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A Project on

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¬ tted n partal f lfllent of the req reent of

Master of B sness Adnstraton, Dstance Ed caton

G r Jaheshwar Unersty of ¬cence & Technology, Hsar

 
       
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DE¬GNATN: Lect rer Enrolent no - 08061148633
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Ths s to certfy that Mr. ¬UMYA NATH MNDAL Enrolent No.08061148633


has proceeded nder y s person hs Research Project Report on • 

 
      
 
 
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The work eoded n ths report s orgnal and s of the standard expected of an MBA
st dent and has not een s tted n part or f ll to ths or any other nersty for the
award of any degree or dploa. He/she has copleted all req reents of g delnes for
Research Project Report and the work s ft for eal aton.

¬gnat re of ¬ persor/G de (wth ¬EAL)

NAME ¬NAL ¬AXENA


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Ths s to certfy that the Project Report enttled• 
 

      
  
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orgnal work and has not een s tted s part or f ll to ths or any other
nersty/nstt ton the award of any degree or dploa.

¬gnat re of canddate

   ¬UMYA NATH MNDAL


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1 Ttle of the Project 5

2 ntrod cton and Ratonale of The Topc 6

3 (a)nd stry Profle 10

()Copany Profle 18

3 Lterat re Reew And Prole or laton 50

4 jectes 51

5 Research Desgn 52

6 Theoretcal raework 57

7 Data Analyss And nterpretaton 74

8 ndngs 108

9 Recoendatons 111

Concl son 114

9 Blography 116

10 Appendx 118

a. Q estonnare

. Lst of Copanes 119

c. Raw Data 120

d. Ann al Report 125

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antaned n order to ens re the s ral of the  sness n the long-ter as well.

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acco nt of the addtonal c rrent assets that are s ally noled wth any expanson of
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ncreased prod cton tends to engender a need to hold addtonal stocks of raw aterals and
work n progress. An ncreased sale s ally eans that the leel of proft wll ncrease. A
general ncrease n the fr s scale of operatons tends to ply a need for greater leels of
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perhaps the ggest possle ca se of fal re of any  sness nts n recent tes. There t
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arales s ch as character of the  sness, the lengths of the erchandsng cycle, rapdty of

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t rnoer, scale of operatons, ol e and ters of p rchase & sales and seasonal and other
aratons.

The goal of ¬t dy of arket potental s to ens re that the fr s ale to contn e ts
operaton and that t has s ffcent cash flow to satsfy oth at rng short ter det and
pcong operatonal expenses.

If there is anything that the Indian computer hardware industry has to offer
to the various Indian and Multinational Hardware Manufacturing companies, it is
growth. Recent MAIT study, conducted jointly with Big Five firm Ernst & Young,
concluded that the Indian hardware industry had the potential to reach a size of
$62 billion by 2010.

For a country whose economy is so heavily dependent on agriculture, a


vibrant hardware industry has the potential to generate three million jobs,
especially for Indians who come from economically underprivileged sections, who
aren·t very highly educated.

So, in the words of Deshpande, the hardware industry can be some sort of a
panacea for India·s unemployment problem. Also, with the size of the contract
manufacturing industry expected to be over $500 billion by the year 2010, Indian
firms could grab a significant chunk of the pie in a manner pretty similar to India·s
emergence as a key player in the global BPO stakes. And, with a potentially huge
market in embedded systems emerging, Indian firms with the right mix of hardware
and software can be big players here. For the record, of all the high-end processors
produced in the world, only 6 percent are used in PCs and the remaining 94
percent are used in entertainment electronics, non-PC devices, communication
products and embedded electronics.

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The hardware revolution is also essential for the continued high growth of
the software industry. As Vinnie Mehta, director of MAIT, puts it: ´India can lose
out on the software advantage it has already built up, and the future potential, if it
does not concentrate on the hardware front. For example, the estimated domestic
hardware requirement by 2008 to meet the software target of $87 billion is $160
million.µ

With such given potential, the major players in the market like Hewlett
Packard, Sony, Lenovo, Dell etc can expect to gain a lot. At the same time, the
competition is bound to grow and get intense. Therefore these manufacturers have
to take measures to counter competition efficiently.

In order to establish the brand in the minds of the consumer, the


manufacturers should ensure that the consumers have a positive perception about
the product, product features, quality level, look, design and appearance etc.

This study revolves around studying the various perceptions prospective


customers of Hewlett Packard Laptop hold against the brand, its quality, price,
correlation between the price and quality etc. The study conducted in Bangalore
intends to throw light on the above mentioned parameters such that Hewlett
Packard can make necessary decisions based on the findings and suggestions.


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Terms sometimes used for subtypes of laptop computers include:

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Laptops with screens typically less than 12 inches diagonally and a weight of
less than 1.7kg. Their keyboards are usually not full-size. Their primary audience
is usually business travelers, who need small, light laptops. Ultraportables are
often very expensive, have extended battery and/or battery life, house power-saving
CPUs and almost always have integrated graphics.

   

Laptops usually weighing in between 1.8kg and 2.8kg with a screen size of
between 12 and 14 inches diagonally. Examples of this variety: the Sony VAIO FJ,
Apple MacBook and Dell XPS M1210.

  

These usually have screens of 14 ² 15.4 inches diagonally and a weight of


around 3-3.5kg. They usually sacrifice a little computing power for smaller
dimensions and longer battery life, although the length and width are usually
determined by the screen size.

    

Powerful laptops meant to be mainly used in a fixed location and


infrequently carried out due to their weight and size; the latter provides more space
for powerful components and a big screen, usually measuring 17-20 inches.
Desktop replacements tend to have limited battery life, rarely exceeding three
hours, because the hardware is not optimized for efficient power usage.

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The laptop, also known as a notebook PC, is no longer a luxury item


as against the `wow' effect it had a few years ago. Much like other
commodities, it is being displayed on the shelves of big supermarkets and
retail shops, moving from the exclusive confines o f exotic showrooms.

Earlier, when the word `laptop' was uttered, one could visualise only
executives carrying it. Today all segments, including students and
households, are buying these `notebooks'. For people on the move, the
laptop has become an indispe nsable tool. What with overcrowded roads and
traffic snarls, the average travelling time in metros such as Mumbai and
Bangalore has only gone up. Here, the laptop is a cool tool that helps
professionals to keep working and thus save time.

This also helps companies to keep their employees more productive.


Industry sources say that desktops which was the "symbol of corporate
vanity till the other day are slowly becoming passé with notebooks now the
mainstream."

The numbers too capture the growing appeal of the laptop. In the first
half of the current financial year, Indians bought nearly 153,000 notebooks,
compared to 36,000 units in the same period two years ago, said a recently
released performance review of MAIT. It added that the momentum in the
Indian notebook market is finally in sync with the global trend, where for
the first time in 2005 notebook sales surpassed desktops sales.

This performance was led by the small and medium enterprises (SME)
which, in turn, is supplemented by bulk purchases by lar ge enterprises.
Consumption by small enterprises grew 118 percent accounting for 17
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percent of the total notebook sales to the business segment; sales to
medium-sized enterprises grew by 136 percent accounting for 21 percent,
MAIT said.

Compared to the first-half of the last fiscal year, sales to large


enterprises grew by 102 percent accounting for 61 percent of the total sales
in the business segment.

During the period, the desktop personal computer (PC) market


grossed 2.34 million units registering a gr owth of 36 percent over the
previous year. During April-September 2005, the ratio of desktop-to-
notebook sales declined to 15 from 22 a year ago.

"Clearly, notebooks are competing with desktops with convenience


and productivity scoring high", said MAIT adding that notebook sales have
also found their way into homes. In first half of 2005 -06, about 16,000
notebooks were sold to the household segment accounting for 13 percent of
the total market.

"Notebook sales recorded a high growth of 94 per cent and als o found
their way into homes. In the first half of 2005-06, about 16,000 notebooks
were sold to the household segment accounting for 13 per cent of the total
market," MAIT has said, releasing the findings of Industry Performance
Review conducted jointly wi th IMRB.

Piyush Pushkal, Senior Analyst, Computing Products & Channels


Research, IDC India, has said in a release, "The momentum in the Indian
notebook PC market is in sync with the worldwide trend of acceptance in the

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small and medium-size business segment, supplemented by bulk purchases
by large enterprises. Clearly, notebook PCs are providing tough competition
to the desktop segment due to the attributes of convenience and
productivity."

Hewlett-Packard continues to lead this category with a market share


of 42 per cent in unit shipments. Lenovo and Acer are at second and third
slots with market shares of 18 per cent and 15 per cent, respectively
(market share in terms of unit shipments). HP, along with Lenovo, Acer and
Toshiba, grew rapidly in this space mainly due to falling price points,
according to IDC.Data for Lenovo includes shipments for IBM PCD
(including Desktop and Notebook PCs but excluding x86 Servers and
Personal Workstations) starting Q2 of 2005. This reflects the legal status of
the companies, which merged during the second quarter of 2005, says IDC.

     

So what's driving this sudden awareness of notebooks? After all


neither notebooks nor laptops are new to the Indian IT users, and just like
the desktops, computer makers were trying hard for years to push sales of
notebooks too.

Affordability, the increasing demand for mobile computing in a fast


growing economy, the growth of wireless telephony in India and adoption of
technologies such as wireless, are some of the key reasons for the increase
in laptop sales.

"One of the biggest factor pushing sales for notebooks is the


affordability factor or reduction in prices" says Rajiev Grover, country
category manager, Hewlett-Packard India. "India's personal computer
market is undergoing a major transition as premium notebook computers

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are being brought to the mainstream, with almost half the prices, compared
with a year ago."

On average, the prices of entry-level notebook computers now range


between $800 to a little over $1000 compared to $1500 to over $2000 that
prevailed about 12 to 18 months back. Moreover, notebooks now cost only
around $200 more than a high -end desktop personal computer, which is
also driving many desktop buyers to opt for notebooks.

The Government's step to deregulate the wireless spectrum and de -


license wireless technologies such as 802.11b and 802.11g standards has
helped too. And the price competitiveness of laptops vis -à-vis desktops has
also played a major role, says Dinesh Pai, General Manager, Dell India.

Another important development was the coming in of the zero -duty


regime in April last year ³ this has made laptops more accessible for the
common man. The Indian customer is benefiting from the latest technology
at the lowest price possible. Educational institutions and corporations are
opting for laptops with wireless in a big way, says Pai.

However, according to Vinnie Mehta, the executive director of MAIT,


another key driver has been the growth of newer professions, that not only
require different working styles but also mobile devices for anytime -
anywhere computing.

"For instance many type the IT-enabled workers or back office workers
like medical transcription workers) need not work out of an old fashioned
office anymore. Similarly many financial and marketing sector professionals
need to be one the move always," says Mehta.

"The progression actually came from mobile phones, where people in


Indiastarted to engage in mobility as a part of their business," he added.

