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EE424 EE424 Communication Systems
Abdel Fattah Sheta Part III-A IIIWireless Communications
The Cellular Concept
Early Mobile Radio
Large Coverage Area using: Single High Power Transmitter Antenna Mounted on a tall Tower
Good Coverage Difficult to reuse the same frequencies throughout the system due to significant interference (No spectrum sharing a lot of bandwidth is dedicated to a single call)
Limited capacity 1947 – 1977 • 1946 FCC allocates 33 FM channels in 33, 150 , 450 MHz bands • 1960 Direct dialing from automobile in home area
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta
The Cellular Concept Cont’d.
• developed by Bell Labs 1960’s-70’s • areas divided into cells • The cell is served by a base station with lower power transmitter • Each cell gets portion of total number of channels • Neighboring cells assigned different groups of channels, to minimize interference • The available channels can be reused as many times as necessary as long as the interference between co-channel stations is kept below acceptable levels • Cells using the same channels should be spaced enough to reduce co-channel interference
The First Generation (1G)
USA Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) • used FDMA with 30 KHz FM-modulated voice channels. • The FCC initially allocated 40 MHz of spectrum to this system, system which was increased to 50 MHz shortly after service introduction to support more users. • This total bandwidth was divided into two 25 MHz bands, one for mobile-to-base station channels and the other for base station-to-mobile channels.
Europe Total Access Communication System (ETACS)
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta
The Second Generation (2G)
Many of the first generation cellular systems in Europe were incompatible, and the Europeans quickly converged on a uniform standard for second generation (2G) digital systems called GSM. (GSM) Groupe Spéciale Mobile changed to Global Systems for Mobile Communications.
In USA two standards in the 900 MHz cellular frequency band: IS-54, which uses a combination of TDMA and FDMA and phase-shift keyed modulation IS-95, which uses direct-sequence CDMA with binary modulation and coding.
• In Japan The digital cellular standard is similar to IS-54 and IS-136 but in a different frequency band • The GSM system in Europe is at a different frequency than the GSM systems in the U.S. • Incompatible standards makes it impossible to roam between systems nationwide or globally without a multi-mode phone and/or multiple phones (and phone numbers). • The second generation digital cellular standards have been enhanced to support high rate packet data services  (2.5 G) GSM systems provide data rates of up to 100 Kbps by aggregating all timeslots together for a single user.
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta
• Add broadband data to support video, internet access and other high speed data services for mobile devices. It is based on a wideband CDMA The standard, initially called International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000), provides different data rates depending on mobility and location, from 384 Kbps for pedestrian use to 144 Kbps for vehicular use to 2 Mbps for indoor office use. The 3G standard is incompatible with 2G systems Service providers must invest in a new infrastructure before they can provide 3G service. id i The first 3G systems were deployed in Japan. In fact 3G systems have not grown as anticipated in Europe, and it appears that data enhancements to 2G systems may satisfy user demands.
The Cellular Concept
• Cells with the same letter use the same set of f h f frequencies i • A cell cluster is outlined in bold • A cell cluster is replicated over the coverage area • Cluster size N = 7 cells • Frequency reuse factor = 1/7 (each cell contains one seventh one-seventh of the total number of channels
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta
Cell Shape • The actual radio coverage of a cell is known as the footprint and is determined from field measurement or propagation prediction models • A real footprint is amorphous in nature • A cell must be designed to serve the weakest signal in the footprint. • Regular shapes: Square Equilateral triangle and Hexagonal • adjacent circles can not be overlaid upon a map without leaving gaps or creating overlapping regions.
Ex. hexagon geometry cell shape
• Designed to serve the weakest mobiles within the footprint (typically located at the edge) • The hexagon has the largest area of the three regular shapes. • Simplistic model, Universally adopted • fewest number of cells can cover a geographic region • Approximate circular shape no gaps no overlap equal area systematic system design
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta
Cellular Concept Geometry of a Hexagon R R R Surface area is 6R2 √3 / 4 Base Station Location • Base station location: • At the center of the cell (Omni-directional antenna) • At the vertices of three cells (directional antennas) Practical considerations usually do not allow base stations to be placed exactly as they appear in the hexagonal layout (~1/4 cell radius away from the ideal location) Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 6 .
Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 7 .Cellular Concept Cluster Size and System Capacity Assume the following system parameters: K Number of channels in a cell N Number of cells/cluster (Cluster size) M Number of times the cluster is repeated S = KN Number of channels in a cluster C Total number of channels C = MkN = MS A cluster has N cells with unique channels Cluster Size & System Capacity Cluster size N (with cell size const) are required to cover a given area C Co-channel cells become closer more clusters Cluster size N (with cell size const) the ratio between cell size and the distance between co-channel cells is large Design Objectives for Cluster Size 1. High performance • Little interference • Large cluster sizes Dr. High spectrum efficiency • many users per cell • small cluster size gives much bandwidth per cell 2.
