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2011

AC DRIVES

I- INDUCTION MOTORS STARTING & SPEED CONTROL 1. Starting Codes of 3- Phase Induction Motors

Induction motors are self-starting i.e. they are started by simply plugging them into a 3-phase power source. However in some cases, the starting current may be high enough to cause a dip in the system. Dip … voltage reduction due to the inrush current. (Ex: starting a fridge causes the lights in the house to dim momentarily.) Wound-rotor motors present no starting problem since the external resistance can be increased so as to secure a smooth run- up operation. Squirrel-cage motors are generally capable of starting at full-rated voltage but the starting current may be high depending on the motor rated power and design. (Starting current may be reduced by reducing V, but this may reduce the starting 2 torque which is proportional to VTh ). 1.1- Code letters: To estimate the rotor current at starting all squirrel cage motors now have a starting code letter on their nameplates. The code letter sets limits on the amount of current the motor can draw at starting conditions. These limits are expressed in terms of the starting apparent power (KVA) as a function of the horsepower (hp) rating. Table of NEMA code letters for starting induction motors

Nominal Code letter A B C D E F G H J K L M N P R Locked rotor KVA/hp 0 _____ < 3.15 3.15 _____ < 3.55 3.55 _____ < 4 4 _____ < 4.5 4.5 _____ < 5 5 _____ < 5.6 5.6 _____ < 6.3 6.3 _____ < 7.1 7.1 _____ < 8 8 _____ 9 9 _____ 10 10 _____ 11.2 11.2 _____ 12.5 12.5 _____ 14 14 _____ 16

1

S T U V

16 _____ 18 18 _____ 20 20 _____ < 22.4 22.4 and UP

To determine the starting current, the rated voltage, horsepower, and code letter are read from the nameplate. - The starting reactive power (KVA) : SST = hp x Code letter factor. S - The starting line current is expressed as: I l = ST 3.Vt ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ex: A 10 - hp, 230 - V, 3- phase induction motor is marked with code letter G. What is the max. starting current which may be expected at 230 V? KVA From the Table: Code G ⇒ = 5.6 ÷ 6.3 hp KVA For upper limit ⇒ = 6.3 hp Then: SST = hp x 6.3 = 10 x 6.3 = 63 KVA. 63000 IST = = 158 A 3 ⋅ 230 Ex: What is the range of the starting current of a 15-hp, 208-V, 3-phase, code-F induction motor? Code F ⇒ 5 ÷ 5.6 S ST = 15 × 5 = 75 KVA The lower limit: 75000 I ST = = 208 A 3 × 208 S ST = 15 × 5.6 = 84 KVA

The upper limit: I ST =

= 233 A 3 × 208 ∴ starting current I ST = (208 ÷ 233) A ⋅ (range), ------------------------------------------------------

84000

**1.2- Induction Motor Starting Circuits (Across the line)
**

A typical full-voltage or “across-the-line magnetic induction motor starter” circuit is shown in Fig.1. Having the disconnect switch shut, and when the start button is pressed, the relay (or contactor) coil M is energized, causing the normally open contacts M1, M2, and M3 to close. When these contacts do close, power is applied to the induction motor, and the motor starts. Contact M4 also shuts, which shorts out the starting switch, allowing the operator to release it without removing power from the M relay. When the stop button is pressed, the main M relay is de-energized, and the M1-3 contacts open, disconnecting the motor from the supply and causing it to stop.

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(The disconnect switch is used only for long term or protective shut down of the system). The above magnetic motor starter circuit has several built-in protective features including: a. Short-circuit protection b. Overload protection c. Under-voltage protection

Fig.1: Across- the- line starting

a. Short-circuit protection for the motor is provided by fuses F1, F2, and F3. If a sudden short circuit develops within the motor and causes a current flow many times larger than the rated current, these fuses will blow, disconnecting the motor from the power supply and preventing it from burning up. However, these fuses must not burn up during normal motor starting, so they are designed to require currents many times greater than the full-load current for a short period before they open the circuit. This means that short circuits through a high resistance and/or excessive motor loads will not be cleared by the fuses. b. Overload protection for the motor is provided by the devices labeled OL in Fig.1. These overload protection devices consist of two parts, an overload heater element and overload contacts. Under normal conditions, the overload contacts are shut. However, when the temperature of the heater elements rises far enough, the OL contacts open, de-energizing the M relay, which in turn opens the normally open M1-3 contacts and removes power from the motor. When an induction motor is overloaded, it will be eventually damaged by the excessive heating caused by its high currents. However, this damage takes time, and an induction motor will not normally be hurt by brief periods of high currents (such as starting currents). The damage will occur only if the high current is sustained. The overload heater elements also depend on heat for their operation, so they will not be affected by brief periods of high current during starting, and yet they will operate during long periods of high current, removing power from the motor before it can be damaged. c. Undervoltage protection is provided by the controller as well. Notice from the figure that the control power for the M relay comes from directly across the lines to the motor. If the voltage applied to the motor falls too much, the voltage applied to the

