DESIGN GUIDE for Time Synchronisation of Electrical systems

CORE ENGG. ELECTRICAL

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 4.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 6.0 7.0

PREAMBLE .......................................................................................................................................................................3 OBJECTIVE........................................................................................................................................................................ 3 PURPOSE OF TIME SYNCHRONISATION ......................................................................................................................... 3 EQUIPMENTS TO BE SYNCHRONIZED ...............................................................................................................3 NEED FOR SYNCHRONISAT ION....................................................................................................................................... 3 GENERAL CONCEPTS..................................................................................................................................................4 TIME DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................................................................... 4 SYNCHRONISATION PRINCIPLE....................................................................................................................................... 4 NECESSARY FEATURES OF IED CLOCK ......................................................................................................................... 4 TIME REFERENCE ........................................................................................................................................................5 TIME SYNCHRONISATION CODES / PROTOCOLS ........................................................................................7 POTENTIAL FREE CONTACT ............................................................................................................................................ 7 IRIG B .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7 NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL (NTP)............................................................................................................................... 8 SIMPLE NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL (SNTP).............................................................................................................. 8 TIME SYNCHRONISATION OPTIONS IN RELAYS ............................................................................................................ 9 SIGNAL CABLING..........................................................................................................................................................9 INFORMATION TO BE PROVIDED TO C&I FOR MASTER CLOCK SPECIFICATION .................10

ANNEXURE A : LEAP YEAR / LEAP SECOND..................................................................................................................12 ANNEXURE B : IRIG-B ...............................................................................................................................................................13 ANNEXURE C : NETWORK TIME PROTOCOL (NTP)..................................................................................................16 ANNEXURE D : FORMAT OF DATA TO BE PROVIDED TO C&I..............................................................................17 ANNEXURE E : TIME SYNCHRONISATION PROTOCOLS AVAILABLE IN RELAYS .....................................18

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1.0 1.1

Preamble
Objective
This guide is intended to assist the designer in the implementation of Time Synchronisation for Electrical systems.

1.2 1.2.1

Purpose of Time synchronisation
Numerical relays have the facility to store fault records in the form of oscillo-graphic waveforms and event logs showing the sequence of protection device operation. They provide essential information that can lead to an understanding of just how the protection device behaved under fault conditions. The fault record has become a tool that allows the protection engineer to perform a cross check of the operation of the device against the applied settings. In most cases, the electrical fault creates fault records in more than one relay. Time synchronisation of relays and fault-recorders simplifies the task of fault analysis. Time synchronisation also increases the accuracy of control decisions by automatic control and protection equipment. This is relevant in the switchyard, where numerical Bay control units are used. It is necessary to synchronise the clocks of Energy meters, especially those used for ABT (availability based tariff) applications involving tariff switching.

1.2.2 1.2.3

1.2.4

2.0

Equipments to be synchronized
The following equipments are all eligible for time synchronisation. The decision to synchronise all or some of them will rest with the designer. The chief considerations are Customer specification if any, Economic consideration and Need for synchronisation. The last is elaborated below.

2.1 2.1.1

Need for synchronisation
Switchyard SCADA, relays and Bay control units: The switchyard and the transmission network are highly interconnected. Fault analysis will invariably depend on data from many devices. The devices shall therefore be synchronised without exception. Switchyard energy meters: If an Availability Based Tariff is implemented, the energy meters need to be synchronised. Synchronisation is also necessary if the tariff meters are part of an energy balance calculation based on data stored in the meters at pre-designated times. Unit Protection: This includes the Generator protection panel, Generator Fault Recorder panel and the GT-UAT-ST protection panels. The data in these devices need to be correlated with the plant DCS and also the switchyard. The devices shall therefore be synchronised without exception.

