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G8-UNESCO World Forum

Education, Research and Innovation: New Partnership for Sustainable Development
web: Forum Newsletter - Saturday 12 May 2007 - No. 3
Welcome to Italy

Patrizia Sentinelli
Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs, Italy

he Italian Government chose to organise the G8/Unesco World
Forum in Trieste as it clearly recognises the role which this city
has had for a long time in the field of scientific research and
international cooperation. The goal of the Forum is to generate high-level
discussion of concrete initiatives combining Education, Innovation and
Research in the interests of Sustainable Development. The phase of
development that the world is now experiencing is unlike anything seen
before in history. But developing countries must be helped and the Trieste
Forum can make the difference.
This is the reason for which the World Forum has brought together
scientists, government representatives and entrepreneurs from 60
countries, including numerous delegates from the developing world. Its
main objective is to unite knowledge and power in the interests of effective

G8-UNESCO World Forum Trieste 10-12 May 2007
No. 3, Saturday 12 May 2007
Newsletter Editing Gabriela Preda ARE AVAILABLE
Technical Coordination Beniamino Pagliaro -
Translations Sharon Berry
Graphics Marco Kirchmayr
Photos Massimo Silvano
Consultancy Claudio Tuniz, Surya Raghu, Joe Niemela
Organizing Secretariat The Office
Photo first page: Minister Fabio Mussi with ICTP Director Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

12 May 2007 | 2
Closing remarks / Focus on Innovation

Significance of the Forum for the future by Claudio TUNIZ, Assistant Director ICTP

The Trieste G8/Unesco World Forum
on sustainable development has urged
scientists, politicians and entrepreneurs
to map out an action plan for the Group
of Eight. It brought together researchers,
government representatives and
entrepreneurs from 60 countries, both
from industrialized and developing
The forum, an outgrowth of discussions
that took place at the G8 Summit held
in St. Petersburg, Russia, last July,
examined how governments, universities,
research centres and industry can
work more closely together to advance
the goals of sustainable development.
Special attention has been paid to efforts
designed to promote entrepreneurship
and innovation in science and technology.
The goal of the G8-UNESCO World
Forum, proposed and hosted by Italy,
is to “generate high-level discussion of
concrete initiatives combining Education,
Innovation and Research in the interests
of Sustainable Development”. The
phase of development that the world
is now experiencing is unlike anything the next G8 Summit, that according Angela Merkel, current duty president of
seen before in history. But developing to various leaders in the G8 countries the G8, has said recently one key item on
countries must be helped, in particular could actually take into consideration the the agenda in Heiligendamm will be the
Africa. possibility of launching a partnership with “the struggle against poverty around the
One concrete result that comes out of the developing world while connecting globe”. According to the official German
the event is that on the occasion of the knowledge and sustainable development. Presidency website, the summit’s motto
forum, Mr. Prodi has asked for an action Ictp representatives are already working will be ‘Growth and Responsibility’ and
plan on sustainable development and has on a draft document together with it will focus on Investment, Innovation
invited UNESCO Director-General Mr. the other co-organizers of the Forum and Sustainability, with Africa being a
Koichiro Matsuura to produce “a page or –Unesco and the Italian ministry for key area of concern. The main objective
two of priorities” to send to the G8 summit foreign Affairs. is to unite knowledge and power in
in Heiligendamm, Germany next month. As Mr. Prodi said here, the idea behind the interests of effective solutions. In
“We all know what the problems are but this Trieste World Forum is actually that this context, our proposal is to use
we need to know where and how to act,” the G8 can become the vehicle through Trieste System’s experience of more
Prime Minister said. The forum is thus which long term attention is focused on than 40 years of collaborations with the
very timely and is giving an essential key issues such as the environment, developing world.
contribution to develop the agenda of energy and research. German Chancellor

