19 Essay -style assessment s 167

a apply knowledge and understanding;
analyse inf ormat ion;
synthesise new ideas or tr eatment s of facts;
evaluate issues, positions and argum ents.
See Table 1.1 (p. 6 ) for f urth er explanat ion of what 's expected under
these headings, and wat ch out for inst ructi on words t hat invite t hese

""" 1If" >( _ ,. " ...I' __
I Crit ical t hinking
I
I Essays are commonly used when t utors expect you t o t hink more
. deeply. Oft en what you have to do is not fram ed as a question but as
an instru cti on. Typically, you will be expected to:
"U'I' (1&4"
whe'reas t he essay f or mat allows you to develop an arg um ent ,
explain alternative views or provide a high level of detail in your
answer. Because you cannot be expected to know all topi cs in
thi s sort of depth, t here is often an element of cho ice in essay
exam papers .
t II
I:
II :
0[ 0
Essay-styl e questions are mainly used by tut ors to elicit an in-depth
answe r to a complex issue. Oth er short er form s tend to be included
when they want you to address knowled ge over a wid e area,
16 6 Tackli ng speci f i c types of exam and assessment

Keyterrn} ',.:
9r
i
Jic?j t.h
J
••
Per sooal pr onou'n ' \j aluej udgernent
-:
-. •.•
....•.
organisingthis ,anI;Lproducingan;etfe.dive",answer:,.;;,;, ;; ,., :.<
... " ' / '" ,.. ..•:.<_<.._'_.,._.• ..-,:_: .,:.:<.1-_:_.., ._.•.. : ,_. ,Y ', .._,. , ,., _:_:.:., ' " .. , '. ",: . "'.
Developing wr it ing skills.is a gradual pr ocess, and th at is . r The main advi ce is t o your wri t ing simple..wor king quickly,
best done wit h time at your di sposal. In most exams you will not be use a spider diagram or mind map to generate Ideas relevant to t he
able t o spend a long time on const ruct ing your respon se to the set i l, ":quest ion. From t his, decide on an outlin e structure. This approach
task, and will be expe cte d to perform under t ime pressure, without yo u to think lat erall y as well as in a li near manner - im por tant so
. 10 . y ou should
€ The Int roduc ti on: set s t he context7ijives an Inslg
m e marks you 0 ' . . '
int end to approach the t OPi Cand st at es brie fly what answer
will say.
• ' The main body: present s the inf or mati on, the argument or key
• points of you r response.
• .The conclusion: sums up the answer as stat ed, reinforces th e
", posit ion outli ned in the int roduction, and puts the whol e answer
\ i nt o a wi der contex t.
.. : ....,....

Introduct ions compared with conclusi ons
i
The introduction out li nes the topic and your aim in gen eral terms,

!
while the concl usion st at es your argument, viewpoint or findings !
- supported by the evidence and information you have di scussed in ,
the main body. !
I
.
1lI Th e t erminology used in the conclusion is mor e spec ialised, bec aus e !
it will have been introdu ced and expl ai ned in th e main body of th e !
! wo r k as a means of expr essing ideas more succinctly and i
! kno wledgeably.