2.1.2

2.1.3

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2.1.4

Automatic Bus transfer system: This system consists of intelligent devices which record the transient signals like bus/incomer voltages and also the commands to breakers and their statuses. Time synchronisation of the system assists in the analysis of transfer failures. It is useful, though not strictly necessary to time synchronise this system. Relay Management System (RMS) and Energy Management System (EMS): These systems need to be time synchronised. They pass on the time signal to all the connected relays and meters. MV and LV switchgear relays (if not connected to RMS): It is recommended to synchronise the relays at the following locations. They contain useful information which need to be correlated in the event of system disturbances and voltage dips which lead to Unit tripping. ∗ Incomers, Ties and Bus PTs of MV Station switchgear and Unit switchgear ∗ Incomers and Bus couplers of 415V Station PMCC and Unit PMCC ∗ Incomers of 415V Emergency PMCC The SCADA, RMS and EMS consist of one or more interconnected Servers (Computers). The relays and meters listed above may be referred to as IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices).

2.1.5

2.1.6

2.1.7

3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.2.1

General concepts
Time definitions
The error of a clock is the difference between the actual time of the clock, and the time the clock is intended to have. The rate accuracy of a clock is normally called the clock accuracy and means how much the error increases, i.e. how much the clock gains or loses time.

Synchronisation principle
From a general point of view synchronisation can be seen as a hierarchical structure. A device is synchronized from a higher level and provides synchronisation to lower levels, if any. A device is said to be synchronized when it periodically receives synchronisation messages (Time reference) from a higher level. As the level decreases, the accuracy of the synchronisation decreases as well. The maximum error of a clock is a function of: ∗ The maximum error of the last used synchronisation me ssage ∗ The time since the last used synchronisation message ∗ The rate accuracy of the internal clock in the module

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.3 3.3.1

Necessary features of IED clock
It should operate independently of the external Time reference.

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3.3.2 3.3.3

Its time should be compared to the Time reference when available, and the time updated only after a fixed difference is established. It should update its time in a predictable manner. For some IED applications, a sudden jump in time is undesirable due to the error it causes in the recorded data. In such devices, the clock must ‘slew’ its time at a controlled rate, thereby correcting the time error gradually.

4.0 4.1.1

Time Reference
The time reference is taken from the Global positioning System (GPS). It is an absolute system to continuously provide the following information to unlimited users. ∗ 3 dimensional Position Fixing (Latitude; Longitude & altitude) ∗ Velocity (Speed/Course) measurement by detecting the Doppler shift in the radio signals emitted by GPS Satellites ∗ Time Reference generation, utilizing the fact that the system is operated on common precise time base GPS is sponsored and operated by the US Department of defence. Civilian access to the system is subject to US government Selective Availability (SA) policy. GPS provides continuous worldwide coverage, 24 hours a day under all weather conditions. Satellites distributed in 6 orbital planes (4 in each plane) spaced around the equator, pass over the earth at an altitude of approximately 20,000 kilometres. Each satellite has an orbital period of 12 side real hours (11 Hrs and 58 Minutes of civil time). A single satellite will orbit the earth twice a day, tracing the exact foot print path; but passing 4 minutes earlier than the day before. At least 4 satellites will be in view at any time above any point on the earth. Each GPS satellite bears an ultimate precision clock utilizing Rubidium-Caesium oscillation whose accuracy is comparable to International Atomic Time. The satellites transmit highly accurate, real time, worldwide navigation information at a frequency of 1575.42 MHz. The GPS Receiver collects the data from the GPS Satellites and outputs a time base pulse (1PPS) every second in precise synchronisation with UTC/IST. Each 1PPS Pulse is accompanied by a Serial Data packet output (A real time data comprising of Year, Month, Date, Hour, Minute and Second), which is a time stamp for that pulse. This output is utilized by a master clock to synchronize its time with UTC/IST with a maximum uncertainty of 1 micro second. The master clock can then generate various types of outputs to synchronize any number of digital clock / microprocessor based systems. See Annexure A for the relationship between GPS time and UTC time, when handling Leap years and leap seconds. A typical Master clock based on GPS cons ists of the following: ∗ GPS Antenna ∗ GPS Receiver ∗ Master Clock –A & B ∗ Redundant Comparator Clock ∗ Signal Conditioner for Time Reference generation ∗ Power Supply –A&B

