Ramon Magsaysay Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) was the third President of the

Republic of the Philippines (and seventh president overall) from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. Ramon Magsaysay is referred to as the Man of the Masses or Champion of the Common Man. Early life Ramon F. Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales on August 31, 1907 to Exequiel Magsaysay, a blacksmith, and Perfecta del Fierro, a schoolteacher. He entered the University of the Philippines in 1927. He worked as a chauffeur to support himself as he studied engineering; later, he transferred to the Institute of Commerce at José Rizal College (1928±1932), where he received a baccalaureate in commerce. He then worked as automobile mechanic and shop superintendent. When World War II broke out, he joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine Army. When Bataan surrendered in 1942, Magsaysay escaped to the hills, organized the Western Luzon Guerrilla Forces, and was commissioned captain on April 5, 1942. For three years Capt. Magsaysay operated under Col. Merrill's famed guerrilla outfit and saw action at Sawang, San Marcelino, Zambales. Magsaysay was among those instrumental in clearing the Zambales coast of the Japanese prior to the landing of American forces together with the Philippine Commonwealth troops on January 29, 1945. House of Representatives On April 23, 1946, Magsaysay was elected under the Liberal Party[1] to the Philippine House of Representatives. In 1948, President Roxas chose Magsaysay to go to Washington as Chairman of the Committee on Guerrilla Affairs, to help to secure passage of the Rogers Bill, giving benefits to Philippine veterans. In the so-called "dirty election" of 1949, he was re-elected to a second term in the House of Representatives. During both terms he was Chairman of the House National Defense Committee. Secretary of National Defense In early August 1950 he offered President Quirino a plan to fight the Communist guerillas, using his own experiences in guerrilla warfare during World War II. After

some hesitation, Quirino realized that there was no alternative and appointed Magsaysay Secretary of National Defence on August 31, 1950. He intensified the campaign against the Hukbalahap guerillas. This success was due in part to the unconventional methods he employed and developed alongside an American adviser, General Edward Lansdale. The counterinsurgency the two deployed utilized soldiers distributing relief goods and other forms of aid to outlying, provincial communities. Where before Magsaysay, the rural folk looked on the Philippine Army if not in distrust, at least with general apathy, during his term as Defense Secretary Filipinos began to respect and admire their soldiers. In June 1952 Magsaysay made a goodwill tour to the United States and Mexico. He visited New York, Washington, D.C. (with a medical check-up atWalter Reed Hospital) and Mexico City where he spoke at the Annual Convention of Lions International. By 1953 President Quirino thought the threat of the Huks was under control and Secretary Magsaysay was becoming too weak. Magsaysay met with interference and obstruction from the President and his advisers, in fear they might be unseated at the next presidential election. Although Magsaysay had at that time no intention to run, he was urged from many sides and finally was convinced that the only way to continue his fight against communism, and for a government for the people, was to be elected President, ousting the corrupt administration that, in his opinion, had caused the rise of the communist guerrillas by bad administration. He resigned his post as defense secretary on February 28, 1953, and became the presidential candidate of the Nacionalista Party, disputing the nomination with senator Camilo Osías at the Nacionalista national convention.

