# University of Hertfordshire School of Engineering and Technology 6ELE0074 Telecommunication Systems Lab Answer Sheet on Digital Communication Link

Simulation using PSK and QAM

Name :Harsha Bandara Samarawickrama Kodituwakku Gedara ID number :10246804 1. Give the 16QAM link system diagram you actually used in your lab simulation, naming the building blocks. Describe briefly the link system operation and the functions of different parts. (25%)

Figure 1.1- 16QAM link system diagram Above diagram is the constructed communication link to investigates the characteristics of QAM digital Modulation scheme.Here we need to measure the BER by changing the SNR under the AWGN channel and analyze the performance of the 16QAM Modulation Scheme. Components of the diagram         Y. Sun Random Integer Generator General QAM Modulator Baseband AWGN Channel General QAM Modulator Error Rate Calculation Discrete Time Scatter Plot Scop Scop Display Page 1 of 8

Here the M array number should be 16 because we use 16 QAM modulator.To calculate the Bit Error Rate both Outputs of the Random Integer Generator and QAM Demodulator should connect with Error Rate Calculation.Here M is 16 because we use 16 QAM scheme[0-15]. Y. After signal go through the AWGN channel at the receiving end the signal is Demodulate by using QAM Demodulator.  General QAM Modulator Baseband The General QAM Modulator Baseband block modulates using quadrature amplitude modulation. Sun Page 2 of 8 . M-1].Error in bits and calculated BER value. Number of samples can be increase by reducing the sample time and ‘Initial seeds’ and ‘Output data type’ are other parameters that are default values in given requirement. For the given situation SNR is a considerable factor that should be changing by 2dB incremental steps up to 20dB in order to measure the error rate for particular SNR value.0001s. where M is the M-ary number.In this block we can change the SNR value according to our requirement. To take Scatter Plots we need to use two Discrete Time Scatter Plot Scop blocks at Modulator Output and Input of the Demodulator. The final output is a baseband representation of the modulated signal..The Demodulated signal output then connect to the Rx port of the Error Rate Calculation block.The Display block show the results total transmitted bits.In this Modulator block. Then QAM Modulator output send through a AWGN channel(Additive White Gaussian Noise) block which add Noise to the signal.In this block the sample time should be configured to given value 0. QAM is a signal in which two carriers shifted in phase by 90 degrees are modulated and the resultant output consists of both amplitude and phase variations. This system can modulate the various 16 input signals (0 to 15 integers) using Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) technique. M-1]. Functions of each Components  Random Integer Generator The Random Integer Generator block generates uniformly distributed random integers in the range [0.Therefore Integer Generator connect with Tx port.So that we can take clear scatter plot diagram when signal go through before and after the AWGN channel. Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. The M-ary number can be either a scalar or a vector. where M is the M-ary number. signal constellation parameter should be configure to [exp(2*pi*i*[0:15]/16)] and ‘Output data type’ is set to the ‘Double’.The first component of the diagram is Random Integer Generator.It’s generates the uniformly distributed random integers in the range [0. The generated signal at the Random interger Generator then Modulate by QAM Modulator which the array number is 16.

 AWGN(Additive White Gaussian Noise) An AWGN channel block adds white Gaussian noise to a real or complex input signal that passes through it.  Display Display block show the results obtained from the Error Rate Calculator.The quality of the signal is vary by the value of the Signal to Noise Ratio values. Sun Page 3 of 8 . by dividing the total number of unequal pairs of data elements by the total number of input data elements from one source. to reveal the modulation characteristics.  General QAM Demodulator Baseband The General QAM Demodulator Baseband block demodulates a signal that was modulated using quadrature amplitude modulation.etc.. In this Modulator block. short_e. We can use this block to compute either symbol or bit error rate. such as pulse shaping or channel distortions of the signal. signal constellation parameter should be configure to [exp(2*pi*i*[0:15]/16)] and ‘Output data type’ is set to the ‘Double’. The input is a baseband representation of the modulated signal. It calculates the error rate as a running statistic.Here we can change SNR values according to our requirements. . According to our requirment we can change the parameters such as short.There are two scatter plot scop in above diagram.In this block the input signal power should be set to 1W.One is at output of the QAM Modulator(Before go through the AWGN Channel) and otherone at QAM Demodulator output. long..  Bit Error Rate Calculation The Error Rate Calculation block compares input data from a transmitter with input data from a receiver. Y. For the above requirement decimation point is set to the 1 and the “Format” is set to the short.  Discrete-Time Scatter Plot Scope The Discrete-Time Scatter Plot Scope block displays scatter plots of a modulated signal.