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Rajendra Kumar, Executive Vice-President, HCL Infosystems Ltd, the


domestic PC manufacturer, says the starting price for a laptop now is
around Rs 35,000 and it goes up to Rs 1.75 lakh, appealing to a wide
spectrum of customers.With laptops being brought into the mainstream at
almost half the prices as compared to a year ago, India's computer market is
seeing exponential growth. A year ago, an entry -level laptop was at about Rs
45,000. Now it is available for under Rs 30,000. Next year, the laptop
market is set for a larger pie of the household share as well, up from 12 per
cent in 2005, says Rajiev Grover, Country Category Manager, Consumer
Portables, Hewlett-Packard (HP).

India is a price-sensitive market, thus cost is certainly a key buying


parameter. Zenith has launched Intel Centrino notebooks priced at Rs
39,990 with DVD combo optical drives, says Devita Saraf, Executive
Director, Zenith Computers. Low-cost offerings will be a good catch for first-
time laptop users, as a desktop replacement. But, any decision to buy
notebooks should be made after considering various parameters.

In August 2004, Zenith launched laptops with the `Power of Seven'.


Zenith has 450 dedicated retail stores and plans to grow to 1,000 stores by
the end of 2006, says Saraf. Laptops vs desktops

Laptops will not take away the desktop PC. The usage of the two
depends on the user profile. Both will co -exist with their own benefits. A
desktop has a higher probability of upgrades to increase its life with low
maintenance costs, whereas laptop maintenance is higher than the desktop
PC's. Even though laptops allow more mobility, they invite more physical
security-related issues compared to desktops, he says.Wh ile the trend
towards mobility will continue to grow, "we believe the PC will never die."

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The future of the PC, as we know it, is in smaller, more compact, lighter
designs. The notebook of today is probably the best example of what the
home PC will look like in the future, except that it will not cost as much. The
other factor at play here is the effect of convergence and information
appliances, says Dinesh Pai, General Manager, Dell India.

And all this means that its party time for notebook vendors. But yet
another important trend that is emerging from this shift is that while the
multinationals notebook vendors are experiencing burgeoning sales, local
notebook makers' cash registers aren't really ringing that loud.

"We don't expect notebook sales to matc h our desktops for quite some
time," says Raj Saraf, chairman and MD, Zenith Computers, a biggish local
personal computer manufacturer that claims to sell "MNC computers and
local prices."

And the reason why MNC brand names are outselling local ones is
that "we have been scoring one up on the utility factor," said the local
spokesperson of Fujitsu PC Asia Pacific. "They (MNC brands) are growing
and gaining the choice of the user not just because of the narrowing of the
prices between desktop and notebook s but also because we have
amalgamated next generation technologies like bluetooth and Wi -Fi with
mobile computing to bring more utility to notebooks."

But it is also true that MNCV brands have been more aggressive
sellers. "The last couple of years have seen intense price wars, with leading
brands including Acer, HP and IBM forever racing to slash the price of their
notebooks," says Mehta of MAIT.

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The PC of tomorrow will cease to be a be -all-do-all machine. The home
PC would probably morph into a hub for `intelligent' home devices
performing very specialised tasks. Add to this the capability brought on by
the Internet and you have a laptop-like machine connecting various points
around the house with the added element of mobility. However, this will take
place over a few decades considering the high -low mix of technology around
the world and within boundaries, he says.

Adoption of broadband, wireless and gaming are likely to drive


demand for mobility products. Many customers may switch from desktops
to notebooks due to better price propositions and the inherent advantages of
mobility products, he says. Increasing consumer awareness, combined with
the availability of wireless hotspots in educational institutions, offices and
hotels, will create an increasingly favourable environment for notebooks, he
says.

     

As more computer users transition to sleek notebooks/ultra sleek


notebooks and access networks from remote locations and public wireless
networks, user and system security have beco me a top priority. There will be
more demands from customers to protect their data, access, and network,
he says.

 

HP is looking at the media and entertainment space in a big way. To


address this market requirement, "we recently launched our premium range
of Pavilion notebooks. Priced between Rs 50,000 and Rs 70,000, the HP
Pavilion notebooks come with a remote control , a neon backlit keyboard and
a quick play option (entertainment -related software) to help users switch
straight to, say, a movie, without waiting for the laptop to boot up." The

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downside is that the battery offers a low two -and-a-half-hours to three
hours backup, says Grover of HP.

The threat of the unorganised sector is miniscule. Laptops are a high -


involvement product and the consumer places a lot of emphasis on after -
sales service and brand, which the unorganised market is unable to offer.
With price cuts boosting the laptop market, companies do not see local PC
assemblers as a threat.


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DINESH Pai, General Manager, Dell India, offers some insight into
making the right choice.It is critical to understand one's own specific needs
while choosing a notebook. The priorities for mobile computing are weight,
wireless performance and battery life. Weight is undoubtedly the most
critical factor. One should also pay attention to the average run time of the
notebook's battery as also built -in wireless functions.

Moreover, the processor, the memory capacity, scalability in a


networked environment, the quality and size of display, the optical drives
and pointing devices, power consumption, costs of usage, maintenance and
a host of other factors determined by the specific set of needs of each
customer should also to be taken into account while choosing a laptop.

As more computer users transition to sleek notebooks and access networks


from remote locations and public wireless networks, user and system security will
become a top priority, he says.

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J  è

!0   J" 

The     J  (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as


, is currently the world's largest information technology corporation and
is known worldwide for its printers and personal computers. Headquartered
in Palo Alto, California, United States, it has a global presence in the fields
of computing, printing, and digital imaging, and also provides software and
services. The company which once catered to engineering and medical
markets now markets to households with products such as cameras and ink
cartridges found in grocery and department stores.

HP posted US$91.7 billion in annual r evenue in 2006 compared to


US$91.4 for IBM, making it the world's largest technology vendor in terms of
sales. HP is now the No. 1 ranking company in worldwide personal computer
shipments, surpassing rival Dell, market research firms Gartner and IDC
reported in October 2006; pe r Gartner [2], the gap between HP and Dell
widened substantially at the end of 2006, with HP taking a near 3.5%
market share lead.

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Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard both graduated from Stanford


University in 1934. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto
while they were post-grad students at Stanford during the Great Depression.

The partnership was formalized on January 1, 1939 with an


investment of US$538. [1] Bill won the coin toss and named their electronics
manufacturing enterprise the "Hewlett-Packard Company."

Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful
product was a precision audio oscillator, the Model 200A. Their innovation
was the use of a small light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a
critical portion of the circuit. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for
$54.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200.
The Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the
200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. At 33
years, it was perhaps the longest -selling basic electronic design of all time.

One of the company's earliest customers was The Walt Disney


Company, who bought eight Model 200B oscillators (at $71.50 each) for use
in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters
for the movie Fantasia.

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The company was originally rather unfocused, working on a wide range of


electronic products for industry and even agriculture. Eventually they elected to
focus on high-quality electronic test and measurement equipment. Throughout the
1940s to well into the 1990s the company focused on making signal generators,
voltmeters, oscilloscopes, counters, and other test equipment. Their distinguishing
feature was pushing the limits of measurement range and accuracy. For instance,
almost every HP voltmeter or signal generator has one or more extra clicks of its
knobs than its competitors. HP volt- or ammeters would measure down and up an
extra 10 to 100 times the units of other meters. Although there were good reasons
why competing meters stopped at 1 volt full scale, HP engineers figured out ways of
extending the range of their equipment by a considerable amount. They also
focused on extreme accuracy and stability, leading to a wide range of very accurate,
precise, and stable frequency counters, voltmeters, thermometers, and time
standards.

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HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it


did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the
"Traitorous Eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild
Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division,
established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for
internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using
these devices.

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HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation
minicomputers with its instruments. But after deciding that it would be
easier to buy another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the
computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of
minicomputers. A simple accumulator -based design, with registers arranged
somewhat similarly to the Intel x86 architecture still used today, it would
last 20 years and several attempts to replace it. It would give birth to the HP
9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers, which predated
the PCs by nearly a decade. The HP 3000 was an advanced stack based
design for business computing server later redesigned with RISC technology
that has only recently been retired from the market.

The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced


forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, and screen labeled function keys
now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. Although scoffed at in
the formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as
the world's largest technology vendor in sales.

HP is acknowledged by î  magazine as the producer of the world's


first personal computer, in 1968, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A.[2] HP called it
a desktop calculator because, as Bill Hewlett said, "If we had called it a
computer, it would have been rejected by our customers' computer gurus
because it didn't look like an IBM. We therefore decided to call it a
calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared." An engineering triumph at
the time, the logic circuit was produced without any integrated circuits; the
assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components.
With CRT readout, magnetic card storage, and printer the price was around
$5000.

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They


introduced the world's first 

 
 


  in 1972
(the HP-35), the first    in 1974 (the HP-65), the first
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  in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first
symbolic and graphing calculator HP-28C. Like their scientific and business
calculators, their oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and other measurement
instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter
products are now part of spi n-off Agilent's product line). The company's
design philosophy in this period was summarized as "design for the guy at
the next bench".

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In 1984, HP introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop.
Along with its scanner product line, these have later been developed into
successful multifunction products, the most significant being single -unit
printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP's
tremendously popular LaserJet line of laser printers depend almost entirely
on Canon's components (print engines), which in turn use technology
developed by Xerox. HP develops the hardware, firmware, and software that
convert data into dots for the mechanism to print.

In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which


initially had been targeted at university, research, and business customers,
to reach consumers. Later in the decade HP opened hpshopping.com as an
independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; t he store was
rebranded "HP Home & Home Office Store" in 2005.

HP also grew through acquisitions, buying Apollo Computer in 1989,


Convex Computer in 1995, and Compaq in 2002. Compaq itself had bought
Tandem Computers in 1997 (which had been started by ex-HP employees),
and Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. Following this strategy HP

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became a major player in desktops, laptops, and servers for many different
markets.

In 1987, the Palo Alto garage where Hewlett and Packard started their
business was designated as a California State historical landmark.

In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and


imaging were spun off from HP to form Agilent. Agilent's spin -off was the
largest initial public offering in the history of Silicon Valley. The spin-off
created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing
scientific instruments, semiconductors, optical networking devices, and
electronic test equipment for telecom and wireless R&D and production.
Also in July 1999, HP appointed Carly Fiorina as CEO. Fiorina was the first
woman ever to serve as CEO of a company included in the Dow Jones
Industrial Average. Fiorina was forced to resign on February 9, 2005.

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HP has a successful line of laptops,printers, scanners, digital


cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstations, and home -small
business computers. HP today promotes itself as not just being a hardware
and software company, but also one that offers a full range of services to
architect, implement and support today's IT infrastructure.

  


 
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According to HP's 2005 U.S. SEC 10-K filing, HP's Imaging and
Printing Group is "the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the
world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices,
providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to
small and medium businesses to large enterprises." This division is
currently headed by Vyomesh Joshi.

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ñ Inkjet and LaserJet printers, consumables and related products.


ñ the Indigo Digital Press.
ñ the HP Web Jetadmin printer management software.

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ñ the HP Output Management suite of software, including HP Output Server.
ñ the LightScribe optical recording technology that laser-etches labels on
disks.

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HP's Personal Systems Group is "one of the leading vendors of


personal computers ("PCs") in the world based on unit volume shipped and
annual revenue."