Incumbent President Elpidio Quirino lost his opportunity to get a second full term as President of the Philippines to former Defense Secretary Ramón Magsaysay.[3] The event afterward made Magsaysay's political career brighten up. Padilla lost the mayoralty race."[3] When the news reached Magsaysay that Padilla was being tortured. The night after that. a former guerrilla fighter against the Japanese during Second World War. In 1951 local elections. Presidency In the Election of 1953. the governor of Negros Occidental Rafael Lacson assumed the gubernatorial chair and he ran the war-torn province as a police state. In 1949. García. Padilla's opponent was an ally of Lacson.[5] Presidential Election of 1953 Presidential elections were held on November 10.[3] The next year. Padilla continued his campaign but he sought military protection from defense secretary Ramón Magsaysay.[3] After the elections. He was then called "Mambo Magsaysay". His running mate. This was the first time that an elected president did not come from the Senate. one of Lacson's men announced in the town plaza that this is "what happens to people who oppose us. his 22 men and three other mayors of Negros Occidental municipalities in an electric chair. declared his bid for candidacy to become the mayor of town of Magallon (now Moises Padilla). Padilla's body was swimming in blood. Magsaysay himself carried the body of Padilla with his bare hands and delivered it to themorgue. Lacson's uniformed men picked Padilla up and he was sent on a "town show" where he was Lacson. Because of this political alliance. After the torturing. He tied up with the wealthy sugar plantation owners in the province. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog. assembled private local armies and held the constabulary in an iron fist.[3]On August 1954. Moreover he started the jingles during election.1951 Negros Occidental incident beaten and tortured along the road. Magsaysay was decisively elected president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino. the guilty verdict was given by Judge Eduardo Enriquez. Senator José Yulo lost to Senator Carlos P. he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. 1953 in the Philippines. many local journalists foretold the defeat of Lacson in the office if he would not loosen up his policies in the province. and was positioned on a police bench in the town plaza. The sentence was to put Theatrical poster of the 1961 film The Moises Padilla Story that narrates the 1951 event. a first by a Philippine president. he went to Negros Occidental. for one of his inclinations and hobbies was dancing. pierced by fourteen bullets. News clips showed Magsaysay's pictures holding Padilla's body the next day. a man named Moises Padilla. He led the foundation of .[4] Magsaysay even used this event during his presidential campaign in 1953. Magsaysay was informed that Padilla had already been killed by Lacson's men before the secretary even went to the province. Vice President Fernando López did not run for re-election. Even though he was warned. Magsaysay and his men presented their evidence enough to convict Lacson and his 26 men for murder. To his surprise. The trial against Lacson started in January 1952. Lacson sent a word to Padilla to renounce his candidacy or else he would die. As president.

composed of youthful personnel. His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free. a new era in Philippine government. who subsequently became farmers.[2] President Magsaysay with Congressman William Chiongbian and Governor Gedeon G. indeed. This administration body next devoted its attention to cooperative marketing. that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in South East Asia. went along way towards bringing to reality the rural improvement program advocated by President Magsaysay.the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954.[2] Agrarian Reform To amplify and stabilize the functions of the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR).[2] True[2] to his electoral promise. Domestic Policies President's Action Body Ushering. Manuel Manahan. Finally. this was regulated to allow weekly visit. President Magsaysay worked[2] for the establishment of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA). in this wise. opening its gates to the public.[2] Along this line of help to the rural areas. Trade and industry flourished. but active and tireless. Later. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries.[2] This body took over from the EDCOR and helped in the giving some sixty five thousand acres to three thousand indigent families for settlement purposes. South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific. One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF). almost ten million dollars. as well as enhancement of the Ambuklao Power plant and other similar ones. President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft.[2] As further aid to the rural people.[2] This was symbollically seen when. This new entity. his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. covering the cost of his flight. on inauguration day. Headed by soft-spoken. proved to be a highly successful morale booster restoring the people's confidence in their own government.[2] the President Established the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Administration (ACCFA). vast irrigation projects. A group-movement known as the Liberty Wells Association was formed and in record time managed to raise a considerable sum for the construction of as many artesian wells as possible. referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up. of which more than thirty thousand would be settled by direct action and a little more that twenty five thousand. the Philippine military was at its prime. he madeMalacañáng Palace literally a "house of the people". this committee would come to hear nearly sixty thousand complaints in a year.[2] This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. all loyal to the President. The idea was for this entity to make available rural credits. and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports.[2] Again. During his term. President Magsaysay placed emphasis upon service to the people by bringing the government closer to the former. then wrote a personal check to the PAF.[2] . culture and foreign affairs. who were allowed to freely visit all the dependencies of the presidential mansion. President Magsaysay ordered the gates of Malacañang Palace open to all and sundry. Records show that it did grant. The socio-economic value of the same could not be gainsaid and the people were profuse in their gratitude. Quijano of Misamis Occidental. President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. it allocated some other twenty five thousand to a little more that one thousand five hundred landless families. President Magsaysay initiated in all earnestness the artesian wells campaign.