4.1.2 4.1.3

4.1.4

4.1.5 4.1.6

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4.1.7

The Master clock provides outputs such as Potential free contact (1 PPS, 1PPM), IRIG B-AM, IRIG B-TTL, NTP and SNTP. These are used to directly synchronise the Servers (SCADA, RMS, EMS) used in the electrical systems. The Servers then pass on the time signal to their respective IEDs. Stand-alone IEDS are also synchronised directly to the Master clock. The number of such IEDs may be scaled up using Signal conditioners, which have multiple outputs. The outputs are usually of IRIG-B or Potential free contact type. The Signal conditioners are located near the clusters of client IEDs. The figure below pictorially represents all the available options.

4.1.8

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5.0 5.1 5.1.1

Time Synchronisation codes / protocols
Potential free contact
The GPS provides a pulse train via the potential free contact. The pulses are either 1 pulse-per-second (1 PPS) or 1 pulse-per-minute (1 PPM). The pulse is synchronised with the start of every second in the case of 1 PPS, and with the start of every minute in the case of 1 PPM. The pulses are used by the target device, to adjust its clock, as described here. A binary input of the device is used to receive the pulses. The potential free contact of the Master clock is typically rated up to 250Vdc, 100mA. If the binary input of the device is galvanically isolated from its other circuits, it can be paralleled with the binary input of another device. It is possible then to drive several IEDs in parallel us ing one Potential free contact. Initially, the clock of the target device needs to be set manually to the correct minute and second. When the pulse train is activated, the clock will be rounded off to the nearest whole second or minute, depending on the period of the pulse train. The rounding-off will take place on the rising edge of the input. The time is corrected at every pulse received by the clock. In some cases, the synchronisation can be selected to be on the falling edge. In some cases, the time is adjusted by accelerating or decelerating the clock. By this way the clock neither stops nor makes sudden jumps during the time adjustment. The pulse is rejected if the error is large (typically > ±0.05 seconds for second-pulse or ±2 seconds for minute-pulse). Typically, two detected pulses within acceptable time range are required for the target device to activate pulse synchronisation. Similarly, if the synchronisation pulses disappear, the device deactivates pulse synchronisation after a delay corresponding to a few pulses. The typical accuracy achievable with time synchronisation via a digital input is ±2.5 milliseconds for second-pulse and ±5 milliseconds for minute-pulse synchronisation. The pulse length of the digital input signal does not affect time synchronisation.

5.1.2 5.1.3

5.1.4

5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7

5.1.8

5.2 5.2.1

IRIG B
IRIG stands for Inter Range Instrumentation Group. It is specified by the Telecommunications and Timing group of the US army and was originally developed for sending time or other data around missile test ranges. It now finds use in government, military and commercial fields. Modern day electronic systems require time-of-day and year information for correlation of data with time. Serial formatted time codes are used to efficiently interface the timing system output with the user system. Standardization of time codes is necessary to ensure system compatibility among the various equipment suppliers. These digital codes are typically amplitude modulated on an audio sine wave carrier or transmitted as fast rise-time TTL signals. The use of the

5.2.2

5.2.3

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IRIG standard is to provide a standard protocol for serial time codes that are generated for correlation of data with time. 5.2.4 IRIG Standard 200-04 is the latest IRIG specification. The most common version is IRIG-B. IRIG-B refers to a serial time code format. This is a timing signal that has a rate of 100 pulses per second. IRIG-B sends Day of Year, Hour, Minute and Second data on a 1 kHz carrier, with an update rate of one second. IRIG-B DCLS (DC level shift) is IRIG-B without the 1 kHz Carrier. There are other formats in the IRIG Standard 200-04, which have other pulse rates (IRIG A, D, E, G and H). They are not used for our application. The available IRIG B formats are IRIG B000, IRIG B003, IRIG B120, IRIG B122 and IRIG B123. The 3 digits are coded as below. For more details on IRIG-B format and on BCD, SBS and CF, refer to Annexure-B. Format B000 B003 B120 B122 B123 Modulation DC Level Shift (DCLS), width coded, no carrier 1kHz Sine wave carrier, amplitude modulated, 1 millisecond resolution Coded expression BCD, CF. SBS BCD, SBS BCD, CF, SBS BCD BCD, SBS

