q = D/R = (3N) (Hexagonal

• Q increases Interference decreases
• Q decreases Interference increases (cluster size N
decreases and system capacity increases)

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 20

Cellular Concept

Co-channel Reuse Ratio

Signal-to-Interference Ratio

The signal-to-interference ratio (S/I or SIR) for a mobile

receiver which monitors a forward channel (Down Link
C a e) =

= i0
i =1

S: The desired signal power from the desired base station

Ii : The interference power caused by the ith interfering
co-channel cell base station.
i0 : The number of co-channel interfering cells.

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Cellular Concept

Average Received Power

(Propagation measurements)
The average received power Pr at a distance d from the
transmitting antenna is approximated by
⎛d ⎞
Pr = Po ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ d0 ⎠
⎛d ⎞
Pr (dBm) = Po (dBm) − 10n log⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ d0 ⎠
Where P0 is the power received at a close-in reference point in
the far field region of the antenna at a small distance d0 from the
transmitting antenna, and n is the path loss exponent.
n ~ 2 to 4 in urban cellular systems.

Co-channel Interference
• The interference is due to co-channel base stations.
• The transmit power of each base station is equal
• The path loss exponent is the same throughout the coverage area,
S/I ffor a mobile
bil can be
b approximated
i t d as

S R −n ( D / R) n ( 3N ) n
= i0
= =
I i0 i0
∑ (D )
i =1

AMPS (FM 30 KHz channel bandwidth) S/I=18dB (sufficient quality)

If n=4,
n=4 N needs to be larger than 6.49
6 49 ~ 7

Thus a minimum cluster size of seven is required to meet S/I = 18 dB.

All the interfering cells are assumed to be equidistant from the base station
receiver. (Good for large N)

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 22

Cellular Concept

Co-Channel cell for 7 cells reuse

Assume n=4, the signal-to- interference

ratio for the worst case can be closely
approximated as

Co-channel Interference

In terms of co-channel reuse ratio Q = 4.6 for N = 7

17 dB (for
(f N = 7)

Exact solution using the equation

S R −n
I i0 17.8 dB.
∑ (D )
i =1

Slightly less than 18 dB

it would be necessary to increase N to the next largest size,
which is found to be 12 (corresponding to i = j = 2).

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 23

Cellular Concept

Example 3.2

S/I = 15 dB , Frequency reuse factor 1/N? n=4

((a)) n=4
Let N = 7 , then Q = D/R = 3N

S ( 3N ) 4 Which is greater than 15

= = 18.66dB
I i0 dB, N=7 is good value

(b) n=3
Let N = 7 , then Q = D/R = 3N

S ( 3N )3 It is less than required 15 dB, N=7

= = 12.05dB
I i0 More N should be used 9,
12, 19, ……. check

Adjacent Channel Interference

Origin: Arising from signals which are adjacent in frequency

to the desired signal

Become serious by
• Imperfect receiver filters which allow nearby
frequencies to leak into the passband

• A mobile close to a base station transmits on a channel close

to one being used by a weak mobile. The base station may
have difficulty in discriminating the desired mobile user.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 24

Cellular Concept

Adjacent Channel Interference Example

Adjacent Channel Interference

• Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through

careful filtering (High Q filters) and channel assignments

• Since each cell is given only a fraction of the available

channels, a cell need not be assigned channels which are all
adjacent in frequency. (By keeping the frequency separation
between each channel in a given cell as large as possible).

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Cellular Concept


If a mobile is 20 times as close to the base station as

another mobile and has energy spill out of its passband,
the signal-to- interference ratio at the base station for the
weak mobile (before receiver filtering) is approximately

For a path loss exponent n = 4, this is equal to -52 dB. If the

intermediate frequency (IF) filter of the base station receiver
has a slope of 20 dB/octave

Then an adjacent channel interferer must be displaced by at

least six times the passband bandwidth from the center of the
receiver frequency passband to achieve 52 dB attenuation

Case Study (Example 3.3)

How channels of AMPS are divided into subsets to minimize adjacent

channel interference?

666 duplex channels

In 1989, the FCC allocated an additional 10 MHz (166 new channels)

There are now 832 channels

Forward channels 1 666 (870.030 889.98 MHz)

Reverse channel s 1 666 (825.030
(825 030 844 98 MHz )

Extended channels 667 799

and 990 1023.

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Cellular Concept

Case Study cont.

Case Study cont.