The Role of Technology Information and
Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics, the knowledge Economy
CERN: “It is research sectors which drive the
technology, as technologies are generally Bruno LANVIN, Regional Coordinator for Europe and Central Asia,
developed when there is already a program which World Bank: “Information is the core engine of globalization and the
needs them. Unfortunately we still face a gap digital divide is less about equipment and technology than about content
between political rhetoric about a “knowledge and value. Moreover, in a global information economy, winners will be
society” and any concrete funding proposals. The ‘permanent innovators’ and ‘continuous learners’. In this context, all
current trends are unsustainable though and we economies (not just the most advanced) will strive to be knowledge
need a “new vision. At the same time, I believe economies. This phenomenon will put human resources back at the center
there is no innovation though without substantial of competition and development. Also, in this new world, all stakeholders will
risk. In the case of energy for example, I would need to consider accepting new roles (private/public, producers/consumers,
stress that governments need to act now, not importers/exporters) and fundamental concepts will need to be revisited
later as the total yield now from solar energy is (usage/property). So far, we have learned that building a knowledge
equivalent to one nuclear power plant. In the economy entails the pursuit of many objectives, which may be competing
context, given the fact that many developing for the same resources (innovation, education, information infrastructure).
countries -in east and north Africa for example- This is because knowledge economies will offer highest degree of resilience
have better access to solar energy, it makes in the face of upcoming challenges and opportunities (rapid technological
sense to develop special strategies in this fields in change, outsourcing, ‘the flat world’). In this context, political leadership and
various countries.” social consensus are essential to sustain efforts”.

