Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure

Dr. Christos Drakos University of Florida

Introduction to Pavement Design 1. Introduction • Establish Layer Thicknesses: – To limit distress (acceptable levels) – For anticipated loading & environmental conditions – Using available/selected materials 1.1 Elements to be Defined/Identified for Design • Conditions: – Traffic loading (volume, frequency,magnitude … ESALs) – Environment (temperature, moisture) • Material Properties: – Subgrade – varies w/ season (existing material) – Pavement Structure (engineered materials)

Introduction to Pavement Design 1.1 Elements to be Defined/Identified for Design (cont.) • Performance Criteria: – Conditions that define failure • Performance Relationship
• • • • TRAFFIC ENVIRONMENT SUBGRADE MATL PROPERTIES

PERFORMANCE RELATION

PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

• LAYER THICKNESSES

Introduction to Pavement Design 2. Design Approach

NO

PERFORMANCE TRAFFIC ENVIRONMENT SUBGRADE MATERIAL PROPERTIES TRIAL MATERIALS TRIAL THICKNESSES PERFORMANCE RELATION PERFORMANCE CRITERIA LIFE-COST CYCLE
YES

A Pavement Performance Model is an equation that relates some extrinsic ‘time factor’ (age, or number of load applications) to a combination of intrinsic factors (structural responses, drainage, etc) and performance indicators

1 Response = “Reaction to an action” Response = Pavement & Material response to applied loads What are Pavement & Material Responses? (traffic & environment) δ1 & δ2 Pavement Responses δ2 δ1 element σ1 σ3 σ&ε Material Responses AC σ2 BASE . Empirical Vs Mechanistic-Empirical Difference is in the nature of Performance Relation 3.Introduction to Pavement Design 3. Response and Performance 4.1 Empirical • Statistical/Experimental (based on road tests) • Limited conditions/environment 3.2 Mechanistic-Empirical Improve the relation by understanding the mechanics • Relate analytical response to performance: – More reliable/robust than empirical – Integrates the structural aspects of a pavement to the material/mix design properties of the pavement layers!!! Introduction to Pavement Design 4.

1 Response = “Reaction to an action” Predict load responses with structural response models: • Vary in sophistication: – Linear Elastic – Non-linear Elastic – Viscoelastic – … etc Predict temperature responses with thermal response models: • σth = fnc (material.Introduction to Pavement Design 4. dimensions) Introduction to Pavement Design 4.2 Performance Performance is the measurable adequacy of STRUCTURAL & FUNCTIONAL service over a specified design period Structural Number of loads the pavement can support before it reaches unacceptable level of structural/functional distress Functional (user defined) • Roughness • Friction • Geometry • Appearance – Ride quality – Surface cracking – Loss of color . cooling rate. temperature.

SC(60) & AZ(75) • Developed design charts from the results Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2. representing three climatic regions in the US – NY(45).asphaltinstitute. εc @ the top of the subgrade 2. Development Design method based on computer model DAMA • Computes amount of damage (cracking & rutting) based on traffic in a specific environment • Multilayer elastic theory. used correction factors to account for base non-linearity • Used three temperature regimes.1 Fatigue Cracking Basic equation: AC εt N f = f1 ⋅ ε t − f2 ⋅ E − f3 Where: • Nf = Number of cycles to failure • εt = Tensile strain @ bottom of AC layer • f1 = Field correlation shift factor • f2 & f3 = Laboratory determined values . εt @ the bottom of AC layer • Vertical compressive stain.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure ASPHALT INSTITUTE (AI) US based association of international asphalt producers that promotes the use of petroleum asphalt products • http://www.org/ 1. Design Criteria Two types of strains are considered critical in design of asphalt pavements: • Horizontal tensile strain.

1 Fatigue tests εt Why 3rd-point loading? To have an even distribution of M.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2. no matter where the specimen fails V M Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2. we know the value of M.1 Fatigue tests (cont) .1.1 Fatigue Cracking (cont) N f = f1 ⋅ ε t − f2 ⋅ E − f3 Asphalt Institute calibrated the field shift factor using data from the AASHO road test • f1 = 0.1.0796 2.

ε C1 Low ε0 Number of Cycles.3 Constant Strain Fatigue Test • Apply constant strain (rate of deformation) 1 σ • Failure occurs when E=½E0 ε = 1 × σ . N Strain.1. the cycles to failure Nf will also depend on the temperature Must use cumulative damage approach to evaluate failure . σ = 2 × σ 2 ε 0 0 0 0 Stress.1. N σ0 ε0 Number of Cycles. Log Nf From the graph: • Stiffness of the material will depend on time of the year (temperature) • εt depends on the material properties (E) • So.1. ε Number of Cycles.2 Constant Stress Fatigue Test • Apply constant stress • Failure occurs when the material fractures Stress. σ Strain. σ σ0 Number of Cycles.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2. N Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2.4 Fatigue Test Analysis • Plot the strain Vs number of repetitions to failure on log scales • C1 & C2 curves for the same material @ different temperature Which curve has the highest stiffness? Strain. N 2. Log εt C2 High Check: Nf2 Nf1 • Select a strain level • Find the corresponding Nf • Higher stiffness will have less number of cycles to failure Number of Cycles.