GSM) Transmit Power Constraint • The power transmitted by each base station needs to be l d b large enough to cover its own cell. self-organizing system needed (cf. · lower path loss exponent. · Safer operation • Different propagation environment. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 8 . transmit power is reduced • Dr. DECT vs. shorter delay spreads • Different cell layout. h i ll but small enough to not cause too much interference in the co-channel cells As cells get smaller. more interference · cells follow street pattern · more difficult to predict and plan · more flexible.Cellular Concept The effect of decreasing cell size • Increased user capacity • Increased number of handovers per call • Increased complexity in locating the subscriber • Lower power consumption in mobile terminal: · Longer talk time.
Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 9 . 9. 4. 3. 21 …………… Frequency Reuse Again • Frequency Reuse is the core concept of cellular mobile radio • Users in different geographical areas (in different cells) may simultaneously use the same frequency • Frequency reuse drastically increases user capacity and spectrum efficiency i ffi i • Frequency reuse causes mutual interference (trade off link quality versus subscriber capacity) Dr. 19. 13. 16.Cellular Concept Cluster Size and System Capacity Cont. 7. j = 1 – N = 22 + 2(1) + 12 = 4 + 2 + 1 = 7 Typical Cluster Sizes N = 1. • There are only certain cluster sizes and cell layout which are possible in order to connect without gaps between adjacent cells b dj ll • N = i2 + ij + j2 where i and j are non-negative integers • Example i = 2. 12.
Cellular Concept Frequency Reuse Nearest co-channel Example N=19 (i=3. • then turn 60 degrees counterclockwise and move j cells. Dr. j=2) To find the nearest cochannel neighbors of a particular cell: • move i cells along any chain or hexagon. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 10 .
Dr. If 1 MHz of the allocated spectrum is dedicated to control channels. (b) 7-cell reuse (c) 12-cell reuse. (2) determine an equitable distribution of control channels and voice channels in each cell for each of the three systems.1 • 33 MHz bandwidth is allocated to a particular FDD cellular telephone system. Two 25 kHz simplex channels to provide full duplex voice and control channels. (1) compute the number of channels available per cell if a system uses (a) 4-cell reuse. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 11 .Cellular Concept Nearest co-channel Example 3.
1 MHz = 20 control channels Channel Assignment Strategies • Fixed Channel Assignments – Each cell is allocated a predetermined set of voice channels.1 Total bandwidth 33 MHz Channel BW=25 kHz×2 simplex channels =50 kHz/duplex channel Total available channels = 33 000/50 = 660 channels 33. total number of channels available per cell = 660/7 = 95 channels. – If all the channels in that cell are occupied. total number of channels available per cell = 660/12 = 55 channels. (b) For N= 7.000/50 (a) For N= 4. and the subscriber does not receive service. Handles mobility Dr. (c) For N= 12.Cellular Concept Example 2. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 12 . – This is supervised by the Mobile Switch Center: Connects cells to wide area network. Manages call setup. – Variation includes a borrowing strategy: a cell is allowed to borrow channels from a neighboring cell if all its own g g channels are occupied. total number of channels available per cell 660/4 = 165 channels. the call is blocked.
Cellular Concept Channel Assignment Strategies • Dynamic Channel Assignments • Voice channels are not allocated to different cells permanently. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 13 .g. movement across MSC) • Dr.g. • Dynamic channel assignment is more complex (real time). • Each time a call request is made. the serving base station requests a channel from the MSC.g. change frequency due to narrowband interference) Inter-cell. movement across cells) Inter-BSC. movement across BSC) SC) Inter MSC handover (e. i SC intra-MSC h d SC handover ( (e... but reduces likelihood of blocking Handoff • Reasons for handover Moving out of range Load balancing Handover scenarios Intra-cell handover (e. • MSC then allocates a channel to the requested call according to algorithm taking into account different factors: frequency re-use l ih ki i diff f f of candidate channel and cost factors.g. intra-BSC handover (e...
