Mencius' Prescriptions for Ancient Chinese Environmental Problems Author(s): J. Donald Hughes Source: Environmental Review: ER, Vol. 13, No.

3/4, 1989 Conference Papers, Part One (Autumn - Winter, 1989), pp. 15-27 Published by: Forest History Society and American Society for Environmental History Stable URL: . Accessed: 21/01/2011 14:15
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They have said less about the anthropocentricConfucianists. . Donald Hughes University of Denver Environmental historians who have investigated the ancient Orient have understandablygiven much attention to the naturalistic and pantheistic Taoists. Since Mencius commented substantiallyon natureand land management. and virtually all bibliographical references to him in English call him Mencius.Mencius' Prescriptions for Ancient Chinese Environmental Problems J. recent papers on Asian traditions and environmental ethics in the journals PhilosophyEast and Westand Environmental Ethics. etc. mentions Mencius only twice and in an incidentalmanner. and in Callicott and Ames' Nature in Asian Traditionsof Thought.1 Similarly. He has been called Mencius in the West ever since his writings became known there. and it will be maintained here that he played a major role in forming the typical Chinese view of the environment and in influencing its treatment.give no consideration to him.and he is known in Chinese literatureby the honorific Meng Tzu.C. since there are half a dozen competing ways of spelling his Chinese name (Meng-tse. who wrote one of the four classics of Confucianismthat were memorized by every Chinese schoolboy for much of the Middle Kingdom's history. it is surprising to note that Yi-FuTuan.3 His parents gave him the name Meng K'o. Mencius'descriptionof Ox Mountainis an outstanding demonstrationof the sage's acuteness in observing environmental change and its causes. Meng Zi. in his provocative short history of the Chinese and their landscape. and it seems wisest to continue that usage in this essay. He represents the mainstreamof Chinese thought to a greater extent than the Taoists.and have almost ignored Mencius.).2 Mencius is a Chinese philosopher of the 4th century B.

16 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FALL/WINTER Mencius said: There was a time when the trees were luxurianton the Ox Mountain. but "onthe other hand. But can this possibly be the nature of the mountain? Can what is in man be completely lacking in moral inclinations? A man's letting go of his true heart is like the case of the trees and the axes.and to use the condition of the land as prime evidence of the quality.. People. or lack of it. seeing only its baldness. Is it any wonder that they are no longer fine? With the respite they get in the day and in the night. Mencius recorded two mountainascents (of MountTai and the EasternMount) made by Confucius(K'ungFu Tzu). the philosophers report processes which they had themselves observed. He advised rulers to make periodic tours of inspection of their territory. given the right nourishment there is nothing that will not grow. there is certainlyno lack of new shoots coming out. on entering the domain of a feudal lord. But can that be what a man is genuinely like? Hence.will be led to think that he never had any native endowment. and the way in which grazing can make deforestation permanentby preventing the growth of small trees. the trees are constantly lopped by axes. but then the cattle and sheep come to graze upon the mountain... As it is on the outskirts of a great metropolis. and the moistening by the rain and dew. which Plato also attributedto logging.. Another anthropogenicchange in the landscape noticed by Mencius was cultivationof wasteland. is it any wonder that they are no longer fine?.4 Mencius has seen a mountaindenuded of its forests over the years by logging.7 For Mencius. and likely had climbed mountains himself. officers should be rewarded.. land management was one of the primary responsibilities of the state. tend to think that it never had any trees. That is why it is an bald as it is.. If the land is well cared for. if he finds the . Others.6 Undoubtedly many highlands in China were suffering the fate of Ox Mountain.5 In both cases.. This passage bears comparisonwith the almost contemporaryobservations made by Plato of the stripping of the mountains near Athens. When the trees are lopped day after day. and the consequent erosion and drying of springs. and deprived of it there is nothing that will not wither away. of the supervision of the noblemen.