0071 0.7826 0.0316 0.5898 0.1714 0. what is the corresponding SNR required? (25%) Following figure shows the obtained measure values BER against SNR Signal to Noise Ratio(dB) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Bit Error Rate 0.00094 0.6696 0.because we have to find the corresponding SNR value for BER at 10-3.2793 0. Sun Page 4 of 8 .7333 0. According to the above obtained values performance curve of BER against SNR graph is as follows.3914 0. with SNR varying from 0dB up to 20dB at an incremental step of 2dB.000054 Table 2.2) For the QAM link.4974 0.1 BER values For We checked the BER values for further after taking 20dB SNR.0856 0.performance curve of BER against SNR Y. give the obtained performance curve of BER against SNR. In order for the QAM link to achieve a BER of 10 -3. Comment on the performance. Graph 2.1.

Graph 2.2 .But increasing the SNR from 0dB to 20dB steps the quality of the signal has increased.we can see when increase the SNR the BER is reduce. can have better performance with minimum BER of the QAM link system when increase the Signal to Noise Ratio of the AWGN channel. According to the that curve. Signal-to-noise ratio is defined the power ratio between a signal and the noise in a link. The bit error rate shows the ratio between the numbers of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits.performance curve of BER against SNR Y. High SNR level shows quality signal output and low SNR values shows low performance. Sun Page 5 of 8 . So when it comes to the performances of the link system we could realise that as the effect of the noise reduced the BER ratio will goes to smaller values resulting greater performances to link system.Above chart shows the obtained performance curve of BER against SNR. Therefore we can conclude. To achieve 10-3 BER value for the QAM link we need to expand the SNR axis more and observe the BER when increasing the SNR. When signal go through the AWGN channel noise affect to the quality of the signal. the respective plot that we got is as follows.By taking the SNR and curve that we observed we could conclude in order to achieve a BER of 10-3 approximately according to the curve the required SNR would be 22dB.

1 Scatter plot for QAM Modulator Output Fig:-3. Comment on any differences of the two constellations and what may have caused the differences.2 Scatter plot for QAM Demodulator inputput Y. Discrete Time Scatter Plot diagrams that are taken at the QAM Modulator output and QAM Demodulator input When SNR value is 12dB Fig:-3.3) Show signal constellations (scatter plots) of the 16QAM link at the modulator output and the demodulator input for SNR of 12dB. Sun Page 6 of 8 .

To compare the prefered Modulation technique we need to consider there number of symbols and bits per symbols. 4) Generally comment on 16QAM against QPSK and 64QAM in terms of bandwidth efficiency and signal power required. The signal will affected by the noise when the signal travels through the AWGN channel. When considering the first scatter plot at the Output of the QAM Modulator. Y. Sun Page 7 of 8 .Hense. Therefore different SNR values are applied for the samples. Therefore higher order modulation rates are able to offer much faster data rates and higher levels of bandwidth efficiency for the communications system. Hence.Therefore required power for higher level of modulation is high. In what cases 64QAM and QPSK may be preferred to 16QAM? (25%) When choise a modulation scheme there are several factors to consider like Bandwidth effiiciency and Signal power required. same SNR levels are applied for all samples.    64 QAM has 64 symbols (6 bits) 16 QAM has 16 symbols (4bits) QPSK has 4 symbols (2bits) Prefered Modulation Technique from Bandwidth Efficiency Point Of View We can transmit more bits/symbol in 64 QAM than 16 QAM and QPSK because 64 QAM has 64 symbols (6 bits).Integer samples generated by the Random integer are modulated by the QAM modulator according to the 16-QAM constellation. 16 QAM and QPSK uses has 16 symbols (4bits) and 4 Symbols(2bits). modulated samples are not affected by the noise at very first time.When increase the level of noise it couse to increase the bit error rate. Therefore Bandwidth efficiency is varied for these Modulation techniques as follows. Therefore the displayed second scatter plot at the input of the QAM Demodulator is not accurate and the points are placed slightly different with original one. QPSK<16-QAM<64-QAM Prefered Modulation Technique from Signal Power Efficiency Point Of View But when we consider only the Bandwidth effieciency for higher level modulations. cost for the communication system is high.That means the when add noise to the signal increase the BER and decrease the performance of the link. constellation is higher than the low level of modulation techniques. If we keep remain the same noise power for the higher level modulation it increases the probability of error when there is noise. all 16 points are displayed in correct position.So the signal power requirement increases in the following way. Because.

it is most preferable use 64 QAM than the 16 QAM.QPSK<16-QAM<64-QAM Comparing these modulation techniques we have to choose the appropriate technique for our requirement.Therefore the applications like Celluler phones its more prefered to use QPSK Modulation. Because they use battery power and it is important reduce the require power. QPSK provide better performance than the 16 QAM in the context of BER and power consumption. Y. If we need to transmit the signal in higher bit rate the applications like cable modem and digital cable television presently used in digital terrestrial television most countries. Sun Page 8 of 8 . So QPSK is more preferable than 16-QAM for applications where the bandwidth requirement is lower and signal power is lower such as above requirements.