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Review packet for 2010-2011 Earth Science Exam

Fill in the blanks from the instructional objectives in The Future Is Now booklet:

1. Earth’s Sun is an average-sized ________. The Sun is more than a ________ times
greater in volume than __________.
2. Other stars are like the Sun but are so _______________ that they look like points of
light. Distances between stars are ____ compared to distances within our
_______________________.
3. The Sun and the ________ that _________ it are the major bodies in the solar
system. Other members include _______, moons, and ________. Earth’s ________
is nearly circular.
4. _________ is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the
___________ in the orbit around the Earth.
5. Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable _____. These motions
explain such phenomena as a ___, a ____ , _________ of the Moon, eclipses, tides,
meteor showers, and comets.
6. The latitude & __________ coordinate system and our system of time are based on
__________________________________.
7. Moons are seen by ________ light. Our Moon orbits ____, while Earth orbits the ___. The
_________ phases as observed from Earth are the result of seeing different portions of
the lighted area of the Moon’s surface. The phases repeat in a cyclic pattern in about one
___________.
8. The ______ motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars across the sky can be explained
by Earth’s ________ and ________. Earth’s rotation causes the length of one day to be
approximately ____ hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to
_______________ along the _________ horizon and to set along the western horizon.
Earth’s revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as __________ ¼ days.
9. The tilt of the Earth’s _______ of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun
cause _________ on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and
__________.
10. The shape of Earth, the other planets, and stars is nearly ___________.
11.Nearly all the ___________ is confined to a thin shell surrounding Earth. The
______________ is a mixture of gases, including nitrogen and __________ with small
amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases. The atmosphere is
___________ into layers, each having distinct properties. Nearly all _______ occurs in
the ___________ layer of the atmosphere.
12.As ________ increases, air pressure ____________.
13.The rock at Earth’s surface forms a nearly continuous shell around Earth called the
____________.
14.The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the
________________.
15.Rocks are composed of __________. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up most of
the rocks of Earth. Minerals are ____________ on the basis of physical ____________
such as _________, _________, and reaction to ________.
16.Fossils are usually found in _______________ rocks. Fossils can be used to study
past ___________ and ___________.
17.The dynamic processes that wear away Earth’s surface include ___________ and
__________.
18.The process of _____________ breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of
sediment, _________________, water, and air.
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19.__________ is the transport of sediment. __________ is the driving force behind
erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving _______, wind, and
glaciers.
20.Water circulates through the___________, ___________, and hydrosphere in what
is known as the _____________.

Review Section:
1. At which position would the intensity of the Sun’s rays be greatest?
___________

Explain why.
______________________________________________

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

2. The diagram shows a conglomerate (mixture) rock. Some of the rock particles are labeled.

Of the three types of rocks we learned about in the rock cycle, which type is this? ____________
Explain how you can tell that it is this type of rock. __________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
__

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1. Earthquake waves can be used to study Earth’s interior. Explain how studying the information below
can teach us about the earth’s interior.

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

_______________________________________

4. Explain how earthquakes are related to tectonic plates. ___________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________

5.
The solid part of the Earth’s surface is called the _______________________
The liquid part of the Earth’s surface is called the ______________________
The gaseous part of the Earth’s surface is called the ____________________
We walk on the ____________________, we swim in the _______________,
we fly in the ___________________.

6. The diagram shows a geologic cross section with several major continental landforms.

Which of these landforms could also be found on the ocean floor? ___________________________________
7. Which type of weather conditions would cause the greatest amount of weathering of a rock?
_______________________________________________________
8. The diagram represents a geologic cross-section.

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Which rock is most likely sedimentary in origin? _____ How do you know? ____________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
Which rock is most likely igneous in origin? _____ How do you know? _______________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________

9. The warmest climates on Earth are found in area nearest to the ______________. The coldest climates on
Earth are found at the ___________________ and ____________________ pole. Explain why the warm area
are warm and the cold area are cold, with respect to the sun and sunlight. ____________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
__

10. This is a diagram of the __________________. Letters A through D show the processes taking place.
Name the processes occurring at each of the
lettered positions.