• Excessive delays may occur during high traffic conditions due to computational loading at the MSC • No channels are available on any of the nearby base stations (thus forcing the MSC to wait until a channel in a nearby cell becomes free Dr. • Threshold margin (Δ) is set too small for the handoff time in the system.Minimum acceptable signal to maintain the call • If Δ too small: Insufficient time to complete handoff before call is lost More call losses • If Δ too large: Too many handoffs Burden for MSC Improper handoff situation Proper handoff situation Call Dropped Handoff is not made and call is dropped if: • Large delay by t e MSC in assigning a handoff. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 14 . a ge de ay the SC ass g g a do .Cellular Concept Handoff • Designers must specify an optimum signal level at which to initiate a handoff. • Margin (Δ) is defined Δ = handoff threshold .
Cellular Concept Handoff is Necessary? • The base station monitors the signal level for a certain period of time before a hand. the handoff should be made quickly.off is initiated. (the speed of the user and the type of radio coverage) • Even a stationary subscriber may have a random and finite dwell time due to fading effect. (signal drop may be avoided due to momentary fading). Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 15 . interference. The length of time needed to decide if a handoff is necessary depends on the speed at which the vehicle is moving. • • Dwell Time It is the time over which a call may be maintained within a cell. without handoff • Depends on: Propagation. distance between the subscriber and the base station. So that unnecessary handoffs are avoided. If the slope of the short-term average received signal level in a given time interval is steep. and other time varying effects. Dr. • Statistics of dwell time are important in practical design of handoff algorithms.
• When a mobile signal becomes weak in a given cell and the MSC cannot find another cell within its system to which it can transfer the call in progress. MSC decides if handoff necessary – mobile plays passive role in process – burden on MSC • Mobile Assisted Handoff (MAHO) – present in second generation systems – mobile measures received power from surrounding base stations and report to serving base station – handoff initiated when power received from a neighboring cell exceeds current value by a certain level or for a certain period of time – faster since measurements made by mobiles. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 16 .Cellular Concept Styles of Handoff • Network Controlled Handoff (NCHO) – in first generation cellular system. each base station constantly monitors signal strength from mobiles in its cell – based on the measures. Dr. MSC don’t need monitor signal strength Intersystem Handoff • If a mobile moves from one cellular system to different cellular system controlled by a different compatible MSC.
• Particularly with the addition of microcells to provide capacity. In practice it is difficult for cellular service providers to obtain new physical cell site locations in urban areas. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 17 . several problems arise when attempting to design for a wide range of mobile velocities. Dr. Better tradeoff between dropping call probability and network traffic. whereas pedestrian users may never need a handoff during a call.Cellular Concept Prioritizing Handoff Dropping a call is more annoying than line busy • Guard channel concept (Decrease the probability of forced termination due to lack of available channels) Reserve some channels for handoffs Waste of bandwidth But can be dynamically predicted • Queuing of handoff requests (due to lack of available channels) There is a finite time interval between time for handoff and time to drop (signal goes below the handoff threshold). Practical Handoff Considerations (1) Practically. the MSC can quickly become burdened if high speed users are constantly being passed b l b i d between very small cells. • High speed vehicles pass through the coverage region of a cell within a matter of seconds. ll ll (2) Another practical limitation is the ability to obtain new cell sites.
• If a high speed user in the large umbrella cell is approaching the base station. the base station may decide to hand the user into the co-located microcell. without MSC intervention. • # handoffs is minimized for high speed users and provides additional microcell channels for pedestrian users.Cellular Concept The umbrella Cell Solution • Is used to provide large area coverage to high speed users while providing small area coverage to users traveling at low speeds. • By using different antenna heights (often on the same building or tower) and different power levels. it is possible to provide large and small cells which are co-located at a single location. Umbrella Cell Approach Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 18 . and its velocity is rapidly decreasing.
handoff thresholds and radio coverage parameters must be adjusted carefully. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 19 . since the user has meanwhile traveled deep within a neighboring cell. the average signal strength does not decay rapidly. To solve this problem.Cellular Concept Cell Dragging (Pedestrian users emit very strong signal to the base station) • As the user travels away from the base station at a very slow speed. • Even when the user has traveled well beyond the designed range of the cell. the received signal at the base station may be above the handoff threshold. Interference and traffic management problem. thus a handoff may not be made. Interference and System Capacity Interference is the major limiting factor in performance of cellular radio systems • Sources of interference: – Mobiles in same cell – A call in progress in a neighboring cell – Other base stations operating in the same frequency band – Non-cellular system leaking energy into the cellular frequency band • Effect of interference: – Cross talk in voice channels – For control channels missed or blocked calls • The two main types are: – co-channel interference – adjacent channel interference Dr.
co-channel cells must be p y physically separated by a minimum distance to p y p y provide sufficient isolation due to propagation. To reduce co-channel interference.noise ration (SNR). Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 20 . and the BSs transmit the same power.Cellular Concept Co-channel Interference Co-channel cells: Cells that use the same set of frequencies Unlike thermal noise which can be overcome by increasing the signal-to. Co-channel Interference When the size of each cell is the same. the co-channel interference ratio depends on: • The radius of the cell (R) • The distance between centers of the nearest co-channel cells (D) • Co-channel reuse ratio: Q = D/R = (3N) • Q increases • Q decreases (Hexagonal Geometry) Interference decreases Interference increases (cluster size N decreases and system capacity increases) Dr. co-channel interference cannot be combated by simply increasing the carrier power of a transmitter.
