Notes #1 Working definitions from different perspectives Each person still has the human perspective view of leadership

. Influence ± Greek ³to flow in´ influence then means the flowing into the body by other point of origin. The flowing in of knowledge. Parental influences. Other influences. Control- as a leader it is impossible to control people. Control is an absolute. To exert control is to not have a wiggle room. And freedom. Coercion- use of threat or force. Not an appropriate quality for a leader to have. Think of your own self. Coercion in your own life? Example one from text. Pulling a gun on someone might get you your way but it is definitely not a form of leadership at all. Self.your own best teacher.. learn to know yourself. Respect yourself Other People. Leadership is a reciprocal other people are just as important as you are. Tasks and Goals.Study and practice the tasks that you will have to perform. Set long-range goals but focus on one step at a time. Available resources. Identify and develop whatever resources you can use to achieve your goals.(best definition has to keep) Group Size and Structure.its important work in small, team-size groups. The Environment.know where you are at all times. Things are happening all around you pay attention to your surroundings

Courage.Never bearfraid to take risks. Its risky not to take risks. Compassion. No one can survive in isolation. Empthy is a human emotion and is needed. Continuous learning. Learn from your mistakes. Continue to learn through trials and tribulations Service. The best leaders are followers

Creativity comes from laughter and humor. Mangers focus on short term goals while leaders focus long term.´ Look at the people that help you in life. Management. Even if you don¶t want to Fun. Ingorance and prejiduce. Built on primitive emotions self centered desires and least rational needs. the leader offers followers a reward such as salary. ex he addressed that evil behavior of jewish people. Always do the right thing. Leaders focus on the developments of a group¶s mission vision values. **people will offer work beyond minimum expectations to achieve rewards they care about. ³ enjoy life. Leader follower relation. .persuading a person in a unconscious type of way. Most often does not tell the whole truth. no one comes out alive anyway´ Manipulation.Respect. Propaganda is one form of manipulation. Clarification of group goals and problem solving behavior Forms of social power Power is a notion. . Management is hard to distinguish from leadership. Managers are needed to implement mission vision values AFTER they are implemented.Social power referes to capacity to of one party to move another party in a given direction against resistance. Example physics where power is defined as the ability to do work. And is measured by amount of energy needed to move a given mass.reciprocal process of motivating indivduals and mobilizing resources in pursuit of goals. Very useful in a bunch of context.a psychological definition. Leadership. Adolf hitler used propaganda in his anti-Semitic films. No reward. The two concepts overlap. One pitfall of reward power is that rewards may come to be routinely expected if they are routinely offered and thus lose their power** Why this is important to me. They will expect to get a reward everytime the do something. This is ana example of an extreme group. If people continuously get rewarded. Leaders worry about doing the right things managers worry about doing things right. Respect them take a look back and learn from them Integrity. Reward Power± offer something of value to other people in return for compliance. Operation ends. The root of the word ³re-spect´ means ³to take a second look.

Starting making factories and supply and demand. they must rely on the expertise of others. Expert power-accrues to anyone who knows relevant and important stuff others in the group don¶t know ³know it all³ these leaders are chosen because they know a lot about the tasks. We move onto the industrial revolution. They have to rely on many others to do their job so that their job is successful.. One implication of expert power in todays word is leader of complex organization and communities. The same as in alpha mammals. Courts.Though this is a good development. Inheritance use to be the dominance factor. Personal(referent) power. examples are college president or hospital administrator. Legitimate power this form of social power inheres in the position or the formal role played by those who hold it** It is usually written down in a legal definition** hunt and gather food.Punishment power. Charisma´´ emotional intelligence reveals a great deal about personal power. The earliest leaders were shamans or healers. .CEO power. We start to have the rise of surfs´´ or the working class. These people do all the work for the higher class and the higher class is most often born into its hierarchy. Military police. Presidents have the same legitimate power as these formal documents. Changing from hunting and gathering to planting and harvesting is a big step.The development of our brains made us into leaders. In basic terms it¶s the likeability or attractiveness of the person/leader. people take tangible risks if they think the rewards are worthy.anyone that threatens for power. With undesirable consequences for failure to comply. People respond to these threat by avoiding people who make them. . Our survival instincts have kicked in since our ancestors.Personal example communism. Constituition. Ten thousand gnerations of human culture Hunting and gathering. Savvy computer geeks can wield expert power because they know a lot about compouters that others in the group do not know. Each generations we had to learn how to survive our elements and how to hunt and gather whatever was available to them. A primeval way to gather food fathering referring more to berries and such.inherent in the personality of the leader. .Making a surplus of food. Larger tools and using domesticating animals to get food. Rational decision making. Oral information was passed person to person because the rise of writing and of scientific tools wasn¶t available yet.