5.2.5 5.2.6

∗ BCD - Binary Coded Decimal, coding of time (HH, MM, SS, DDD) ∗ SBS - Straight Binary Second of day (0....86400) ∗ CF - Control Functions depending on the user application 5.3 5.3.1

Network Time Protocol (NTP)
NTP is a protocol for synchronizing computer clocks across a network to standard time. The NTP client software runs continuously as a background task that periodically receives updates from one or more servers. With the appropriate hardware, NTP is capable of achieving synchronisation to within microseconds, depending on the synchronisation source and the network paths. Due to complexity, this protocol is not used for electrical systems. Refer to Annexure C for more details.

5.3.2

5.4 5.4.1

Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP)
SNTP is a basic version of NTP. It provides a simplified access strategy for servers and clients that do not require the degree of accuracy of the NTP protocol. SNTP is meant to operate in a dedicated server configuration, that is, one in which the server provides only one function. With careful design and control of the various latencies that are typical in such network design, it is possible to deliver time accurate to the order of milliseconds. Because the network packet formats of both protocols are identical, the two are interoperable. The main difference between the two is that SNTP does not have the error management and complex filtering systems that NTP provides. The SNTP protocol allows room for error and might not be suitable for some applications such as those in the financial industry that have very strict accuracy requirements.

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5.4.2

Here the IED functions as a SNTP client. For clock synchronization one can select between the operating modes Broadcast- from-SNTP-Server or Request- from-Server. With the first operating mode, synchronisation occurs by a broadcast message sent from the SNTP server to all devices in the network. In the Request-from-Server mode, the IED requests the device specific time signal during a settable cycle. The device requesting synchronization (the Client), formats a request data packet and sends this to the synchronization server at time T1. The server records the reception time, T2, and transmits a response data packet at time T3 containing time values for both T2 and T3. Finally, the client receives at the time T4 and decodes the other two times contained in the packet. The four times are used to compute estimates of both the end-toend network latency and the offset between the clocks.

5.4.3

5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2

Time synchronisation options in Relays
IRIG-B and Potential free contact are the most common options available in relays. The time synchronisation options in Numerical relays which are commonly in use are tabulated in Annexure -E. Some of the features are optional and they need to be specified at the time of ordering. The relays can communicate with the RMS or SMS (Substation management system / SCADA for switchyard) through a number of Network communication options, listed in the last column of Annexure -E. Some of these are proprietary. The networks are used for data collection, and sometimes control and interlock. The relays get time synchronised, as an added benefit.

5.5.3

6.0 6.1.1

Signal Cabling
IRIG-B TTL : Un-modulated IRIG B is normally distributed using copper cabling,

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which may be either coaxial (typically RG-58 type) or shielded twisted pair. 6.1.2 IRIG-B AM : The best practice for modulated IRIG B is to use shielded twisted pair cable to connect the IED to the clock. This is adequate for all installations within a substation. Fibre-optic cables have the advantage of immunity to electromagnetic interference. However, while substations may reasonably be considered high-EMI environments, the expense of fibre optic cable and drivers is generally not justified for most connections, particularly between clock and IEDs in the same rack or control room. Potential free contact : Coaxial Cable or twisted pair cable can be used. NTP / SNTP : Twisted pair cable can be used for NTP / SNTP. The choice of cable type, gauge, stranding etc. is up to the station designer based on other considerations, such as ease of routing and termination, and minimising costs.