and China itself into nine sections. after the character chinga. similarly arranged.'5 the center. the axis mundi. this arrangementmade each nine-field unit a microcosm. In theory.the altars to the gods of earth and grain come next."" Rulerswere not exempt from labor on behalf of the altars or the people.9 In both cases. then there is reprimand.'6 Theoretically. For Mencius.'4 It is interesting to note that the well-field system is based on the "nine divisions" or chiu choub scheme of cosmography.however.the dimensions of all family plots throughout China would have been the same. which subdivided the world.. This should not be taken to mean that the system itself is mythical.. and the centerplot being a public field cultivated by all eight families with the produce going to the government. [Mencius]insisted. the continent. A landlord had to plow the land to grow grain for the sacrifices.1989 J. The conditionof the environmentin a country thus offered most telling evidence concerningthe merit of its government. the ruler owned the land and parceled it out to those who used it. board.DONALD HUGHES 17 land is neglected.or our sign for "number" A squareof land was divided in this manner into nine smaller squares. each of the eight outer plots being assigned to one farm family. the principle is that authorities must rule on behalf of the inhabitants."'0 He stated this in the strongest terms. Mencius favored a traditionalmethod of distribution called the well-field system. the most importantprincipleis not a commandmentof God."8A similar observationwas made by Xenophonconcerningthe king of the Persians in the same century. This idea of Menciusbears some resemblance to the Biblical idea of stewardship. "Itis not enough.'2 And it was the duty of the ruler to care for the land so that it would provide an environmentto nurturenative human goodness. Aerial study of landscapes in North China reveals rectilinear patterns indicating that the well-field system was extensively used. where human care of the earth under God is compared to that of a bailiff acting on behalf of a landowner or king. It is . but the welfare of the people. with Mount K'un-lun. for a ruler to wish his people well.. insisting that "thepeople are of supreme importance.13Thus labor was shared and the tax would be lighter in a year of crop failures.last comes the ruler. he must take practicaleconomic measures to assure their welfare. however. for a water well. Mencius opposed fixed taxes requiringthe same payment by farmerswhether crops were good or bad. and the size mentioned by Mencius was about four and one-half acres. which looks something like a tic-tac-toe (#).

perhaps more like modern socialist practice than in accord with socialist theory. Other aspects of the system seem feudal.2' But his grasp of the principle of the wise use of renewableresourcescan scarcelybe faulted.since Mencius said that Earthis more important than Heaven. Mencius recognized that the arrangementwould not work unless farmersstayed in their villages. if hatchets and axes are permitted in the forests on the hills only in the proper seasons. there was no private property. peasant allotments varied greatly from one region to another. since Menciusintended that the "eightfamilies would form a community with close relations of friendship and mutual aid. and Man more important than Earth. and farmers."'9 Every farmermade a contributionof laboron common land.bound to their assigned plots like serfs.20 The most distinctive environmentalemphasis of Mencius is his recommendationof conservationpractices. Land. and thereforegave a portion of produce which was set at a reasonablepercentageof annual yield. But decisions on practicesof cultivation in the plots were left to those with practical experience.the means of production in this agriculturalsociety.18 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FALL/WINTER interesting to note that this is also the average size of a farm holding in the Athenian countryside at the same time.since the land could not be sold. This is resource conservationwithin an anthropocentric framework. then there will be more timber than they can use. Laboron the public field was obligatory. if you do not allow nets with too fine a mesh to be used in large ponds. then there will be more grain than the people can eat. His advice to King Hui of Liang is notable: If you do not interferewith the busy seasons in the fields. The arrangementwas somethinglike a commune. supporteda class of landowning nobles.22 . The pattern was ordained and managed from above. that is. but knew that peasants would flee from the territoryof a vicious lord to that of a provident one. in theory belonged to the state and was parceled out equally among the tenants.17 Can the well-field system be regarded as a primitive form of socialism in anticipationof recent Chinese history?18Some elements of it would make it seem so. the farmers. then there will be more fish and turtles than they can eat. But in practice in China. Strictly speaking.