Which proposes that leaders emerge through struggle in a survival of the fittest. Aristocracy used to be the only way to organize for thousands of years. because the people who want power have to keep it. Dysfunction. Which is basic for things in life.DemocracyThe next rise of power. Democracies depend upon the widespread sharing of power and information rather than the concentration of power in a few families.electoral college. Then chosen official. And the only way this can be broken is by use of violence. Reason aristocracy doesn¶t work.corruption rapid changes slow decision making Trait. Exact definition. who speaks for a multiple of people.Social Darwinism. Before reading the passage What I know about democracy« united states using it. Do not offer anthing we can use to teach leadership skills and habits because they are built into leadership Theory of X and Theory Y -Two simplified versions of ideas bout leadership and the way it¶s managed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960¶s in his book ³The Human Enterprises´ his argument is valid because it can be used in almost any situation in human history .absence of empathy concentration of power. Aristocracy Functions~ decision speed ease of training future leaders. Leadership** one leader. Because of its wanting to be a country lead by the people. Dysfunctions.people have a say diversity of opinion. People have no say Democracy Function. Cars solve problems and created now problems. First thought that pops into head is the US government and the way its split up into voters. Functions and dsyfunctions of democracy and aristocracy Everything holds within itself some order of dysfunction.

self-centered. People tend to have ignorant. theory Y believers believe that each person has intelligence and they realize each person is smart in their own individual way. Believed that average people are intelligent and have the potential to do creative work. Believed that the dirtiest jobs are performed by those with the least amount of education. as research also confirms this. and not willing to take any responsibility whatsoever . lazy and self centered children and pass the traits on. willing to work for goals that relate to themselves and are eager and willing to take responsibility upon them to have things done -opposite of theory X. these people tend to see the upside of people and see the potential in them unlike X where they are cut down and criticized. not creative. -overall Theory X and Y have very confliction theories and attitudes on human nature. You need to take responsibility and do what is right and have the work ethic to get the job done. When you are in a computer software business or industry business there is nobody there to watch over you and make sure you are on task. It is up to a good leader to bring out the best in each person which helps the team¶s goal in all -This theory believes that people will take responsibility all by themselves and will have a good work ethic by themselves. Theory Y -There is a growing amount of Theory Y believers and managers. Political and social democracy is yet another example because in those we govern ourselves and take our own responsibility as well as instill trust and others and use our intelligence -The more educated and more complex jobs and things of that nature get theory Y comes into major effect. Most of their beliefs are opposite of each other.-Theory X were more common years ago when the book was written said that people tend to be lazy. not intelligent. -Theory Y also is found in idealism and most notably Christianity as its message was to love all and recognize our universal kinship is a theory of Y.X believers believed that only a few people with the theory X was needed to make the human population better and only a slim amount had what it takes to be a leader in our society -They thought people were born with inherent traits that it took to be a leader -Theory X supporters tend to promote towards sexism and racism based on their beliefs of people in general -Theory X managers don¶t have much confidence in people in general because they believe only a slim mount are suited to be a leader and the others were not nearly as important -McGregor believed in the system ³Management by Control´ this is the type of power in which is hogged and when things go wrong it is blamed on other people -Theory X -Cultural and philosophical references. . do good work.

Security Needs. If habits are not made and inferiority is caused the challenge is not completed Age 12-25. despair.Identity vs. Identity Confusion. a reliable source of food and water as well as no worries of security of their food or home or life in general .the person must become aware of their identity and realize what they are or are not. Stagnation. Relationships are the most important not material things or achievements.Anatomy vs. This is the most complex stage and failure at this stage causes panic and wondering where ones place in the world is Age 22-30-Intimacy vs.Trust and mistrust are used in these stages and the child learns whether he/she is loved and trusted or at risk of mistrust. walking.Integrity vs. When one fails it becomes very difficult to move past that stage. The basic source of trust comes from the caregiver and the way the child is treated and handled at the early stages Age 2-3. and water are the basic and most urgent things humans need as well as other living things. if the stage is not handled well the child could have doubt and not complete the challenge Age 4-5. Maintaining long term relationships with none or an individual.One must begin to develop strong intimate relationships or suffer from isolation from others.Initiative vs.the child becomes more aggressive and continues to grow however if damages are caused by too much aggression or guilt feelings are hurt and harm is caused Age 6-14 Industry vs. Inferiority. isolation. Helping the future is a generative way of acting Age 70-death.people need a home. talking. Failure at this stage can cause for stagnation and boredom in the world.The person must feel fulfilled in life and their significance to others. Maslow¶s hierarchy of human needs Survival needs.Each person must find or choose a way to relate or lead or teach the next generation in some way or another. Failure will result in one feeling worthless.the child is developing skills such as grasping.Erikson¶s stages of psychosocial development -Erikson had a belief that we all go through eight different stages of growth and development. oxygen. Each stage has the opportunity for a negative or positive outcome and if one passes one challenge they move on to the next challenge. Age 30-70 Generatively vs. It also states that your age and how you completed those challenges could potentially affect the leadership of those who surround you Age 0-2. shame-doubt.Child needs to learn new skills and habits and sustain work for long periods of time as well as schooling comes into place.