The number of co-channel interfering cells. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 21 . Dr.Cellular Concept Co-channel Reuse Ratio Signal-to-Interference Ratio The signal-to-interference ratio (S/I or SIR) for a mobile receiver which monitors a forward channel (Down Link C a e) Channel) = S S = i0 I i =1 ∑I i S: Ii : i0 : The desired signal power from the desired base station The interference power caused by the ith interfering co-channel cell base station.
(Good for large N) Dr. and n is the path loss exponent. S/I f a mobile can b approximated as for bil be i t d S = I R −n ∑ (D ) i =1 i i0 −n ( D / R) n ( 3N ) n = = i0 i0 AMPS (FM 30 KHz channel bandwidth) S/I=18dB (sufficient quality) If n=4. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 22 . Co-channel Interference Assumptions • The interference is due to co-channel base stations. All the interfering cells are assumed to be equidistant from the base station receiver. N needs to be larger than 6 49 ~ 7 n=4 6.49 Thus a minimum cluster size of seven is required to meet S/I = 18 dB. • The transmit power of each base station is equal • The path loss exponent is the same throughout the coverage area.Cellular Concept Average Received Power (Propagation measurements) The average received power Pr at a distance d from the transmitting antenna is approximated by ⎛d ⎞ Pr = Po ⎜ ⎟ ⎜d ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠ −n ⎛d ⎞ Pr (dBm) = Po (dBm) − 10n log⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ d0 ⎠ Where P0 is the power received at a close-in reference point in the far field region of the antenna at a small distance d0 from the transmitting antenna. n ~ 2 to 4 in urban cellular systems.
Slightly less than 18 dB it would be necessary to increase N to the next largest size.Cellular Concept Co-Channel cell for 7 cells reuse Assume n=4.8 dB.interference ratio for the worst case can be closely approximated as Co-channel Interference In terms of co-channel reuse ratio Q = 4. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 23 . Dr. which is found to be 12 (corresponding to i = j = 2). the signal-to.6 for N = 7 17 dB (for N = 7) (f Exact solution using the equation S = I R −n ∑ (D ) i =1 i i0 −n 17.
then Q = D/R = 3N S ( 3N )3 It is less than required 15 dB. The base station may have difficulty in discriminating the desired mobile user.05dB More N should be used 9. N=7 is good value (b) n=3 Let N = 7 . N=7 = = 12. I i0 12. Dr. 19. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 24 .Cellular Concept Example 3. ……. then Q = D/R = 3N S ( 3N ) 4 = = 18.2 S/I = 15 dB .66dB I i0 Which is greater than 15 dB. check Adjacent Channel Interference Origin: Arising from signals which are adjacent in frequency to the desired signal Become serious by • Imperfect receiver filters which allow nearby frequencies to leak into the passband (near-far-effect) • A mobile close to a base station transmits on a channel close to one being used by a weak mobile. Frequency reuse factor 1/N? n=4 ( ) (a) n=4 Let N = 7 .
a cell need not be assigned channels which are all adjacent in frequency. (By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as large as possible). Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 25 . Since each cell is given only a fraction of the available channels.Cellular Concept Adjacent Channel Interference Example Adjacent Channel Interference • Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful filtering (High Q filters) and channel assignments assignments. • Dr.
the FCC allocated an additional 10 MHz (166 new channels) There are now 832 channels Forward channels Reverse channel s 1 1 666 (870.98 844 98 MHz ) Extended channels 667 and 990 Dr.Cellular Concept Example If a mobile is 20 times as close to the base station as another mobile and has energy spill out of its passband.3) How channels of AMPS are divided into subsets to minimize adjacent channel interference? 666 duplex channels In 1989. this is equal to -52 dB. 889.030 666 (825 030 (825.interference ratio at the base station for the weak mobile (before receiver filtering) is approximately For a path loss exponent n = 4. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 26 .030 799 1023. the signal-to. If the intermediate frequency (IF) filter of the base station receiver has a slope of 20 dB/octave Then an adjacent channel interferer must be displaced by at least six times the passband bandwidth from the center of the receiver frequency passband to achieve 52 dB attenuation Case Study (Example 3.98 MHz) 844.
Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 27 . Case Study Two operators cont.Cellular Concept Case Study cont. (416 channels for each) Channels distinguished as block A and block B 416 channels 1 313 334 355 667 717 395 312 333 354 666 voice & 21 control channels block A channels block B channels voice channels control channels control channels voice channels 716 & 991 1023 extended Block A voice channels 799 extended Block A voice channels Dr.
h l i th b t where i is an integer from 1 to 7. iA + iB + iC. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 28 . The total number of voice channels in a cell is about 57 The channels listed in the upper half of the chart belong to block A and those in the lower half belong to block B. B The shaded set of numbers correspond to the control channels which are standard to all cellular systems in North America Dr. cont. 21 subsets x ~ 19 channels In each subset the closest adjacent channel is 21 channels subset. In a 7-cell reuse system. each cell uses 3 subsets of channels The 3 subsets are assigned such that every channel in the cell is assured of being separated from every other channel by at least g p y y 7 channel spacing. Case Study In the following Table: Each ll E h cell uses channels in the subsets. away.Cellular Concept Case Study 395 voice channels = cont.
• • • Dr. Power control is especially important for emerging CDMA spread spectrum systems that allow every user in every cell to share the same radio channel.Cellular Concept Power Control for reducing Interference The power levels transmitted by every subscriber unit are under constant control by the serving base stations. • Each mobile transmits the smallest power necessary to maintain good quality link Power control prolong battery life for the subscriber unit Power control reduces the reverse channel S/I in the system. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 29 .
• A queue may be used to hold the requesting users until a channel becomes available. (SLC) Subscriber line concentrator The Concept of Trunking • Large number of users share small number of channels. • Assigning users channels on demand • Each cell has pool of channels • When user requires service. channel allocated to user • When user no longer requires service. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 30 .Cellular Concept Trunking and Grade of Service • Trunking is the aggregation of multiple user circuits into a single channel. Dr. channel returned to pool to be allocated to next user • The user is blocked (denied access) when all radio channels are already in use. • C ll l radio systems rely on trunking to accommodate a Cellular di t l t ki t d t large number of users in a limited radio spectrum. • The aggregation is achieved using some form of multiplexing.
5 Erlangs of traffic The Grade of Service (GOS) • The grade of service (GOS) is a measure of the ability of a user to access a trunked system during the busiest hour It is used to define the desired performance of a particular trunked system. • For example. a radio channel that is occupied for thirty minutes during an hour carries 0. 1 call-hour per (i e hour or 1 call-minute per minute). • • Dr.e. GOS Trunking theory was d l d by E l T ki th developed b Erlang • Erlang based his studies of the statistical nature of the arrival and the length of calls. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 31 . GOS is typically given as the probability that a call is blocked.Cellular Concept Trunking Theory Important to design trunked radio systems that can handle a specific capacity at a specific grade of service. or the probability of a call experiencing a delay. The measure of traffic intensity bears his name • One Erlang represents the amount of traffic intensity carried by a channel that is completely occupied (i. greater than a certain queuing time.
and if the traffic is equally distributed The traffic intensity per channel AC = U Au/C At a given time. calls are blocked The AMPS is designed for 2% GOS. or the probability of a call being delayed beyond a certain amount of time (Erlang C) • Request Rate (λ): The average number of call request per unit time (S-1 ) Traffic Intensity (A) The traffic intensity offered by each user (Au) is Au = call request rate × Holding time Au = λ H Total offered traffic intensity (A) is A = U Au where U is the number of users in a given system In a C channel trunked system. I..g. if the offered traffic exceeds the capacity of the system (e.Cellular Concept Some Definitions used in Trunking Theory • Set-up Time: The time required to allocate a trunked radio channel to requesting user • Blocked Call: Call which cannot be completed at the time of request • Holding Time (H) : Average duration of a typical call (H in seconds) • Traffic Intensity (A): Measure of channel time utilization (average channel occupancy measured in Erlangs) • Load: Traffic intensity across the entire trunked radio system (Erlangs) • Grade of service (GOS): A measure of congestion which is specified as the probability of a call being blocked (Erlang B).e. UAu > C). Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 32 . 2 out of 100 calls will be blocked due to channel occupancy during the busiest hour Dr.