Two operators (416 channels for each)

Channels distinguished as block A and block B

416 channels 395 voice & 21 control channels

1 312 voice channels block A

313 333 control channels channels

334 354 control channels block B

355 666 voice channels channels

667 716 & 991 1023

extended Block A voice channels
717 799 extended Block A voice channels

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 27

Cellular Concept

Case Study cont.

395 voice channels = 21 subsets x ~ 19 channels

subset, the closest adjacent channel is 21 channels

In each subset

In a 7-cell reuse system, each cell uses 3 subsets of channels

The 3 subsets are assigned such that every channel in the cell is
assured of beingg separated
p from everyy other channel byy at least
7 channel spacing.

Case Study cont.

In the following Table:

E h cell
Each ll uses channels
h l in
i the
th subsets,
b t iA + iB + iC,
where i is an integer from 1 to 7.

The total number of voice channels in a cell is about 57

The channels listed in the upper half of the chart belong to

block A and those in the lower half belong to block B.B

The shaded set of numbers correspond to the control

channels which are standard to all cellular systems in North

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Cellular Concept

Power Control for reducing Interference

The power levels transmitted by every subscriber unit are

under constant control by the serving base stations.

• Each mobile transmits the smallest power necessary to

maintain good quality link

• Power control prolong battery life for the subscriber unit

• Power control reduces the reverse channel S/I in the system.

• Power control is especially important for emerging CDMA

spread spectrum systems that allow every user in every cell
to share the same radio channel.

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Cellular Concept

Trunking and Grade of Service

• Trunking is the aggregation of multiple user circuits into a

single channel.
• The aggregation is achieved using some form of multiplexing.
• Cellular
C ll l radio
di systems
t rely
l on trunking
t ki to t accommodate d t a
large number of users in a limited radio spectrum.

(SLC) Subscriber line


The Concept of Trunking

• Large number of users share small number of channels.

• Assigning users channels on demand

• Each cell has pool of channels

• When user requires service, channel allocated to user

• When user no longer requires service, channel returned to pool

to be allocated to next user

• The user is blocked (denied access) when all radio channels are
already in use.

• A queue may be used to hold the requesting users until a

channel becomes available.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 30

Cellular Concept

Trunking Theory

Important to design trunked radio systems that can handle a

specific capacity at a specific grade of service, GOS

T ki theory
Trunking th was developed
d l d by b Erlang
E l

• Erlang based his studies of the statistical nature of the arrival and
the length of calls. The measure of traffic intensity bears his name

• One Erlang represents the amount of traffic intensity carried

by a channel that is completely occupied (i.e.
(i e 1 call-hour per
hour or 1 call-minute per minute).

• For example, a radio channel that is occupied for thirty minutes

during an hour carries 0.5 Erlangs of traffic

The Grade of Service (GOS)

• The grade of service (GOS) is a measure of the ability of a

user to access a trunked system during the busiest hour

• It is used to define the desired performance of a particular

trunked system.

• GOS is typically given as the probability that a call is

blocked, or the probability of a call experiencing a delay,
greater than a certain queuing time.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 31

Cellular Concept

Some Definitions used in Trunking Theory

• Set-up Time: The time required to allocate a trunked radio channel to
requesting user

• Blocked Call: Call which cannot be completed at the time of request

• Holding Time (H) : Average duration of a typical call (H in seconds)

• Traffic Intensity (A): Measure of channel time utilization (average

channel occupancy measured in Erlangs)

• Load: Traffic intensity across the entire trunked radio system (Erlangs)

• Grade of service (GOS): A measure of congestion which is specified as

the probability of a call being blocked (Erlang B), or the probability of
a call being delayed beyond a certain amount of time (Erlang C)

• Request Rate (λ): The average number of call request per unit time (S-1 )

Traffic Intensity (A)

The traffic intensity offered by each user (Au) is
Au = call request rate × Holding time Au = λ H

Total offered traffic intensity (A) is A = U Au

where U is the number of users in a given system

In a C channel trunked system, and if the traffic is equally distributed

The traffic intensity per channel AC = U Au/C

At a given time, if the offered traffic exceeds the capacity of the

system (e.g., UAu > C), calls are blocked

The AMPS is designed for 2% GOS. I.e, 2 out of 100 calls will be
blocked due to channel occupancy during the busiest hour

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Cellular Concept

Types of trunked systems

There are two systems commonly used.

1. System with no queue for call requests.

- If a channel
h l is
i available,
il bl no setup
t time
ti andd the
th user is
given immediate access to the available channel

- If no channels are available, the requesting user is

blocked without access and is free to try again later

-This type of trunking is called

(blocked calls cleared) - Erlangs B

2. System which a queue is provided to hold calls which

are blocked. (Blocked Calls Delayed) Erlangs C

Erlang B formula

• Blocked calls cleared

• The probability of blocking during the busy hour

Pr(blocking ) = C C! k = GOS

k =0 k!