their economic position in the modern world Governmentsin this period did would be considerablysounder. gamekeepers.. supplementinghuman laborwith a majornew sourceof energy. In the Ox Mountainpassage. Only then were the people of the CentralKingdoms able to find food for themselves. lakes."29 The legalist.had also been invented. objected to the building of huge mansions and spoke against the waste of cut logs323As Creel commented.27In given states during certainperiods. Other tools.but the larger picture of Chinese history shows the uneven but inexorableadvance of deforestation. Yu dredged the Nine Rivers. these measures no doubt resulted in conservation. and fishery managers as ordinary positions on the staff of a ruler..30 Mencius was more moderate. he observed the advance of deforestation and its causes. The farmersshould be allowed to work in the fields at seedtime and harvest. advising."'31 least when compared to the worse misfortuneof neglecting the properrites. Shang Yang.26Methods of cultivating timber trees were well known and practiced. and coastal zones. and methods of manuring. not marched off to war."24 engage in forest and fishery management.. Land surveys gave attention to forests. "Ifthe Chinese people had heeded Mencius' advice in this last connection. advised careful practicesof timber harvesting and the planting of trees. the ox-drawn iron plowshare had come into use. a form of sustained-yield forestrywould assure a supply of wood in succeeding years.25Mencius referredto foresters. "Whenwaste land is not brought under cultivation and wealth is not accumulated. and the birds and beasts went into hiding.1989 HUGHES J. urged rulers to cultivate waste lands as a deliberate policy to increase population.DONALD 19 Mencius assumed that regulationsgoverning economic activities would be promulgatedand enforced. Nets with wide mesh used in fishery would allow small fish and turtles to escape and grow to catchablesize. In the two centuriesbefore Mencius. He sometimes referredto the deeds of mythical kings who had originally cleared the land for human habitation: "Yiset the mountains and valleys alight and burnt them. A majorforce both in deforestationand removal of wildlife was the expansion of agricultureinto undeveloped land. at is no disaster for the state. Mencius'advice concerningforest conservationwas particularlysound.this.28Thus it is not surprisingthat Mencius often spoke of the increase of cultivated land at the expense of the wild. He opposed opening up new lands for tyrants. too. saying that those who do so deserve death .

and large preserves.20 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FALL/WINTER along with those who make war for the same evil rulers. although the vast royal enclosures must have included areas more like our forest parks and game reserves. He surveyed it and measured it."answered Mencius. among trees and bamboo groves arrangedto blend with the architecture. When Mencius visited him. looking round at his wild geese and deer. Oh! how full it was of leaping fish!33 It was with the labor of the people that King Wen built his terraceand pond. In less than no time they finished it. "Aresuch things enjoyed even by a good and wise man?"said he. Fantastically shaped rocks. "is he able to enjoy them. should be increasedonly for benevolent rulers. The land base. King Hui of Liang wondered whether a truly enlightened monarch could take delight in such places: The king was standing over a pond. Even large parks were treated in this way. were placed by artificiallakes and streams. The white birds glistened. Otherwise he would not. The people came in ever increasingnumbers. He surveyed and began without haste. in Chinese gardens every square inch is designed. yet so pleased and delighted were they that they named his terrace the "SacredTerrace" and his . he believed. The King was in the Sacred Park. The doe lay down.32 A measure that inhibited agriculturalexpansion but added to environmentalamenities was the establishment of gardens. parks. The King was at the Sacred pond. removed from their natural settings. The doe were sleek. "Onlyif a man is good and wise. and art exhausts itself to be indistinguishable from nature. The Bookof Odes says. even if he had them. He surveyed and began the SacredTerrace. These were no wilderness reservations. The People worked at it.

A park was not alone for the ruler's enjoyment.37One is reminded of similar problems in Western Europe with the royal hunting preserves. even if the tyrant had a terraceand pond.1989 J. 0 Sun. He advised not that . Mencius was anthropocentric. The T'ang shih says. When Mencius told King Hsuan of Ch'i that he knew that the king could bring peace to his people. Mencius said it was because King Hsuan had seen an ox being led to sacrifice.and could not stand to see it shrinking with fear. Ordinaryfolk would resent even a small park if they were kept out. but would take pleasure in an extensive reserve if their ruler shared it. ordered a sheep sacrificed instead. although less so than a similar feeling for other human beings.34when wilt thou perish? We care not if we have to die with thee. Mencius explained that it was because the king had seen the ox.nor only to preserveanimalsand plants.but most importantly for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.38 As the sage observed. birds and beasts.40 But it was strange that the king."and rejoicedin his possession of pond the "Sacred deer. fish. and turtles.35 When the people were prepared "to die with" him. It was by sharing their enjoyments with the people that men of antiquity were able to enjoy themselves. could he have enjoyed them all by himself?36 Here it is clear that Mencius approved of the aesthetic use of land. but not the sheep."39 the king felt empathy for an animal. Did animals have value for Mencius? He saw the feeling of compassion for an animal as ennobling.DONALD HUGHES 21 Pond. the size of a preserve was not the determining factor as to whether it should exist. While inappropriately large enclosures would deprive the people of their livelihood. the king asked how Mencius could tell. and the later enclosure movement. "Even Since the devouring of animals by animals is repugnantto men. Here again. so he had spared it and ordered a sheep slain in its place. since Confucius himself had taken part in them. It should be open to the people not only to enjoy. He did not oppose animal sacrifices.but also to use in minorways such as gathering firewood and hunting small game. moved by the suffering of the ox. Mencius was certain that he could feel similarly for his people.