3 | 12 May 2007

Setting new priorities
to whom diseases of poverty technologies .“Decouple emissions
are largely preventable--in from economic growth”, he noted, while
fact 60% of all deaths under underlining that “fears that too strong
5 are preventable- noted subsidies might disrupt market forces”.
also that the mortality gap Furthemore, Lawrence L. KAZMERSKI,
is widening between the Director National Centre for Photovoltaics
richest and poorest, that the stressed the necessity of a breakthrough
public expenditures in health in 4th generation photovoltaic devices.
care are low, that the health Isao YUKAWA from the Japanese
care system is undergoing a Kyocera Solar Corporation, underlined
huge human resource crisis. the fact that “there is unlimited solar
11 May 2007
“Developed countries actually aid brain energy available on the planet if
Session I, “Innovation and
drain, luring away qualified medical technologies are developed to harness
Society”: According to Luigi
personnel”. Finally Tamburlini noted that it”. Last, Evgeny Pavlovich VELIKHOV,
Nicolais, Italian Minister for Reform
societies must increase the demand for president of Russian Research Centre
and Innovation, “there should not be a
health care through education and that Kurchatov Institute, stressed that “only
distinction between basic research and
technical advances need to be combined real international cooperation can help us
applied research”. Nicolais believes that
with social policies - “illiterate people meet this energy demands, while keeping
that innovation is a key concept for public
will not use the health care solutions in mind the estimates of energy needs
administration as “public service has to
you can provide for them”. Pratap C. for the next 100 years”. “Only when this
get more transparent and competitive and
Reddy, Founder and Executive Chairman requirement is met can we think of a
we need to introduce inter-operability at
of the India Apollo Hospitals Group, stable and sustainable development for
all levels of government”. Bruno Lanvin,
has presented furthermore the case all countries” he added.
Advisor of the World Bank stressed
of the group that he founded - Apollo
furthermore that according to the
strategy of its organisation, the goal of
hospitals, whose objectives are to bring Special Session on Research
poverty reduction is tied to the economic
“quality care at effective costs”, while and Innovation: The Role
development in countries “through
emphasizing patient-centric care. “Apolo of the Government (ROUND
innovation, knowledge, competitiveness
Hospital has treated 14 million patients, TABLE): Fabio Mussi, Italian Minister
has conducted 59,000 heart surgeries of University and Research stressed
and development”. Moreover, “technology
so far with a success rate of 99.6% at at the bening of the session that fact
has become the engine of globalisation”
one-tenth the cost in USA and introduced “in order to address the problem of
and in this context “knowledge-based
telemedicine for the first time in India. sustainable development we need to
economic growth will offer the highest
Francisco E. Baralle. Director-General, have far-sighted policies and political
degree of resilience in the face of
ICGEB noted furthermore that “basic institutions that operate at international
upcoming challenges and opportunities”.
research should be actively encouraged levels”. Furthermore, Mosibudi
Lastly, Lanvin presented an “ABC” of
in medical sciences and genetics”. MangenaMinister of Science and
e-competition (Access, Basic skills,
Also, the issue of IP in developing Technology of South Africa described
Content, Desire and Excellence)
countries should be addressed when his country’s governmental policies
Umberto Paolucci, Senior Chairman
joint projects are drafted with scientists to promote innovative thinking and
Microsoft presented the various
of developing countries. Their scientists innovation in science and technology.
initiative of the Microsoft Corporation,
must be provided training on matters of According to Janez Potochnik, European
while Mihail Roco, Senior Advisor from
IP. Moreover, according to Baralle “we Commissioner for Science and Research,
the US National Science Foundation
must simplify technology without lowering “innovation is a moving target” and “what
focused on Nanotechnology and Robert
quality”. works today may not work tomorrow”.
Aymar Director General CERN on the
“There are global challenges - he added-
importance of “fundamental research,
that are not confined to one specific
as a the primary force for innovation
area and therefore we must really
where innovation is understood to be a
work together—this is the value of a
new idea, method or device that is being
“knowledge society.” Nobel Laureate from
realised and exploited”.
Cern, Carlo RUBBIA noted that Italy has
only 1% GNP spending for research and
Session II, “Sustainable
that the private sector funding is much
Development and Health”:
higher in the US than in Europe. Last,
According to Giorgio TAMBURLINI,
Nobel Laureate Martin L. PERL from
Scientific Director of the Institute of Child
the Stanford Linear Accelerator of the
Health IRCCS Burlo Garofalo of Trieste
United Nations gave a talk on education
“poor health represents an “increasingly
of researchers. According to Perl, “for
unsustainable burden” for development
every good idea we should expect to
and a threat to global security. “let us
have 5-10 bad, or wrong ones”. Perl also
not forget – he noted – that 10.7 million
suggested that text books should be
children die each year, and other 150
shortened and that the Ph.D. could be
million suffer long-term effects of
malnutrition, illness, accidents and
Session III, “Sustainable limited to 3 years or less. According to
neglect”. The question is thus “how far
Development and Energy”: perl “universities should reduce the “fake”
At the beginning of the session, emphasis on original research, since
development can proceed in the face of
Giovanni Manfredi, Italian Minister students often join big research groups
a population which suffers from cognitive
for Energy Issues, emphasized the where the research is already mature and
disabilities that go hand in hand with
need for increased fuel efficiencies the problems well defined already”.
these problems”. Tamburlini, according
and development of alternate energy (Joe Niemela, Surya Raghu)
12 May 2007 | 4
Focus on Africa

Special Session on “Science, Technology and
Innovation: Perspectives for Africa”
The continued interest of G8 countries and UNESCO in the economic development of Africa
is well known. The scientific and technological development represents an important part of the
economic development. This session focuses on opportunities of scientific cooperation, at both the
North-South and the South-South levels.
Coordinator Professor Mohamed HASSAN, Welcome remarks Ambassador Armando
SANGUINI, Opening Remarks Professor Nagia ESSAYED
ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION Hon. Professor Hany Mahfouz HELAL , Hon. Dr. Noah
M. WEKESA, Hon. Prof. Romain MURENZI, Hon. Dr. Yaye Kène GASSAMA DIA
Closing Remarks Hon. Dr. Patrizia SENTINELLI
Silvanus Mushi Bonane, Ministry of Technological
Research, Democratic Republic of Congo