Personal Systems Group products/technology include:

ñ Consumer PCs including the HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario and VoodooPC


series.

ñ Workstations for Unix, Windows and Linux systems.


ñ Handheld Computing including iPAQ Pocket PC handheld computing devices
ñ Digital Entertainment including DVD+RW drives, HP Movie Writer and HP
Digital Entertainment Center. HP resold the Apple iPod from HP until
November 2005.

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In HP's financial reporting, HP groups its Enterprise Storage and


Servers, HP Services and Software under Technology Solutions Group.

HP's Enterprise Storage and Servers Group has product/technology


including:

ñ the ProLiant entry line of x86 based servers (from Compaq)


ñ the BladeSystem x86 based blade servers
ñ the Integrity line using the Itanium processor architecture (with Intel)
running on several operating systems including HP-UX (a UNIX
implementation)
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ñ the HP AlphaServer productline using the Alpha processor (from DEC) and
running on both:
m Tru64 operating system (from DEC)
m The OpenVMS large-scale, highly available server operating system
(from DEC)
ñ the NonStop high-reliability architecture and operating system (from
Tandem Computers)
ñ MIPs based Nonstop fault-tolerant server products
ñ the PA-RISC processor architecture
ñ the HP 9000 "Superdome" line of Servers and workstations
ñ the StorageWorks product line, which includes business class and enterprise
class data storage and protection products.

ñ the ProCurve family of network switches, wireless access points, and


routers.

HP's Software division has products/technologies:

ñ the OpenView family of management software


ñ the OpenCall family of telecom software

 


Π  (or HP Laboratories) is the research arm of HP. Founded in


1966, HP Labs' function is to deliver breakthrough technologies and to
create business opportunities that go beyond HP's current strategies. An
example of recent HP Lab technology includes the Memory spot chip.

   

HP is a supporter of FOSS and Linux. Some HP employees, such as


Linux CTO and former Debian Project Leader Bdale Garbee actively
contribute and have Open Source job responsibilities. Many others
c 


participate in the Open Source community as volunteers. HP is also known
in the (GNU/)Linux community for releasing drivers for many of their
printers under the GNU GPL.

Hewlett-Packard also works extensively with Microsoft and uses


technology from most major software and hardware vendors.

Until November 2005, HP offered a re -branded version of the Apple


iPod. Hewlett-Packard partners with many application software companies,
for example SAP AG.

   

HP has many sponsorships. One well known sponsorship is Walt Disney


World's EPCOT Park's Mission: Space. Others can be found on Hewlett-Packards
Website [3] From 1995 to 1999 they were the shirt sponsor of English Premier
League club Tottenham Hotspur.

  

Agilent Technologies, not HP, retains the direct product legacy of the original
company founded in 1939. Agilent's current portfolio of electronic instruments are
descended from HP's very earliest products. HP entered the computer business only
after its instrumentation competencies were well-established. Agilent was spun off
from HP in 1999.

c 


J 

The founders, known to friends and employees alike as Bill and Dave,
developed a unique management style that has come to be known as the HP
Way. In Bill's words, the HP Way is "a core ideology . . . [that] includes a
deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and
reliability, a commitment to community responsibility, and a view that the
company exists to make technical contributions for the adv ancement and
welfare of humanity." [6]

The HP Alumni Association maintains a tribute to Bill and Dave's


version of the HP Way, circa 1992.

$ 

Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard tossed a coin to de cide whether the
company they founded would be called Hewlett -Packard or Packard-Hewlett.
Packard lost.

HP spun off a small company, Dynec, to specialize in digital


equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned
upside down to be the logo "dy" of the new company. Eventually Dynec
changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric


companies in Japan to develop several high -quality products. The products
were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP -looking
products in Japan.

c 


Just about every HP product in the test equipment line was labeled
with three to five digits followed by the letter "A". Improved versions went to
suffixes "B" through "D". A small handful of products somehow got bizarre
model numbers, such as the "H201 -20" microwave signal generator.

Steve Wozniak originally designed the Apple I computer while working


at HP, but they turned down his offer of licensing the design to HP.

HP products were usually very rugged, with clean styling, top notch
components, and with conservative specifications, so customers were
usually pleasantly surprised when the equipment looked and worked better
than expected. There were a few missteps, however:

ñ In the 1960s they briefly went to painting their equipment a light lavender
color.
ñ In the early 1970s they started a line of "lower cost" test equipment with
atrociously ugly and flimsy plastic cases. The cases also got a bad case of
1970s colors, coming out in dark shag rug green and burnt orange.
ñ On test equipment made in the 1980s a common problem was flimsy knobs
that easily broke off.
ñ A very few innovative but malfunctioning products, such as the original HP
3000 computers, had to be recalled for extensive reworking.

  

ñ Chairman of the Board, CEO, and President: Mark Hurd (March 29, 2005 -
current, appointed Chairman September 22, 2006)

c 




ñ Co-founder and CEO: David Packard (CEO: 1964²1969)


ñ Co-founder and CEO: William Hewlett (CEO: 1969²1978)
ñ CEO: John A. Young (1978³October 31, 1992)
ñ CEO: Lewis Platt (November 1, 1992³July 18, 1999)
ñ Chairman and CEO: Carly Fiorina (July 19, 1999³February 9, 2005,
appointed chairman in 2000)
ñ Interim CEO: Robert Wayman (February 10, 2005³March 28, 2005)
ñ CEO: Mark Hurd (CEO: April 1, 2005³; Chairman: September 22, 2006³)
ñ Chairman: Patricia C. Dunn (February 2005³September 22, 2006).

$

Hewlett-Packard received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality


Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2003, the second
year of the report. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best
Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 by î    magazine.

Hewlett-Packard is also involved in the NEPAD e-school program to


provide all schools in Africa with computers and internet access.

 J  

Hewlett-Packard has used a number of innovative commercials to sell


its products.


c 


 J     

In May 2006, the company launched a new campaign designed to


bring back the fact that the PC (Personal Computer) is a personal product.
The campaign utilized viral marketing, sophisticated visuals, and its own
web site. [8] Some of the ads featured well -known personalities - Pharrell,
Mark Burnett, Mark Cuban, Jay-Z, Shaun White, and Santa Claus (voiced
by Tim Allen, who plays him in u     film trilogy). Rather than
show a bunch of talking heads, each advertisement showed a neck -down
view in which the endorser, aided greatly by graphics, visually showed how
they used HP products. All these personalities weren't paid millions o f
dollars but brought a deal with HP to sponsor their or a selected charity
group.

Two months after having created The Computer Is Personal Again,


Dell followed up with its own campaign entitled "Purely You", which seems
to piggyback off the HP idea.


 &    

A television ad campaign for Hewlett -Packard's digital photography


(titled "You + HP: digital photography") has been noted for its simple special
effects and choice of music. It won "Campaign of the Year" from ?
magazine in 2004.[9]

c 


Songs used in "You + HP" Campaign:

ñ "Picture Book" by The Kinks


ñ "Out of the Picture" by The Robins
ñ "Pictures of You" by The Cure
ñ "The Rainbow" by The Apples in Stereo
ñ "Across the Universe" by The Beatles

J 

Major competitors of HP in the computer business include Apple Inc., Dell,


Gateway, Lenovo (Purchased IBM's Non-server Personal Computer Business), Sony
and Toshiba. Major competitors of HP in the server business include Sun
Microsystems, IBM and Dell. Major competitors of HP in the printer business
include Brother, Canon, Epson, Lexmark and Dell (who rebrands and repackages
Lexmark products). Upon acquiring Voodoo PC, HP and its newest subdivision will
compete in the enthusiast market against Falcon Northwest, Alienware (A division
of Dell), WidowPC and other manufacturers.

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Π 
 (NYSE: HPQ), commonly referred to as Œ, is an American
multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA. The company
was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard, and is now one of
the world's largest information technology companies, operating in nearly every country. HP specializes in
developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware,designing software and
delivering services. Major product lines include personal computing devices, enterprise servers, related
storage devices, as well as a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP markets its products
to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises directly as well as via online
distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology
vendors.

HP's posted net revenue in 2009 was $115 billion, with approximately $40 billion coming from services. In
2006, the intense competition between HP and IBM tipped in HP's favor, with HP posting revenue of
US$91.7 billion, compared to $91.4 billion for IBM; the gap between the companies widened to $21 billion
in 2009. In 2007, HP's revenue was $104 billion, making HP the first IT company in history to report
revenues exceeding $100 billion. In 2008 HP retained its global leadership position in inkjet, laser, large
format and multi-function printers market, and its leadership position in the hardware industry.[ Also HP
became #2 globally in IT services as reported by IDC & Gartner.

Major company changes include a spin-off of part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999,
its merger with Compaq in 2002, and the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of
$118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the
acquisition of 3Com; with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout
ofPalm for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010 won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07
billion) which Dell declined to match.

On August 6, 2010 CEO Mark Hurd resigned.Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of interim CEO, and on
September 30, 2010, Léo Apotheker became HP's new permanent CEO and Ray Lane, Managing Partner
at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, was elected to the position of non-executive Chairman. Both
appointments were effective November 1, 2010.

Company history

ü  
        

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ü 

Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard graduated in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The
company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past
professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression. Terman was considered a mentor to
them in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard (HP) in
Packard's garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide
whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett Packard won the
coin toss but named their electronics manufacturing enterprise the "Hewlett-Packard Company". HP
incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957.

Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was a precision
audio oscillator, the Model HP200A. Their innovation was the use of a small light bulb as a temperature
dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $54.40
when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators
continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. At 33
years, it was perhaps the longest-selling basic electronic design of all time.

One of the company's earliest customers was The Walt Disney Company, which bought eight Model 200B
oscillators (at $71.50 each) for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in
theaters for the movie ü   .

Ô    
The company was originally rather unfocused, working on a wide range of electronic products for industry
and even agriculture. Eventually they elected to focus on high-quality electronic test and measurement
equipment.

From the 1940s until well into the 1990s the company concentrated on making electronic test
equipment: signal generators, voltmeters, oscilloscopes, frequency counters,thermometers, time standards,
wave analyzers, and many other instruments. A distinguishing feature was pushing the limits of
measurement range and accuracy; many HP instruments were more sensitive, accurate, and precise than
other comparable equipment.

Following the pattern set by the company's first product, the 200A, test instruments were labelled with three
to five digits followed by the letter "A". Improved versions went to suffixes "B" through "E". As the product
range grew wider HP started using product designators starting with a letter for accessories, supplies,
software, and components.

 
HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not actively investigate
semiconductor devices until a few years after the "Traitorous Eight" had abandonedWilliam Shockley to
create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around
c 


1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some
of the products using these devices.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several
high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-
looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture (Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard) in 1963
to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999.

HP spun off a small company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the
HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new
company. Eventually Dynac changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented
with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would
be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966
with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers. These had a simple accumulator-based design, with
registers arranged somewhat similarly to the Intel x86 architecture still used today. The series was
produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the HP
9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers.