t..._"--'-'.-r.-.>... ... . ... ' __ _ !
An important way in whic h m arks can be lost is through poo r
st r uct uri ng of exam ans w ers ( Ch 16). Ideally, your outline plan will
lead to an obvi ou s struct ure f or the main body of the t ext. but oft en
in ex am si t uat ions, an essay evolves on ce you begin to writ e. Thi s
is be cause the act of writing st i mulat es development of thought.
pot enti all y leading to changes i n order and i n content. In these cases,
your init ia l outline pl an sho uld be seen as a f lexi bl e guideline that ma y
change as you begin t o t hi nk more deeply about the t opic.
. Wri ter's bl ock
f, If you find to g¥t ,st uck' a tthe s t'ar t ofan essay answer, try
f st ar t i ng w ith adefiniti on or simple st at eme nt of fact.
- .- "'--
.----------.-...... ..'' . '
On the other hand, i f the planning phase is ignore d completely, and
you onl y think about t he st ru cture wh i le you wr it e, then you can end
up with a weakly struc t ur ed essay. Table 19.1 describes some common
pitfalls t hat can occur when st udent s fai l to consider the structure of
- '''- = <
._---.---.-"<1
Quot at i ons and ci t ations i n exa menswers
Do not become bogged down in trying t o remember di re ct quotes
word for word (possi ble ex ceptions are in literature and law, exams).
Just give the sense of the quote, it s relevance t o your answer and
i ts sourc e.
"' .
::' .... - . - _.._-'"'l _ __ 'ti'
16 8 Ta ckl i nq specific types of ex am and assessment
Table 19.1 Common fau lts in the structure of essay-style answers. In most
of th ese exampl es, paying mor e attent ion to t he planning phase will result in a
bett er str uct ure, and, hence, bett er marks .
'symi,{om of weakness t he woblem "
The magical mystery tour. This t ype of
',' .•' ""':-.:::">...,, 0'
The essay may cont ain valuable
answer rambles on, drift ing from point content. but marks wi ll be lost because
t o disconnect ed point wit h no real thi s is not organised and part s are not
structure. connect ed appropr iately to creat e a
coherent response.
No introduction and/or no conclusion . Fact s, concepts and ideas alone are
The main body contai ns many useful not enough - evidence must be
points. but f ails to introduce t hem and provided of deeper-level analytical
fails t o draw conclusions based on t hinking. The introduct ion and
them. conclusions are important parts where
t his can be achieved.
The overly-detailed answer. The main The writer has probably been
body of t he answer contain s a wealt h preoccupied wit h showing how much
of information, some of which is has been memori sed, wit hout showing
relevant and some not. Despit e the how much has been understood.
finely-grained detail, littl e st ruct ure is Relevance of t he mat erial in relation t o
evident and there is no discriminati on t he inst ruction given has not been
bet ween,t he import ant and the considered at the planning stage, or as
unimport ant. the essav-wrlt lnq progresses.
Academic writing style involves
writ ten as if it were a conversational
The stream of consciousness. Often
structural as well as linguist ic
monologue, t his lacks int ernal components. Bot h areImport ant
organisati on, few (or t oo many) elements of a good answer. Hence, t he
signposti ng words, no (or few) wri ting needs t o guide t he reader along
paragraphs, and litt le apparent logi c. a logi cal path t o enable understanding.
The waffly, irrelevant answer. ' Great er at tent ion needs to be paid t o
untocussed. fails to get to gri ps with analysis of the inst ruction given and
the quest ion and may cont ain large convert ing these thought s int o a
amounts' of irr elevant inf ormation, coherent answer plan. Irr elevant '
offered up seemingly wit hout regard mat erial should notbe -used as
for t he topicset. it will gain no marks.
The half -an-answer.Faiisto appreCia,eThe essay should cover -au aspect s of
, I
f irst part. should be refl ected in t he plan
and eventual st ruct ure.
St ruct ur e dominated ,by quotes . This This type of stru ct ure leaves litt le
might start wit h a hackneyed quote room for evidence of original t hought.
or be int erspersedwi th extensive ,Few marks'are given for having a good
memori sed quotes. with littl e eff ect ive memory -Jt 's what is done wit h the
use of t hese. information t hat count s.
19 Essay-st y le assessment s 169
ill
I
I ·
i
- =
i

i Analysing the wording of each question
I
i
! This requires a bit more than simpl y thinking about what you are
I Anot her important way in whi ch marks can be lost is when answers do
not address t he questi on (see Ch 16). You can avoid t his by:
.... Making sure you consider all aspect s of th e question. Bra instorming
tec hniques can help you achi eve thi s.
e Expl aini ng what you und erstand by the question (per haps in t he
introductory paragraph). This will make you th ink about the
being asked to do. You need to take a broader and more in-dept h look
i"
at the task in the context of the whole question. To do thi s, you must
consider:
fl1 The instruction word. In what category does that place the task?
For example, have you been asked to act, describe, analyse, argue,
or do something else completely?
! G The topic. What is t he core t opic about?
interpreted. However, make sur e you do not narrow t he t opi c
question and may clear up any doubt about how it can be
The aspectts) to be covered. What part icular aspect of the topi c
beyond what would be reasonable. has to be consider ed?
Any restrict ion(s). What limits have been imposed on the discussion?
Focussi ng on the pr eci se tas k you have been asked t o do.
r ....
"
Remember to ta ckl e t he quest ion act uall y asked and not t he one
Your answer must encompass each element of t he task t o ensure
you woul d have liked t o answer - t his is a r isk in quest ion-spotting. , that it is a logical response to the task you were set. What you write
Ensuring your answer is planned. Creat ing a plan will make you
t
I, : , must be relevant. Superfluou s material or digressi ons will not earn
you marks
L".,. __ __ th ink about rel evance and the logic of your argument.
1Il Keeping t o the point. Including irr elevant or repet it ive cont ent
will not gain you any marks and the ti me you spend wr iting it will
be wasted , stopping you f rom gaining mark s on other quest ions.
Having said t hat, no mar ks are given for 'white space': even a few
general points of pr inciple may r esult in enough marks to help
This is an essenti al stag e of creat ing a sound piece of academicwri t ing,
you pass, when added t o those gained in other, better, answers .
wheth er f or an in-cour se assignment or exam. Tips for reviewing essay
Making sure you answer all parts i n multi-part questions. These
answer s in an exam sit uat ion ar e provided in ell 16.
may not be worded in two or more sentences: phrase s such as
' compare and contrast' and 'cau se and effect' should alert you to
thi s. Make sure that the weighting in marks given to quest ions is
reflected in the length of the component parts of your answer.