Call for real action
Noah Wekesa, Minister for Science and scattered all over the world.
Technology, Republic of Kenya: “Kenya’s What is happening in Kenya is not an
perspective on science, technology and exception but part of the evolving new
innovation are understandable within the mood in most of Africa. This is attested by
context of the recently embraked upon the position taken by the African Union in
long term vision for the transformation and developing a Consolidated Plan of Action
development of the country. In an attempt to for science and technology and its clear
structure viable strategies and frameworks indication that science and technology have
for development, Kenya has decided to become a major priority in its development
deliberately take a strategical long-term and agenda.(...)
well structured framework for development. From this year and for the next two years,
(...) Kenya, especially Nairobi, is a focal point Kenya will be the Chair of the African Council
for major national and international research of Ministers of Science and Technology
institutions, especially in the life sciences. We (AMCOST) and I personally look forward to
are keen to ensure that an innovative and working closely with the Forum participants
synergistic enviroment is created to exploit as we implement the Africa’s Science and
this fact. Clearly a major science, technology Technolgy Consolidated Plan of Action and
and innovation park project is one way of also exploring other new innovative avenues
doing this. Such as science, technology and and initiatives for the benefit of the people
incubation park initiative would obviously of Africa. It is important that we now move
have a regional dimension and would have from too much talking to real action in ordere
capacity to involve if not attract a huge to confront real and urgent challenges of
Kenyan and Eeastern Africa Diaspora deveolpment for our people.”

The link with Key challenges facing the
sustainable international science community
development growth
Mohamed H.A. Hassan, executive director of the Academy of sciences
for the developing world TWAS, Italy: “What makes the prospects for
Romain Murenzi, Minister of Science, international cooperation on science and technology for sustainable well-being
Technology and Scientific Research, so promising, even (or perhaps especially) when it comes to Africa, is that the
Rwanda: “Slow but steady progress global scientific community will not be acting alone in this effort. In fact, over the
-driven by a new way of thinking-, is healing past several years, there have been increasing commitments by governments
the nation and instilling a growing sense in the developed world, and particularly among G8 countries, to support
among people that the future will indeed be science, technology and innovation in low-income countries and especially in
better that the past. This hope is due to an Africa. I believe that we have more reason for optimism than cynicism. That
emerging consensus within Rwanda that we may indeed be witnessing the beginning of a transformational moment in
science, technology and innovation must global science and science-based sustainable development. But for us to seize
be at the centre of the nation’s economic this moment, we need to develop and implement an action agenda designed
development policies(.) The lesson from to sustain and expand international cooperation in science, technology and
countries like Rwanda is this- economic innovation. The key challenge facing the international science community and
growth is driven by sustained investments the global community more generally is how to take advantage of the rapidly
in human capital (labour), physical capital growing capacity in science, technology and innovation now being experienced
(plan and equipment), and intellectual capital by some developing countries to forge North-South partnerships that help
(technology). An now more than ever, it is build the capacity of developing nations that have been left behind. The call
the intellectual capital that determines how for international partnership for sustainable development, the overarching
prosperous a country will be. It’s not by theme of the G8/UNESCO World Forum, could make a huge difference in this
chance that analysts point out our global worthy campaign. The chances for success have rarely been brighter. The
knowledge society as the primary force consequences of neglect and indifference have rarely been more troubling. The
driving unprecedented rate of economic international science community should seize this moment. If we don’t, it could
development in the developing world. “ well fade into history as a lost opportunity that we as both scientists and citizens
can ill-afford to lose”.
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Focus on Participants