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Methods of Starting If the starting current is very high. 05V . 4 . then the applied voltage has to be reduced since the current is directly related to the voltage (Ohm’s law). R2 TST = ω S [( RTh + R2 ) 2 + ( X Th + X 2 ) 2 ] T V Tst 05Tst . removing power from the motor terminals.3. the following methods can be used: a) Series-Resistance starting: Three resistors are inserted in series with the stator wdg during starting and are gradually reduced as the motor speeds up (smooth operation).connected. To reduce the applied voltage. V ll Vm b) Autotransformer starting: This method leads to even more current reduction depending on the turns ratio and on whether the motor is Y or Δ . The M1-3 contacts then open.M relay will also fall and the relay will de-energize. The starting torque is proportional to the square value of the applied voltage since according to Thevenin parameters: 2 3VTh . (not as smooth due to the contacts and more expensive). 1.

contact 3 is closed to develop a Y.M. 3 1 3 (0. open all contacts.As the motor accelerates.VR c 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 Im Motor Terminals ( Yo rΔ ) Starting sequence: close 1 & 3 ⇒ reduced voltage. .To stop the motor. can be started with its terminals switched to Y-connection.connection. Consequently the starting torque will be reduced by 1 . . This leads to a voltage (and current) reduction by its value.58) of 5 . contacts 1 & 3 are opened and “2” is closed ⇒ full line voltage is now connected. c)Y -Δ starting: A Δ-connected I.

Therefore. T is affected by changes in the rotor through the expression R2 only.(1) (2) Y − Starting Δ − Operation d. an external variable resistance (rheostat) is usually connected across the rotor winding terminals thus providing high starting torque (to encounter inertia) and low starting current (to avoid voltage dips).4. 1.Other methods: Split wdg starting: using 2 identical wdgs in the stator with dual voltage rating. the external resistor is gradually reduced down to zero (at rated speed) thus allowing highefficiency operations at low slip values. For starting: 2 wdgs are connected in series. Effect of Rotor Resistance on I. The full load torque is also unchanged. 6 . if both R2 and s are doubled. power factor. At starting. Based on the torque expression: R 2 3VTh ⋅ 2 1 s ⋅ T= 2 2ω s ⎛ R2 ⎞ 2 ⎜ RTh + ⎟ + ( X Th + X 2 ) s ⎠ ⎝ and at constant V and f.M. For running: 2 wdgs are connected in parallel. the following observations are s made: R (i) 2 is unchanged and therefore all stator parameters such as current. Starting Wound-rotor designs have the rotor winding terminals available outside the machine through brushes and slip rings. As the motor accelerates. s and air gap power are unchanged.

50-Hz wound rotor I.95 I2fl .69 KW Slip at max. This increases (almost doubles) the induced voltage (E). and 2 more copper loss being conceded ( I 2 ⋅ R2 ) due to the increase in R2 (R2 is doubled with “s”).L2 ) and the impedance (Z2).If the rotor resistance is increased 5x. f .The new slip at max. (iii) The rotor frequency (f2 = s. torque: sTmax = 6 % Rotor current at maximum torque I2Tmax = 2. 6-pole. with its slip rings being short-circuited.M.5% Full load rotor copper loss: PRCL = 5.The slip (s’) at which the motor will develop the same full-load torque. s b. then the new Tst will be the same as the torque defined at a slip of 20% ⇒ T’st = 1.95I 2 fl A 220-V. then: sTmax = 5.R2 ⇒ P’RCL = 5 x 5.2 Tfl e.82 I2fl Torque at 20% slip = 1.2 Tfl Rotor current at 20% slip = 3. Z2 (v) Reducing the rotor speed means less mechanical power is developed (P=WT).The starting torque The starting torque corresponds to a slip S = 1.18 Ω and is assumed constant. use will be made of the following illustrative example: Ex: A 500-hp wound-rotor induction motor.69 = 28. rotor current at starting is the same as that of 20% slip ' ⇒ I 2 = 3. What resistance should be inserted into the rotor wdg so that the starting current will be limited to 190% of the rated value? Example: 7 .(ii) Doubling “s” means the rotor speed is reduced thus increasing the relative motion between rotor and stator.Rotor current at starting Similarly. develops an internal torque of 180% with a line current of 190% at a slip of 5% when operated from rated voltage and frequency with the terminals of the Y-connected rotor winding being short-circuited The resistance measured between any 2 terminals of the rotor wdg is 0. E (iv) The rotor current I 2 = would remain unchanged. To examine these effects numerically.The total I2R loss in the rotor Rotor current is unchanged whereas R’2 = 5. 3-phase. determine: a.3 d. 2 must be kept constant ⇒ s’=5xs = 0. R To keep the torque unchanged. torque Since s Tmax is directly related to the increase in R2.f) is doubled leading to doubling the value of the reactance ( X 2 = 2π .075. has the following characteristics: Full-load slip: s = 1.45 KW c.5Tmax = 0.