System which a queue is provided to hold calls which are blocked.If no channels are available. System with no queue for call requests. . the requesting user is blocked without access and is free to try again later -This type of trunking is called (blocked calls cleared) . 1.Cellular Concept Types of trunked systems There are two systems commonly used.Erlangs B 2. A Au = λ H & A = U Au & AC = U Au/C Dr.If a channel is available. no setup time and the user is h li il bl t ti d th i given immediate access to the available channel . C. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 33 . (Blocked Calls Delayed) Erlangs C Erlang B formula • Blocked calls cleared • The probability of blocking during the busy hour AC Pr(blocking ) = C C! k = GOS A ∑ k! k =0 – Can use plot of Erlang B formula to determine one of the parameters: Pr(blocking).
Cellular Concept Erlang B Plot Number of trunked channels C Probability of Blocki ing Traffic Intensity in Erlangs Erlang B Example Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 34 .
Cellular Concept Blocked Calls Delayed • Blocking calls are delayed until channels are available. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 35 . queuing • Erlang C AC Pr(delay > 0) = The probability of a call not C −1 Ak A AC + C!(1 − C )∑ having immediate access to a channel k = 0 k! • The probability that a delayed call will have to wait longer than t = e-(C-A)t/H • Probability of delay larger than t Pr[delay>t]= Pr[delay>0] e-(C-A)t/H • The average delay D D = Pr[delay>0] H/(C-A) GOS is defined in this case as the probability that a call is blocked after waiting a specific length of time in the queue. Erlang C Plot Number of trunked channels C Probability of Delay Traffic Intensity in Erlangs Dr.
5 (2 million residents in an urban area) Pr(blocking) = 2% Each user averages 2 calls per hour at an average s duration of 3 min. A ~ 45 Erlangs plot U = A/Au = 45/0. From Erlang B plot. and C and the market penetration of the three systems Dr. • • 3.Cellular Concept Some Examples 3.U = 809 Users C = 5. 19 channels/cell • System B: 98 cells. 3.280 • System B: C = 57 57./call • System A: 394 cells. A ~ 12 Erlangs U = A/Au = 12/0. U = 110 Users Ex. A ~ 88 Erlangs U = A/Au = 88/0.4 How many users can be supported for .5% blocking probability for the following number of trunked channels in a blocked calls cleared system? 1 5 10 20 100 Assume each user generates 1. U = 11Users C= 20. 5.1 = 880 users/cell N = 880 users/cell * 49 cells = 43. 0.1 = 120 users/cell.1 Erlangs of traffic (Au = 0.005.1 & Pr(blocked) = 0. 100. U = 1 User C= 10 .120 Percentage market penetration for systems A. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 36 . For GOS = 0.1 = 450 users/cell N = 450 users/cell * 98 cells = 44. U = 39 Users C = 100.1). N = 120 users/cell * 394 cells = 47. B.100 • System C: C= 100.1 C = 1. 20.02 • System A: C = 19. 57 channels/cell • System C: 49 cells. From Erlang B plot.10. 100 channels/cell • Find number of subscribers U that can be supported in each cell • Traffic intensity by user Au = λ H = (2/60)(3) = 0. then use Fig. From Erlang B plot.9 U = A/Au = A/0.
6 A certain city has an area of 1.05 x 0.0)10/104. A total of 60 channels are used within the entire system. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 37 . If the offered traffic per user is 0. C=95 channels A … (d) the maximum carried traffic.7 A hexagonal cell within a four-cell system has a radius of 1.300 square miles and is covered by a cellular system using a seven-cell reuse pattern.5629 = 2.03 = 86800 (f) the number of mobiles per unique channel (where it is understood that channels are reused). y per g (e) the total number of users that can be served for 2% GOS. If the load per user is 0. = number of cells × traffic intensity p cell = 31 × 84 = 2604 Erlangs. Au = 0.4) = Pr [delay >t |delay]= e(–(C – A)t /H) = e(–(15 – 56. Each cell has a radius of four miles and the city is allocated 40 MHz of spectrum with a full duplex channel bandwidth of 60 kHz. From Erlangs B graph GOS=0. 3.81% Dr.387 km.029.29% (c) Probability that a call is delayed more than 10 seconds.= number of users/number of channels = 86800/666 (g) the theoretical maximum number of users that could be served at one time by the system = Number of the available channels in the system Ex.029 Erlangs. Pr [delay >10] = Pr [delay >0]Pr [delay >t |delay] = 0.05) (b) The probability that a delayed call will have to wait longer than 10 s is 9. compute the following for an Erlang C system that has a 5% probability of a delayed call: (a) How many users per square kilometer will this system support? (b) What is the probability that a delayed call will have to wait for more than 10 s? (c) What is the probability that a call will be delayed for more than 10 seconds? C = 60 channels. = Total traffic (Atot)/trafic intensity per user = 2604/0.03.03 Erlangs. compute: (a) the number of cells in the service area area. and λ = 1 call/hour. =Total channels/7 = 40MHz/(7x60KHz) = 95 Channels/cell (c) traffic intensity of each cell. Au = 0.Cellular Concept Ex. λ = 1/60 × 60 H = A u/ λ C/cell 60/4 = 15 (a) U = A/Au ( From Erlangs C graph find A for C = 15 and probability of delay = 0. = Total area/area of cell = 31 cells (b) the number of channels per cell. Assume a GOS of 2% for an Erlang B system is specified.02. 3.
