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Review packet for 2010-2011 Earth Science Exam

Fill in the blanks from the instructional objectives in The Future Is Now booklet:

1. Earth’s Sun is an average-sized ________. The Sun is more than a ________ times
greater in volume than __________.
2. Other stars are like the Sun but are so _______________ that they look like points of
light. Distances between stars are ____ compared to distances within our
3. The Sun and the ________ that _________ it are the major bodies in the solar
system. Other members include _______, moons, and ________. Earth’s ________
is nearly circular.
4. _________ is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the
___________ in the orbit around the Earth.
5. Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable _____. These motions
explain such phenomena as a ___, a ____ , _________ of the Moon, eclipses, tides,
meteor showers, and comets.
6. The latitude & __________ coordinate system and our system of time are based on
7. Moons are seen by ________ light. Our Moon orbits ____, while Earth orbits the ___. The
_________ phases as observed from Earth are the result of seeing different portions of
the lighted area of the Moon’s surface. The phases repeat in a cyclic pattern in about one
8. The ______ motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars across the sky can be explained
by Earth’s ________ and ________. Earth’s rotation causes the length of one day to be
approximately ____ hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to
_______________ along the _________ horizon and to set along the western horizon.
Earth’s revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as __________ ¼ days.
9. The tilt of the Earth’s _______ of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun
cause _________ on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and
10. The shape of Earth, the other planets, and stars is nearly ___________.
11.Nearly all the ___________ is confined to a thin shell surrounding Earth. The
______________ is a mixture of gases, including nitrogen and __________ with small
amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases. The atmosphere is
___________ into layers, each having distinct properties. Nearly all _______ occurs in
the ___________ layer of the atmosphere.
12.As ________ increases, air pressure ____________.
13.The rock at Earth’s surface forms a nearly continuous shell around Earth called the
14.The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the
15.Rocks are composed of __________. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up most of
the rocks of Earth. Minerals are ____________ on the basis of physical ____________
such as _________, _________, and reaction to ________.
16.Fossils are usually found in _______________ rocks. Fossils can be used to study
past ___________ and ___________.
17.The dynamic processes that wear away Earth’s surface include ___________ and
18.The process of _____________ breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of
sediment, _________________, water, and air.
19.__________ is the transport of sediment. __________ is the driving force behind
erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving _______, wind, and
20.Water circulates through the___________, ___________, and hydrosphere in what
is known as the _____________.

Review Section:
1. At which position would the intensity of the Sun’s rays be greatest?

Explain why.



2. The diagram shows a conglomerate (mixture) rock. Some of the rock particles are labeled.

Of the three types of rocks we learned about in the rock cycle, which type is this? ____________
Explain how you can tell that it is this type of rock. __________________________________________

1. Earthquake waves can be used to study Earth’s interior. Explain how studying the information below
can teach us about the earth’s interior.







4. Explain how earthquakes are related to tectonic plates. ___________________________________________


The solid part of the Earth’s surface is called the _______________________
The liquid part of the Earth’s surface is called the ______________________
The gaseous part of the Earth’s surface is called the ____________________
We walk on the ____________________, we swim in the _______________,
we fly in the ___________________.

6. The diagram shows a geologic cross section with several major continental landforms.

Which of these landforms could also be found on the ocean floor? ___________________________________
7. Which type of weather conditions would cause the greatest amount of weathering of a rock?
8. The diagram represents a geologic cross-section.

Which rock is most likely sedimentary in origin? _____ How do you know? ____________________________
Which rock is most likely igneous in origin? _____ How do you know? _______________________________

9. The warmest climates on Earth are found in area nearest to the ______________. The coldest climates on
Earth are found at the ___________________ and ____________________ pole. Explain why the warm area
are warm and the cold area are cold, with respect to the sun and sunlight. ____________________________

10. This is a diagram of the __________________. Letters A through D show the processes taking place.
Name the processes occurring at each of the
lettered positions.