o Avoiding making unsupported value judgements. These are
statements of the writer ' s views , often using subjective language, IF Have potential answer formats in mind as you go into an exam.
i_, and which fail to provide sound evidence to support the position Ideall y, your revi sion and pre -exam preparat ion have given .you
.1_ .
.. k.H.... = ===-=
,.- _1!II'._.-._._-- .. personal pronouns ' I', ' you', ' we' and: ·one' . . ' . .. -- --If T his will ensure you do not have to start answers completel y from ...
, scratch.

Use notes and plans effectively. It is perfectly acceptable practice
to make notes i n exam books; however, you shoul d al ways score
1
Someti mes examinat ion questions wi ll blend two topics so t hat you
th rough them before you submit the answer paper. A single diagonal
I
may findthat you can only answer half the question. This is one of
line wi ll suffi ce. Somet imes your plan may be used by the examiner to
i
the dangers of questi on-spotting{Ch 9 ).
cros s-check deta il s of your answer (but do not count on this). "'. ._ : .., _I . _
19 Essay -style assessments 171
17 0 Tackl ing specific types of exam and assessment

Keep your writing simple. If you are to st ick to your exam strategy,
you must not lose valuabl e time creating an attention-grabb ing piece
of writ ing. You won't have time or space to refin e your answer in the
same way as you would with a piece of coursewor k. In parti cular , don't
labour the int roductio n with f ine phrases - get stra ight to the point of
th e quest ion and give your response to it.
Balance your effort appropriately. For example, in exam answers
your introducti on need not be overl y long. Most marks will be awarded
f or the mai n body and conclusions, 50 spend more ti me and
brainpower on them.
Focus on providing evidence of deeper thinking. Especiall y at
higher levels of st udy, this will help you gain better grades. On the
assumpt ion that you are able to include basic info rmat ion and display
an underst anding of it, you can gain marks for:
s suppl ying addit ional and relevant detail at the expected depth;
& providing an anal yt ical answer rath er t han a descri pti ve one ­
focussing on deeper aspect s of a t opic, rather t han merely
recounting f acts;
I} set t ing a probl em in cont ext, and demonstrati ng a wider
underst anding of the t opic; however, make sure you don't overdo
this, or you may risk not answering the question set - remember
that you cannot be expected to gi ve the same amount of detail in
an exam answer as you would i n a piece of essay-style coursework;
<& giving enough evi dence of reading around the subject, by quoting
relevant papers and revi ews and mentioning author names and
dates of publ ication ;
@ considering all sides of a top ic/debate, and arriving at a clear
conclusion - you may have to take int o account and explain two or
more viewpoints, and possibly weigh them up, according to the
question set; where appropriate, your answer should demonstrate
- ==
Make sure you aren't losing marks due to poor presentation.
Despite the t ime pressure, exam answers need to be legible and
cl early lai d out. If feedback indicates t hat tut ors are having problems
in reading your work, or consider it untidy, paying attention to this
could be an easy way of gaining marks.
19 Es say-style assessment s 173
172 Tackl i nq spec i f i c t y pes of ex am and assessment

-.... .,
19.1 Review essay-style questions in past exam papers.
Look at these part icularl y f rom the point of vi ew of t he dept h
of answers' requir ed. Consider both the inst ructi on word used
and the conte xt to gain an appr eciat ion of the level of thin king
demanded.
19.2 Focus on definitions and possible formats during
revision. If you have troubl e gett ing your answers started
during exams, it can be a useful device t o start with a definition;
alt ernat ively, think about stat ing the sit uation, the problem and
t hen the potent ial solution. This might not be applicable t o all
scenarios, but if you are really stuck this wi ll at least give you a
fr amewor k for thinking and writ ing.
19.3 Use formative assessment exercises to improve your
English. If you recognise that your use of language is weak, t hen
t ake advantage of all formative assessment exercises to help
you improve. Speak with marker s and tutors about how you
might enhance your marks. You may find t hat analysing writ ing
t echnique can help, especially if you are aware of specif ic
weaknesses, such as punctuation or structuring.