Cellular Concept Improving Coverage & Capacity Increasing Demand of Services Increases? More channels per unit coverage area are needed Techniques to expand th capacity of cellular systems: T h i t d the it f ll l t 1. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 38 . g g p BS placement issues – Cell splitting causes increased handoff • Can use “umbrella” cells where fast-moving mobiles covered by original cell and slower mobiles covered by microcells Dr. Improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference. 2. Cell splitting Cell splitting is achieved through: • Subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells (reducing cell radius p g g ) and keeping the D/R ratio unchanged) • Reduction in antenna height and transmitter power (different cells will have different transmit power requirements to support cells of different sizes) Some properties – Cell splitting enables more spatial reuse (greater system capacity) – Cell splitting preserves original frequency reuse plan – In practice. Cell splitting – cells in areas of high usage can be split into smaller cells. Increase capacity by increasing the number of base stations. Cell sectoring – cells are divided into a number of wedge-shaped sectors.) Improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference. Increase the load of the MSC and reducing trunking efficiency. 3. Microcell zone (distributes the coverage of a cell and extends the cell boundary to hard -to-reach places. cells might have different coverage areas due to practical p . each with their own set of channels (Directional antennas to control interference) .
If we assume that the radius of every cell is reduced to half of its original value Four times as many cells would be required to cover the same area Number of clusters over the f coverage region increases Number of channels increases Example • The base stations are placed at corners of the cells • The original base station A is surrounded by six new microcells p y • In this example the smaller cells added in such a way as to preserve the frequency reuse plan of the system • Each microcell base station is placed half way between two larger stations utilizing the same channel Cell splitting simply scales the geometry of the cluster The radius of each new microcell is half that of the original cell Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 39 .Cellular Concept Cell splitting Cont.
Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 40 B F A C D G B C E D B F A C G B .Cellular Concept G F A E G F A E D C E D B F A C D G B C E D B F A C G B G F A E G F A E D C E D Dr.
• The transmit power of the new cells must be reduced • The transmit power of the new cells with radius half that of the g y g power Pr original cells can be found by examining the received p at the new and old cell boundaries and setting them equal to each other • Pr [at old cell boundary] ∝ Pt1R-n • Pr [at new cell boundary] ∝ Pt2 (R/2)-n • For n = 4 and set the received powers equal to each other Pt2 = Pt1/16 the transmit power must be reduced by 12 dB in order to fill in the original coverage area with microcells. • • • • Channel Assignment Not all cells are split at the same time It is often difficult to find real estate that is perfectly situated for cell splitting Different cell sizes will exist simultaneously Special care needs to be taken to keep the distance between cochannel cells at the required minimum. Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 41 . while maintaining the S/I requirement. Practical problems in Cell splitting Cont. and hence channel assignments become more complicated Handoff: ff High speed and low speed traffic should be simultaneously accommodated (the umbrella cell approach is commonly used).Cellular Concept Example Cont.
The second corresponds to the larger cell C reuse requirements. some channels used by the ll ll h l db h smaller cells would not be sufficiently separated from co-channel cells • If the smaller transmit power is used for all the cells. The first one corresponds to the smaller cell reuse requirements 2. and theentire system is rescaled to have a smaller radius per cell. The larger cell is usually dedicated to high speed D traffic so that handoffs occur less frequently. B At the beginning: fewer channels in the small power groups demand grows: smaller groups will require more channels. E G F C E D D B F A C G B F C D B E G F E G Dr. splitting process continues until all the channels in an area are used in the lower power group cell splitting is complete within the region.Cellular Concept Practical problems in Cell splitting Cont. Cont. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 42 . there would be parts of the larger cells left unserved E G F C E D A C B D B F C D B F C G D B E G F E G Practical problems in Cell splitting Channels in the old broken into two channel groups: 1. In practice different cell sizes will exist simultaneously • If the larger transmit power is used for all cells.
