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I. Stefanini, M. Markovic, Y. Perriard
Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne (EPFL) Integrated Actuators Laboratory (LAI) ELG – Ecublens, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland email@example.com
Abstact- A new formulation to calculate the internal and external inductances, the resistance, the Joules losses and the cut frequency in a 3D circular cross-section coil structure, with or without skin effect is presented. The formulation is obtained from the Maxwell’s wave equations. The results are presented in graphical form as function of frequency and/or radius wire.
B. External inductance There is a simple relation between the magnetic flux Ψe through a closed contour and the line integral of the magnetic vector potential around the contour. According to the Stokes’ theorem, Ψe is:
r r r r Ψe = B ⋅ ds = ∇ × A ⋅ ds =
In a contactless energy and information transmission, which is often applied in microtechnics systems, the transmission coil design is often confronted to several problems: • • geometrical structures that do not allow the use of the "standard" equations found in the literature; the effects like the skin and/or proximity effect, requiring a more complex computation of the coil parameters (inductance, impedance, cut frequency, Joule losses, etc.).
∫ A ⋅ dl ' '
which in combination with (2) gives : r r µ⋅I dl '⋅dl ' ' Ψe = ⋅ 4 ⋅π R
C ''C '
Here, C ' ' is the internal loop placed at the wire surface and r dl ' ' its elementary step.
The flux Ψe is obviously proportional to the current I :
Ψe = Le ⋅ I
This paper presents a numerical 3D model to compute the coil impedance, inductance and resistance. A rectangular coil analysis will be presented, but the model can be applied to other coil geometrical forms (circular or another form) as well. The skin effect is considered in order to improve the model at high frequencies. This model enables Joule losses, the coil impedance and the cut frequency determination. II. 3D INDUCTANCE MODEL
where the proportionality factor Le is called external self inductance. Using (4) and (5), it follows: r r µ dl '⋅dl ' ' (6) Le = ⋅ R 4 ⋅π
C ''C '
A. Analytical model In absence of iron, the integral solution of vector Poisson’s equation  is: r r µ J A= ⋅ ⋅ dv' (1) 4 ⋅π R
C. Internal inductance The coil internal inductance is associated to the internal magnetic field inside the coil conductors. We define the internal inductance Li based on energy considerations :
Li = 2 ⋅ Wmi I
r r ⋅ B ⋅ H ⋅ dV
r where A is vector magnetic potential, dv' is the elementary volume and R the distance.
In many applications, a current flows in a circuit. In that case, the solution is: r r µ⋅I dl ' ⋅ (2) A= 4 ⋅π R
where W mi is the stored energy inside the volume Vi of the r r conductor, B and H are respectively the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field and I its total current. According to Ampère’s law applied to a circular conductor , the magnetic flux density inside the conductor is given by:
r Here, C ' is the loop placed at the wire axis and dl ' its elementary step.
µ⋅I ⋅r 2 ⋅π ⋅ a2
where r is the distance from the conductor axis and a the conductor radius.
0-7803-8987-5/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE.
The external and internal inductances are determined as: r r µ ∆l '⋅∆l ' ' (11) Le = ⋅ R 4 ⋅ π C '' C ' Figure 1: A cylindrical conductor of circular cross-section. and (14) the magnetic field distribution. the current flows through a very thin layer near the conductor surface. the current in each discretized part of the wire can be considered uniform. the electric field has only the z -component and the magnetic field has only the ϕ component. and permeability µ . maintaining a high precision in the computation of inductances. As the integral in (6) cannot be solved analytically. This effect is known as skin effect. carrying a sinusoidal current of amplitude I and frequency f (Fig. Firstly. The both fields are function of time and r . Figure 2: Cross-section elementary surface. Knowing the current density distribution over the crosssection. rectangular or another form). 1). SKIN EFFECT ANALYSIS A. However. After the development . Numerical model The derived analytical model enables determination of the internal and external inductances of coils with various geometrical forms (circular. Equation (13) determines the cross-section density current distribution. Therefore. numerical solution must be applied. We consider a straight wire of radius a . If the frequency is very high. The total self-inductance is the sum of two derived inductances: L11 = Li + Le (10) D. the magnetic field outside the conductors is considered unchanged even if the current density is nonuniform. The theory in the previous section does not consider this effect. ber’ and bei’ are the first derivations of the real and imaginary parts of the first kind of zero-th order Bessel function. the next step is the discretisation of this current to generate an equivalent circuit. It is a symmetrical system along the z -axis. time-varying current has a tendency to be concentrated near the conductor surface. 2). conductivity σ .With (7) and (8). If we choose a sufficiently small ring elementary surface (dark in Fig. z ) . In this section we add this effect in order to increase the precision of inductance computation. two equations are obtained: J k 'r = ( ) j ⋅ I ⋅ k ' ber k ' r + j ⋅ bei k ' r ⋅ 2 ⋅ π ⋅ a ber ' k ' a + j ⋅ bei ' k ' a I 2 ⋅ π ⋅ a ber ' k ' a + j ⋅ bei ' k ' a ⋅ ber ' k ' r + j ⋅ bei ' k ' r (13) H k 'r = ( ) (14) ∑∑ r C' where: • • • k ' = ω ⋅ µ ⋅σ . Numerical model As the radius wire is generally smaller than the coil dimensions. as they are most often used. 75 . B. Analytical model The distribution of a DC current is uniform over the conductor cross-section. to compute the external inductances. Li = µ ⋅ 8⋅π ∑ ∆l ' (12) ber and bei are the real and imaginary parts of the first kind of zero-th order Bessel function. III. (11) is used. but not of z and ϕ . In the cylindrical coordinate system (r . A total symmetrization of the numerical 3D model and a suitable choice of the integration points are essential to reduce computing time. wires with circular cross-section are analyzed. ϕ . Li becomes: Li = µ ⋅l 8⋅π (9) where l is the total wire’s coil length.