 
The HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned
with RISC technology, that has only recently been retired from the market. The HP 2640 series of smart
and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, and also introduced screen
labeled function keys, now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. The HP 2640 series included
one of the first bit mapped graphics displays that when combined with the HP 2100 21MX F-Series
microcoded Scientific Instruction Set enabled the first commercial WYSIWYG Presentation
Program, BRUNO that later became the program HP-Draw on the HP 3000. Although scoffed at in the
formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as the world's largest technology
vendor, in terms of sales.

"The new Hewlett-Packard 9100A personal computer is ready, willing, and able ... to relieve you of waiting to get on the

big computer."

c 


HP is identified by î magazine as the producer of the world's first marketed, mass-produced personal
computer, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, introduced in 1968. HP called it a desktop calculator, because, as
Bill Hewlett said, "If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers' computer
gurus because it didn't look like an IBM. We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense
disappeared." An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any integrated
circuits; the assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components. With CRT display,
magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5000. The machine's keyboard was a cross
between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetic keyboard.

Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple, originally designed the Apple I computer while working at HP and
offered it to them under their right of first refusal to his work, but they did not take it up as the company
wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets.[  ]

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world's first  
      in 1972 (the HP-35), the first   

 in 1974 (the HP-65),


the first  
 

   in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first symbolic and
graphing calculator, the HP-28C. Like their scientific and business calculators, their oscilloscopes, logic
analyzers, and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter
products are now part of spin-off Agilent's product line). The company's design philosophy in this period
was summarized as "design for the guy at the next bench".

The 98x5 series of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815, and the cheaper 80 series,
again of technical computers, started in 1979 with the 85. These machines used a version of the BASIC
programming language which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a
proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later IBM
Personal Computer, although the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high.

 

The garage in Palo Alto where Hewlett and Packard began their company

In 1984, HP introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop. Along with its scanner product line,
these have later been developed into successful multifunction products, the most significant being single-

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merger agreement." The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008, and it was publicly announced that
EDS would be re-branded "EDS an HP company." As of September 23, 2009, EDS is known as HP
Enterprise Services.

On November 11, 2009, 3Com and Hewlett-Packard announced that Hewlett-Packard would be acquiring
3Com for $2.7 billion in cash. The acquisition is one of the biggest in size among a series of takeovers and
acquisitions by technology giants to push their way to become one-stop shops. Since the beginning of the
financial crisis in 2007, tech giants have constantly felt the pressure to expand beyond their current market
niches. Dell purchased Perot Systems recently to invade into the technology consulting business area
previously dominated by IBM. Hewlett-Packard's latest move marked its incursion into enterprise
networking gear market dominated by Cisco.

 
On April 28, 2010, Palm, Inc. and Hewlett-Packard announced that HP would be acquiring Palm for 1.2
billion in cash and debt the deal officially closed on July 1, 2010. In the months leading up to the buyout it
was rumored that Palm was going to be purchased by either HTC, Dell, RIM or HP. The addition of Palm
handsets to the HP product line provides some overlap with the current iPAQ mobile products but will
significantly increase their mobile presence as those devices have not been selling well. The addition of
Palm brings HP a library of valuable patents as well the mobile operating platform known as webOS. On
July 1, 2010, the acquisition of Palm was final. On September 2, 2010 won its bidding war for 3PARwith a
$33 a share offer ($2.07 billion) which Dell declined to match.

On August 6, 2010 CEO Mark Hurd resigned amid controversy and CFO Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of
interim CEO. On September 30, 2010, Léo Apotheker was named as HP's new CEO and President.

Apotheker¶s appointment sparked a strong reaction from Oracle chief executive Larry Ellison, who
complained that Apotheker had been in charge of SAP when one of its subsidiaries was systematically
stealing software from Oracle. SAP accepted that its subsidiary, which has now closed, illegally accessed
Oracle intellectual property.

Facilities

The a sign marking the entrance to the HP corporate headquarters in Palo Alto, California

c 


HP's global operations are directed from its headquarters in Palo Alto, California, USA. Its U.S. operations
are directed from its facility inunincorporated Harris County, Texas. Its Latin America offices in
unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, U.S., near Miami. Its Europe offices in Meyrin, Switzerland,
near Geneva. Its Asia-Pacific offices are in Singapore. [39][40][41][42][43][44][45] It also has large operations inBoise,
Idaho, Roseville, California, San Diego, California, and Plano, Texas (the former headquarters of EDS,
which HP acquired). In the UK, HP is based at a large site in Bracknell, Berkshire with offices in various UK
locations, including a landmark office tower in London, 88 Wood Street. Its recent acquisition of 3Com will
expand its employee base to Marlborough, Massachusetts.[46]

Products and organizational structure

HP has successful lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstation
computers, and computers for home and small business use; many of the computers came from the 2002
merger with Compaq. HP today promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full
range of services to design, implement, and support IT infrastructure.

HP's Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) is "the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world
for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments
from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises." Products and technology
associated with IPG include Inkjet and LaserJet printers, consumables and related products, Officejet all-in-
one multifunction printer/scanner/faxes, Large Format Printers, Indigo Digital Press, HP Web Jetadmin
printer management software, HP Output Management suite of software, LightScribe optical recording
technology, HP Photosmart digital cameras and photo printers, HP SPaM, and Snapfish by HP, a photo
sharing and photo products service. On December 23, 2008, HP released iPrint Photo for iPhone a free
downloadable software application that allows the printing of 4" x 6" photos.

HP's Personal Systems Group (PSG) claims to be "one of the leading vendors of personal computers
("PCs") in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue." PSG includes business PCs and
accessories, consumer PCs and accessories, (e.g., HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario, VoodooPC), handheld
computing (e.g., iPAQ Pocket PC), and digital "connected" entertainment (e.g., HP MediaSmart TVs, HP
MediaSmart Servers, HP MediaVaults, DVD+RW drives). HP resold the Apple iPod until November 2005.

HP Enterprise Business (EB) incorporates Technical services, Enterprise Services (formerly known
as EDS), HP Software Division, and Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN). The
Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN) oversees "back end" products like storage and
servers. HP's networking business unit ProCurve is responsible for the family of network switches,
wireless access points, and routers. They are currently a business unit of ESSN.

HP Software Division is the company's enterprise software unit. For years, HP has produced and marketed
its brand of enterprise management software, HP OpenView. From September 2005 through 2010, HP
purchased a total of 15 software companies between as part of a publicized, deliberate strategy to augment

c 


its software offerings for large business customers. The division markets its software in four categories: HP
IT Management Software (also known as business technology optimization software), HP Information
Management Software, business intelligence solutions, and communications and media software and
solutions.

An HP camera with an SDIO interface

HP's Office of Strategy and Technology has four main functions: (1) steering the company's $3.6 billion
research and development investment, (2) fostering the development of the company's global technical
community, (3) leading the company's strategy and corporate development efforts, and (4) performing
worldwide corporate marketing activities. Under this office is  , the research arm of HP. Founded in
1966, HP Labs's function is to deliver new technologies and to create business opportunities that go
beyond HP's current strategies. An example of recent HP Lab technology includes the Memory spot
chip.   further provides a web forum on early-state innovations to encourage open feedback
from consumers and the development community.

HP also offers managed services where they provide complete IT-support solutions for other companies
and organisations. Some examples of these are: A large activity is HP offering "Professional Support" and
desktop "Premier Support" for Microsoft in the EMEA marketplace. This is done from the Clonskeagh office
in Dublin, Sofia and Israel. Support is offered on the line of Microsoft operation systems, Exchange,
Sharepoint and some office-applications. But HP also offers outsourced services for companies like Bank
of Ireland, some UK banks, the U.S. defense forces, etc.

Culture

The founders, known to friends and employees alike as Bill and Dave, developed a unique management
style that came to be known as î !. In Bill's words, the HP Way is "a core ideology ... which
includes a deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and reliability, a commitment to
community responsibility, and a view that the company exists to make technical contributions for the
advancement and welfare of humanity." The following are the tenets of The HP Way:

1. We have trust and respect for individuals.


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2. We focus on a high level of achievement and contribution.
3. We conduct our business with uncompromising integrity.
4. We achieve our common objectives through teamwork.
5. We encourage flexibility and innovation.

Corporate social responsibility

In July 2007, the company announced that it had met its target, set in 2004, to recycle one
billion pounds of electronics, toner and ink cartridges. It has set a new goal of recycling a further two billion
pounds of hardware by the end of 2010. In 2006, the company recovered 187 million pounds of electronics,
73 percent more than its closest competitor.

In 2008, HP released its supply chain emissions data ± an industry first.

In September 2009, £ ranked HP #1 on its 2009 Green Rankings of America's 500 largest
corporations. According to environmentalleader.com, "Hewlett-Packard earned its number one position due
to its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs, and was the first major IT company to report
GHG emissions associated with its supply chain, according to the ranking. In addition, HP has made an
effort to remove toxic substances from its products, though Greenpeace has targeted the company for not
doing better."

HP took the top spot on x   " !#  $'s 100 Best Corporate Citizens List for
2010. The list is cited by "î as one of America's most important business rankings. HP beat out
other Russell 1000 Index companies because of its leadership in seven categories including environment,
climate changes and corporate philanthropy. In 2009, HP was ranked fifth.

ü   magazine named HP one of the World¶s Most Admired Companies in 2010, placing it No. 2 in the
computer industry and No. 32 overall in its list of the top 50. This year in the computer industry HP was
ranked No. 1 in social responsibility, long-term investment, global competitiveness, and use of corporate
assets.

In April 2010, HP released its latest Global Responsibility report covering accomplishments during
2009. The report claims that in 2009, HP decreased its total energy use by 9 percent compared with 2008.
HP recovered a total of 118,000 tonnes of electronic products and supplies for recycling in 2009, including
61 million print cartridges.

In an April 2010 % ü   x  article, HP was one of 12 companies commended for "designing
products to be safe from the start, following the principles of green chemistry." The commendations came
from Environment California, an environmental advocacy group, who praised select companies in the
Golden State and the Bay Area for their efforts to keep our planet clean and green.

In May 2010, HP was named one of the World¶s Most Ethical Companies by Ethisphere Institute. This is
the second year in a row HP has made the list. Ethisphere reviewed, researched and analyzed thousands

c 


of nominations in more than 100 countries and 35 industries to create the 2010 list. HP was one of only 100
companies to earn the distinction of top winner and was the only computer hardware vendor to be
recognized. Ethisphere honors firms that promote ethical business standards and practices by going
beyond legal minimums, introducing innovative ideas that benefit the public.

HP is listed in Greenpeace¶s Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics manufacturers according
to their policies on toxic chemicals, recycling and climate change. In October 2010, HP secured the4th
place (out of 18) in this ranking (climbing up 4 places) with an increased score of 5.5 (up from 4.9). This
improvement was mainly caused by the progress in bringing products that are free from PVC and BFRs
onto the market and a new commitment to phase out beryllium and compounds by July 2011. Moreover,
HP aims to complete its phase out of toxic vinyl plastic (PVC) and brominated flame retardands (BFRs) in
2011. Greenpeace gives HP credit for having many PVC and BFR-free products on the market, including a
desktop PC with PVC-free power supply, several series of notebooks, another desktop and two LCD
monitors. It has also recently launched the first PVC free printer.