.. 's ymi.....:. No introduction and/or no conclusion . Often written as if it were a conversationa l monologue. i An im p o rtant way in w h ic h m arks can be lost is thr ough p o o r st r uct u ri n g of exa m a ns w ers ( Ch 16).... An ~l ySis '6! t he woblem " The essay may cont ain valuable conte nt..>.... t._.... Irr elevant ' material should notbe -used as it will gain no marks..... This typ e of stru ct ure leaves litt le room for evidence of original t hought. drift ing from point to disconnected point wit h no real struc tu re._-'"'l 'ti' _ "' ::'.:... try st ar t ing w ith .....:.. ! Ta ble 19. irrelevant answer. The introduct ion and conclusions are important parts where t his can be achieved. offered up seemingly wit hout regard for t he to pic se t.lI''. The write r has probably been preoccup ied wit h showing how much has been memori sed... This type of answer rambles on. an essa y ev o lv es on ce you begin to w rit e. The main body of t he answer contain s a wealt h of in formatio n... ..:... but fails to introduce t hem and fails t o draw conclusions based on the m.{om of weakness in'.. . Quot at ions and ci t ation s in exa menswers Do not be com e bogged down in trying t o rememb er di re ct quotes word for word (po ssi ble ex ceptions are in literature and law... potentiall y leading to c ha n ges in order and in content. Fact s. and you o n ly think ab o u t t he st ru cture wh i le you wr it e. _ r . _ __. .:......_ ---.-"<1 ~~:~:::~~~::Z:~~:f~::~.:...... Thi s is be cau se the act of writing st im u la t es development of thought. In most of th ese exampl es...~---. but marks will be lost because thi s is not organised and parts are not connected appropr iate ly to creat e a coherent response. untocussed...~~_~ _'11~ " ..•' ""':-.' '- = < t~ingj.:.. concepts and ideas alone are not enough ..1 describes so m e comm o n pitfalls t h at can o ccur when st ud e n t s fai l to consider the structure of The waffly. ...... Despit e the finely-grained deta il....... your outlin e p la n will lead to an obvi ou s struct ure f or th e main body of th e t ext. but oft en in ex a m s it u a t io ns... hence.. The half -an-answer..---... exams)...evidence must be provided of deeper-level analytical t hinking. il I I· wo r k as a means of exp r essing ide as more su ccinctly an d . _. ~--~~ Introd uc t ions com pared with conclu si ons ~ i .......If you find Y(). The stream of consciousness. Writer's bl ock a defin iti on "'-- .. Bot h areIm port ant elements of a good answer.:. ' ' On the other hand..st uc k'a tthe s t'ar t ofan essay answer.u t ~pc:J to g¥ t ..... ..:... Hence...by quotes .. your init ia l outlin e pl an sh o u ld be se e n as a f le xi bl e guid elin e that ma y cha n g e a s you b egin t o t h ink m ore deeply abo u t th e t op ic. ~ : )""' '' ~.:.. no (or few) paragraphs..:.... ._ ! it w ill have been introdu ced and expl ai ne d in th e main body of th e ! ! ! . viewpoint or finding s supported by the evidence and information y ou have di scussed in th e main body. - or simple st at eme nt of fact..:. Table 19... bec aus e ! kno w led ge ably. fails to get to gri ps with th e quest ion and m ay contain large amounts' of irr elevant information.-.l~ ~o..... t he wri tin g needs to guide t he reader along a logical path to enable understa nding.. Relevance of t he material in relation to t he inst ruction given has not been considered at th e planning stag e...Few marks 'are given fo r having a good memory -Jt 's what is done wit h th e informatio n t hat count s. Ideally. it s relev ance t o your ans wer and its so urc e.o.. Just give th e sense of the quote... if th e planning phase is ig no re d completely. ' Great er at te nt ion needs to be paid to analysis of the inst ruction given and convert ing th ese th ought s into a coherent answer plan... or as the essav-wrlt lnq progresses... wit hout showing how much has been understood.. ---------..... ' _ _ ! _ i The magical mystery tour. and... little st ruct ure is evident and th ere is no discriminati on between.. t his lacks int ern al organisati on.