r2 ) (Fig. The coil parameters are: • • • • where E k ' a is the wire circumference electric field. Ohm’s law and (14) are applied : E k 'a = k ( ) J (σ a ) ' (19) Using (13). ( ) ( ) (18) height = 30 mm. copper conductors with circular cross-section. the discretisation of (17) gives: ∆U = E k ' a ⋅ ∆l (26) IV. it follows that the internal impedance is: Zi = ∑ n =1 p Figure 4: The external inductance as a function of the wire radius a. 3). 6 the internal inductance as a function of the frequency. r The electric field E has only the z-component (Fig. (18) and (19).2). MODEL VALIDATION To control the results. the finite elements (FE) analysis using FLUX 3D  is applied. 3). the general definition of Faraday’s law is applied . Fig. dl the elementary step and the A-B distance corresponding to the half elementary wire length contour (Fig. 1). ∆Z i (21) where p is the total number of elementary length wire step. 76 . a 3D rectangular coil is used. length = 1000 mm. To compute the wire circumference electric field. for a different wire radii compared to the results obtained from literature . ∆l the elementary step (Fig. For all computations. the elementary internal impedance ∆Z i of one elementary length wire step is given by: ∆Z i = ber k ' a + j ⋅ bei k ' a j ⋅k' ⋅ ⋅ ∆l 2 ⋅ π ⋅ a ⋅ σ ber ' k ' a + j ⋅ bei ' k ' a (20) Using (20). 4 shows the external inductance as a function of the wire radius a obtained by 3D model (11) and by the Neumann’s formula .It follows: Z i = Ri + j ⋅ ω ⋅ Li (22) ∆Si ∫ i r r 2⋅π J ⋅ ds = =I ∫∫ 0 r1 r2 J ⋅ r ⋅dr ⋅ dϕ = I i (15) (16) The decomposition of (22) in real and imaginary parts gives the possibility to determine the resistance and the internal inductance: Ri = k' ⋅l ber k 'a ⋅ bei ' k 'a − bei k 'a ⋅ ber ' k 'a ⋅ 2 2 2 ⋅π ⋅ a ⋅σ ber ' k 'a + bei ' k 'a ∑I i ( ) ( ) (23) where ∆S i is a ring wire elementary surface limited by two radii ( r1 . The elementary voltage ∆U of the elementary distance A-B is: Li = k' ⋅ l ber k 'a ⋅ ber ' k 'a + bei k 'a ⋅ bei ' k 'a ⋅ 2 2 2 ⋅π ⋅ a ⋅σ ⋅ω ber ' k 'a + bei ' k 'a ( ) ( ) (24) The Joule’s losses are computed as: Pi = Ri ⋅ I 2 (25) ∫ E ⋅ dl = ∆U A B r r (17) and the coil cut frequency by: f = Ri 2 ⋅ π ⋅ (Li + Le ) r r where E is the electric field. 5 shows the skin effect resistance and Fig. Figure 3: The elementary wire length contour. number of turns = 1. The internal impedance can be written in the complex form as: Fig. To compute the elementary internal impedance.
Figure 5: The skin effect resistance as a function of the frequency. when the frequency exceeds the ”skin effect start frequency” the internal inductances decreases. Figure 8: The external inductance as a function of the ratio between the coil length and the coil height. 10 shows the skin effect internal inductance. The Fig. With a good approximation. Fig. 9 shows the skin effect resistance. It decreases linearly until a minimal value and after it remains approximately constant. 7 shows a comparison between the external inductance and the maximal value of the internal inductance. The internal loop placed at the wire surface is maintained unchanged. the external inductance value is 13 times the internal DC value. It starts with its DC value. Past this frequency. for the low frequency it remains constant until a ”skin effect start frequency” (for the wire radius a = 1 mm it is approximately 10 4 Hz). For all conductors radii. 8 shows the external inductance as a function of the ratio between the coil length and the coil height. This effect is more important if the radius wire is large. 77 . Figure 7: Comparison between the external inductance and DC internal inductance. 9). and after it remains approximately constant.1 Hz to 1010 Hz and this effect is not shown. all current is just on the strip surface and the total resistance reaches its maximal value. with a wire radius a = 1 mm . Fig. Fig.total external flux does not depend only on the surface area. the DC value. In Fig. the internal inductance starts with the DC value 5 ⋅10 −8 H/m. the internal inductance can be neglected. When we have a very strong skin effect. The ”skin effect start frequency” depends on the conductor radius a : wires with the smaller radii are less affected by the skin effect (Fig. Figure 9: The skin effect resistance. the results analysis is presented for a frequency from 0. the resistance increases linearly until a maximal value corresponding to a very high frequency. Figure 6: The internal inductance as a function of the frequency. As an example. 9. but on the geometry too.