6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5

7.0

Information to be provided to C&I for Master Clock specification
Successful implementation of time synchronisation depends on the correct designing of the interface between the Master clock and the Electrical systems. The system requirement needs to be identified and conveyed correctly to C&I. The architecture of the Master clock including the specifications and locations of signal conditioners is decided accordingly. The format of Annexure – D may be used for this purpose. It conveys the following basic information. Systems and IEDs to be synchronized ∗ Finalise the list of equipment which need synchronisation. The decision is technocommercial in nature, and the aspects were dealt with, in section 2.1 above. Synchronisation options ∗ After the list of equipment is finalised, look for the available synchronisation options in each. IRIG-B and Potential free contact are the commonly available options. ∗ It is incomplete to simply mention IRIG-B. Please obtain from the relay manufacturer the full format number (IRIG-Bxxx). At the very least, the type (AM Amplitude Modulated / TTL Transistor- Transistor-Logic, 5V) shall be informed. ∗ Similarly, the type of Potential Free Contact (PPS Pulse per Second / PPM Pulse per Minute) shall be informed. ∗ Wherever possible, the IRIG-B may be used. When it is not available, the Potential free contact, PPM/PPS may be used. If both options are available, this shall be indicated in the table. ∗ If both options are not available, the system has to be engineered in greater detail, so that there are no communication problems during commissioning. Number of signals required ∗ The number of signals required, can be indicated in the table after giving due consideration to the possibility of paralleling of IEDs.

7.1.1

7.1.2 7.1.3

7.1.4

7.1.5

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∗ If a number of IEDs are located in the same switchgear panel, it is possible to connect their IRIG-B inputs in parallel and drive them from a common source. Similarly, the Binary inputs of a number of IEDs may be paralleled and driven with a single Potential free contact. ∗ Since we are looking for accuracy only at the 1mS level (rather than micro-second), this is allowed. ∗ The other consideration is that ground loops shall be avoided. Please confirm from the IED manufacturer that the inputs of the IEDs are galvanically isolated. ∗ The number of IEDs which may be paralleled is not very definite. For practical reasons, this is presently limited to 8 IEDs. 7.1.6 Location and Distance from the Master Clock ∗ The location of the client device and its distance from the Master clock also govern the choice of signal conditioner. Detailed engineering considerations ∗ The limit on the number of IEDs in parallel needs to be confirmed by the Master Clock manufacturer. The main considerations are the loss of accuracy, elimination of ground loops and the loading on the signal source.

7.1.7

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Annexure A : Leap year / Leap second
A.1. Leap Year Convention

A.1.1. The U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomical Applications Department defines the leap year according to the Gregorian calendar, which was instituted by Pope Gregory VIII in 1582 to keep the year in a cycle with the seasons. The average Gregorian calendar year, technically known as the Tropical Year, is approximately 365.2425 days in length and it will take about 3,326 years before the Gregorian calendar is as much as one day out of step with the seasons. A.1.2. According to the Gregorian calendar, which is the civil calendar in use today, years that are evenly divisible by 4 are leap years with the exception of century years that are not evenly divisible by 400. This means that years 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2200, and 2500 are NOT leap years. Years 1600, 2000, and 2400 are leap years. A.1.3. All clocks, including GPS follow the same leap year calendar. Hence the dates are consistent. A.2. Leap Second Convention

A.2.1. Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one-second increments to insure that the difference between a uniform time-scale defined by International Atomic Time (TAI) does not differ from the Earth’s rotational time by more than 0.9 seconds. Consequently, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), also an atomic time, was established in 1972 and is adjusted for the Earth’s rotation and forms the basis for civil time. A.2.2. Twenty four leap seconds (as on 01-01-2009) have been added to keep UTC in synchronization with the rotation of the earth. In 1980, when the Global Positioning System (GPS) came into being, it was initially synchronized to UTC. However, GPS time does not add leap seconds, and consequently, GPS time is fifteen seconds ahead (as on 0101-2009) of UTC. The relationship between (TAI) and UTC is given by a simple accumulation of leap seconds occurring approximately once per year. If required, time changes are made on December 31 and on June 30 at 2400 hours. A.3. See the link http://tycho.usno.navy.mil/leapsec.html for further information.