– Can use plot of Erlang B formula to determine one of the

parameters: Pr(blocking), C, A

Au = λ H & A = U Au & AC = U Au/C

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 33

Cellular Concept

Erlang B Plot
Number of trunked channels C
Probability of Blockiing

Traffic Intensity in Erlangs

Erlang B Example

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Cellular Concept

Blocked Calls Delayed

• Blocking calls are delayed until channels are available, queuing
• Erlang C
The probability of a call not Pr( delay > 0) = C −1
AC + C!(1 − CA )∑
having immediate access to a channel k = 0 k!

• The probability that a delayed call will have to wait longer than t
= e-(C-A)t/H
• Probability of delay larger than t
Pr[delay>t]= Pr[delay>0] e-(C-A)t/H

• The average delay D D = Pr[delay>0] H/(C-A)

GOS is defined in this case as the probability that a call is

blocked after waiting a specific length of time in the queue.

Erlang C Plot
Number of trunked channels C
Probability of Delay

Traffic Intensity in Erlangs

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Cellular Concept

Some Examples

3.4 How many users can be supported for .5% blocking probability
for the following number of trunked channels in a blocked calls
cleared system? 1,
1 5,10,
5 10 20,
20 100.
100 Assume each user generates
0.1 Erlangs of traffic (Au = 0.1).

For GOS = 0.005, then use Fig. 3.9 U = A/Au = A/0.1

C = 1, U = 1 User C = 5, U = 11Users

C= 10 , U = 39 Users C= 20, U = 110 Users

C = 100,U = 809 Users

Ex. 3.5 (2 million residents in an urban area)

• Pr(blocking) = 2%
• Each user averages 2 calls per hour at an average s duration of 3 min./call
• System A: 394 cells, 19 channels/cell
• System B: 98 cells, 57 channels/cell
• System C: 49 cells, 100 channels/cell

• Find number of subscribers U that can be supported in each cell

• Traffic intensity by user Au = λ H = (2/60)(3) = 0.1 & Pr(blocked) = 0.02

• System A: C = 19, From Erlang B plot, A ~ 12 Erlangs

U = A/Au = 12/0.1 = 120 users/cell, N = 120 users/cell * 394 cells = 47,280

• System B: C = 57,
57 From Erlang B plot,
plot A ~ 45 Erlangs
U = A/Au = 45/0.1 = 450 users/cell N = 450 users/cell * 98 cells = 44,100

• System C: C= 100, From Erlang B plot, A ~ 88 Erlangs

U = A/Au = 88/0.1 = 880 users/cell N = 880 users/cell * 49 cells = 43,120

Percentage market penetration for systems A, B, and C and the market

penetration of the three systems

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 36

Cellular Concept
Ex. 3.6
A certain city has an area of 1,300 square miles and is covered by a cellular
system using a seven-cell reuse pattern. Each cell has a radius of four miles
and the city is allocated 40 MHz of spectrum with a full duplex channel
bandwidth of 60 kHz. Assume a GOS of 2% for an Erlang B system is
specified. If the offered traffic per user is 0.03 Erlangs, compute:
(a) the number of cells in the service areaarea,
= Total area/area of cell = 31 cells
(b) the number of channels per cell,
=Total channels/7 = 40MHz/(7x60KHz) = 95 Channels/cell
(c) traffic intensity of each cell,
From Erlangs B graph GOS=0.02, Au = 0.03, C=95 channels A …
(d) the maximum carried traffic,
= number of cells × traffic intensityy pper cell = 31 × 84 = 2604 Erlangs.
(e) the total number of users that can be served for 2% GOS,
= Total traffic (Atot)/trafic intensity per user = 2604/0.03 = 86800
(f) the number of mobiles per unique channel (where it is understood that
channels are reused),= number of users/number of channels = 86800/666
(g) the theoretical maximum number of users that could be served at one
time by the system = Number of the available channels in the system

Ex. 3.7
A hexagonal cell within a four-cell system has a radius of 1.387 km. A total
of 60 channels are used within the entire system. If the load per user is
0.029 Erlangs, and λ = 1 call/hour, compute the following for an Erlang C
system that has a 5% probability of a delayed call:
(a) How many users per square kilometer will this system support?
(b) What is the probability that a delayed call will have to wait for more
than 10 s?
(c) What is the probability that a call will be delayed for more than 10