'b.' .. few (or too many) signposti ng words..~.. - = --.:::">. The main body contai ns many useful points... .. ~ tr'oCfure " " '. bett er marks .. with little eff ect ive use of t hese..:. This might sta rt wit h a hackneyed quote or be interspersedw ith exten sive memori sed quote s.. ... ! 1lI Th e t erminology used in th e conclusion is m or e spec ia lis ed....... The overly-detailed answer.. .t he import ant and the unimportant. paying mor e attent ion to t he plannin g phase will re sult in a better str uct ure ....-.. St ruct ur e dominated .':..~~~~tO-= =:I~::~O~~=~~.... . r"'~o'_" 16 8 Ta c kl i n q specific types of ex am and assessm en t 19 Es say-st y le asse s smen t s 16 9 . I - The introduction out li nes the topic and your aim in gen eral term s. Academic writing sty le involves structural as well as linguistic components..' .- f ...... : . .:..... th en you can end up w ith a weakly struc t u r ed essay. • " ..Faiisto appreCia eThe essay should cover -au aspects of ..:.. some of which is relevant and some not... hi s I should be refl ected in t he e~s a y plan and eventual st ruct ure.:.:. 0' wh ile the conclusion st at es your argument...:. In thes e cases.:.~ :tl. and litt le apparent logic.. ~ ~~ f irst part.:..:-----~ .:.1 Common fau lts in the structure of essay-style answers.'-'... f ..-r.....

in I may findthat you can only answer half the question..... T his will ensure you do not have to sta rt answers completel y from scratch. Making sure yo u conside r all aspect s of th e question.l <'O> "... Bra instorm ing tec hniques can help you achi eve this. 'we' and: ·one'. ~-. personal pronoun s 'I'...J ~ = ===-= --If .k .::'..~ ~~.. -- IF ~ ~ Have potential answer formats in mind as you go into an exam./eR-... Remember to ta ckle t he quest ion act uall y asked and not t he one you woul d have liked t o answer ..... Including irr elevant or repet it ive cont ent will not gain you any marks and the ti me you spend wr iting it will be wasted . Creat ing a plan will make you th ink about relevance and the logic of your argument.:-w "".tlv~~·~ -m--=b'T '.. Som et imes yo ur plan may be used by the examiner to cros s-che ck deta il s of your answer (but do not count on this). argue."'--- f~ ! 1Il This is an essenti al stag e of cre ating a sound piec e of academic wri t in g. . answers ... ~~ ~ J.".. r . 19 Essay -style assessments 171 . Make sure that the weighting in marks given to questions is reflected in the length of the component parts of your answer..!~\. What limits have been imposed on the discussion? t Your answer must encompass each element of the ta sk to ensure . To do thi s. 'yo u'. What is t he core topic about? " ~ Focussing on the pr ecise tas k you have been asked t o do.}""-~.TI'">"". must be relevant. Howe ver. marks ~ __ -. better.. This will make yo u th ink about the question and may clear up any doubt about how it can be interpreted.. wheth er f or an in-cou r se assignme nt or exam.i-"vb kP. It is perfectly accep table pra ctic e to make notes in exam boo ks. A sing le diagonal line wi ll suffi ce._ : ..t his is a r isk in question -spotting. however.. _ 1 Someti mes examination questions will blend two top ics so that you Tackling specific types of exam and assessment ... when added t o those gained in other...-.k. The instruction word ..:" ~ W[-mi'in:rr d .=::=:>== ~ r ~tT6._1 . These may not be worded in tw o or more sentences: phrase s such as 'compare and contrast' and 'cau se and effect' should alert you to thi s._-.. stopping you f rom gaining mark s on other que st ion s.. describe.~:. You need to ta ke a broader and more in-dept h look at the task in the conte xt of the whole question . you shoul d al ways score th rough them before you subm it the answ er paper.. .H."~ -. Making sure you answer all parts in multi-part questions.~:~"._ . you must consider: fl1 I i" i e Explaini ng what you und erstand by the ques tion (per haps in t he introductory paragraph ). your revi sion and pre -exam preparat ion ~ ill have given .p ot ent+al--e-x-arP~QtI9. * ~ -r<Ht-frn".1 _ i_.-rybi=-ti'ITJ"~r-=~~ 'jffh lcir~e. "'. Superfluou s material or digressions will not earn : . What part icular aspect of th e topi c has to be consider ed? ! G The topic.J ='-=. What you write I . have you been asked to act. ~M::JJ"J:. th at it is a logical response to th e task you were set...{ ~ ~.L. .=: !. Having said t hat.. analyse. This is one of i the dangers of questi on-spotting{Ch 9 ).. In what category does th at place the task? For example.nri::J:de~c.l-L! ~~_ . ._ ..=}. --n~QH-Y.... 'l .=a~"-~~~. and which fail to provide sound evidence to support the position .'. Tip s fo r reviewin g essay answer s in an exam sit uat io n ar e provided in ell 16 .~~ ~ . make sur e you do not narrow the t opi c beyond wh at wou ld be reasonable...5 t!R ' -. l. These are statements of the writer 's views .. ~ Any restriction(s). o Avoiding making unsupported va lue judgements. you __ L"..:.~ ~_ ::>~ .. ~ .~._.:. !II' . ' . Ensuring your answer is planned.>T'-. no mar ks are give n for 'wh ite space': even a few general points of pr inciple may r esult in enough marks to help you pass. _I 17 0 .you ~. Use notes and plans effectively.<='k_ kk~ ~~k.. or do someth ing else complete ly? The aspectts) to be covered... You can avo id t his by: . r1oO.i Analysing the wording of each question Anot her important way in whi ch mark s can be lost is when answers do not address t he qu esti on (see Ch 16 ). Keeping t o the point.6~Jd .:.'-" ~-"" I i ! This requires a bit more than simply th inking about what you are being asked to do. often using subjective language. r~ g t~ ~ i c s----~-----'---'­ .. Ideally.