A. __________________________________

B. __________________________________

C. __________________________________

D. __________________________________

Explain what is happening to the water at each of the following:

A. ______________________________________________________________________________________

B. ______________________________________________________________________________________
11. C.
What evidence is found in the fossil record to substantiate the claim that land masses and mountain
______________________________________________________________________________________
ranges were submerged beneath water once upon a time? _____________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
D. ______________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
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12. The diagram shows a contour map. Letters A through K are reference points on the map.

The feature that has letters I, J, and K is most likely a ________________________________________


Which mountain is 183 km high? _____________________________________________________
What is the elevation at point C? _____________________________________________________
What is another point with the same elevation as point C? _________________________________

13.

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The diagram shows a part of the solar system. Name the star that is depicted above. _______________ Name
the three planets that are depicted above. _____________ _____________ _____________ Name the type of
motion depicted by the arrows above. ___________________

14. What four things that affect the crust of Earth are the result of crustal plate movement?
_________________________ ____________________ _____________________ ______________________

15.
What is the latitude and
longitude of the
following points:

A. _________________
_____________

B. _________________
_____________

C. _________________
_____________

D. _________________
_____________

16.

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The diagram shows land features that have been disrupted and
changed by an earthquake. Which type of crustal movement caused
the changes of the rocks in this area? _______________
Which parts of the Earth’s surface are moving? _____________ and
__________________

17. Moh’s scale is used to test the ________________ of a mineral based on scratching.

18. Explain how each of the following rocks are formed:

1. metamorphic rock ___________________________________________________________________


2. sedimentary rock ____________________________________________________________________
3. igneous rock ________________________________________________________________________

Explain what would have to happen in order for metamorphic rock to change into sedimentary rock. _________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
__

Explain what would have to happen in order for metamorphic rock to change into igneous rock. ____________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
__

Explain what would have to happen in order for sedimentary rock to change into metamorphic rock. _________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
__
19. It takes _______________ for the earth to make one rotation. It takes about __________________
for the moon to run through all of its phases. It takes ___________________ for Earth to complete one
revolution.

20. High pressure systems will give you _______________________________________ weather, while
low pressure systems will give you ___________________________________________ weather.
21. The two types of crust are ____________________ crust and ______________________ crust.

22. What causes the local weather conditions in any given area? _______________________________

23.
What phase change is happening to the ice? ______________________________

What phase change is causing the water droplets on the outside of the
glass?

_________________________

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24. Over a very long period of time, a pond transformed to a swamp, and then to a land community. What can
be concluded from this information? ___________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________
25. The graph shows two days of tidal data from a coastal location in the northeastern United States. The peaks
occur at high tide.

Name the day and time for each of the four high tides. ___________ ____________ _____________
_____________

Name the day and time for each of the four low tides. ___________ ____________ _____________
_____________

Approximately how much time is it between one low tide and the next low tide? ______________

26. Which are the four types of precipitation? ___________ __________ _____________ ___________

27. Latitude measures distances _______________ and ________________ of the _________________, while
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longitude measures distances ___________________ and __________________ of the ________________
___________________.

28. Most of Earth’s light comes from ________________________

29. The four seasons in the northeast United States occur because of __________________________________
and ____________________________________________________________________________________

30.

The hurricane shown on the map is following a normal storm track for the month of September. According to
the map, what is the latitude of the hurricane? ____________ In which direction (north, south, east, or west)
will the hurricane most likely travel? ________________

31. Use the chart to answer the question.


In which era are dinosaurs
abundant? __________________

What do you hypothesize


happened to the dinosaurs
after that era?
___________________
______________________________
______________________________
________________________

32. The diagram shows the position of Earth in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A, B, C, and D
are locations on Earth's surface.

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What season is the Northern
hemisphere experiencing?
_______________________

What season is the Southern


hemisphere experiencing?
_______________________

Where is experiencing 24 hour days?


__________________________

Where is experiencing 24 hour


nights? __________________________

33. Some sedimentary rocks can be changed to metamorphic rocks due to extreme __________________ and
_________________________

34. Meteors are __________________________________________________________________________

35.

This instrument is a _______________________________, and it measures ____________________________

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