one becomes identified with the universe as a whole.22 REVIEW ENVIRONMENTAL FALL/WINTER the sheep should also be spared. to spare his own feelings! He himself was not a vegetarian. One who wants to follow the right path can simply look into one's inmost nature. as animals follow theirs: "Thepeople turn to the good as water flows downwards or as animals head for the wilds. but he went beyond a purely anthropocentricconclusion. human nature is at one with nature in general. "is the nature of a hound the same as the natureof an ox and the nature of an ox the same as the nature of a man?"" No. Mencius said. Mencius asked. Animal nature is good. This leads to a realization that 'all things are .the word hsingc was used for in "nature" both senses. In Mencius. lose theirown proper natureand become counterfeitanimals.43 compared the nature of the mountain. which is the recognition and honoring of appropriaterelationships to other human beings."49 So.and a man who knows his own nature will know Heaven."48"Fora man to give full realization to his heart is for him to understand his own nature. since he once remarked that his favorite dishes were fish and bear's paw. As Fung Yu-Lanput it. which is to be forested. "One comes to feel that there is no longer a distinction between oneself and others. can develop in accord with its own nature.42In the Ox Mountainpassage. and so of a distinction between the individual and the universe.45 Human beings. there is nothing at all wrong with it for animals. Thus the otter drives the fish to the deep. but that a gentleman should stay away from the kitchen. The mountain. every animal has its own nature. indeed. That is to say. which is good. at the deepest level. "Allthings were complete in the self.41 Mencius'advice on the treatmentof animals must be considered in light of his distinction between human nature and non-humannature. thus the hawk drives birds to the bushes. human being and mountain alike. the good is natural. that is. and human beings have their own distinct nature. specifically human nature and he nature in general. But there is more. commenting on this passage. because the knowledge of right and wrong is there. too. has a nature which is good. with the nature of a human being." It is best if everything in the world."47 For humans. The point of the comparisonwas Mencius'centraldoctrine of the original goodness of every individual.46But it is laudable for human beings to behave like animals if by that is meant that they follow their own inherent good nature. if they abandon their relationships and duties to other humans. distinct from that of other species. and when it is violated it becomes "nolonger fine.

"he said. If one acts in accord with this ch'i. There are others who help the plants grow. Mencius' attitude in this regard is more like the Taoists. Having done so. all shriveled up." and "passion-nature.since he believed that nothing is "betterfor the nourishing of the heart than to reduce the numberof one's desires." His son rushed out to take a look and there the plants were." "spirit."But through it."56 Despising "menof consequence. thinking that nothing they can do will be of any use." "morale. As he said. who strongly advocated the control of nature."54 How different this is from the later Confucianist. There are few in the world who can resist the urge to help their rice plants grow. Mencius' story illustrates this: There was a man from Sung who pulled at his rice plants because he was worried about their failure to grow.among its possible meanings are "breath.' In this phrase we see the mystical element of Mencius' philosophy."52This ch'ie is hard to translate. He shunned the extravagantlife of many nobles which was so wasteful of resources. He resembled them in other ways."said he to his family.53 In another passage. "Itis a ch'i which unites rightness and the Way. one can act properly in regard to one's human relationshipsand the world as a whole. not realizing what he had done. he joined the human path of moral excellence with the Taod.1989 J. he went on his way home."50Here Mencius took a step away from Confucius and toward Taoism. "Iam worn out today. They are the people who pull at them. "Youglorify Nature and meditate on her:/ Why not domesticate her and regulate her?"'5 But Hsun Tzu believed that human nature is evil.Hsun Tzu. They are the people who do not even bother to weed. There are some who leave the plants unattended. one does not interfere with what is natural. . Not only do they fail to help them but they do the plants positive harm. he compared acting this way to guiding water by "imposingnothing on it that was against its natural tendency. "I have been helping the rice plants to grow.51By identifying the inmost self with nature in general. DONALDHUGHES 23 complete within us.the natural path of the universe.