and arriving at a clear conclusion . th ink about stat ing the sit uatio n. alt ernatively. you can gain marks for: -. or consider it untidy.3 Use formative assessment exercises to improve your English. Most marks will be awarded for the mai n body and conclusions. On the assumpt ion th at you are able to include basic info rmat ion and display an underst anding of it. Despite the t ime pressure. according to the question set. s supplying addit ional and relevant deta il at the expected depth. Balance your effort appropriately. . Look at these part icularly f ro m the point of view of t he depth of answers' requir ed. where appropriate. Focus on providing evidence of deeper thinking. exam answers need to be legible and clearly laid out.you may have to take int o account and explain two or more viewpoints.~ . considering all sides of a top ic/debate. set t ing a problem in cont ext. and demonstrati ng a wider understanding of th e t opic. Speak with marker s and tutors about how you might enhance your marks .get stra ight to the point of th e quest ion and give your response to it. especially if you are aware of specific weaknesses. rath er t han merely recounting f acts. t hen take advantage of all formative assessment exercises to help you improve. You won't have time or space to refin e your answer in the same way as you would with a piece of coursewor k. This migh t not be applicable t o all scenarios. Consider both the inst ructi on word used and the conte xt to gain an appr eciat ion of th e level of thin king demanded. th is will help you gain better grade s.. 19. 19. If you recogn ise tha t your use of language is weak. it can be a useful device t o sta rt with a definition. In parti cular ... the prob lem and t hen th e pote nt ial solution. prov iding an analyt ical answer rath er t han a descri pti ve one ­ focussin g on deeper aspects of a topic.2 Focus on definitions and possible formats during revision.== 19 Es say -style assessment s 172 Tackl inq spec if ic t y pes of ex am an d assessmen t 173 . in exam answers your introducti on need not be overl y long.1 Review essay-style questions in past exam papers.. your answer should demonstrate I} <& @ r= '~= -~ U !~~~:-i. Especiall y at higher levels of st udy.remember that you cannot be expected to give the same amount of detail in an exam answer as you would in a piece of essay-style coursework.Keep your writing simple. 50 spend more ti me and bra inpower on them. . paying attention to this could be an easy way of gaining marks. If you are to st ick to your exam strategy.~ ~~t1 PB5~~w. don't labour the int roductio n with f ine phrases . but if you are really stuck th is will at least give you a fr amewor k fo r thinking and writ ing. by quoting relevant papers and revi ews and mentioning author names and dates of publication .~~ Make sure you aren't losing marks due to poor presentation. and possibly weigh them up.@&M\fg ~ ~ B. If feedback indicates t hat tut ors are having problems in reading your work. such as punctuation or structuring. make sure you don't overdo this. You may fin d t hat analy sing writ ing t echnique can help. For example. If you have troubl e getting your answers started during exams. & 19. you must not lose valuabl e time creating an attention -grabb ing piece of writ ing. however.. giving enough evidence of reading around the subject. or you may risk not answering th e question set .