C = 60 channels, Au = 0.029, λ = 1/60 × 60 H = A u/ λ

C/cell 60/4 = 15
(a) U = A/Au ( From Erlangs C graph find A for C = 15 and probability of
delay = 0.05)
(b) The probability that a delayed call will have to wait longer than 10 s is
Pr [delay >t |delay]= e(–(C – A)t /H) = e(–(15 – 9.0)10/104.4) =

(c) Probability that a call is delayed more than 10 seconds,
Pr [delay >10] = Pr [delay >0]Pr [delay >t |delay]
= 0.05 x 0.5629 = 2.81%

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 37

Cellular Concept

Improving Coverage & Capacity Increasing

Demand of Services Increases?
More channels per unit coverage area are needed

T h i
Techniques to
t expand
d th
the capacity
it off cellular
ll l systems:

1. Cell splitting – cells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller
Increase capacity by increasing the number of base stations.

2. Cell sectoring – cells are divided into a number of wedge-shaped

sectors, each with their own set of channels (Directional antennas to
control interference) . Increase the load of the MSC and reducing
trunking efficiency.
Improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference.

3. Microcell zone (distributes the coverage of a cell and extends the cell
boundary to hard -to-reach places.)
Improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference.

Cell splitting

Cell splitting is achieved through:

• Subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells (reducing cell radius
p g the D/R ratio unchanged)
and keeping g )
• Reduction in antenna height and transmitter power (different cells
will have different transmit power requirements to support cells of
different sizes)

Some properties
– Cell splitting enables more spatial reuse (greater system capacity)
– Cell splitting preserves original frequency reuse plan
– In ppractice,, cells might
g have different coverage
g areas due to practical
BS placement issues
– Cell splitting causes increased handoff
• Can use “umbrella” cells where fast-moving mobiles covered by
original cell and slower mobiles covered by microcells

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 38

Cellular Concept

Cell splitting Cont.

If we assume that the radius of every cell is reduced to half

of its original value

Four times as many cells would be required

to cover the same area

Number off clusters over the

coverage region increases

Number of channels increases

• The base stations are placed at corners of the cells
• The original base station A is surrounded by six new
p the smaller cells added in such a wayy as to
• In this example
preserve the frequency reuse plan of the system
• Each microcell base station is placed half way between two
larger stations utilizing the same channel

Cell splitting simply scales the

geometry of the cluster

The radius of each new microcell

is half that of the original cell

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 39

Cellular Concept







Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 40

Cellular Concept

Example Cont.
• The transmit power of the new cells must be reduced

• The transmit power of the new cells with radius half that of the
original cells can be found byy examiningg the received ppower Pr
at the new and old cell boundaries and setting them equal to
each other
• Pr [at old cell boundary] ∝ Pt1R-n

• Pr [at new cell boundary] ∝ Pt2 (R/2)-n

• For n = 4 and set the received powers equal to each other

Pt2 = Pt1/16 the transmit power must be reduced by 12 dB in

order to fill in the original coverage area with
microcells, while maintaining the S/I requirement.

Practical problems in Cell splitting Cont.

Channel Assignment
• Not all cells are split at the same time
• It is often difficult to find real estate that is perfectly situated
for cell splitting
• Different cell sizes will exist simultaneously
• Special care needs to be taken to keep the distance between co-
channel cells at the required minimum, and hence channel
assignments become more complicated

High speed and low speed traffic should be simultaneously
accommodated (the umbrella cell approach is commonly used).

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 41

Cellular Concept

Practical problems in Cell splitting Cont.

In practice different cell sizes will exist simultaneously

• If the larger transmit power is used for D

ll cells,
ll some channels
h l usedd by
b the
h E F
smaller cells would not be sufficiently C B E
separated from co-channel cells D

• If the smaller transmit power is used for F C D

all the cells, there would be parts of the C B
larger cells left unserved G

Practical problems in Cell splitting Cont.

Channels in the old broken into two channel groups:

1. The first one corresponds to the smaller cell
reuse requirements D
2. The second corresponds to the larger cell E F
reuse requirements. G E
The larger cell is usually dedicated to high speed D D
traffic so that handoffs occur less frequently. F C
At the beginning: fewer channels in the small C B
power groups G
demand grows: smaller groups will require more
channels. splitting process continues until all the
channels in an area are used in the lower power
group cell splitting is complete within the region,
and theentire system is rescaled to have a smaller
radius per cell.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 42

Cellular Concept

Antenna downtilting

Antenna downtilting,
Focuses radiated energy from the base station toward
the g
ground ((rather than toward the horizon),
), to limit
the radio coverage of newly formed microcells.