The lessons learned from Force X and Nenita were combined in the 7th BCT. the largest anti-Huk operation. training. from Colonel Valeriano. From February to mid-September 1954.  Republic Act No.  Republic Act No.Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations. Also in 1954. He made the Philippines a member of 2. Force X employed psychological warfare through combat intelligence and infiltration that relied on secrecy in planning. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) -.[6] Eleanor Roosevelt with President Ramon Magsaysay and Mrs. which had become one of the most mobile striking forces of the Philippine ground forces against the Huks. the former head of Force X of the 16th PC Company. Jr. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) -. Laureño Maraña. assumed command of the 7th BCT. 1160 of 1954²Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. leader of theHukbalahap rebel group.000 by year's end. With the all out anti-dissidence campaigns against the Huks. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao. "Operation Thunder-Lightning" was conducted that resulted to the surrender of Luis Taruc on May 17.  Republic Act No.[7] Foreign Policies . Further clean up operations of guerillas remaining lasted throughout 1955. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. was appointed by President Ramón Magsaysay to act as personal emissary to Luis Taruc. they numbered less than President Ramon Magsaysay at the Presidential Study. President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program:  Republic Act No. Benigno Aquino. diminishing its number to less than 1.governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. active Huk resistance no longer presented a serious threat to Philippine security. Malacañang Palace.Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent. Col. Luz Magsaysay of the Philippines in Manila SEATO The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. Lt. and execution of attack. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) -.000 by 1954 and without the protection and support of local supporters.HUKBALAHAP In early 1954. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.

Laurel and other Philippine leaders recognized that the agreement substantially gave the country greater freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access to US markets. & House Speaker José B. This was an agreement between the two countries. Vice-President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. which tied the economy of the Philippines to that of United States economy. The possibility that a communist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt the same system of government is called the domino theory. Senator Primicias. a Conference was held in Bandung (Java) in April 1955.[10] The agreement replaced the unpopular Bell Trade Act.[2] no matter whether under a Western Power of an Oriental state. however.. Garcia held the opportune conversations with Secretary Dulles for this purpose. later. which was established in Manila on Sept. and Indonesia. eloquent retort that promoted Prime Minister Nehru to publicly apologize to the Philippine delegation. Thus were the Laurel-Langley Agreement At Malacañang Palace. however. Clockwise. Although it proved deficient.[9] The active coordination of the Magsaysay administration with the Japanese government led to the Reparation Agreement. upon invitation extended by the Prime Ministers of India. the Magsaysay Government seemed reluctant to send any delegation. 1955. Prime Minister of Ceylon. upon advise of Ambassador Carlos P.[2] At one time in the course oft the conference. Ambassador Romulo delivered a stinging.[8] Members of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North Vietnam over South Vietnam. Rodriguez. from top left: Senator Edmundo Cea. Quick to draw. Magsaysay. Burma. Agreement was reached thereon and the first meeting of the Joint United States-Philippines Defense Coincil was held in Manila following the end of the Manila Conference. Former President José P. broke the ice against neutralism. who categorically states that his delegation believed that "a puppet is a puppet". the Philippine government took steps to broach with him the establishment of a Joint Defense Council. 1954 during the "Manila Conference".the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).[2] He was immediately joined by Philippine envoy Romulo.S. which could spread communistideology to other countries in the region. President Ramon F.[2] At the very outset indications were to the effect that the conference would promote the cause of neutralism as a third position in the current cold war between the democratic bloc and the communist group. Senate President Eulogio A.[9] Defense Council Taking the advantage of the presence of U. Ambassador Romulo was asked to head the Philippine delegation. Bandung Conference Billed as an all Oriental meet and threatening to become a propaganda springboard for Communism. Jose P. While some have seen the LaurelLangley agreement as a continuation of the 1946 trade act. the final agreement satisfied nearly all of the diverse Filipino economic interests.. Laurel Jr. Although. Pakistan. Sr. John Kotelawala. at first. 8. obligating the Japanese government to pay $550 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines. Secretary John Foster Dulles in Manila to attend the SEATO Conference.[2] . Ceylon. The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement which was a trade agreement between the Philippines and the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974. Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru acidly spoke against the SEATO. Romulo. Laurel Sr. it was decided to have the Philippines participate in the conference.