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Annexure B : IRIG-B
B.1. IRIG-B format

B.1.1. The beginning of each 1.0 second time frame is identified by two consecutive 8.0 ms bits, P0 and Pr. The leading edge of Pr is the on-time reference point for the succeeding time code words. Position identifiers P0 and P1 through P9, (8 ms duration) occur every 10th bit and 10 ms before the leading edge of each succeeding 10 pps "on-time" bits (see Figure). B.1.2. The three time code words and the control functions presented during the time frame are pulse width coded. The binary zero and the index markers have duration of 2.0 ms, and a binary one has duration of 5.0 ms. The 100 pps leading edge is the on-time reference point for all bits. B.1.3. The BCD time-of-year code word consists of 30 bits beginning at index count one. The sub-word bits occur between position identifiers P0 and P5; there are 7 bits for seconds, 7 for minutes, 6 for hours, and 10 for days. Nine bits for year information occur between position identifiers P5 and P6 to complete the BCD time code word. An index marker occurs between the decimal digits in each sub-word to provide separation for visual resolution. The LSB occurs first. The BCD time-of- year code recycles yearly. B.1.4. Eighteen control functions occur between position identifiers P6 and P8. Any control function bit or combination of bits can be programmed to read a binary one or zero during any specified number of time frames. B.1.5. The SB seconds-of-day word occurs between position identifier P8 and P0. A position identifier occurs between the 9th and 10th binary coded bit.

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B.2.

IRIG-B Wiring considerations

B.2.1. Un-modulated IRIG-B Wiring B.2.1.1.Un- modulated or level-shift IRIG-B time code is generally developed by a system clock at a level of approximately 5 volts peak, i.e. the ‘high’ level is approximately +5V and the ‘low’ level approximately zero volts. Most clock outputs are often coaxial (typically BNC). B.2.1.2.For applications requiring the ultimate in accuracy (i.e. sub- microsecond), issues such as cable delay (1 to 1.5 nanosecond/foot or 3 to 5 ns/meter) and ringing caused by the fast rise and fall times of the signal coupled with imperfect line termination (which causes reflections) must be considered. For such applications, it is customary to use direct coaxial connections with one load per driver, and lines are generally terminated at either the source or load to reduce ringing if the line length exceeds a few feet. Since the characteristic impedance of coaxial cable is typically 50 (sometimes 75 or 93) ohms, compared with the input impedance of the opto-coupler circuit of around 1000 ohms, overloading of the driver often precludes more than one load being used per output when the load includes a 50-ohm termination. B.2.1.3.However, in most applications it is possible to connect an un-modulated IRIG-B driver to numerous IEDs, using any reasonably-clean setup of either coaxial or twisted-pair lines. For accuracies at the level of one microsecond this is sufficient, provided the cable lengths are not excessive. In particular, at the one- millisecond level of performance, it can be said with relative certainty that any setup providing a signal that can be decoded at all will give adequate performance. B.2.2. Modulated IRIG-B Wiring B.2.2.1.The modulated IRIG-B signal is similar in many ways to a voice- grade audio or telephone signal, and it can be distributed with similar methods. The rise and fa ll times of the signal are low, and the decoders generally use an automatic gain-control amplifier to compensate for varying input signal levels, so there are no significant considerations with respect to reflections or signal loss. Similarly, delays are small compared with the achievable accuracy of perhaps 50-100 microseconds at best, so cable delays are not an issue. IED inputs are normally transformer- isolated, so earth loops will also not be a problem. B.2.2.2.The best practice for modulated IRIG-B adequate for all installations within a sub-station, is to use shielded twisted pair cable to connect the IEDs to the clock. B.3. Earthing Considerations for IED and System Design

B.3.1. The best engineering practice generally requires any signal line to be earthed at some point. For most analogue signals, including time-code signals, this is normally the signal source. B.3.2. Since earth loops are to be avoided, it is important to earth each signal at one point only. This must be the source end, if there is the possibility to have multiple loads attached to a given source. Therefore, IRIG-B inputs in IEDs must provide galvanic isolation.