18 = 0.8 − 0. per-phase rotor resistance is: R2 = ⎞ ⎛R At given condition: E1 = I 2 ⎜ 2 + jX 2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ S At starting: E '1 = I ' 2 (R ' 2 + jX 2 ) I ' 2 = I 2 ⇒ E '1 = E1 Since ⇒ R' 2 = R ext … (rated) R2 0.8Ω is the required new total rotor resistance S 0.09Ω 2 Since the required Ist is the same as that at rated operation (both are 190% of rated full-load value) ⇒ The air gap voltage and I φ are also the same for both conditions.09 = = 1.71Ω 8 .Solution: T T S't TSt s(%) s (%) s I1 R1 X1 I2 X2 Iφ V E1 Xφ R2 s 0.09 = 1.05 = R 2 − R' 2 = 1.

2: Typical induction motor drive In reference to Fig. Its principle of operation can be expressed as shown in Fig. accompanied by a consistent drop in their prices.II.4.2: Comparator Drive (transistors) Filter Induction Motor Fig. These drives can provide optimum speed control so as to improve efficiency of the energy conversion process in which the electric drive is used. The amplitude of the carrier wave can be adjusted by means of a potentiometer.3: PWM layout and connections. a process of modifying the width of pulses in a pulse train (wave) according to a certain control signal. two signals are fed to the comparator. Solid-state Induction Motor Drives The continuous developments in the power electronics and semiconductor switching devices. 9 . Reference Carrier signal to the transistor to make it conduct or open + - comparator Fig. as shown in Fig. the 2 waves are compared and the transistor (drive) is turned on when the carrier is greater than the reference. In the comparator. have lead to a world.3. a reference signal and a carrier signal. Various devices used for this purpose are built using the pulse width modulation (PWM) technique.wide spread of induction motor drives.

Carrier Reference Fig. The width of the pulse can be varied by changing the shape of the carrier using the potentiometer.4: PWM operation. 10 .

PWM are used to control the: a) Frequency at a constant voltage. The aim is to stimulate a sinusoidal shape for the voltage supplied to the motor.PWM principle is to switch the input voltage ON and OFF many times during each half cycle and to vary the frequency and the duration of the ON pulses in relation to the OFF.5. 11 . fig.

fig.6. 12 .Voltage at a constant frequency .

fig. both variable (most desirable).7. 13 .b) Voltage and frequency.

Voltage and Frequency Patterns: a. the motor is operated at a constant voltage because of the limitation imposed by the stator insulation or by supply voltage limitations. Therefore. the motor efficiency is very poor at low speeds. and core losses are ignored. are the three main patterns: a. Since one cannot allow the terminal voltage to be more than the rated value. (R>>X) inside the motor windings. this method allows speed control only below the rated speed. Therefore. The voltage induced in the stator E is proportional to the product of the supply frequency and the air-gap flux such that: E E = K . While an increase in flux beyond the rated value is undesirable from the consideration of saturation effects. therefore. (constant V/f control). frequency control below the rated frequency is generally accompanied by reducing the machine phase voltage V along with the frequency f in such a manner that the flux is maintained constant. Control Patterns Since loads connected to an induction motor can vary in size significantly. then patterns of V & f (V/f) would vary accordingly. b. windage.2. Variable frequency control The synchronous speed is directly proportional to the supply frequency. a decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of the motor. 120 f ( ns = ). and produce acoustic noise. it is necessary to have V=const i. Hence. Above the rated frequency. the converted power is: Pconv = Pg (1 − s ) This power decreases but the rotor copper loss increases with the increase in slip. If the stator copper loss and the friction. 14 . the synchronous speed and the motor speed can be controlled p below and above the normal full-load speed by changing the supply frequency. Speed control is therefore achieved by varying the terminal voltage until the torque required by the load is developed at the desired speed. the increase in flux will saturate the motor. increase the core loss and the stator copper loss. Consequently.φ . In what follows. This will increase the magnetizing current. distort the line current and voltage. Variable Voltage Control The torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the square of terminal voltage.Standard Pattern: at small frequencies. (V/f)↑ so as to ensure having sufficient Tst at the lowest speeds.e.1. f ⇒ φ = K ′ f Induction motors are designed to operate at the knee point of the magnetization characteristic to make full use of magnetic material and simultaneously to avoid saturation.

e.V=const for f >frated with no effect on saturation. output voltage will be higher than (a) Has higher Tst. V Vrated f 0 frated [Hz] Fig.Low Tst loads: (soft . V Vrated f 0 frated (50 or 60 Hz) [Hz] Fig. but also has higher saturation which is affordable for short starting periods.start loads) Voltage changes parabolically for speeds below base speed (frated) Voltage lower than in (a) or (b) (below frated giving lower Tst 15 . i.a: Standard operation b.b: High starting torque c.8.8.High Tst loads: V changes linearly with f Shallower curve for f<30Hz.