Brand and legacy

According to a Business Week Study, HP is currently the world's 11th most valuable brand. Since its
creation, the HP Logo has remained largely the same. Because of its extreme simplicity, the logo is
recognized all over the world.

A Hewlett-Packard sponsored Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

The company sponsors the HP Pavilion at San Jose, home to the NHL's San Jose Sharks.

HP has many sponsorships. One well known sponsorship is of Walt Disney World's EpcotPark's Mission:
SPACE. Others can be found on Hewlett-Packard's website. From 1995 to 1999 they were the shirt
sponsor of Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur. They also sponsored the BMW Williams Formula 1
team until 2006 (a sponsorship formerly held by Compaq), and as of 2010 sponsor Renault F1. Hewlett-

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Packard also has the naming rights arrangement for the HP Pavilion at San Jose, home of the San Jose
Sharks NHL hockey team.

Agilent Technologies, not HP, retains the direct product legacy of the original company founded in 1939.
Agilent's current portfolio of electronic instruments are descended from HP's very earliest products. HP
entered the computer business only after its instrumentation competencies were well-established. When
Agilent was spun off, items in the Corporate Archives were split-up along product lines, with Agilent
retaining almost all of the original HP archives - only where there was duplication of material, was HP given
early Test and Measurement material. Both companies retained an original 200A Audio Oscillator.

After the acquisition of Compaq in 2002, HP has maintained the "Compaq Presario" brand on low-end
home desktops and laptops, the "HP Compaq" brand on business desktops and laptops, and the"HP
ProLiant" brand on Intel-architecture servers. (The "HP Pavilion" brand is used on home entertainment
laptops and all home desktops.)

HP uses DEC's "StorageWorks" brand on storage systems; Tandem's "NonStop" servers are now branded
as "HP Integrity NonStop".

Controversy

#     !  

On September 5, 2006, £ revealed that HP's general counsel, at the behest of
chairwoman Patricia Dunn, contracted a team of independent security experts to investigate board
members and several journalists in order to identify the source of an information leak. In turn, those
security experts recruited private investigators who used a spying technique known as pretexting. The
pretexting involved investigators impersonating HP board members and nine journalists (including reporters
for CNET, the £&  
 and the î %'  ) in order to obtain their phone records. The
information leaked related to HP's long-term strategy and was published as part of a CNET article in
January 2006. Most HP employees accused of criminal acts have since been acquitted.

Hewlett-Packard has also been at the center of a fiasco in recent years. In November 2007, Hewlett-
Packard released a BIOS update covering a wide range of laptops with the intent to speed up the computer
fan as well as have it run constantly, whether the computer was on or off The reason was to prevent the
overheating of defective NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) that had been shipped to many of the
original equipment manufacturers, including Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Apple. In July 2008, HP revealed
an extension to the initial one-year warranty covering a few of the affected computers, but leaving many
more without the protection, despite research showing that these computers were also affected. Since this
point, several websites have been documenting the issue, most notably www.hplies.com, a forums
dedicated to what they refer to as Hewlett-Packard's "multi-million dollar cover up" of the issue. There have
been several small claims lawsuits filed in several states, as well as suits being filed in other countries.
Hewlett-Packard also faced a class action lawsuit in 2009 over their i7 processor computers. The

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complainants stated that their systems locked up within 30 minutes of powering on, consistently. Even after
being replaced with newer i7 systems, the lockups continued.

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t wll help the copany to the strength and weaknesses present n t. t help n deternng
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cop ter n nda. Ths report wll e refly explaned ao t arket of cop ter. Whch s
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ph cop ter arket n nda s Bggest than others cop ter. The 70% arket share
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step to the research. t wll e ery help f ll to nderstand to c stoers need and satsfacton.

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of arketng, whch were also effectely sed n ths research work.

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hae ery elaorately exaned the aro s ss es n desgnng the arketng strateges for
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per at  ng P r ce at wh ch t hey ar e a k ng dea ls a nd t he ol e of ds co nt s
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pr ef er enc e. Als odea l er s per s pect  es ao t t he r a nd ar e als o t o  e
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other got. agences.
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 J è%

  '   

´A study on the Consumer Perception with reference to HP laptopsµ

  '   


Hp is one of the leading PC manufactures in the world and is one of the


leading seller of Computer Hardware in India. It is currently facing cut throat
competition from PC manufactures in the market. So to tackle this problem we
have taken a survey on customer perception towards the laptops manufactured by
Hewlett Packard. It also studies the buyers profile in the demographic and
psychographic. The study applied is descriptive in nature and it also tends to find
the customers view about the important aspects of the product and to determine
the competition market share of HP.

  '   

The aim of the study is to provide the Management of Hewlett Packard India
with the information which would help it understand the perceptions customers in
Bangalore have about the Laptops manufactured by Hewlett Packard, any negative

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perception about their product, the reasons for such perceptions and
recommendations and suggestions to overcome these problems.

  
($

ñ To study the level of awareness of Hewlett Packard Laptops.


ñ Find customer perceptions about the quality, price and design of their
products.
ñ Reasons for dissatisfaction / negative perception about any aspect of HP
Laptops.
ñ To assess the demographics of the prospective customers of Hewlett Packard
Laptops.
ñ To offer subjective recommendations based on the above study.

  '   



ñ The study is limited to the users of laptops within Ban galore city only,
ñ All the responses of the respondents are assumed to be true,
ñ Sample size selected has to be restricted due to time and budget
constraints.
ñ Respondents were either vague or incomplete at times which makes
the answers of the interpretation difficult.


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 '   J 

ñ Primary Data
ñ Secondary Data

    

Primary Data for this research has been exclusively collected from the
following sources

ñ Questionnaire conducted with a sample size of 100 respondents.

ñ Information collected from the employees working in the authorized dealer·s

stores of Hewlett Packard.

ñ Informal interview was conducted with the Marketing Head of Hewlett

Packard.

    

Information for the purpose of the study was collected from the newspapers,

magazines, company journals, company reports, standard textbooks, and

appropriate information from the Internet has been acquired wherever necessary.

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The study was conducted using survey method.


$   

Surveys are the best suited for descriptive research, company advised
me to undertake the survey to learn the brand awareness and customer
satisfaction.

  è

The information was gathered using structured questionnaire .

) 

A Questionnaire consists of a set of questions presented to
respondents, in order to get their feedback regarding the product.

  ' 

The study was conducted in various areas of Bangalore city only, with
the help of 100 respondents to carry on the survey, an extensive field work
was undertaken.






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ñ   ' $
The universe in the study is an infinite number of items taken into
account

ñ    
The sampling unit is limited to the users of laptop computers within
Bangalore city.

ñ    
Number of respondents taken into consideration is 100.

ñ     *


The Sampling technique used in the study is conducted among the
users of the HP laptop.

  '  


The objectives are drafted and a projective quantitative questionnaire is

constructed for the research. The data thus obtained is tabulated through the

construction of tables and graphs and finally the findings are interpreted.

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 èJ   "

è   


$  '  

Marketing has evolved from the time man existed on earth. Following are the
phases of development of marketing


  

   



   



;  


   




;    



  


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!   The goods are exchanged against goods without any other medium
of exchange like money.

   This was the stage where producers, instead of buying
concerned with customer preference concentrating on the mass production of
goods for the purchase of profit.

    This stage witness major changes in all the spheres of economic
life. The selling activity becomes the dominating factor without any efforts for the
satisfaction of the consumer needs.

    Customer·s importance was satisfied but only as a means
of disposing of goods produced competition become more stiffer.

J   Under this stage only such products are bought forward to
the markets which are capable of satisfying of taste and expectation of consumer
satisfaction.

     The marketing function assumes the managerial role to
co-ordinate all the interacting business with the objectives of planning, promotion
and distribution.

   The companies are not only cares for consumers but also for
social welfare. Thus, social welfare becomes the added dimension to the companies.


c 

' '  

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The marketing guru has said ´Marketing is a social and managerial process
by which individuals and group obtain what they need and want through creating,
offering and changing products of value with othersµ.

      

Addressed ´marketing is the performance of business activities that direct


the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer to userµ.

 

´Marketing is the business process by which products are matched with


market and through which transfers of ownership are affectedµ.

è   

´Marketing is the process of discovering and translating consumers needs


and wants into product and services and specifications, creating demand for these
products and services and then in term expanding demand. 

By all these definitions we can derive that marketing is compressive term


that includes all resource and set of activities necessary to direct and facilitate flow
of goods and services from producer to consumer in the process of distribution.

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($ '  

At the end of all marketing activities is the satisfaction of human wants and
derive profits from them.

 '      '  


($ '  +

ñ Intelligent and effective application of modern marketing: Today economic


changing growth rate, relatively high inflation, high interest rates, rapid
technological change and new aggressive rivals challenge marketing firm to
adopt and respond to change for survival and prosperity.

ñ To develop the market field: Marketing is the most dynamic field where
change rules the roost. Change is continuing pre occupation among
marketers.

ñ To develop and implement guiding policies for better results: Innovative


marketing guiding policies and their effective implementation to assure
better results.

ñ To find sources for further information concerning the market problems: The
world of business in moving on the basis of countless decisions, marketing
decisions are more complex and intricate having impinging impact on the
very fortune of a company.

ñ To take appropriate and opportune action in the course of working. The


marketing information system designed by the marketing organization helps
in identifying the problem, investigating analyzing it and interpreting the
problem for the final decision.

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 '  

Marketing involves certain activities to make the goods from producers to


consumers. It consist of operations and an operation may be performed several
times either by a producer, middleman, till the commodity finally reaches in the
hand of consumers.

,+  ' # 

Exchange implies the transfer of goods and services money or money·s


worth. Exchange brings about change in the ownership of goods. It is a two-way
process invading two separate but supporting activities viz, buying and selling.

ñ   Selling is the sum total of all those activities that push the
commodities to the buyers or consumers at a profitable price. It is the
process that involves personal and impersonal efforts made in persuading
the prospective customers to buy a commodity or service.

ñ    $   Product ² planning is the planning or


forecasting what consumers want in terms of quantity, quality, time, place,
price, where as, product development refers to making available such goods
to meet the requirement of consumers as demanded by them.

ñ   J  It includes such special efforts to induce and persuade
the prospective users to purchase the products of the seller only.

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ñ   Negotiation as to terms of quality, quantity, price of the
product time and mode of transport payment etc« are to be made with
prospective buyers.

ñ J   Once the terms and conditions are settled between buyers and
sellers a final contract would be entered into, where legally, ownership of
goods passes on from seller to buyer.

ñ ! Buying is another function of exchange that refers to all such


activities involves in the assembling of goods under a single ownership and
control. Its immediate purpose is to bring commodities together where they
are wanted for use in production for final consumption.


 '  '  '  

ñ    Buyers are to study their own market condition in


order know the types quantity and quality of goods that are required by final
users.

ñ J  : It is clothed with the selection of various sources of supply,


keeping in touch with them, to get the goods quickly reasonably and
regularly.