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'b.' .. few (or too many) signposti ng words..~.. - = --.:::">. The main body contai ns many useful points... .. ~ tr'oCfure " " '. bett er marks .. with little eff ect ive use of t hese..:. This might sta rt wit h a hackneyed quote or be interspersedw ith exten sive memori sed quote s.. ... ! 1lI Th e t erminology used in th e conclusion is m or e spec ia lis ed....... The overly-detailed answer.. .t he import ant and the unimportant. paying mor e attent ion to t he plannin g phase will re sult in a better str uct ure ....-.. St ruct ur e dominated .':..~~~~tO-= =:I~::~O~~=~~.... . r"'~o'_" 16 8 Ta c kl i n q specific types of ex am and assessm en t 19 Es say-st y le asse s smen t s 16 9 . I - The introduction out li nes the topic and your aim in gen eral term s. Academic writing sty le involves structural as well as linguistic components..' .- f ...... : . .:..... th en you can end up w ith a weakly struc t u r ed essay. • " ..Faiisto appreCia eThe essay should cover -au aspects of ..:.. some of which is relevant and some not... hi s I should be refl ected in t he e~s a y plan and eventual st ruct ure.:.:. 0' wh ile the conclusion st at es your argument...:. In thes e cases.:.~ :tl. and litt le apparent logic.. ~ ~~ f irst part.:..:-----~ .:.1 Common fau lts in the structure of essay-style answers.'-'... f ..-r.....

in I may findthat you can only answer half the question..... T his will ensure you do not have to sta rt answers completel y from scratch. Making sure yo u conside r all aspect s of th e question.l <'O> "... Bra instorm ing tec hniques can help you achi eve this. 'we' and: ·one'. ~-. personal pronoun s 'I'...J ~ = ===-= --If .k .::'..~ ~~.. -- IF ~ ~ Have potential answer formats in mind as you go into an exam./eR-... Remember to ta ckle t he quest ion act uall y asked and not t he one you woul d have liked t o answer ..... Including irr elevant or repet it ive cont ent will not gain you any marks and the ti me you spend wr iting it will be wasted . Creat ing a plan will make you th ink about relevance and the logic of your argument.:-w "".tlv~~·~ -m--=b'T '.. Som et imes yo ur plan may be used by the examiner to cros s-che ck deta il s of your answer (but do not count on this). argue."'--- f~ ! 1Il This is an essenti al stag e of cre ating a sound piec e of academic wri t in g. . answers ... ~~ ~ J.".. r . 19 Essay -style assessments 171 . Make sure that the weighting in marks given to questions is reflected in the length of the component parts of your answer..!~\. What limits have been imposed on the discussion? t Your answer must encompass each element of the ta sk to ensure . To do thi s. 'yo u'. What is t he core topic about? " ~ Focussing on the pr ecise tas k you have been asked t o do.}""-~.TI'">"". must be relevant. Howe ver. marks ~ __ -. better.. This will make yo u th ink about the question and may clear up any doubt about how it can be interpreted.. wheth er f or an in-cou r se assignme nt or exam.i-"vb kP. It is perfectly accep table pra ctic e to make notes in exam boo ks. A sing le diagonal line wi ll suffi ce._ : ..t his is a r isk in question -spotting. however.. _ 1 Someti mes examination questions will blend two top ics so that you Tackling specific types of exam and assessment ... when added t o those gained in other...-.k. The instruction word ..:" ~ W[-mi'in:rr d .=::=:>== ~ r ~tT6._1 . These may not be worded in tw o or more sentences: phrase s such as 'compare and contrast' and 'cau se and effect' should alert you to thi s._-.. stopping you f rom gaining mark s on other que st ion s.. describe.~:. You need to ta ke a broader and more in-dept h look at the task in the conte xt of the whole question . you shoul d al ways score th rough them before you subm it the answ er paper.. .H."~ -. Making sure you answer all parts in multi-part questions.~:~"._ . you must consider: fl1 I i" i e Explaini ng what you und erstand by the ques tion (per haps in t he introductory paragraph ). your revi sion and pre -exam preparat ion ~ ill have given .p ot ent+al--e-x-arP~QtI9. * ~ -r<Ht-frn".1 _ i_.-rybi=-ti'ITJ"~r-=~~ 'jffh lcir~e. "'. Superfluou s material or digressions will not earn : . What part icular aspect of th e topi c has to be consider ed? ! G The topic.J ='-=. What you write I . have you been asked to act. ~M::JJ"J:. th at it is a logical response to th e task you were set...{ ~ ~.L. .=: !. Having said t hat.. analyse. This is one of i the dangers of questi on-spotting{Ch 9 ).. In what category does th at place the task? For example.nri::J:de~c.l-L! ~~_ . ._ ..=}. --n~QH-Y.... 'l .=a~"-~~~. and which fail to provide sound evidence to support the position .'. Tip s fo r reviewin g essay answer s in an exam sit uat io n ar e provided in ell 16 .~~ ~ . make sur e you do not narrow the t opi c beyond wh at wou ld be reasonable...5 t!R ' -. l. These are statements of the writer 's views .. ~ Any restriction(s). o Avoiding making unsupported va lue judgements. you __ L"..:.~ ~_ ::>~ .. ~ .~._.:. !II' . ' . Ensuring your answer is planned.>T'-. no mar ks are give n for 'wh ite space': even a few general points of pr inciple may r esult in enough marks to help you pass. _I 17 0 .you ~. Use notes and plans effectively.<='k_ kk~ ~~k.. or do someth ing else complete ly? The aspectts) to be covered... You can avo id t his by: . r1oO.i Analysing the wording of each question Anot her important way in whi ch mark s can be lost is when answers do not address t he qu esti on (see Ch 16 ). Keeping t o the point.6~Jd .:.'-" ~-"" I i ! This requires a bit more than simply th inking about what you are being asked to do. often using subjective language. r~ g t~ ~ i c s----~-----'---'­ .. Ideally.