• Third quadrant: Reverse motoring.c: Low starting torque. Evolution of Dc link and drives could be briefed as shown in Fig. the torque is reversed (braking) while the motor is still rotating in the same (forward) direction. both speed and torque are reversed. 2. Fig. the following operating modes are observed: • First quadrant: Motoring operation only in one direction (forward).2.V Vrated f 0 frated [Hz] Fig.8-d: Torque.speed quadrants 2. but the power is still in the same (forward) direction.2. leading to a braking condition. variable f from a fixed V fixed f source can be designed using an intermediate dc link.9: 16 . ac power is converted into dc and back to ac of different voltage and frequency.8. • Second quadrant: Regenerative braking. In such systems. Operating Modes Electric drives can operate in different modes depending on the direction of rotation and the power flow. DC Link in Adjustable Speed Drives: Adjustable speed drives of ac motor requiring variable V. • Fourth quadrant: Plugging. torque and speed have opposite directions (normally because the speed direction is reversed). In reference to figure 8-d.

a combination of diode rectifier and chopper would provide variable dc voltage e- Fixed V&f source Diode rectifier fixed V dc PWM Inverter IM (ac) Waveforms to the motor are closer to sine waves (more attractive) Fig.a- Fixed V&f source Variable Transf.9: Developments in ac drives 17 . Variable V ac Diode rectifier Variable V dc Inverter Variable V&f IM (ac) Transformer output is controlled according to the desired frequency level of the output ( V/f = const) bFixed V&f source Diode rectifier fixed V& f dc link Inverter Variable f Variable Transf. Variable V&f IM (ac) c- Fixed V&f source Phase Controlled Thyristor Bridge Rectifier Variable V Inverter dc Variable V&f IM (ac) d- Fixed V&f source Diode rectifier fixed V dc Chopper Variable V dc Inverter Variable V&f IM (ac) Instead of thyristor bridge of (c).

2. The smoothed output (Vr) is applied to the DC terminals of an inverter while the AC output from this inverter has the same frequency of the supply. Solid State Control Methods Solid. 18 . I0 I + Power + Σ Ia Induction Motor Ir Diode Rectifier VDR I0 Inverter Transformer ( Tachogenerator Current Speed Signal ) α Gating Signals IT-IR VT Reference Signal KT VR + Σ VR-VT Speed Controller IR + Σ IT - Fig.3. That way the slip energy recovery process can be classified as one method for speed control besides the other four. and motors with inverters and cycloconverters. This method is applicable but usually very expensive and could be a part of long-term investment.3.Rotor Slip Energy Recovery: In the steady state analysis of induction motors. the energy at rotor frequency has to be converted into energy at the supply frequency before having it injected back into the supply. The diode rectifier receives the power out of the wound rotor winding through the brushes. A schematic of this system is shown in Fig.10: Schematic of rotor slip energy recovery.10.11. A further advantage of this system is that it allows closed-loop speed control of the induction motor. The 3phase power from the AC terminals of the inverter is then fed to the induction motor supply. ac power motors. wound rotor induction motor I Ir Diode Rectifier ac→dc Vr Smooting choke Inverter dc→ac Fig.8.2.11: Speed control using rotor slip energy recovery. Fig. The lower the rotor speed (higher s) the higher is the loss. it was mentioned that a fraction s of the air gap power is wasted in the short-circuited rotor circuit.state control methods used in association with induction motors are rotor slip energy recovery. In Fig.1.

If an increase of speed is requested then the signal reference voltage (VR) is increased. .As (VDR) drops. the speed signal is obtained from the motor through a tachogenerator coupled to and driven by the motor.(IR-IT) is fed to the gating circuits which call for a lower inverter input voltage (VDR) for the given output current (I0). .VR is compared to the existing tachogenerator voltage (VT) and the difference (VR VT >0) is fed to the speed controller. 19 . . At normal operation.The speed controller generates a current reference signal (IR) greater than the existing value (IT). the developed torque will increase and the motor will accelerate.As (Ia) increases. .The current feedback signal (IT) is obtained from the current transformer connected to one of the AC lines of the inverter. the rotor current increases and this increase is reflected in an increase in the stator current to compromise the increase in power demand. The control process can be briefed as follows: . .

12: i.3. Control of the ac input power to the induction motor can be achieved by variation of the point in the cycle at which the thyristors are triggered (turned on). without the need for changing the supply voltage.Squirrel-Cage Motor with AC Power Controller: Introduction of impedance into the lines that supply the stator of an induction motor reduces the terminal voltage of the motor. Apart from providing speed control. The introduction of controlled semiconductor devices into the supply lines by a power controller also provides control of the effective terminal pd in somewhat the same way as variable impedances. power controllers may be used for starting large squirrel-cage motors for by this means the current drawn from the line can be held to a reasonably low value. then 2 conditions may arise. in reference to Fig. This delay in the firing angle leads to an effective value of the voltage (or current) being lower than the rated one. with instantaneous rise when α= ωt. particularly when it is loaded.12: Ac power controller on induction motors Looking at one phase: Q5 and Q2 of Phase ‘C’ of Fig.e.12: If the triggering delay angle of Q5 & Q2 is α=60° for example.2. If the load is purely resistive then the load voltage and current waveforms would be as shown. 20 .2. As a result the motor speed will drop.. i. Q1 Ia I'a R L Induction Motor Q4 I'b Q6 N Ib Q3 n R L Q5 Ic I'c R L Q2 Fig.