ñ  : Buyers and sellers negotiate the terms and condition of price
quantity, quality and time of delivery, transport & payment.

ñ J   It is the last phase that binds the parties of exchange by
means of a contract where the titles to the goods more from seller to buyers.

c 


·+  '    

These are the functions that are related with creation of place an d time
utilities, they are:

ñ    : Transportation is the physical means to move the goods


and people from a place to another. It is essential spoke in the wheel of
market. It is responsible for the creation of time utility

ñ   Storage is equally important that is creates time utility. The
products are to be preserved from time of production to the time of
consumption. It is the base of consumers to get the goods as and when
required.

‰+     

These are the function that facilitates the process of exchange.

ñ   Finance is the base for all marketing activities. It makes the
exchange process smooth and acts as lubricating oil to the wheel of
marketing.

ñ 
  Market risk are inherent so long the process of exchange
continues many risks are involved in marketing which brings about changes
in ownership, place etc«

ñ   '  The much desired success of marketing depends on


correct and timely decisions. These decisions are based on market

c 


information. It includes all facts, estimates, opinion, views, regarding the
market

ñ     Standardization helps on tackle certain major problems of


marketing. It is related with the division of commodities into distinct groups
standardization involves establishment of certain criteria to which the goods
must confirm.


-. '  

In popular usage, "marketing" is the promotion of products, especially


advertising and branding. However, in professional usage the term has a
wider meaning which recognizes that marketing is customer centered.
Products are often developed to meet the desires of groups of customers or
even, in some cases, for specific customers. E. Jerome McCarthy divided
marketing into four general sets of activities. His typology has become so
universally recognized that his four activity sets, the Four Ps, have passed
into the language.

 '  

ñ c   The Product management and Product marketing aspects of


marketing deal with the specifications of the actual goods or services, and
how it relates to the end-user's needs and wants.
ñ c    This refers to the process of setting a price for a product, including
discounts. The price need not be monetary - it can simply be what is
exchanged for the product or service, e.g. time, or attention.
ñ c    This includes advertising, sales promotion, publicity, and
personal selling, and refers to the various methods of promoting the product,
brand, or company.
ñ Physical distribution refers to how the product gets to the customer; for
example, point of sale placement or retailing. This fourth P has also
sometimes been called 
, referring to the channel by which a product or
c 


service is sold (e.g. online vs. retail), which geographic region or industry, to
which segment (young adults, families, business people), etc.

These four elements are often referred to a s the marketing mix. A


marketer can use these variables to craft a marketing plan. The four Ps
model is most useful when marketing low value consumer products.
Industrial products, services, high value consumer products require
adjustments to this model.

Services marketing must account for the unique nature of services.


Industrial or B2B marketing must account for the long term contr actual
agreements that are typical in supply chain transactions. Relationship
marketing attempts to do this by looking at marketing from a long term
relationship perspective rather than individual transactions.

As a counter to this, Morgan, in    î    (Jossey-


Bass, 1988), adds "Perhaps the most significant criticism of the 4 Ps
approach, which you should be aware of, is that it unconsciously
emphasizes the inside ²out view (looking from the company outwards),
whereas the essence of marketing should be the outside ²in approach". Even
so, having made this important caveat, the 4 Ps offer a memorable and quite
workable guide to the major categories of marketing activity, as well as a
framework within which these can be used.

 

A   is a social arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to


discover information and carry out a voluntary exchange of goods or
services. It is one of the two key institutions that organize trade, along with
the right to own property. Allowing markets to arrive at a Pareto efficient
outcome is one of the key components of capitalism.

In everyday usage, the word "market" may refer to the location where goods
are traded, sometimes known as a marketplace, or to a street market.

c 


 '  

The function of a market requires, at a minimum, that both parties


expect to become better off as a result of the transaction. Markets generally
rely on price adjustments to provide information to parties engaging in a
transaction, so that each may accurately gauge the subsequent change of
their welfare. In less sophisticated markets, such as those involving barter,
individual buyers and sellers must engage in a more lengthy process of
haggling in order to gain the same information. Markets are efficient when
the price of a good s or services attracts exactly as much demand as the
market can currently supply. The chief function of a market, then, is to
adjust prices to accommodate fluctuations in supply and demand in order to
achieve allocative efficiency . An economic system in which goods and
services are exchanged by market functions is called a market economy. An
alternative economic system in which non -market forces (often government
mandates) determine prices are called planned economies or command
economies. The attempt to combine socialist ideals with the incentive system
of a market is known as market socialism.

  '  

Although many markets exist in the traditional sense --such as a flea


market--there are various other types of them and various organizational
structures to assist their functions.

A market can be organized as an auction, as a shopping center, as a


complex institution such as a stock market, and as an informal discussion
between two individuals.

In economics, a market that runs under laissez-faire policies is a free


market. It is "free" in the sense that the government makes no attempt to
intervene through taxes, subsidies, minimum wages, price ceilings, etc.

c 


Markets may be distorted by a seller or sellers with monopoly power, or a
buyer with monopsony power. Also, the level of organization or negotiation
power of buyers, markedly affects the functioning of the market. Markets
where price negotiations do not arrive at efficient outcomes for both sides
are said to experience market failure.

Most markets are regulated by state wide laws and regulations. While
barter markets exist, most markets use currency or some other form of
money.

Markets of varying types can spontan eously arise whenever a party


has interest in goods or services that some other party can provide. Hence
there can be a market for cigarettes in correctional facilities, another for
chewing gum in a playground, and yet another for contracts for the future
delivery of a commodity. There can be black markets, where a good is
exchanged illegally and virtual markets, such as eBay in which buyers and
sellers do not physically interact.

J è 

  '  

´Perception is the process of electing, organizing and interpreting or


attaching meaning to events happening in environmentµ.

Perception is something more than s ensation. It co-relates ,


integrates comprehends the various sensation and information received
from different organs of the body by means of which a person develops his
sensitivity to various things and objects. Perception is determined by both
physiological and psychological factors. This is because perception is
developed based on previous experience (learning), feeling and motives.
Whereas sensation only activates the sensory organs of the body. Simply

c 


stated, activation of the ears to hear what another person is saying is
sensation and the inference of what is heard is perception.

c 


 $ 

There is a tendency among people to consciously see and hear only certain
aspects of the advertising message which is being communicated.

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Perception is a selective process. Usually, people are able to sense and


receive only limited information from the environment and hence are
characteristically selective. During this process of selection, certain as pects
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of stimuli are screened out and others admitted. These aspects of the stimuli
which are admitted remain and fall within the threshold of the person, while
those which are screened out fall out or below the threshold limit.

    è    J 

The manner in which either a production or service is perceived will


depend upon both internal and external factors. This is to say that both
external reality and internal reality are intertwined. As human being we
carry all of our experience in our mind and have our own selfish interests,
needs, motives, and expectations into the way which we could like ¶reality· to
exist in the world.

    J  è 0 Jè %  è

Intensity and size: The brighter the sound (intensity) or more louder
the sound , the more likely the person·s attention is drawn to it. For
instance, advertisers use this characteristic to draw the attention of the
readers or viewers. Large sized advertisement in a newspaper or magazine
will be noticed and also read more often t han a small insertion given
although the increase in size may not be linear.

ñ  The position of display of the product or advertisement also


is determining factors of attracting the attention. An advertisement
placed next to a compatible editorial column of magazines, and
newspaper is thought to attract more readership response.

c 


ñ J : Human beings have the ability to adapt to sound, odors,
pain, bright lights, neon signs and movements. That is, human beings
are able to use sensory organs to ad apt themselves to various stimuli.
This is where contrast will help in the perception process.

ñ $   It has been observed by marketers that anything which is


different from what are normally expect tend to attract attention like
an unusual bottle shape or a perfume strips in a magazine and so on.

ñ   Advertisements are repeated more often to enable


consumers for brand recall as well as stimulate them and create a
strong desire for interest in the purchase of the product.

ñ $ Advertisers have also started using billboards or


hoardings with movement. Mobile vans etc. so as to inject a feeling of
movement into it. Many marketers are finding out smarter ways to
reach out too to the consumer by organizing some movementful
activities like holdings free trails. Demonstrations, exhibitions, mobile
vans etc. such exercise could also result in creating excitement and
reinforce top of mind recall.

è    J 

Customers may not receive the messages passively. Usually customers may
take the message given to them by the marketers and then use it so that is
may fit into their own internal world and then try to work out in their mind
about clues to determine the brands capability. Marketers are interested in
knowing what is the impact of their usage of marketing mix elements on the
minds of the consumers. The marketer has to constantly understand ´what
is going on in the consumers mind thereµ.

c 

 $ # 

Through selective exposure people try to avoid coming into contact with
or avoid any message that may go against or be contradictory to the strongly
held beliefs and attitudes. A person·s beliefs very strongly influence his
perception about people or things. Because of this, a fact is conceived not on
what it is but on what a person believes it to be. Thus the individual
normally puts a censorship on the stimulus (inputs) to avoid disturbance of
this existing beliefs and value. This is also known as maintains of cognitive
consistency.

ñ  $  / J     There is a


natural tendency among people to notice the sti muli such that the
information received will fit into his or his existing mindset. People are
selective in their tendency to receive certain information and retain it
in such a way that will support their preconceptions.

ñ   0   ' Perceptual defence refers to the


individual being vigilant and screening out of those stimuli or
elements which create conflict or may give rise to a threatening
situation. The consumers may subconsciously screen out the
stimulus which is found to be psych ological threatening, even if the
exposure has taken place. They may even perceive other factors to be
present, which may not be a part of the stimulus situation.

c 


ñ #   Expectation affects what a person perceives.
Expectation refers to the state of anticipation of a particular behavior
from a person. Even in marketing, people often perceive what they
expect to perceive rather than the message they actually receive.

ñ 
   Subliminal perception is used to describe
something that is below the level of perception. People can get
stimulated below their conscious awareness level. Such persons can
perceive stimuli without being consciously aware that they are doing
so.

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Yes 83 83%

No 17 17%

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J 


This question is asked in the very beginning of the questionnaire in order to
assess if the respondent is aware of Hewlett Packard·s Range of Laptops. This also
helps us to understand the responses better as individuals who are aware about
Hewlett Packard laptops would be able to form better and accurate perceptions.
This would also thereby help us to analyze and give recommendations accurately.


 

The above graph shows that a majority 83% of the respondents are aware of
Hewlett Packard·s Range of Laptops. The remaining 17% are unaware of Hewlett
Packard·s Range of Laptops.

c 


è  

From the graph it is clear that a majority of respondents are aware of


Hewlett Packard·s range of laptops. This is a favorable condition as the number of
people who are unaware of their range of laptops are 17%.


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Yes 26 26%

No 74 74%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question intends to find out whether the respondents own or previously
owned a Hewlett Packard laptop. This question allows us to know, how many
among the respondents are using a Hewlett Packard Laptop now or previously.

 

From the graph we come to know that 26% of the respondents are not using
HP laptops. The remaining 74% of respondents do not own a HP Laptop.

c 


è  

A majority of the respondents were not owning a Hewlett Laptop. This could
also include a majority of users not owning a laptop at all. The remaining 26% of
respondents have used a Hewlett Packard Laptop. This includes both, the people
who currently own a HP laptop and also those who have used it in the past.