and arriving at a clear conclusion . th ink about stat ing the sit uatio n. alt ernatively. you can gain marks for: -. or consider it untidy.3 Use formative assessment exercises to improve your English. Most marks will be awarded for the mai n body and conclusions. On the assumpt ion th at you are able to include basic info rmat ion and display an underst anding of it. Despite the t ime pressure. according to the question set. s supplying addit ional and relevant deta il at the expected depth. Balance your effort appropriately. . Look at these part icularly f ro m the point of view of t he depth of answers' requir ed. where appropriate. Focus on providing evidence of deeper thinking. exam answers need to be legible and clearly laid out.you may have to take int o account and explain two or more viewpoints.~ . considering all sides of a top ic/debate. set t ing a problem in cont ext. and demonstrati ng a wider understanding of th e t opic. Speak with marker s and tutors about how you might enhance your marks .get stra ight to the point of th e quest ion and give your response to it. especially if you are aware of specific weaknesses. rath er t han merely recounting f acts. t hen take advantage of all formative assessment exercises to help you improve. You won't have time or space to refin e your answer in the same way as you would with a piece of coursewor k. This migh t not be applicable t o all scenarios. Consider both the inst ructi on word used and the conte xt to gain an appr eciat ion of th e level of thin king demanded. th is will help you gain better grade s.. 19. 19. If you recogn ise tha t your use of language is weak. it can be a useful device t o sta rt with a definition. In parti cular ... the prob lem and t hen th e pote nt ial solution. prov iding an analyt ical answer rath er t han a descri pti ve one ­ focussin g on deeper aspects of a topic.2 Focus on definitions and possible formats during revision.== 19 Es say -style assessment s 172 Tackl inq spec if ic t y pes of ex am an d assessmen t 173 . in exam answers your introducti on need not be overl y long.1 Review essay-style questions in past exam papers.. your answer should demonstrate I} <& @ r= '~= -~ U !~~~:-i. Especiall y at higher levels of st udy.remember that you cannot be expected to give the same amount of detail in an exam answer as you would in a piece of essay-style coursework.Keep your writing simple. 50 spend more ti me and bra inpower on them. . paying attention to this could be an easy way of gaining marks. If you are to st ick to your exam strategy.~ ~~t1 PB5~~w. don't labour the int roductio n with f ine phrases . but if you are really stuck th is will at least give you a fr amewor k fo r thinking and writ ing. by quoting relevant papers and revi ews and mentioning author names and dates of publication .~~ Make sure you aren't losing marks due to poor presentation. and possibly weigh them up.@&M\fg ~ ~ B. If feedback indicates t hat tut ors are having problems in reading your work. such as punctuation or structuring. make sure you don't overdo this. You may fin d t hat analy sing writ ing t echnique can help. For example. If you have troubl e getting your answers started during exams. & 19. you must not lose valuabl e time creating an attention -grabb ing piece of writ ing. however.. giving enough evidence of reading around the subject. or you may risk not answering th e question set .

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