so that the circuit would behave as if no thyristors are present.speed characteristics are similar to those of voltage control method.e. Optimum operation occurs when the current of one half-cycle would be prolonged until the beginning of the other half-cycle exactly.13. ii. the triggering angle would vary from zero up to α. the waveform would still have a fundamental component of continuos wave but the higher harmonics would be more significant.If the load consists of an inductance and a resistance. the motor would be operating at much higher slip leading to more losses inside the motor since the synchronous speed of the motor is not changed. Fig. Instead. Therefore for a continuous waveform. This optimum operation occurs when: α = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ ωL ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ Where α is the angle beyond which the waveform would become discontinuous. the current (or voltage) would increase almost exponentially from zero and also the inductance would extend the current beyond point ωt=π. i. For values beyond this limit. 21 .. then there would be no instantaneous rise.Q5 Vm sin ω t Q2 R i α π ωt Fig 12: Output Waveform of an AC Power Controller. This method does not affect the frequency and therefore the v/f ratio is reduced which means that the motor will not be operated with optimum saturation level. The resulting torque . Furthermore. which is how an induction motor is represented. almost pure sinusoidal waveform is still feeding the motor but the input power (area under the curve) is less.

14: Closed. result in a drive system of poor power factor.loop ac power controller. Schematic of a simple closed loop control system bases on an AC power controller is shown in Fig. Three phase ac power controller Induction Motor Gating (trigerring) signal Mechanically Coupled ω Tachometer Controller Logic VT Speed Reference signal (gives the desired speed value) Fig. which leads to: an increase in the slip value at which the torque is max. This could be avoided by having a high rotor resistance. 13: Torque .Τ Torque n Speed (rpm) Fig.14.speed characteristics AC power controllers. normally used for class D motors. 22 . (shift of curve leftwards) starting current reduction and power factor improvement.

The drive does not try to make an instantaneous jump form one speed to another due to the motor inertia.3. overheating. The voltage control of the rectifier ensures that the voltage from the rectifier (V0) will vary with the frequency according to the above characteristics. have peak pulses.3. and under voltage as discussed earlier. Voltage Control Frequency Control Filter controlled rectifier (ac → dc) Inverter (dc → ac) Induction Motor Vo Fig. The stator current peaks are inversely related to the motor leakage reluctance. shows a combination of semiconductor converters required for such variable-frequency. The following schematic. The output line voltage from a typical three-phase inverter can be resolved using Fourier analysis into a fundamental component and a set of higher odd harmonics (3rd harmonic will have a sum of =0 in 3 phases) Vab = 4 π ⋅ cos π 6 ⋅ V0 [sin( wt + π 1 1 π π ) + sin(5wt − ) + sin(7 wt + ) + L] 6 5 6 7 6 23 . Squirrel-Cage . General applications are for low and medium. c.Motor with Inverter: In reference to Fig. variable-voltage control (open loop).2. The drive also contains devices to protect the motor against short circuit.15. Minimum operable frequencies are 5 Hz and higher. The inductance in the DC link provides smoothing whereas the capacitance maintains a fixed value for the DC link voltage. d. e. the inverter drive set has the following characteristics: a.loop inverter drive. Fig.power industrial drives in ratings up to 200 KVA. These inverters have problems at low frequencies because the DC link voltage would not be sufficient to commutate thyristors. This could be avoided by motor derating. instead special circuits are added to ensure a smooth acceleration or deceleration.15: Open.15. and hence motors with high leakage reactances are usually used in association with inverter drives. The output voltage from the inverter is usually a square wave with higher harmonics and the armature current may. as a result. b. These peaks cause additional losses and heating.

Cyclo-Converter: A cycloconverter is a system of switches that convert directly ac power from a constant . π ∂ α α π m = (π − α ) π Group 2 (c) Notched Output Voltage T1 v1 v v2 T2 Group 1 Load i1 T1 Conducting T3 T4 Group 2 T2 Conducting 24 . Analysis will be conducted for a square wave ac voltage but it could be extended to cover sinusoidal waveforms.3. 3 2.voltage. variable frequency output without the need for a dc link.45V0 .4. constant-frequency supply to a variable . consider the following circuit: Group 1 (a) Thyristors T1 and T2 are on for a number of half cycles then T3 and T4 will be on after a delay of 2 half cycles.The fundamental of which has an amplitude value of: Vab max = The rms line value is: 4 3 2 3 ⋅ V0 = ⋅ V0 = 1. To clarify the cycloconverter operation.voltage.1V0 π 2 π V0 = 6V0 ⇒ Vl = Vab max 2 = 2 3 π⋅ 2 π Vl = 6V0 π = 0.78V0 The corresponding phase value fed to the motor is: V Vφ = l = 0.