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Annexure C : Network Time Protocol (NTP)
C.1. NTP is a protocol for synchronizing computer clocks across a network to standard time. The NTP client software runs continuously as a background task that periodically receives updates from one or more servers. The client software ignores responses from servers that appear to be sending the wrong time and averages the results from those that appear to be correct. With the appropriate hardware, NTP is capable of achieving synchronisation to within microseconds, depending on the synchronisation source and the network paths. NTP synchronisation is part of a software package that includes a full suite of NTP options and algorithms, which are relatively complex, real-time applications. The sheer size and complexity of the NTP suite is not appropriate for many environments that do not have stringent accuracy requirements. The NTP daemon is an operating system programme which sets and maintains the system time of day in synchronism with time servers. When it starts, it checks its configuration file (/etc/ntp.conf) to determine synchronisation sources, authentication options, monitoring options, access control and other operating options. It also checks the frequency file (/etc/ntp/drift) that contains the latest estimate of clock frequency error. If specified, it will also look for a file containing the authentication keys (/etc/ntp/keys). Once the NTP daemon is up and running, it will operate by exchanging packets (time and sanity check exchanges) with its configured servers at poll intervals and its behaviour will depend on the delay between the local time and its reference servers. Basically, the process starts when the NTP client sends a packet containing its timestamp to a server. When the server receives such a packet, it will in turn store its own timestamp and a transmit timestamp into the packet and send it back to the client. When the client receives the packet it will log its receipt time in order to estimate the travelling time of the packet. The packet exchange takes place until a NTP server is accepted as a synchronization source, which takes about five minutes. The NTP daemon tries to adjust the clock in small steps and will continue until the client gets the accurate time. If the delay between both the server and client is big enough the daemon will terminate and we will need to adjust the time manually and start the daemon again. The NTP is fully specified in a document “Request for Count 1305”.See www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1305.html for further information.

C.2.

C.3.

C.4.

C.5.

C.6.

C.7.

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Annexure D : Format of Data to be provided to C&I
The following format may be used to communicate the time synchronisation requirements of Electrical systems. The data is filled in, on sample basis. Time synchronisation options IRIG –B PFC Others Type Type IRIG----B000 ----IRIGB120 --IRIGB000 IRIGB000 --IRIGB000 ------PPS PPS PPS PPS PPS SNTP SNTP --------SNTP --Distance from Master Clock panel in metres

Systems and IEDs to be synchronised Switchyard SCADA, Relays, Bay Control units, Energy meters Relay management system Energy management system Generator Protection panel Generator Fault Recorder panel GT UAT protection panel ST protection panel Automatic Bus transfer panel MV switchgear 0CA

No. of signal required 1

Location

1 1 4 per unit 1 per unit 4 per unit 2 per unit 1 per unit 3

LV Switchgear UPMCC#1

---

PPS

---

3

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CORE ENGG. ELECTRICAL

Annexure E : Time Synchronisation protocols available in relays
Relay Make ABB Relay Type (IED 670) REB 670 REC 670 RED 670 RET 670 REG 670 REL 670 Direct synchronisation options (IRIG B / PPM, PPS) • PPM, PPS • IRIG-B 12x via galvanic BNC connector • IRIG-B 00x via galvanic connector or optical ST connector Network communication options • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • IEC61850 IEC60870-5-103 SPA (no time synch) LON DNP 3.0 GPS satellite clock connected to the station bus communication switch, in NTP format Synchronisation from IED 670 equipped with a GPS module, acting like a SNTP server Ethernet station bus using SNTP SPA (no time synch) IEC60870-5-103 Modbus (no time synch) DNP 3.0 Profibus DP LON IEC 61850 SPA (no time synch) DNP 3.0 SPA (no time synch) IEC 60870-5-103 LON DCF 77 (only time synch) DCF 77 (only time synch)