The child starts to realize what is good or bad in relation to how other think. the child is often rewarded for his decision making and punished for wrongdoing. decisions re affected by the moral or welfare of other people. The child starts to begin to realize what others think and how his/her actions will affect how others react and how other feel about them. Golden Rules Brahmanism. in our culture we are not that strict but the idea is that each person needs someone and someplace to feel like they belong.Do not unto others what you would not have them do unto you .Conventional Morality. This is a good tool when children are young but past a certain age this type of condition can be harmful Level 2.Growth. Foundations and those who donate are examples as well as nonprofit agencies and enterprises Kohlberg¶s stages of moral reasoning -Lawrence Kohlberg researched questions of how we form attitudes and how we act upon moral issues when they arise -Moral issues always relate to consequences of one¶s actions and the decision they made to help or hurt someone -an action or decision that helps someone is considered moral or ethical -an action or decision that hurts people is immoral or unethical .At this time the level is based on rewards and punishments. Decisions made in this case affect the community or future.Don¶t do things to others that you wouldn¶t want done to you Buddhism. People no longer care about individual things but more or less about whats good for society and other people as whole.There are 6 levels in which he boiled down to 3 Level 1.Belonging Needs. Humans need to feel like they are loved and belong in the world. Individual integrity and self accomplishment needs to be felt.One must fit in and belong but also one needs to feel every once in a while as if they stand out in a group of community.Hurt not others in which you would find hurtful Confucianism. Ego System Needs. customs and public opinion Level 3.this is driven by the empathy of others in mind. There is no actual moral reasoning in this level but more conditioned responses in which we teach children at a young age to do or not do certain things. They start to do more things for other people and have a sense of awareness and appreciation for others. People who often feel this have more initiative to lead in groups or communities and are not afraid to take the step to a higher level if needed Self Actualization needs. In some cultures people don¶t go anywhere alone.Social or Relationship needs.Post conventional Morality. For example for people to spend years and years of working hard and earning money to turn around and give it away to charity and for those in need.Preconvention Morality. This level is best described as whats good for everybody. understanding and fulfillment. Kohlberg believed that most people never pass this level ad make decisions based on ideas.

do your best to avoid fear and anger and never hold back to joke or laugh or have a good time. fear and anger makes us go into dysfunctional behaviors and joking and humor helps contain that. When you put all of these ideas together you get continuous learning which is just learning throughout your life and never stop learning because there are always new things to learn . However don¶t overdo it. Develop habits to stay confident and stay positive and productive. thinking. and acting -the most effective way to change your behavior is to change your actions up until changing your steps up until the actions -your brain and physiology respond to behavior and your feelings and thoughts reflect the chemical changes that take place in your body..Taoism.meditation.Discipline takes into affect what I explained above but is what makes people strict and following a ritual and not taking it easy. do not follow your fellow man Islam. They discipline themselves to always work hard and do their best and they won¶t settle for less.Listen to your own self talks and eliminates the negative things you may say. These are types of disciplines that people one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself Elements of personal mastery -This involves the three main brain functions that we use all the time. It is very difficult to easily change the way we feel or think so in order to do that we need to change the responses in which we react to our behavior Self Talk. And when you exercise do the same Discipline. When you act on something make sure you are truly doing your part and when you perform perform the best you can. feeling. journaling. Speed reading. As an athlete you can train your muscles and minds while not even doing the activity but by imagining or remembering something and playing it over and over in your head Act/practice/perform/exercise. don¶t gloat or get too big of an ego and tell yourself you are better than you are Imagining/visioning/mental rehearsal.effective behavior requires awareness of what we have done. make sure you keep that vision positive because that vision influences how our minds think and react. Disciplines don¶t wander all over they take a straight path and never veer.Regard your neighbors gain as your gain and your neighbor¶s loss as your own loss Judaism. humor Humor/play/fun/ continuous learning.we can purposely decide to envision whatever we would like.What is hateful to you.