1.step inverters is that their performance at low speeds is not reliable. The reactor is not needed to smooth the DC link voltage because the diode rectifier already produces a good and steady DC level and some manufacturers dispense with this reactor for economy reasons. Also. 25 . cycloconverters are used to generate only 1 3 of the supply frequency. A constant DC link voltage is used and all the control is done via the motor inverter operating in PWM mode. PWM use has increased due to the availability of faster switching devices like transistors and gate turn.18. The stepping nature of the rotating stator field causes the torque to be applied in pulses rather than smoothly.off thyristors (GTO’s). 3. The circuit also includes a DC link reactor as a means of reducing the level of high frequency currents getting into the input circuit and to force these currents to flow in the DC link capacitor. This leads to good performance at low speeds as well as high and the ability to control the motor accurately even around zero value. The principle is to use high speed switching to enable the motor current waveforms at low speed to be more sinusoidal and hence lead to a smoothly rotating magnetic field in the motor.Limitations: To avoid overlap and higher harmonics in the output. voltage source DC link systems as shown in Fig. When the inverter operates at high frequency. and no control is required from the input side of the DC link. PWM Drive System The elements of PWM drive systems are generally similar to those of the 6. The DC link capacitor is used to provide a path for the currents which flow through the feedback diodes in the inverter. large AC ripple currents flow in this capacitor and it has to be correctly selected for these conditions. PWM drives cost has been reducing steadily with the drop in prices of large scale integrated circuits and microprocessors.step system with the exception that the mains convertor can be a diode rectifier only. III. PWM Voltage Source Inverter for Induction Motors The difficulty with most 6. PWM systems are. the inverter is controlled so that the output voltage is variable and of pulsed wave. which tends to be more sinusoidal. instead of the square wave. in general. PWM is the most widely used method of improving the low speed performance of DC link inverter systems. so that this system is nowadays often employed for general purpose drives at various speeds.

If fast slow-down is required then some means of absorbing the regenerated energy on the DC link is required. and in the losses due to the frequent switching. 26 . is around 150Hz). PWM inverter systems in general. is now carried out via the inverter alone and most PWM pattern generating systems include inputs to enable independent setting of voltage. This prevents the motor slowing down too quickly. is the increased complexity and the increased difficulty in protecting these systems. freq. 3) The current waveforms in the motor are always very near to sinusoidal leading to more economic and quieter performance.18: PWM drive system Control over the drive. frequency and phase sequence so that the correct conditions for the motor can be produced. however. 4) The diode input rectifier means that the input power factor is always high irrespective of the speed and load. 5) In multi-drive systems it is possible to connect a number of inverters to the same DC link to allow transfer of regenerated power from some drives to help feed other motoring drives. (max.step alternatives since: 1) The range of speed control is much wider and operation at and around zero speed is quite satisfactory. in all respects. To guard against this possible increase in DC voltage which could quickly damage the semiconductors it is usual to include a DC voltage measurement that will cause increase in inverter frequency if a high DC voltage is detected. provide superior performance to the six. The major disadvantage. If the frequency to the motor is reduced suddenly the motor can regenerate the load energy into the inverter and the DC link rises in voltage due to the energy being fed into the capacitor via the feedback diodes. 2) Low frequency torque pulsation does not occur in the output and hence there is less chance of exciting mechanical load resonance.Fig.

When regular motor braking is required with a PWM drive system. then either switched resistor will be included to dissipate the energy or an additional feedback thyristor converter will be included to pass the power back to the AC mains. the current waveforms can be very near to a sine wave and very smooth performance near zero speed is obtainable. d. e. Being a voltage source system for induction motors. this drive is not affected by the precise parameters of the motor connected to it. even at low speed. These improved performance capabilities can be achieved by employing very high quality and highly specified semiconductor switches. There is also the very complex and variable voltage waveforms produced by the inverter that may make the system difficult to understand. In general PWM system can provide very high quality performance over a very wide speed range. f. The voltage waveform applied to the motor does contain a substantial harmonic content and this does increase the iron and stray losses in the motor by an amount that will depend on the frequency of inverter switching. 27 . but with the increasing use of gate turn. it is possible to supply a number of motors from the same drive as long as they are all required to operate at the same frequency. This is achieved simply by reversing the direction of modulation of the inverter switching at the most satisfactory point in the cycle.2. One of the important features of PWM drive systems is the direct result of having a supply side diode rectifier to give a constant DC link voltage. The inverters used in this system are usually fully capable of accepting power from the motor and feeding it back into the DC link but this facility may not be used and it may even be prevented to avoid over-voltages on the DC link.off thyristors (GTO’s) for PWM systems operating voltage capabilities are increasing. If no special arrangements are made to absorb or feedback regenerated power then the energy will be dumped into the DC link capacitor causing its voltage to rise quickly. With the larger number of voltage pulses per half cycle. Most PWM pattern generators allow for the reversal of the output voltage waveforms so that electronic reversal of the motor can be used if needed. In such cases load sharing is not seen to be a problem due to the inherent slip of the induction motor and the ability of the inverter to provide the currents which the individual motors may demand. the motor current is much nearer to sinusoidal than most of the other DC link systems and hence the conductor losses are very near to those occurring under sinusoidal conditions. The system efficiency is relatively good as far as motor losses are concerned. Performance and Application a. b. Because of the high specification of the inverter switches the operating voltage of these systems has up to now been limited to the range up to 500 volts AC. Drives of this type will have an input power factor of around 0. g.3. The result is that the power factor of the input current to the drive is always high and it does not vary with the speed of the drive. c. Therefore.95 per unit.