Roger Schjerva
Deputy Minister of Finance, Norway
to research and innovate, to come up pension fund. This way we also hope
with the technologies that are needed to to influence other investors to do the
cover people’s needs and still move along same. During the Forum, we actually had
the path to a low emission society. That is a meeting with Italy’s largest financial
what makes this Forum so important. institution, who told us that our ethics
What is your country’s message and code for managing our national pension
what are Norway’s future priorities in fund had inspired them to create ethical
the main areas linked to the topics of guidelines for their own investments. This
this Forum? is of course an honour for us. Second,
One message to this conference is that if I think it is important to do research
we are to move from talking to acting, the and innovation for an international low
economic consequences and economic emission society. We try to contribute
instruments have to be moved to the to this by developing a reasonable
forefront. All too often in conferences technology for storing co2 emissions from
about sustainable development, there gas- and coal power plants that can be
are few or no representatives from the used internationally.
What is in your view the significance Ministries of Finance. That must change if Finally, based on our own experience
of this event ? we are to move on. To quote my speech, as a relatively poor country finding oil
Education, research and innovation I could say that in a world now starting and gas, we have made a programme
have always been important, and have to feel the heat of global warming, there to try to help developing countries with
a value in themselves. However, the is a growing need for a cool economic oil recourses to handle their incomes in
combination of climate change and perspective. I really believe in that. a way that benefits the whole population
poverty that we face today makes it more As for Norway’s priorities in the future - I and helps build national capital in a way
urgent than ever to educate - to create would mention three things. that is sustainable in the long term. We
an understanding of the problems we Firstly, we try to make ethics and are a small country with limited influence,
are facing, and public support for the sustainable development a part of our but we believe this is the way for the
solutions that are necessary. And urgent state finances by actively including future.
ethics in the management of our national

Umberto Paolucci
Vice President Microsoft Corporation, President Microsoft Italy
In your Forum speech, you focus on processes; the needs of the citizens and
various issues, linked to innovation businesses, so far unaddressed). Also,
and to the importance of the they refer to the need to incorporate in
collaboration between the public and the delivery chain a growing number of
the private sectors. Can you be more intermediaries, which play an increasing
specific? role in both the delivery of public
Take for example the eGovernment . services and in democratic processes.
At Microsoft we feel that in the future Furthermore, we need to underline the
eGovernment will need to be more importance of networking, co-ordination
knowledge-based, user-centric, and collaboration for better government.
distributed, and networked. What do you mean by “providing
The vision for eGovernment in the EU better government for greater
for the next decade has actually already public value” in a context linked to
defined eGovernment as a tool for better sustainable development?
government in its broadest sense. But The creation of public value is a
in the future, current eGovernment broad term that encompasses the
strategies which focus on delivering various democratic, social, economic,
greater quality and efficiency of public environmental and governance roles public value depends on government
services will be widened. This new vision of governments. Concrete examples of structures, processes, people and culture
also encompasses the provision of better these roles are: the provision of public delivering more cost efficiency (cost
public administration, more efficient, administration and public services reduction, greater value for taxpayer’s
transparent, open, and participative (health, education, social care); the money, better financial management,
governance and the implementation of development, implementation and and simplification of administrative
more democratic political processes. evaluation of policies and regulations; procedures), more effectiveness, better
Furthermore, the implementation of such the management of public finances; quality of services, more accountability,
an ambitious vision needs to address the guarantee of democratic political transparency and openness, greater
various key issues, which derive from processes, gender equality, social participative governance and more
the political, social, economic and inclusion and personal security; and accessibility.
technological trends identified. The key the management of environmental
issues refer for example to the increasing sustainability and sustainable
importance of managing knowledge development.
in governance and in democratic Providing better government for greater