The internal impedance phase angle increases until an intermediary value equal to 0. For the frequencies from 0 to 10 GHz the internal impedance gives approximately the same value as the resistance. 14 shows the module of internal impedance and of the total impedance. Figure 11: The DC-normalized internal inductance. the reactive parts of the impedances increase too and the portion of the external inductance in the total impedance produces two effects: an impedance variation for the lower frequency than in case without the external inductance and a higher impedance increasing rate. 15 shows the phase angle of the internal and total impedance. with a wire radius a = 1 mm .571 radian or 90°. 11 and 12 represent the DC-normalized resistance and the DC-normalized internal inductance respectively. corresponding approximately to the DC resistance.571 radian or 90° is reached for lower frequency than in case without the external inductance.785 or 45° (Fig. Figure 14: Skin-effect internal and total impedance. 13). Fig. the resistance increases to 13 times its value when it passes to 10 4 Hz from 10 6 Hz. after it the reactive component become very high and the phase angle increase slowly to approximately constant value 1. an increase of the reactive part of the impedance and the maximal phase angle equal to 1. As an example. Fig.Figure 10: The skin effect internal inductance. When the frequency increases. Figure 13: Skin-effect phase angle. This DC-normalization is always made by dividing the values by DC value. At the low frequency the two impedances have the same values. Fig. 9 represents the internal impedance module too. Figure 12: The DC-normalized resistance. The addition of the external inductance has. as directly consequence. 78 . Figs.
9 and 12 represent the Joule’s losses. pp.Figure 15: Skin-effect internal and total phase angle. The external inductance constant value is the cause of this behavior.-Gener.O. D. the resistance (23) of the coil. San Francisco. 151. Jhon Wiley & Sons.P. 1995. and Neikirk. 2000. January 2004.  W. It is important to observe that the skin effect has a bigger effect on the Joule’s losses. 1971. 16 shows its cut frequency). Addison-Wesley. Fig.. The internal impedance is formed with a real part and an imaginary part. Popovic. D. Fig. C.cedrat. R. The coil prototypes are manufactured to compute the analysis and finalized the verifications with the practical measurements. the Joule losses (25) and the cut frequency (26).. we increase the precision of the inductance and internal impedance 3D model. 3. June 2004. 3. Pissolato. per current unit too. No. Distrib.  Jinxing Shen. Knoepfel. Computational Mechanics Publications. V. Mingli. Yu. If the supply frequency increases. Proc. F. IEE Proc.  O. June 17-21 1996. Z.750-757. Cheng. Proc. IEEE-MTT-S Int. Including the skin effect. CA. 1815-1818.. Microw. Chapman & hall. 17 shows the cut frequency of the total impedance.. 1982.co Figure 16: The coil internal cut frequency. pp.  E. CONCLUSIONS The 3D inductance and impedance model with or without the skin effect is successfully verified. J. As the resistance increases and the internal inductance decreases as function of wires radius and frequency.. 1995.S.. “Introductory Engineering Electromagnetics”. and Wheeler. The wires with a smaller radius have a higher cut frequency. “Magnetic field”. like for the resistance. The analysis of the results are presented. The Joule’s losses increase to 13 times its value when the frequency passes to 10 4 Hz from 10 6 Hz for a wire radius a = 1 mm . IEEE.L. This gives the possibility to compute and characterize all coil geometrical form with a higher precision.” IEE Proc. a limit exists after which the cut frequency increases linearly with the supply frequency. the internal and total impedance and its phase angle. “Field and Wave Electromagnetics”. AddisonWesley. 1. “Numerical Modeling for Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation”. “Numerical calculations of internal impedance of solid and tubular cylindrical conductors under large parameters.  Yen. REFERENCES   K. Gatous. No. equivalent to a serial basic first order low pass filter structure (Fig.  Flux 3D online manual: http://www. Vol. Antennas Propag.. S.  Nathan Ida. 151.M. “Time-domain skin-effect model for transient analysis of lossy transmission lines”. the filter’s band frequency increases too. in this case the addition of the constant external inductance considered as in serial with the internal inductance produces a decrease of the low pass filter cut frequency as function of the supply frequency. “Frequency-dependent skin-effect formulation for resistance and internal inductance of solid cylindrical conductor”.  Kim. Vol. Transm. 70. “Computational Electromagnetics using Boundary Elements Advances in Modelling Eddy Currents”. 1989. We can compute the exactly internal (24) and external (11) inductance. Figure 17: The coil internal and total cut frequency. “Compact equivalent circuit model for the skin effect”. Fazarinc. Microwave Symp. 79 .
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