ABB ABB

REF 615 REU 610 REF 610 REM610

IRIG-B (format not obtained) PPM, PPS

ABB ABB

RET 54_ REF 54_ REX521

• • • • • •

PPM, PPS PPM, PPS

Siemens Siemens

7UT63 6MD663

Siemens

7SA63 7SA613 7SA61

IRIG-B (format not obtained) PPM IRIG-B (format not obtained) IRIG-B (format not obtained)

DCF 77 (only time synch) IEC 60870-5-103 Profibus FMS-DP DNP 3.0 IEC 61850

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DESIGN GUIDE for Time Synchronisation of Electrical systems

CORE ENGG. ELECTRICAL

Relay Make Siemens

Relay Type 7UM611 7UM622 7SJ61 7SJ62 7SJ63 7SJ64 7UT612 7SA522 7SJ65 6MD63 7UT613 P 125 P 126 P 127 P 122 P 123 P 130 C

Direct synchronisation Network communication options options (IRIG B / PPM, PPS) • PPM • DCF 77 (only time synch) • IRIG-B000 • SIMEAS Sync. Box • Modbus & DNP 3.0 (7UM611, 6MD63 & 7UM622 only) • IEC60 870–5–103 • PROFIBUS (not used in 7UT612 & 7UT613 • IEC 61850 (7UM622 & 6MD63 only) • • • • • PPM IRIG-B (format not obtained) PPM

Areva

Areva Areva

PPM IRIG-B122

Areva

P 132 P 139

• •

PPM Optional IRIG-B122

Areva

Areva Areva Areva

P 141 P 142 P 143 P 145 P 220 P 241

• • • • • • • • •

PPM IRIG-B IRIG-B AM IRIG-B DC

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

MODBUS IEC 60870-5-103 Courier IEC 60870-5-103 Modbus IEC 60870-5-103 IEC 60870-5-101 DNP 3.0 Modbus IEC 60870-5-103 IEC 60870-5-101 DNP 3.0 Modbus Courier IEC 61850 IEC 60870-5-103 Modbus Courier

Optional IRIG-B

IEC 60870-5-103 Modbus Modbus Courier IEC 60870

Areva Areva

P 242 P 243 P 345

Optional IRIG-B IRIG-B00X IRIG-B12X PPM IEC 61850-SNTP

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DESIGN GUIDE for Time Synchronisation of Electrical systems

CORE ENGG. ELECTRICAL

Relay Make Areva

Relay Type P 342 P 343 P 344 P 341

Direct synchronisation options (IRIG B / PPM, PPS) • IRIG-B00X • IRIG-B12X • PPM • IRIG-B 12X

Network communication options • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Courier/K-Bus Modbus IEC 60870-5-103 DNP 3.0 Courier/K-Bus Modbus IEC 60870-5-103 DNP 3.0 IEC 60870-5-103 IEC 60870-5-101 DNP 3.0 Modbus Courier Courier Modbus IEC 60870-5-103

Areva

Areva

P 437

• •

IRIG-B122 PPM

Areva

Areva

Areva Areva

Areva Areva Areva Areva Areva

P 442 P 444 P 441 P543 P544 P547 P545 P546 P 631 P 632 P 633 P 634 P 630 P 740 P 741 P922 P923 P922 C 264

• • • • • • • •

IRIG B, optional

Optional IRIG B Port • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Optional IRIG B Port PPM IRIG-B122

P594GPS Synchronization Module IEC 60870-5-103 IEC 60870-5-101 DNP 3.0 MODBUS Courier Courier IEC 60870-5-103 RS 485 Serial Link Modbus IEC 60870-5-103 UCA2 IEC 61850 DNP3.0 IEC 60870-5-104 IEC 60870-5-101

IRIG-B122 IRIG B AM IRIG B

IRIG B

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