.24 REVIEW ENVIRONMENTAL FALL/WINTER Their hall is tens of feet high. and had as friends deer and pigs. then. All the things they do I would not do. He knew Confucius'ideas thoroughly. was able to go beyond him in important respects. while adopting salient aspects of his teacher'sthought. the nature that is in the heart. should I cower before them?57 This is reminiscentof the Roman poet Horace's strictureagainst monstrously large villas: "Richmen's luxurious buildings leave few acres for the plow. Were I to meet with success... was at home in wild nature. sensing that he was closer to the truth and more amenable to education in wisdom than many who have been raised in more civilized surroundings. He was also a man of wide experience who possessed an intimate knowledge of the Chinese . he lived amongst trees and stones.amountingto poverty. witnessed a single good deed. When Shun lived in the depth of the mountains.60 Shun. which is also good. measure ten feet across. as they must.59But he admired the natural man who lived in the wilderness. it was like water causing a breach in the dykes of the Yangtse or the Yellow River. a man good by nature. Mencius said. Their tables. They have a great time drinking. I would not indulge in such things. I would not indulge in such things. and their female attendants number in the hundreds. and grasped the principle that if people are to live in the context of nature. considerationmust be given to the relationshipsinherent in society and the basic needs of people."58 Mencius advised a middle way. the capitals are several feet broad. driving. The differencebetween him and the uncultivated man of the mountains then was slight. with a retinue of a thousand chariots. Perhaps Mencius is not so strictly anthropocentricafter all. Menciusused him to show that any human being can become a sage by living according to nature. laden with food. Mencius was a student who. espoused by Hsu Hsing and some Taoists. But when he heard a single good word. I would not indulge in such things. Were I to meet with success. and hunting. and the nature in which every creature participates. not the ostentation of these men of consequencenor the absoluteself-sufficiency. Were I to meet with success. Why. Nothing could withstand it.

. B.A ShortHistoryofChinese Philosophy (New York: Macmillan. Perhaps in spite of that. QuotationsfromMencius.6.64. A. no. 4.Mencius:TheManandHis Ideas(New York. 187. 1967).China (Chicago:Aldine PublishingCo. John'sUniversityPress.C. 108. Furthermore. B. Mencius'value for environmentalthought.DONALDHUGHES 25 environmentand the land use practicesof peasants and emperors.41-44L 14Mencius A. 4.1989). a d b ) 0'I'l c4j- lYi-FuTuan.1953). 24. 1928). 9XenophonOcconomicus 8-9. 196. Baird Naturein Asian Traditions Thought:Essaysin Environmental of Callicottand RogerT. 5. 3. 14.118.unless otherwisenoted. then.82. 13Mencius3. is the manner in which he combines eminently useful suggestions which stem from his practicalexperience. 5Plato Critias111 B-D.L.3. East 2Environmental Phiosophy. by 4Mencius6. to 10HerrleeC. 6Menaus7. he believed that human beings. 2.Lau. 8Ibid. Ames (Albany:SUNYPress.he was well acquainted with Taoist thought and was not out of sympathy with its preferencefor the simple life and its reverence for the inherent ways of nature.1970). 8. 1.Confucianconcernfor human values. Verwilghen. 4 (Winter1986). in their inmost selves. Creel.Fung Yu-lan. St. A. A.1950). 11Mencius B.TheBook Lord of Shang(Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. J.4. 97-100. 2 (April 1987). and the Taoist sense of human oneness with nature. Duyvendak. no.75.1989 J.Philosophy and West37.edited by J. Ethics7. Ibid. A.. ChineseThought fromConfucius Mao Tse-tung(Chicago: University of ChicagoPress. 1969).82 7. 124. 3AlbertF. 7Ibid. 7. are fromthe translation D.176. This passage is on 164-165.Mencius (London: PenguinBooks.3.J. are good and at one with the goodness of the universe. A. 14.