The magnetizing current required to produce flux is obtained from the source.e. It should be understood that if the source cannot accept energy then the regenerative braking cannot be used. the operation above synchronous speed gives the regenerative braking operation (portion BAE). below synchronous speed (s > 0). the motor works as an induction generator. When the motor is fed by a variable frequency source. the motor’s speed should be greater than the synchronous speed. Thus the generated energy is usefully employed. Induction Motors Braking Braking methods of induction motors can be divided into the following categories: 1. The resulting stator currents will also be in the opposite direction. In regenerative braking. the power flows will be from the motor to the source and the motor works as an induction generator. Regenerative braking. regenerative braking is possible only for speeds greater than the synchronous speed. the relative speed between the rotating stator field and the rotor is negative.1. Thus.4. STmax and Tmax. The operations for ωm > ωs (or s<0) and ωm < 0 (s > 1) produce negative power and therefore correspond to the braking operation. converting mechanical energy supplied by the load to electrical energy. and also for negative speeds (s > 1). the source frequency can be adjusted to 28 . It may be noted that the machine cannot regenerate unless it is connected to a source. and expressions are valid for the full speeds range. Dynamic or rheostatic braking. i. speeds above synchronous speed (s < 0). For regenerative braking to take place. Plugging or reverse voltage braking. 3. 4. 2 3VTh R + ( X Th + X 2 ) 2 These equations provide expressions for starting torque Tst. 2 Th and: STmax = R2 Operational Concepts When the motor runs at a speed greater than the synchronous speed. 2. which is fed to the source. The rotor induced-voltage and currents have directions opposite to those under the motoring operation. With a positive sequence voltage across the motor terminals. Regenerative Braking Tst = ω s [( RTh + R2 ) 2 + ( X Th + X 2 ) 2 ] 1 2 2ω s RTh + RTh + ( X Th + X 2 ) 2 1 . When the motor is fed by a fixed frequency source. Figure 19 shows the speed-torque curves for all the three ranges of speed. The operation of the motor in regenerative braking can be explained as follows. 2 3VTh R2 Tmax = .

and hence regenerative braking can be maintained until zero frequency or zero speed. The shaft torque is obtained by adding friction windage and core loss torque to the developed torque. Fig. i. In such a situation mechanical brakes may be used to assist the regenerative braking to prevent runaway speeds. by reducing the motor frequency. care should be taken to restrict the operation in the region between the synchronous speed and the speed for which the braking torque is the maximum. This restriction on the slip range must also be observed when braking against an active load by varying the supply frequency. 29 . Since the braking speeds are also higher.give a synchronous speed less than the motor speed for any motor speed. we get a synchronous speed less the that of the rotor. If one is using a wound-rotor motor. the braking torque reduces drastically. on the portion AB in Fig.e. a short duration dip in the supply voltage or a momentary increase in the load torque may shift the operation to the unstable region. It may be noted that for the same absolute value of slip. (portion AE). When holding an active load by regenerative braking. leading to runaway speeds because the faster the motor runs.speed characteristic When regenerative braking is employed for holding the speed against an active load. the lesser will be the braking torque. capacitors may be connected in series with the motor to increase the braking torque.19: Torque. The developed braking torque can be calculated by using the negative sign for the slip. the braking torque is higher than the motoring torque. the rotor resistance may also be increased to increase the range of stable operation. For slips more negative than –sTmax.19 for which 0 > s >-sTmax. Alternatively. That is. the regenerated power is much higher than the motoring power.

3. Because of high values of slip (nearly 2 at point D). are dissipated in the motor circuit’s resistances.2. The ways in which the motor can be connected to a dc supply are shown in Fig. the developed torque provides the braking operation. “d”. An additional device will be required for detecting zero speed and disconnecting the motor from the supply. Connections “c” and “f” provide uniform loading for all the three phases but complicate the switching operation within the motor 3. Consequently. 19). and “e” are generally used because of the simpler switching operations. As ‘s’ falls. (segment CD. Therefore. Since both stator and rotor fields are stationary and rotor current 30 . but rather for speed control. The value of the external resistor can be chosen to provide the maximum torque for s=2. and for reversing the direction of rotation. In the case of a wound-rotor motor. “b”. or plugging. To stop the motor. The electrical power generated by the conversion of mechanical power supplied by the load and inertia. and also the power supplied by the source. 3-phase voltages of reverse polarity and phase sequence (compared to the motoring in the same direction) are induced in the rotor. the equivalent rotor resistance R2/s has a low value. The resultant three-phase rotor currents produce a rotating field. Since the motor is running in the reverse direction to that of the stator mmf. it should be disconnected from the supply at or near zero speed. the motor is disconnected from the ac supply and connected to a dc supply. The flow of direct current through the stator windings sets up a stationary magnetic field. Connections “a”. thus giving a stationary rotor field. Thus. the resistance can be varied to brake and reverse the motor at the maximum torque.4.phase winding. 20. This will reverse the direction of rotation of the stator field. Fig. The motor can be braked by changing the phase sequence of the motor terminal voltages by simply interchanging the connections of any two motor phases. plugging is not suitable for stopping. Plugging • An induction motor operates in the plugging mode for slips s>1. and to accelerate it in the opposite direction. • • • • • • 4. moving at the rotor speed in the direction opposite to that of rotor. The relative speed between the stationary stator field and the moving rotator is now negative. this is a highly inefficient method of braking. to stop the motor. DC Dynamic Braking In dc dynamic braking. external resistors are connected in the rotor to reduce the current and increase the braking torque. This takes place when the motor is moving backwards relative to the rotating stator magnetic field. The motor torque is not zero at zero speed.