 ‰

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Strongly Agree 12 12%

Agree 56 56%

Disagree 21 21%

Strongly Disagree 4 4%

Don·t Know / Can't


Say 7 7%

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J 

This question was asked in the form of a statement as to whether the


respondents would agree that Hewlett Packard manufactures the best range of
laptops. This question was asked to measure the level to which the respondents
perceived that the laptops manufactured by Hewlett Packard was the best available
in the market.

 

From the graph it can be observed that 12% of the respondents strongly
agree that Hewlett Packard manufactures the best range of laptops. 56% of the
respondents agree with the statement. 21% of the respondents perceive that HP
doesn·t manufacture the best range of laptops. Another 4% of the respondents
strongly disagree that HP manufacture the best range of laptops. 7% of the

c 


respondents do not have any perceptions as they don·t know or cannot tell their
opinion about whether HP Laptops manufactures the best range of laptops in the
market.

è  

The responses got for this question has been favorable to an extent to
Hewlett Packard. A majority of respondents fall in the category of ´   µ
and ´ µ. Which in turn means that they hold a positive perception about HP·s
ability to manufacture the best range of laptops. At the same time, more than 30%
of the respondents question the ability of HP to manufacture the best ra nge of
laptop. Among these, 21% of the people disagree with the statement. Another 4%
strongly disagree with the statement.


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High Priced 18 18%

Same as Competition 53 53%

Value for Money 21 21%

Low Priced 8 8%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

The question asks the respondents what they perceive the price of Hewlett
Packard laptop is. This question will help us understand what the customers feel
about the price of the laptop when compared to other laptops available in the
market.

 

From the graph, we can see that 18% of the respondents feel that Hewlett
Packard Laptops are highly priced. 53% of the respondents feel that the pricing of
Hewlett Packard Laptops are the same as the prices quoted on competing brands.
Out of the remaining respondents, 21% of them feel that they are value for money.
The remaining 8% feel that Hewlett Packard·s laptops are low priced.
c 


è  

From the graph we can infer that majority of respondents feel that the
pricing of Hewlett Packard Laptops are the same as the competing laptops. This
might work against the interests of HP if customers don·t find any difference in the
product offering of HP laptops. 18% of the respondents who feel that HP laptops are
high priced are also a cause for concern. These respondents feel that they do not
derive an equal or more than equal level of satisfaction from the laptops for the
money they pay for it.

It is important for HP to increase the percentage of people who feel that HP


laptops are value for money as only 21% of customers feel that they are value for
money laptops. The remaining 8% feel that Hewlett Packard laptops are low priced,
which means that they find the competing laptop prices more than the prices
quoted for Hewlett Packard laptops.


 4

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High Quality 39 39%

Medium Quality 58 58%

Low Quality 3 3%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question tries to find out the respondents perceptions about the quality
level of Hewlett Packard Laptops. Quality plays a key role in helping the customers
to choose a laptop.

Therefore this question would asses the level of quality which the
respondents would like to assign for the Hewlett Packard range of laptops.

c 

 

From the graph we can say that 39% people feel that Hewlett Packard
laptops are of high quality and a majority of 58% people perceive Hewlett Packard
laptops as a medium quality laptop. The remaining mere 3% people perceive it as a
maker of low quality laptops.

è  

From the table and graph, we can interpret that the responses given by the
respondents regarding their perceptions about Hewlett Packard Laptops are neither
too favorable to HP nor too unfavorable to HP. 58% of the respondents feel that
Hewlett Packard manufactures laptops which are of medium quality. 39% of people
feel that Hewlett Packard are of high quality. Only 3% people perceive Hewlett
Packard as a maker of low quality laptops.

In competition, it is necessary for Hewlett Packard to ensure that a majority


of customers feel that it makes high quality laptops.

c 



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0 

  , 10 32 14 4 1 17 13

  · 29 21 11 12 1 17 5

  ‰ 20 15 17 13 2 18 8

  - 16 11 24 14 5 16 5

  4 8 3 15 28 15 11 9

  5 3 6 5 12 39 9 17

  6 4 2 4 8 28 4 38

% 5

Respondent's Ranks to various brands


Percentage of Respondants

--
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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question was asked with the intention of finding out how the
respondents rank the quality of the Hewlett Packard laptop against other major
brands available in the market. This would help us understand the customer
perceptions about Hewlett Packard laptops in a much better way than if we had
studied the quality of HP in independence.

 

From the graph we can make out that the brand which scores the highest in
rank 1 is Sony Vaio. The next brand is Hewlett Packard which come the highest in
the second rank. The brand which most people perceive as rank 3 is also Hewlett
Packard. A majority of people feel IBM is the brand which comes fourth in terms of
quality. Compaq comes fifth in terms of quality. Acer comes sixth in terms of
quality and the brand with the least rank is Toshiba.

è  

From the graph, we can make various observations. Though Hewlett Packard
has performed extremely well in this question, there are certain important
observations which is of concern. Firstly, a majority of the customers feel that Sony
Vaio is a better brand than Hewlett Packard. Therefore Sony Vaio qualifies as one
of the major competitor for Hewlett Packard. But Hewlett Packard leads in the rank
two and rank three positions which infact out numbers Sony Vaio.

c 


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0 
    
Strongly Agree 11 11%

Agree 54 54%

Disagree 20 20%

Strongly Disagree 8 8%

Don·t Know / Can't


Say 7 7%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question was asked to find out the respondent·s perception about
whether Hewlett Packard·s range of laptops are exclusive or not. This would helpful
in our analysis as the brands that have a exclusive range of laptops would benefit
in the long run.

 

From the graph, we can analyze that 11% of the people strongly agree that
HP laptops are exclusive in terms of quality and features when compared to the
laptops of the competition. Another 54% of the respondents agree that HP laptops
are exclusive. Apart from these people, another 20% of the people disagree with the
fact that HP manufactures exclusive range of laptops. Another 8% people strongly
disagree with the fact that HP manufactures exclusive range of laptops. 7% of the
respondents do not have perception about this as they are unaware and cannot tell
their response.

è  

From the graph, we can interpret that 11% of the people strongly agree that
HP Laptops are exclusive. These segment of people might be those who have used
the laptops and are very happy with the performance. Another 54% of the
respondents also agree with this statement. These are again people who have either
used the laptop in the past or are currently using it. Apart from the above two
responses, the rest didn·t have a positive response to the question. 20% of people
disagree with the statement. These could be people could be users of HP Laptops
who are not satisfied with the product or people who use a different range of laptop
and are happy with its performance.

c 



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Lightscribe Tech 17 17%

Quick Play 40 40%

Brightview Screen 43 43%

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J 

This question checks how many people are aware of the some of the most
well known features of Hewlett Packard. This question asks the respondents their
awareness of respondents about three major features of HP Laptops being
Lightscribe Technology for labeling discs by etching on them, Quickplay o ption
which allows the user to access multimedia without switching the computer on,
and Brightview screen which provides extra contrast and brightness to the LCD
screen.

 

From the 100 respondents who were surveyed, only 17% people were aware
of Lightscribe technology, 40% were aware of Quickplay feature and 43% of the
respondents were aware of Brightview Screen.

è  

From the graph, we can infer that a majority of people are unaware of the
exclusive features available on Hewlett Packard Laptops. This is not a good sign for
Hewlett Packard which invests millions of dollars in developing new technology.
From the above graph, we notice that only 17% people are aware of Lightscribe
technology, which is pioneered by HP. Also a 40% of the respondents are aware of
Quickplay and 43% of the respondents aware of Brightview screen which is again
not a good sign for Hewlett Packard. This could be because of people·s lack of
proper knowledge about HP Laptops, Poor advertising and communication from
Hewlett Packard in educating the people about its product features etc.

c 



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V.Good 20 20%

Good 62 62%

Bad 7 7%

Very Bad 8 8%

Don·t Know / Can't


Say 3 3%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

The style and appearance is one of the most important feature which a
prospective buyer of Hewlett Packard Laptop will look for in a laptop before making
a purchase. This question intends to analyze the respondents perception about
what they feel about the style and appearance of Hewlett Packard Laptops. The
options range from Very good to Very bad. This question will help us to understand
customer perception about Hewlett Packard laptops in a better way.

 

From the graph, we can see that 20% of the respondents feel that the style
and appearance of the laptop is very good. A majority of 62% of respondents feel
that the style and appearance of the laptop is good, though not very good. 7% of the
respondents feel the it is bad, another 8% feel it is very bad and 3% of the people
have reserved their response as they don·t know or cannot say.

c 


è  

From the graph we can infer that majority of respondents have a positive
image about the style and performance of Hewlett Packard Laptops. Almost 80% of
the respondents feel that the style and design is either very good or good. This also
explains why Hewlett Packard is also one of the leading brands in laptop market in
India and the world.


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High Quality, Low
11 11%
Price

High Quality, High


28 28%
Price

High Quality, Value


44 44%
for Money

Low Quality, High


17 17%
Price

Low Qulaity, Low


0 0%
Price

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J 

This question is asked in order to find out respondent·s perception about the
relationship between the price and quality of Hewlett Packard laptops. It is very
important to understand the relationship between the two as customers tend to
relate the two of these before they make a purchase.

 

From the graph, we can see that 11% of the people feel of High quality and
low price, 28% feel it·s of high quality, high price. A majority of 44% feel that HP
laptops are value for money and have high quality. Another 17% feel Hewlett
Packard Laptops are having low quality and high price. None of the respondents felt
that HP Laptops are of low quality and low price.

c 


è  

From the graph we can find that a majority 44% of them feel that HP laptops
are of high quality and value for money laptops. This is very favorable to the
customer as they generally expect laptops to be of this kind while making a
purchase. 28% of people feel that HP Laptops are of high quality and high price.
This could be attractive to niche customers who look for high quality and do not
bother about the price. 17% people feel that HP laptops are of low quality, but
highly priced. This is unfavourable to the company. Overall we can infer that
respondents have a positive image about Hewlett Packard Laptops in terms of their
perceived relationship between quality and price.


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Good 24 24%

Average 55 55%

Not Good 8 8%

Haven·t Seen / Not


Noticed 13 13%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

Advertising is one of the major tools which a company can use inorder to
increase the sale of their product. This question here tries to find out the
respondents opinion about the advertising campaigns of HP laptops. This would
help us understand what is the reach and level of acceptance of the ad campaigns
in the print and television media.

 

From the graph we can notice that 24% of the people feel that the ad
campaigns of Hewlett Packard laptops are good. A majority 55% feel the ads are
average and not good. 8% of the respondents feel the ads are not good and 13% of
the people haven·t seen or not have noticed the ads.

c 


è  

From the above graph and analysis, we can infer that a majority of people
feel that the advertising campaign of Hewlett Packard Laptops are average. Which
means that they do not think they are very good. 24% people feel that the ad
campaigns are good which is favourable to HP. The remaining 8% of the people feel
that they are not good and 13% of the people haven·t seen or not noticed the ads.
This could mean that almost 20% of the people are either not satisfied with the ads
or that the ads are not catchy enough for them to take notice. HP has to do a
further analysis to find the specific profile of this 20% respondents and check if
they are prospective customers or not.