.which repeatsanotherpartof the same passagewith small variations. 16F. .Tuan. A. 1.51.415-417n.66.167-168. 3." Journal the Economic Social of Historyof the Orient23 (1980): 153-204.5.68.. 6.82. 6 (Cambridge. 1970). 99 (thatmen should not leave theirvillages). 28. MA: HarvardUniversityPress. 14.113. 121-122 3. B.114. & Trench. 4. A. ChineseThought from Confuciusto Mao Tse-tung.6. 22Ibid. 1. 3. 381bid. of and Sterculia. 4Ibid.includingBenjamin Schwartz. 18his questionis raised by severalauthors. 29Mencius A.George Allen & Unwin. 461bid.2. of ClarendonPress. A. 9. 19Creel. 154. 1."in TheChinese Mind: Essentialsof ChinesePhilosophy Culture. 1. Crisisand Responsein AncientChina. but the identification the species is argued. B. 9.280-282. 19." Historical in Ecology: and Essayson Environment SocialChange (PortWashington.4-5. 28Lester Bilsky. 5.6.Francesca and in Bray. See JamesLegge's translationof 7he Works Mencius(Oxford: Catalpa.NY: KennikatPress. 7heBook Lord of Shang. 2. 32Ibid.4. 4.China.Jr. Science Civdization China. 3xd. 22Ibd. B. 2. A. 3. Moore(Honolulu: East-West CenterPress and Universityof Hawaii Press.82. Press.1. 45Ibid. 7. 2Thbid.175 ff.26 REVIEW ENVIRONMENTAL FALL/WINTER 15JohnS. 20Mencius A. 3ODuyvendak." in in edited by Henry Rosemont. 33BookofOdes. 10. 9. Magic Squares.122.120. 2 A."Ecological J.1932). 1967).New York: Dover. 201. 140. A.3. A. with Special Referenceto Humanism. 24Creel.1. 102. 54-56.133-135. 1980). 7. UK: Cambridge UniversityPress.The treesmentionedin these sectionsare definitelyones used for their wood.161. 35See Shuching(Shlhsan chingchushu. A. 85. Ltd."Agriculture. and edited by CharlesA. They perhapsinclude Paulownia. B. 4.and SchematicCosmography. translated Wing-tsitChan.164-165. A." Needham. 106. A. 61-62 3. (Chico. 4. 3Mencius 1. 7. A.118.vol. 4. 186. 429. A. Crisisand Responsein AncientChina. 1939).124.133-134. 214-215. A. 1815edition). 34Animage standingfor the tyrantChieh. Ibid.'The Five Phases."Chinese by Theoryand Practice. See also 7. Reprint. 26Mencius B. 22. 7hreeWays Thought AncientChina(London.166. A.101-103. "Official and Landscapesin TraditionalChina.Richards. 28Bilsky. 37Ibid. 3. Major. A.and Arthur 7Thought Ancient in Waley. 31Mencius4.1."Ecological 64. 9.131. 421. 49-50."67-68.4. 3. B. 4. 1. 9.1895. (thatpeople flock to benevolentrulers). 3.Menciuson theMind: Experiments MultipleDefinition in (London: Kegan Paul. 25. Science Civilization and in China. 6. 34. 1984).CA: Scholars Explorations EarlyChincse Coemography. 6. 43Mencius A. 97-98.cted in JosephNeedham. 8. 2b. A. 52. 411bid. 4Ibid. 4.TheWorld of in China(Cambridge. 13-14. B. 8.. 3.102. 4. vol. This of analysissubstantiallyagrees with that of Schwartz. in 17Mencius3. ChineseThought from Confuciusto Mao Tse-tung. 44Ibid.Ode 242.Trubner Co. Leeming. B. B.Rottera. A.A. 1984). 471bid. 1985). I.

78. A.7. 4~ 3. A ShortHistoryof Chinese 78-79. A. 601bid. 201. See the discussion of this passage in Fung. and edited by CharlesA."themeaning of these 50Fung.152. Philosophy.182. of for example.93. 1-2. 1. A. XVII. 52Mencius2. 2. Moore(Honolulu: East-West CenterPress and Universityof Hawaii Press. As Creel observes. 77. 56Mencus 7. 59Mencius A. B. 55Hsun Tzu. A. 51Creel.A ShortHistoryof Chinese Chinese7hought to passages has been debated endlessly in Chinese literature. 54Ibid.34. 53Mencius2.201." fromConfucius Mao Tse-tung. B.37."in TheChinese Mind: Essentials Chinese of Philosophy Culture. ChineseThought from Confuciusto Mao Tse-tung.Jesus'story of the Sower (Matthew13:3-30). . DONALDHUGHES 27 49Mendus7. 35. 77. 184-185. Mencius'use of parablessuch as this one is reminiscent Biblicalparallels.'The Storyof Chinese Philosophy. 2.4. The Deuelopment the Logical of Method Ancient in China(Shanghai:OrientalBookCo. Philosophy.quoted in Wing-tsitChan.1989 J. 16.92-93. 7. B. 15.133.translatedby Hu Shih. 26. 100-104. 58HoraceOdes2. 204-205. 1967). 1928). 57Ibid..