becomes a zero standstill due to zero rotor currents. otherwise the motor will be overheated.flows in the opposite direction. however. But then either the supply must be removed or the current must be reduced below the rated value soon after the motor stops. When controlled braking (braking with variable torque) is required. Figure 20: Stator connections for dc dynamic braking Since the dc current flowing through the stator depends on its resistance which is low. a thyristor bridge is used instead of the diode bridge. a steady breaking torque is produced at all speeds. When quick braking is required. the stator current can be set as high as ten times the rated value. It. 31 . This is obtained from the ac supply by a step down transformer and a diode bridge. a low voltage dc supply is required. to produce large braking torque.

they are used for applications where very precise motor operation and accurate speed control are required.Since they can operate at a synchronized speed. and cycloconverters.Due to the field excitation adjustment capability. 32 .On the other hand. synchronous motor drives have the following features: i. ii. inverters. Variable.5. Due to the unique relation between stator frequency and the rotor mechanical speed. iii.frequency Synchronous Motor Drives Speed control of synchronous motors could be conducted using the devices described in association with induction motors such as ac power controllers. synchronous motor are subject to loss of synchronism if significant load changes occur. synchronous motors can operate with optimum power factor conditions. and if the load angle exceeds the 90o angle set as its stability limit.

Encounter the coupled load torque. T = Tl + J ⋅ Where T torquedeveloped Tl load torque J momentof inertia t time ω m machinespeed (rad / sec) • • dω m dt Therefore. The speed .e. including friction and windage (Tl) 2. In general.e. • This equation could be solved numerically or graphically in association with other equations that describe the motor performance. ΔT = T − Tl = J ⋅ ⇒ dt = J ⋅ dω m ΔT dω m dt The time required to reach the operating speed ωm is : t=J⋅ ∫ 0 ωm 1 ⋅ dω m ΔT (t is the run up time).6. Dynamics of Induction Motors Starting • The proper choice of an induction motor requires a knowledge of its starting duty and the voltage dip it may cause to the system especially in the case of large induction motors operating in industrial complexes. the difference Τ−Τl=ΔΤ is the torque available to accelerate the rotating mass i. The magnitude of the supply current remains large until the speed increases up to the rated value. Accelerate the whole system (motor and load) i. Insufficient torque at starting may expand the run-up period and cause motor heating due to the long lasting inrush current.time curve could be typically illustrated as: 33 . the torque developed by the motor is used to: 1.

VTH .Fig. Since the slip drops as speed increases. the time needed to reach sTmax is: t = − J .up Period Calculations If the motor is not connected to a load (i. T can be expressed in terms of the slip such that: ds T = − J .S.e. T= ω s ( R + R2 ) 2 + ( X + X ) 2 TH TH 2 s .ω s .ω s . R2 s = 1 ω S ( R2 ) 2 + ( X + X ) 2 TH 2 s . ( R1 = 0 ⇒ RTH = 0) 2 RTH + ( X TH + X 2 ) 2 ⇒ sT max = 1 R2 R ⇔ 2 = X TH + X 2 X TH + X 2 sT max 2 3. analysis: R2 sT max = . T1=0). 2 3. R2 s 34 . dt The –ve sign represents the drop in ‘s’ as the motor accelerates. dω m dt The high IST will normally last until the motor reaches a speed that corresponds to sTmax. Run. then according to S.∫1 St max ds T If the stator resistance is neglected (R1=0). From which.VTH .21: Speed variation with time during acceleration. then it starts to drop down to rated value. then: T = J.

Also. 2 sT max T 1 s => = * * 2 R R Tmax ω s 3.VTh 2ω s R2 sT max R R2 2.ω s = T 2 .VTh ( 2 )2 + ( 2 )2 s sT max 2 3.VTh .( 2 + 2 ) s s T max 2.sT max 1 + s 2 T max => T = TMAX ( Hence.ds ∫ [ s +s 1 T max max s s t= J . ∫ 1 ST max ds − J . 3.T max 2 .s T max 35 . the time needed to reach sTmax is: t = − J .VTh = 2 1 3.ω s .ω s . 2 1 1 s.s T 2 => = = 2 T max2 sT max s Tmax sT max + s + s sT max T = Tmax Also. TST = TMAX 2 sT max + 2 sT max s + s sT max 1 sT max ) = 2.ω s 1 − s 2 T max [ − s T max . ln( s T max )] 2 . Tmax = 1 2 2ω s RTh + RTh + ( X Th + X 2 ) 2 .sT max .T max ST T max ].s.

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