1

What is a Router ?

Router is a device which provides communication possible between two or more different networks.

To allow communication between two or more different networks present in the same geographical location, what are the steps to be taken: Answer : Configure a Software Router.

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Is communication possible ?

10.0.0.1/8 S0

10.0.0.2/8 S1

HYD E0 192.168.1.1/24

CHE E0 192.168.1.2/24

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

LAN 192.168.1.0/24

LAN 192.168.1.0/24
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Is communication possible ?

As both the Networks have the same Network ID, the hosts will look for the Destination within the LAN and does not forward the request to the Default Gateway (Router). Hence the communication is not possible.

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Router Manufacturers Cisco Nortel Multicom Cyclades Juniper Dlink Linksys Etc. But Cisco is having monopoly in the market of Routers 5 .

Cisco s Hierarchical Design Model Three Layers: Access Layer Distribution Layer Core Layer 6 .

1600.Access Layer Routers Routers which are used by the Small Organization and are also known as Access Layer Routers. 2600 & 2800 Cisco 800 Cisco 1700 Cisco 1760 7 . 2500 . Router Series : 800. 1800. 1700.

3600. 2800 . 3800 Cisco 3600 Cisco 3700 8 Cisco 2600XM/2691 .Distribution Layer Router Routers which are used by the ISPs and are also known as ISP Layer Routers Router Series : 2600. 3700.

7600. 7400.Core Layer Router Routers which are used by the Global ISPs and are also known as Backbone Routers Router Series : 6400. 10000. 12000 Cisco 7000 9 . 7200. 7500. 7300.

Example Modular Router 10 .

Fixed Router .Model 2501 AUI Attachment Unit Interface E0 Serial Ports S0 and S1 Power Switch Chassis Console Con 0 Auxiliary Aux 0 Power Supply 11 .

RJ45 to 15 pin converter. 12 . It is known as Ethernet Port or LAN port or Default Gateway. It is used for connecting LAN to the Router.Attachment Unit Interface AUI pin configuration is 15 pin female.e. Transceiver is used for converting 8 wires to 15 wires. i.

Transceiver 13 .

2 1.1. Straight Cable E0 192.168.3 1.1.1/24 Straight Cable 1.0/24 14 .168.Attachment Unit Interface An IP address needs to be assigned to this An IP address needs to be assigned to this interface and it should be in the same network as interface and it should be in the same network as of the LAN. of the LAN.4 LAN .192.

Attachment Unit Interface Cross Cable If you connect Router AUI to If you connect Router AUI to directly to PC LAN Card then You directly to PC LAN Card then You have to use Cross Cable have to use Cross Cable 1.0/24 15 .1.168.192.2 LAN .

Hub to PC. Hub to Router 12345 678 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 123 45678 16 .Crimping of Twisted pair Cable Straight cable It is used between unlike device (dissimilar devices) e.g. Switch to PC.

PC to PC. Switch to Switch. HUB to Switch. PC to Router 12345 678 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 123 45678 17 .Crimping of Twisted pair Cable Cross cable It is used between like device (Similar devices) e.g. Hub to HUB.

Crimping of Twisted pair Cable Rollover Cable It is used for connecting Router Console Port to PC Com Ports or Serial ports. 12345 678 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 123 45678 18 .

e.35 cable is having 60 pin configuration male at one end and on the other end 18 pin configuration male.Serial Port Serial pin configuration is 60 pin configuration female (i. It is known as WAN Port It is used for connecting to Remote Locations V. 19 . 15 pins and 4 rows) and Smart Serial pin configuration is 26 pin configuration female.

V.35 Cable 20 .

V.35 Smart Cable 21 .

1.0/24 LAN .1.V.168.2.168.168.0/24 HYDERABAD OFFICE CHENNAI OFFICE G.2.35 Cable E0 192.1 V.703 Modem HYDERABAD MUX EXCHANGE G.192.168.192.35 Cable V.35 Modem E0 192.703 Modem CHENNAI MUX 22 Fiber Optic Cable .1 2 pair of Copper Wire LAN .

Password Recovery and Local Administration of the Router. So make less use of the Console Port. 23 . It is RJ45 Port IMP : It is the most delicate port on the Router.Console Port It is known as Local Administrative Port It is generally used for Initial Configuration.

Console Connectivity 24 .

Console Connectivity Connect a rollover cable to the router console port (RJ-45 connector). Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to DB-9 converter Attach the female DB-9 converter to a PC Serial Port. Open Emulation Software 25 .

DB9 Converter 26 .

Used for remote administration Its an RJ-45 port A console or a rollover cable is to be used. 27 .Auxiliary Port It is known as Remote Administrative Port.

Auxiliary Connectivity 28 .

It is available on 2520 model router.Other Ports BRI Port Basic Rate Interface used to connect ISDN to the Router. It is available on 2503 and 2520 model router. Its function is same as the AUI Port but there is no need for a Transceiver. 10 Base T Port It is a RJ45 Port and used for connecting LAN to the Router. 29 . It is a RJ45 Port.

2601 Model Router 30 .

Remote 31 15 pin .Local Auxiliary RJ45 .Ethernet AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) (E0) 10baseT RJ45 Administration interfaces Console RJ45 . S1 etc) 60 pin/26 pin(smart serial) ISDN interface(BRI0 etc) RJ45 LAN interfaces .Brief Overview WAN interfaces Serial interface (S0.

It is same as the BIOS of the PC.0 Flash Internetwork Operating System (IOS) developed by Cisco is stored here.Internal Components ROM A bootstrap program is located here. 32 . Bootstrap program current version is 11. IOS is Command line interface.

Generally size of NVRAM is 32 KB. The size of RAM is greater than NVRAM in the Router.Internal Components NVRAM Non volatile RAM. Processor Motorola Processor 70 Mhz. similar to Hard Disk It is also known as Permanent Storage or Startup Configuration. Minimum size of RAM is 2MB. RAM It is also known as Temporary Storage or running Configuration. RISC based processor (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) 33 .

Internal Components 34 .

Boot sequence POST ROM Power on Self Test Power on Self Test (verifies) the hardware (verifies) the hardware Contact the ROM FLASH Contact the ROM Loads the Bootstrap Program Loads the Bootstrap Program & Search where IOS is located & Search where IOS is located NVRAMIOS found in Flash IOS found in Flash Loading IOS Loading IOS RAM Flash contacts the NVRAM Flash contacts the NVRAM For Configuration File For Configuration File NVRAM configuration copied NVRAM configuration copied into RAM into RAM 35 .

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Console Connectivity RJ-45 Connector Console Port Rollover Cable RJ-45 to DB-9 Converter Computer 2 .

3 . Open emulation software on the PC.Console Connectivity Connect a rollover cable to the router console port (RJ-45 connector). Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ-45 to DB-9 converter Attach the female DB-9 converter to a PC Serial Port.

Emulation Software WINDOWS Start à Programs à Accessories à Communications à HyperTerminal à HyperTerminal. In Port Settings à Click on Restore Defaults LINUX # minicom -s 4 . Give the Connection Name & Select Any Icon Select Serial (Com) Port where Router is Connected.

Console Connectivity Con 0 HYD E0 LAN .168.1.0/24 5 .192.