5 Km Find the number of channels (N) contained in a 3 km by 3 km square centered around A under the following conditions: (a) without the use of microcells (b) when the lettered microcells as shown in the figure are used (c) If all the original base stations are replaced by microcells (a) 5 cells are included N = 5×60 = 300 channels (b) Number of cells = 5 + 6 = 11 N = 11×60 = 660 channels (c) Number of cells = 5 + 6 + 5 = 17 N = 17×60 = 1020 channels Assume cells on the edge of the square to be contained within the square. Example 2. regardless of cell size Rorig cell = 1 km & Rmic cell = 0. Dr.8 Each base station uses 60 channels. Focuses radiated energy from the base station toward the ground ( g (rather than toward the horizon). to limit ).Cellular Concept Antenna downtilting Antenna downtilting. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 43 . the radio coverage of newly formed microcells.
It is necessary to reduce the relative interference without decreasing the transmit power. then capacity improvement is achieved by reducing the number of cells in a cluster. Keeping the cell radius unchanged and decreasing the D/R ratio Number of clusters over the f coverage region increases Number of channels increases Reduction of Co-channel interference using sector antennas • The factor by which the co-channel interference is reduced depends on the amount of sectoring used • A cell is normally partitioned into three 120° sectors or 120 six 60° sectors as shown below 120° sectoring 60° sectoring Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 44 .Cellular Concept Cell Sectoring The uses of directional antennas improve S/I. thus increasing the frequency reuse.
Dr. only two of them interfere with the center cell A mobile in the center cell will experience interference on the forward link from only these two sectors.Cellular Concept How 120° sectoring reduces interference from co-channel cells • Out of the 6 co-channel cells in the first tier.2 dB which is g p a significant improvement over the omnidirectional where the worst case S/I was shown to be 17 dB This S/I improvement allows the decreasing the cluster size N in order to improve the frequency reuse. and thus the system capacity. The resulting S/I for this case can be found from to be 24. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 45 . Antenna downtilting In practical systems. further improvement in S/I is achieved by downtilting the sector antennas such that the radiation pattern in t e ve t ca (elevation) plane has a ad at o patte the vertical (e evat o ) p a e as notch at the nearest co-channel cell distance.
λ = one call per hour Total traffic channels = 395 N = 7 blocked calls are cleared (Erlang B distribution) channels/cell C = 395/7 = 57 traffic channels.9 Consider a cellular system: H = two minutes GOS = less than 1%.2 Erlangs or 336 calls per hour Cell capacity of 3 × 336 = 1008 calls per hour (24% decrease) Thus.Cellular Concept • The S/I improvement is achieved at the cost of the number of antennas at each base station • Sectoring decreases trunking efficiency due to channel sectoring at the base station • Since sectoring reduces the coverage area of a particular group of channels.2 Erlangs or 1326 calls per hour. 120° sectoring. the number of handoffs increases • Handed off from sector to sector within the same cell without intervention from the MSC Example 2. C = 57/3 = 9 channels per antenna t i h l t Each sector can handle 11. Unsectored (C=57) the system may handle 44. sectoring decreases the trunking efficiency while improving the S/I Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 46 .
• Travel mobile is served by the zone with the strongest signal • Any base station channel may be assigned to any zone by the base station • As a mobile travels from one zone to another within the cell. A Microcell Zone Concept Cont. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 47 . • Each of the three zone sites are connected to a single base station and share the same radio equipment. it retains the same channel and the base station simply switches the channel to a different zone site • Decreased co-channel interference improves the signal quality and also leads to an increase in capacity without the degradation in trunking efficiency caused by sectoring.Cellular Concept A Microcell Zone Concept To solve the handoff and trunking efficiency problems raised due to sectoring option • Large central base station is replaced by several lower l db ll powered transmitters (zone transmitters) on the edges of the cell. Dr.
Dr. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 48 .1) Capacity increases by about 7/3 Cont.6 ~ equivalent to D/R = 3 which correspend to N = 3 system ( bl 2 1) (table 2.6 can achieve the required link performance The capacity of the system depends on the ratio D/R (not zones dependent) Dz/Rz = 4. A Microcell Zone Concept Cont.Cellular Concept A Microcell Zone Concept Dz /Rz of 4.
Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 49 .Cellular Concept Repeaters Repeaters Dr.
3.3 Repeater bidirectional amplifier using duplexer and automatic gain control (AGC) Dr.Cellular Concept Repeaters Outdoor Antennas BPF LNA BPF LNA Indoor Antenna Repeaters Outdoor Antennas BPF LNA BPF LNA Indoor Antenna Fig. Abdel Fattah Ahmed Sheta 50 .