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Brand Name 14 14%

Quality 43 43%

Price 23 23%

After Sale Service 17 17%

Don·t Know / Can't


Say 2 2%

Other 1 1%

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J 

This question tries to find out the parameters which would induce the
customer to buy a HP Laptop. This would give a clear understanding of what the
customer look for in a laptop and would therefore help Hewlett Packard with the
information which could help them increase the sales of their laptops.

 

From the graph, we can see that 14% people feel brand name is the most
important parameter in choosing a HP Laptop. A majority 43% feel quality alone is
the most important parameter which would help them decide. 23% feel it is price,
and 17% feel its after sales service. 2% people don·t know or cannot say and 1%
have other reasons.

c 


è  

From the graph, it is clear that majority of customer feel quality is the most
important aspect which would induce them to buy a Hewlett Packard Laptop. After
quality, feel give price of the laptop and the after sales service provided the most
important. One interesting observation here is that people say the brand name is
not the most important thing which would induce them to buy. 1% people had
other reasons like free gifts, exchange offer, combo offers etc which would induce
them to buy a Hewlett Packard laptop.


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IBM 15 15%

Sony Vaio 31 31%

Compaq 5 5%

Hewlett Packard 26 26%

Dell 14 14%

Acer 1 1%

Other 8 8%

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J 

This question intends to ask the final question to the respondent·s as to


which brand they would like to buy if they were to buy a new laptop. Even though a
customer might rank a brand higher in individual parameters like quality and
price, his final choice of laptop might differ. Therefore this would give a clear
picture of choice of laptop as against the competitors.

 

From the graph we can find out that 15% people prefer to buy IBM laptops,
as against 31% for Sony Vaio, 5% for Compaq and 26% for Hewlett Packard. Apart
from that, 14% people feel that they would like to purchase a Dell Laptop. 1%
people want to buy an Acer laptop and 8% people would prefer other brands

c 


è  

We can hereby infer that majority of people prefer to buy Sony Vaio range of
Laptops. This is followed by Hewlett Packard. We can therefore conclude that Sony
Vaio is one of the major competitor for HP Laptops. IBM with 16% of the people·s
choice also is a strong competitor for HP range of Laptops.


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Male 64 64%

Female 36 36%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

The reason behind asking this question is to get to know the gender of the
respondents.

 

From the graph we can see that 64% of the respondents who were surveyed
are male and 36% of them are female.

c 


è  

We can see that a majority of users of HP laptops are Male when compared
to females.


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15-20 18 18%

21-25 58 58%

26-35 12 12%

36-45 7 7%

> 45 5 5%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question intends to find out the age group of respondents. The age
group is also one of the factors which would help us assess the perceptions about
the customers have about Hewlett Packard in a better way.

 

From the graph we can note that 18% of the respondents fall in the 15-20
Age Category. 58% of the respondents age between 21-25. Apart from them, 12%
fall in the age category 26 ² 35. 7% of the respondents are in the age group of 36 ²
45. The remaining 5% are above the age group of 45.
c 


è  

We can hereby conclude that a majority of users of laptops are in the age
group of 21-25 when compared to other age groups


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Student 65 65%

Working Professional 22 22%

Business 7 7%

Teaching Academic 6 6%

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Source: Field Survey

J 

This question intends to find out occupation of the respondents. This will
help us to segment the customers as the occupation of the respondents would give
us a clear picture of what purpose a laptop is being used by the respondents.

 

From the above graph we notice that 65% of the respondents are students
and 22% of the respondents are working professionals. The remaining 7% are
business men and 6% of them being in academic and teaching professions.

c 


è  

From the graph, we can infer that majority of users of laptops are students,
which in this case are students studying business management compared to other
types of users. The next type of users is primarily working professionals.

c 


è è %

ñ It is known that globally Hewlett Packard is a leading brand in the PC and


Laptop business having a unassailable market share. The sales of Hewlett
Packard laptops are a whisker higher than IBM as on 2006. It is seen from
the analysis that a majority of people are aware of Hewlett Packard·s range of
laptop. This can be attributed the global presence of the brand, availability
across major cities in the country, product range and their quality levels.
Also as we saw from the survey, majority of people found the ads good and
around average. This also has led to better awareness of the brand in the
minds of the consumer.

ñ Hewlett Packard is perceived as a maker of the best range of laptops by the


people. A majority of the respondents agreed that Hewlett Packard makes
the best range of laptop. The people·s perception about Hewlett Packard
laptop·s performance is based on various factors like quality, price and
service provided. Also, since HP is a market leader people have a good
perception about the brand.

ñ Quality plays a very important role when customers form perceptions about
a brand. In the case of Hewlett Packard laptops, a majority of people don·t
look at Hewlett Packard laptops as having the best quality. Majority of
people feel it has medium quality. This could be because they feel its not as
great as another brand, unsatisfied with the performance, faced technical
problem with the laptop etc.

ñ Majority of people feel that in terms of quality Sony Vaio is better than
Hewlett Packard laptops. When asked to assign ranks to seven well know
brands in the market, Sony Vaio got maximum number of Rank 1. Followed
c 


by this Hewlett Packard secured maximum number of Rank 2 and Rank 3.
This put together is more than the rank obtained by Sony Vaio in Rank 2
and Rank 3.

ñ The main competitor for Hewlett Packard in terms of Quality is Sony Vaio.
As majority of people ranked Sony Vaio higher than HP in terms of quality.
This is closely followed by brands like Dell, IBM and Compaq etc.

ñ People agree that Hewlett Packard Laptops include a lot of features which
are exclusive to its laptops alone. But at the same time people were not
aware of the major technologies and product features which are exclusively
available on Hewlett Packard Laptops like Lightscribe, Quickplay and
Brightview screens. This could be because HP hasn·t communicated these
technologies to the customers through their adversitements, POPs etc well.

ñ The advantage Hewlett Packard has is its product·s style and appearance.
People feel that the design, style and appearance of the laptops are good. The
new laptop ranges launched by HP like DV9000 and DV6000 series are
testimonies for these. Again, this is a reinforcement of the fact that Hewlett
Packard Laptops are considered as the manufacturer of the best range of
laptops.

ñ Hewlett Packard even though has a very good presence in the minds of the
people, the advertising campaigns were not very much appreciated by the
people. They feel that that the advertising campaigns are average. A lot of
respondents feel that HP ads are filled with a lot of words and pictures and
is difficult to read.

c 


ñ When asked about which brand to buy, most of the people preferred Sony
Vaio over Hewlett Packard Laptop. This is also a reinforcement of the
previous finding that people perceive Sony Vaio as a better quality laptop in
comparison to Hewlett Packard.

c 


J  è 

ñ In today·s cut throat competition, the quality levels between companies are
bridging and the gap closing in. Therefore companies have to maintain their
levels of quality to the highest order. In the case of Hewlett Packard, since
people feel that Hewlett Packard laptops are of medium quality, it should
take enough steps to ensure that people feel its of high quality. The reality
could be that Hewlett Packard could be a manufacturer of high quality
laptops. But it is necessary to ensure that people perceive the brand in the
same way. This could be done through communication through
advertisement, better customer service, training the salesmen to
communicate about the quality to the customer at the time of purchase etc.

ñ Hewlett Packard·s advertising campaign has been seen as average and not
very attractive. The advertising campaigns of Hewlett Packard are
characterized by international ads, with a lot of words and pictures. People
responded that the ads are difficult to understand and lack Indian taste.
Therefore it has to improve the ads, try to ad an Indian touch and make it
more attractive.

ñ A lot of customers feel that the pricing of laptops of Hewlett Packard as the
same as competition. In a country like India, it is important to price lesser
than the competition to survive and to cater to a larger category of people.

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ñ Hewlett Packard has been setting industry standard features which are
exclusive to its range or laptops. But even then, the awareness about their
product features is not very high. This again is due to lack of proper
communication. Hewlett Packard should give more importance to these
product features and increase awareness about them as it will help them to
get more sales.

ñ Customers have a very good perception about the style and appearance of
the laptops. Hewlett Packard should ensure that they use it to their
advantage. And also Hewlett Packard should ensure that their future
products also maintain the same look and design. To convince customers
that their laptop designs are the best, they can use the various awards and
recognitions that they have received for their laptops on their
advertisements.

ñ From the current project survey, we could clearly make out that there exists
severe competition in the market. This can be proved with reference to two
distinct points. Firstly when asked about which brand ranks the highest in
terms of quality, most of the respondents chose Sony Vaio. Secondly, when
asked about the brand they would like to buy in the future, majority of
customers again chose Sony Vaio. This clearly shows that Sony Vaio is a
clear competitor atleast in the minds of the consumer for HP. It has to tackle
this competition well inorder to derive long term results.

It can tackle competition, by cutting costs, increasing market share,


reducing price below the competition etc.

ñ From the survey we found that the majority of users of laptops are students.
These students are primarily students of management, art, interior design
etc where a laptop is of much use. Also the second largest users of laptops

c 


are working professionals primarily from computer field. Therefore Hewlett
Packard should focus on these group of customers

ñ The major users of laptops are in the age group of 21-35 years of age. These
groups of customers include students, working professionals, businessmen,
housewives etc. Hewlett Packard has to focus on these group of customers
and possibly create a separate product line for each of these customers to
help satisfy their needs in a better way.

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J J0è

Hewlett Packard today is a technology company operating in more than 170


countries. This phenomenal growth was achieved over the years with a lot of hard
work, determination, calculated risks and year after year of splendid performance.

In our survey we found that customers are satisfied and feel that Hewlett
Packard is a maker of quality laptops. Such positive perceptions about Hewlett
Packard could not have been built without the support and work of each and every
employee of Hewlett Packard. And with all their efforts put together, Hewlett
Packard is helping explore how technology and services can help people and
companies address their problems and challenges, and realize their possibilities,
aspirations and dreams. HP applies new thinking and ideas to create more simple,
valuable and trusted experiences with technology, continuously improving the way
our customers live and work.

Hewlett Packard has become synonymous with Laptops and Personal


Computers India today and with the industry bound to grow more and more for the
years to come, the things only look brighter. Along with HP, the opportunities and
the space to operate will be available to other manufacturers of laptops as well.
Thus, there are a lot of opportunities to harbor clean and healthy competition
among the PC Manufacturers.


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!è!èè% 

!

ñ J++ "  (1998),      (2 nd edition) Vishwa

Prakashan, 4835/24, Ansari Road, Durgaganj, New Delhi ² 110002.

ñ ++ %  (1999),     , Am Excel Publishers Pvt. Ltd., A-

45, Naraina, Phase-1, New Delhi ² 110028.

ñ    "  1 %   (2005),   '   (4th

Indian Edition) Pearson Education, Inc, Indian Branch, 482, F.I.E

Patparganj, Delhi 110092, India





ñ www.google.co.in

ñ www.wikipedia.org

ñ http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/

ñ http://welcome.hp.com/country/in/en/prodserv.html

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