Example 2.8
Each base station uses 60 channels, regardless of cell size
Rorig cell = 1 km & Rmic cell = 0.5 Km

Find the number of channels (N) contained in a

3 km by 3 km square centered around A under
the following conditions:
(a) without the use of microcells
(b) when the lettered microcells as shown in
the figure are used
(c) If all the original base stations are replaced
by microcells
(a) 5 cells are included N = 5×60 = 300 channels
(b) Number of cells = 5 + 6 = 11
Assume cells on the edge of
N = 11×60 = 660 channels
the square to be contained
(c) Number of cells = 5 + 6 + 5 = 17 within the square.
N = 17×60 = 1020 channels

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 43

Cellular Concept

Cell Sectoring

The uses of directional antennas improve S/I, then capacity

improvement is achieved by reducing the number of cells in a
cluster, thus increasing the frequency reuse. It is necessary to reduce
the relative interference without decreasing the transmit power.

Keeping the cell radius unchanged and decreasing the D/R ratio

Number off clusters over the

coverage region increases

Number of channels increases

Reduction of Co-channel interference

using sector antennas
• The factor by which the co-channel interference is
reduced depends on the amount of sectoring used
• A cell is normally partitioned into three 120
120° sectors or
six 60° sectors as shown below

120° sectoring 60° sectoring

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 44

Cellular Concept

How 120° sectoring reduces interference

from co-channel cells

• Out of the 6 co-channel cells in the first tier, only two of

them interfere with the center cell
A mobile in the center cell will
experience interference on the
forward link from only these two
sectors. The resulting S/I for this case
can be found from
to be 24.2 dB which is
a significant improvement
over the omnidirectional where
the worst case S/I was shown to be 17
This S/I improvement allows the decreasing the cluster size N in
order to improve the frequency reuse, and thus the system capacity.

Antenna downtilting

In practical systems, further improvement in S/I is

achieved by downtilting the sector antennas such that the
ad at o pattern
patte in tthee ve
t ca (elevation)
(e evat o ) plane
p a e has
as a
notch at the nearest co-channel cell distance.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 45

Cellular Concept

• The S/I improvement is achieved at the cost of the

number of antennas at each base station

• Sectoring decreases trunking efficiency due to

channel sectoring at the base station

• Since sectoring reduces the coverage area of a

particular group of channels, the number of handoffs

• Handed off from sector to sector within the same cell

without intervention from the MSC

Example 2.9
Consider a cellular system:
H = two minutes GOS = less than 1%.
λ = one call per hour Total traffic channels = 395
N = 7 blocked calls are cleared (Erlang B distribution)

channels/cell C = 395/7 = 57 traffic channels.

Unsectored (C=57) the system may handle 44.2 Erlangs

or 1326 calls per hour.

120° sectoring,
t i C = 57/3 = 9 channels
h l per antenna
Each sector can handle 11.2 Erlangs or 336 calls per hour
Cell capacity of 3 × 336 = 1008 calls per hour (24% decrease)
Thus, sectoring decreases the trunking efficiency while
improving the S/I

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 46

Cellular Concept

A Microcell Zone Concept

To solve the handoff and trunking efficiency problems raised
due to sectoring option
• Large central base station is
l d by b severall lower
powered transmitters (zone
transmitters) on the edges of
the cell.

• Each of the three zone

sites are connected to a
single base station and
share the same radio

A Microcell Zone Concept Cont.

• Travel mobile is served by the zone with the strongest

• Any base station channel may be assigned to any zone by

the base station

• As a mobile travels from one zone to another within the

cell, it retains the same channel and the base station simply
switches the channel to a different zone site

• Decreased co-channel interference improves the signal

quality and also leads to an increase in capacity without the
degradation in trunking efficiency caused by sectoring.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 47

Cellular Concept

A Microcell Zone Concept Cont.

Dz /Rz of 4.6 can achieve the

required link performance

The capacity of the system

depends on the ratio D/R (not
zones dependent)

Dz/Rz = 4.6 ~ equivalent to

D/R = 3 which correspend to N =
3 system (table
( bl 2.1)
2 1)

Capacity increases by about 7/3

A Microcell Zone Concept Cont.

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 48

Cellular Concept



Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 49

Cellular Concept









Fig. 3.3 Repeater bidirectional amplifier using duplexer and automatic 
gain control (AGC)

Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 50