A. __________________________________

B. __________________________________

C. __________________________________

D. __________________________________

Explain what is happening to the water at each of the following:

A. ______________________________________________________________________________________

B. ______________________________________________________________________________________
11. C.
What evidence is found in the fossil record to substantiate the claim that land masses and mountain
ranges were submerged beneath water once upon a time? _____________________________________
D. ______________________________________________________________________________________
12. The diagram shows a contour map. Letters A through K are reference points on the map.

The feature that has letters I, J, and K is most likely a ________________________________________

Which mountain is 183 km high? _____________________________________________________
What is the elevation at point C? _____________________________________________________
What is another point with the same elevation as point C? _________________________________


The diagram shows a part of the solar system. Name the star that is depicted above. _______________ Name
the three planets that are depicted above. _____________ _____________ _____________ Name the type of
motion depicted by the arrows above. ___________________

14. What four things that affect the crust of Earth are the result of crustal plate movement?
_________________________ ____________________ _____________________ ______________________

What is the latitude and
longitude of the
following points:

A. _________________

B. _________________

C. _________________

D. _________________


The diagram shows land features that have been disrupted and
changed by an earthquake. Which type of crustal movement caused
the changes of the rocks in this area? _______________
Which parts of the Earth’s surface are moving? _____________ and

17. Moh’s scale is used to test the ________________ of a mineral based on scratching.

18. Explain how each of the following rocks are formed:

1. metamorphic rock ___________________________________________________________________

2. sedimentary rock ____________________________________________________________________
3. igneous rock ________________________________________________________________________

Explain what would have to happen in order for metamorphic rock to change into sedimentary rock. _________

Explain what would have to happen in order for metamorphic rock to change into igneous rock. ____________

Explain what would have to happen in order for sedimentary rock to change into metamorphic rock. _________
19. It takes _______________ for the earth to make one rotation. It takes about __________________
for the moon to run through all of its phases. It takes ___________________ for Earth to complete one

20. High pressure systems will give you _______________________________________ weather, while
low pressure systems will give you ___________________________________________ weather.
21. The two types of crust are ____________________ crust and ______________________ crust.

22. What causes the local weather conditions in any given area? _______________________________

What phase change is happening to the ice? ______________________________

What phase change is causing the water droplets on the outside of the


24. Over a very long period of time, a pond transformed to a swamp, and then to a land community. What can
be concluded from this information? ___________________________________________________________
25. The graph shows two days of tidal data from a coastal location in the northeastern United States. The peaks
occur at high tide.

Name the day and time for each of the four high tides. ___________ ____________ _____________

Name the day and time for each of the four low tides. ___________ ____________ _____________

Approximately how much time is it between one low tide and the next low tide? ______________

26. Which are the four types of precipitation? ___________ __________ _____________ ___________

27. Latitude measures distances _______________ and ________________ of the _________________, while
longitude measures distances ___________________ and __________________ of the ________________

28. Most of Earth’s light comes from ________________________

29. The four seasons in the northeast United States occur because of __________________________________
and ____________________________________________________________________________________


The hurricane shown on the map is following a normal storm track for the month of September. According to
the map, what is the latitude of the hurricane? ____________ In which direction (north, south, east, or west)
will the hurricane most likely travel? ________________

31. Use the chart to answer the question.

In which era are dinosaurs
abundant? __________________

What do you hypothesize

happened to the dinosaurs
after that era?

32. The diagram shows the position of Earth in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A, B, C, and D
are locations on Earth's surface.

What season is the Northern
hemisphere experiencing?

What season is the Southern

hemisphere experiencing?

Where is experiencing 24 hour days?


Where is experiencing 24 hour

nights? __________________________

33. Some sedimentary rocks can be changed to metamorphic rocks due to extreme __________________ and

34. Meteors are __________________________________________________________________________


This instrument is a _______________________________, and it measures ____________________________