12 May 2007 | 6
Werner Burkart
DDG-NA, IAEA, Vienna
It is said that “Knowledge is Power”. Knowledge is becoming a key factor
Almost all the important technological affecting economic development.
developments accomplished around Building up of knowledge-based talents
the world in the twentieth century, that at national level is an important criterion
deeply changed our way of life are deeply for self-reliance and sustainable
rooted in invaluable basic knowledge development. The roles of ICTP and
and its effective utilization. The so- UNESCO in helping to build such
called Knowledge Triangle comprising cadres of talented individuals in various
Education, Scientific Research and countries around the world and the
Technological Innovation as its three complementary role of the IAEA by
sides captures it all. One hardly needs adding its share of “nuclear knowledge”
to emphasise the immense importance for making use of nuclear and radiation
of education and training, while true sciences are noteworthy in this regard. real-life problems and socio-economic
intelligence is when one can apply the Discipline-based categorization of success stories. It is not an exaggeration
same for purposeful innovation and knowledge, as physics, chemistry, to state that in future, “Knowledge
tangible benefits. The fine quality of life biology and so on, has already given Capacity” of nations will be as much an
and high standards of living available way to need-based inter-disciplinary asset as any natural wealthy resources
today in different parts of the world knowledge pursuits in almost all fields like oil, precious minerals etc. In quite a
would not have been realized, but for of science and technology, all the more number of developing countries, as for
some considerably knowledge-driven so in the nuclear field. The significantly example in China and India, this feature
developments. Any society embarking on higher rate of successes accruing from is already apparent due to their pressing
well-planned growth path requires placing such multi-disciplinary synergies is an need for faster economic growth, while
a strong focus on creating, nurturing and important facet and will guide advances vibrant knowledge acquiring is a major
preserving knowledge as an important in future too. It brings along with that emphasis in a number of developing
tool for national/societal development. a set of challenges and conflicts of countries in Asia, Latin America and
Although all forms of knowledge are interests to be addressed, as one often Africa. It is therefore quite appropriate to
valuable in their own ways, scientific overlooks the fact that the “sum of consider in depth the idea of “Knowledge
knowledge will continue to play the the parts” is invariably a much larger Empowerment” as a key for sustainable
key role in enabling and strengthening achievement and credit for sharing, than progress, for reducing the inequitable
technological development across the an isolated highlight of any single part status among societies and in turn, for
board, from meeting the simple day-to- alone. It is also pertinent from the point enhancing the prosperity of nations and
day living needs to addressing advanced of view converting knowledge-based world peace?
strategies for conquering the outer space. developments into practical solutions for

Sverker Sörlin
Director, Swedish Institute for Studies in Education, Sweden
We need environmental technology. We were set aside to “preserve” original
need better environmental management. nature, is not easily compatible with
We need climate abatement technologies. equity and sustainability and with people’s
It is obvious. Let me point to one of the interests. Another factor is diversity.
most crucial findings of research in the Cities and regions which nurture diversity
social sciences and humanities in recent are not only becoming more creative
years which has an important story to and generate higher income. They also
tell us in this regard. The message is generate biodiversity. In New York City
this: to invest in education and science and in Capetown the ethnic and social
is to invest in the environment. This is diversity creates a biodiversity mosaic.
a connection which is of the same kind Intense use for diverse purposes creates a
as the connection that we have seen manifold environment. We think there are
The world is full of pressing issues and between the level of women’s education deep lessons to learn from this new work.
the knowledge that we have and that and the performance of a society on Other cities have been encouraged to
we will create in the future must be many welfare indicators. Let me give you join. In cooperation with UNESCO in New
implemented to improve the lives of an example from research that we have York Stockholm Resilience Center has
humans on the ground. And the most undertaken in the Stockholm Resilience already started a network of cooperating
general and fundamental condition of this Centre, a newly formed major institute in cities including not just Cape Town,
improvement is the environment. Climate Stockholm. We have studied urban parks, Stockholm, New York, but also Delhi, New
change, bad land use, and weakening urban and near urban reserves, and the Orleans, Helsinki, Istanbul, and Canberra
ecosystem services “the silent work of city itself. We have found that the best to continue comparative this work. The
nature to simply function, the sine qua non possible thing for the environment is to be most important capacity that we can see
of any economy” and many other major populated by active, well educated citizens in this research is motivated citizens.
environmental concerns, are at present that are well organized and belong to They can enhance qualities of their
imperilling the progress that otherwise civic groups, in particular if these groups neighbourhoods. They will inevitably make
lies within reach. In order to deal with this use the landscape or the parks or any tougher demands on their politicians. They
we need science and technology. We particular part of the city. These results are will also act more responsibly in their lives
know this and the contributions in this sustained by research world wide on how and they will contribute to welfare and
session have made it even more clear. conservation old style, where reserves economic growth.

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