On May 31. Payment was to be made in this wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency. to Japan for an "on the spot" study of that country's possibilities.[2] On August 12.[2] Death Main article: 1957 Cebu Douglas C-47 crash Gravesite of President. that the Philippines accepted the Neri-Takazaki agreement. An estimated 5 million people attended Magsaysay's burial on March 31.[2] Reparations Agreement Following the reservations made by Ambassador Romulo. On March 16. Vice President Carlos Garcia. 1907 Marso 17. Noong 1950. Magsaysay did not finish his term that was expected to end of December 30. assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysay's term. headed by Finance Secretary Jaime Hernandez. the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform the Philippine government of the Japanese acceptance of said agreement on March 15. in capital goods. It was late in the afternoon that day that newspapers reported that the airplane had crashed on Mt. for several years of series of negotiations were conducted by the Philippine government and that of Japan. The official Reparations agreement between the two government was finally signed at Malacañang Palace on May 9. 1956. appointed chief negotiator. on the Philippines behalf. upon signing the Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco on September 8. 1957 because he died in a plane crash. in longterm industrial loans. Ambassador Felino Neri. 1953 hanggang sa kanyang kamatayan.Magsaysay at the Manila North Cemetery. 1957) ang ikatlong pangulo ng Ikatlong Republika ng Pilipinas mula Disyembre 30.[2] In view of political developments in Japan. That same night. 1945. Zambales noong Agosto 31.Records had it that the Philippine delegation ably represented the interests of the Philippines and. Only newspaperman Néstor Mata survived. his plane was reported missing. in services. and two hundred and fifty million dollars. Si Magsaysay ay isinilang sa Iba. Naglingkod siya bilang tagapamahala ng Try-Tran Motors bago magkadigma. the main terms of which consisted in the following: The Japanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. a C-47. through Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama. 1907 kina Exequiel Magsaysay at Perfecta del Fierro. in the ultimate analysis. 1955.. President Magsaysay informed the Japanese government. president Magsaysay. five million dollars. Ambassador Neri reached a compromise agreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki. 1957 Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where he spoke at three educational institutions. 1957. who was on an official visit to Australia at the time. Nag-aral sa Pamantasan ng Pilipinas at Jose Rizal College.[2] When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay. Noong eleksyon ng 1953. Manunggal in Cebu and that 36 of the 56 passengers and crew aboard were killed. he boarded the presidential plane "Mt. went to Tokyo. sent a Philippine Reparations Survey Committee. at about 1 a. tinalo niya si Quirino at naging ikatlong pangulo ng republika. 1955. Nang bumagsak ang Bataan inorganisa niya ang "Pwersang Gerilya sa Kanlurang Luzon" at Pinalaya ng pwersang Amerikano at Pilipino ang Zambales noong Enero 26. In the early morning hours of March 17.m. Si Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay o Ramon "Monching" Magsaysay (Agosto 31. succeeded in turning the Bandung Conference into a democratic victory against the plans of the Communist delegates. heading back toManila. during a so-called "cooling off"[2] period. In the face of adamant claims of the Japanese government that it found impossible to meet the demand for the payment of eight billion dollars by the way of reparations. Pinatubo". thirty million dollars. thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this long drawn controversy between the two countries. Pinigil niya ang panganib na lilikhain ng pulahang Komunista at naging napakatanyag sa mamamayan. bilang kalihim ng Pagtatanggol kaniyang binuwag ang pamunuan ng mga Hukbalahap. 1956. 1951.[11][12][13] He is then referred to by the people the "Idol of the Masses". Ang kanyang pangalawang pangulo ay si Carlos .

Kaya si Magsaysay ay tinawag na "Tagapagligtas ng Demokrasya". Si Luis Taruc. ay sumuko sa kanya. Ito ang kanyang pinakamahalagang nagawa.P. 1957. Pinigil niya ang paghihimagsik ng Huk o ng komunista. Cebu noong Marso 17. Siya ang pinakamamahal na Pangulo ng Pilipinas dahil ibinalik niya ang tiwala ng pamahalaan. Iniligtas ni Pangulong Magsaysay ang demokrasya sa Pilipinas. Garcia. . Supremo ng Huk o ang pinakamataas na lider ng komunista. Subalit nagwakas ito ng mamatay siya dahil sa isang pagbagsak ng eroplano sa isang bundok sa Manunggal.