εcA << εcB NdA >> NdB .477 N d = 1.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2.2.365 × 10 −9 ⋅ ε c AI calibrated the equation using AASHO road test data Consider the following two pavements • Similar structure • E3A >> E3B • Assume σcA = σcB εcB E1 E2 E3A E1 E2 εcA E3B BUT: εc @ P = THUS: Assume σcA = σcB σc E3 So. as governed by compressive strain Nd = f4 ⋅ε c − f5 −4. j Pavement has ‘failed’ if Dr=1 Dr = ∑∑ i =1 j =1 n Ni. εt3 4 E4.1 Damage ratio example Periods (Seasons) Material properties Allowable Traffic Actual Traffic Damage Ratio 2 E2. εt1 Nf1 n1 Dr1= n1/Nf1 Nf2 n2 Dr2= n2/Nf2 Nf3 n3 Dr3= n3/Nf3 Nf4 n4 Dr4= n4/Nf4 Dr=ΣDri i.2 Damage Ratio Dr= Actual # of Load Repetitions Allowable # of Load Repetitions p m Where: i. εt2 3 E3. εt4 E1.1. of load types = 1 for AI p = no.e. Dr=0. j 1 m = no. of periods in analysis = 12 for a year 2.3 Permanent Deformation Only SUBGRADE rutting considered. Design Life = 1/Dr = 10 years Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 2.

2 Subgrade • Four distinct periods: – – – – Freeze Thaw Recovery Normal Frozen MR Normal MR Thaw MR • Table 11.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 3.1 Asphalt Concrete • AI procedure considers the environment based on: – Mean monthly temperature – Monthly variable material modulus • Where: 1 ⎞ ⎛ 34 ⎞ ⎛ M P = M A ⋅ ⎜1 + ⎟−⎜ ⎟+6 ⎝ z+4⎠ ⎝ z+4⎠ – MP = Mean pavement temperature – MA = Mean monthly air temperature – z = Depth below the surface (1/3 of AC layer depth) • Then we can use: Log (E1 ) = 6. Environment • Nf & Nd vary with time of the year because of change in material properties with the weather 3.48 − 0.9 shows the suggested conditions to represent frost effects on the subgrade .01(M P ) Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 3.

includes both surface and base course thickness HMA SURFACE h1A h1B Thickness HMA BASE • Use Subgrade MR & ESALs • Read thickness off the chart For multiple HMA within a layer use composite modulus Example: • Subgrade MR = 11.1 Objective DETERMINE THE REQUIRED STRUCTURAL THICKNESS FOR EXPECTED TRAFFIC.11. AND ENVIRONMENT SUCH THAT: • Rutting < ½ in • Fatigue Cracking < 20% of Area OVER THE DESIGN LIFE (as defined by traffic) Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5. Traffic Calculate design ESALs (Topic 4) 5.2 Pavement Types 5.1 Full-Depth HMA • Pavement constructed completely from HMA • Figure 11.2.000 psi • Traffic = 1.1x106 ESAL • Thickness = ? ⎛ h1 A ⋅ (E1 A )1/ 3 + h1B ⋅ (E1B )1/ 3 ⎞ ⎟ E =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ h1 A + h1B ⎝ ⎠ .Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 4. Design Procedure 5. SUBGRADE CONDITIONS.

2 HMA over Emulsified Asphalt Base Emulsified Asphalt: • • • • Mixture of asphalt cement.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.2. water and emulsifying agent Run through a colloid mill that produces asphalt droplets (5-10 microns) Suspended in in the mixture by electrical charge Upon contact with aggregate it ‘sets’ or ‘breaks’.2. compatible with aggregate with positive charge (limestone) • Cationic emulsified asphalts – Positively charged. Medium and Slow setting Emulsified Base: • TYPE I – Dense Graded (Crushed Rock) • TYPE II – Gap Graded (Rounded Gravel) • TYPE III – Uniform Graded (Sand Asphalt) .1 Full-Depth HMA (cont) Thickness = 8in Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5. compatible with aggregate with negative charge (siliceous aggregates) • Rapid. water is squeezed out or evaporated • Anionic emulsified asphalts – Negatively charged.

2 HMA over Emulsified Asphalt Base (cont) HMA SURFACE hHMA hEMUL EMULSIFIED BASE • TYPE I – Fig 11.2.2.12 Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.2 HMA over Emulsified Asphalt Base (cont) .12 • TYPE II – Fig 11.13 • TYPE III – Fig 11.14 • hEMUL from the graph • Determine hHMA Minimum HMA thickness required • ƒ(ESAL & Base Type) Table 11.

10.15-11.8.15-11.12 and 18 in • Determine the required HMA thickness for the specific base thickness • Fig 11.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.3 HMA over Untreated Aggregate Base (cont) .20 HMA SURFACE hHMA AGGREGATE BASE (known) Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.3 HMA over Untreated Aggregate Base • Select the thickness of the aggregate base first • Figures 11.2.20 – design charts for HMA surface courses on aggregate base courses of 4.2.6.

Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.4 HMA on Asphalt Emulsion over Untreated Aggregate Base 1. Determine HMA thickness to be replaced by Emulsified Mix • Design thickness (step 4) – Min HMA (step 5) 7.2.12-11.14 SR = TEMUL THMA Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5.4 HMA on Asphalt Emulsion over Untreated Aggregate Base • Design charts do not exist • Have to determine substitution ratio between HMA & emulsified asphalt base Substitution Ratio (SR) • Thickness of emulsified asphalt base required to substitute a unit thickness of HMA HMA Surface 2” hHMA HMA Surface Full Depth HMA 2” THMA=hHMA-2 hEMUL Emulsified Base TEMUL=hEMUL-2 Figure 11.2.12 6.11 Figure 11.20 5. Design pvt using full-depth HMA • Fig 11. Calculate SR=TEMUL/THMA 4.12-11. Determine thickness of Emulsified Mix • Thickness (step 6) * SR (step 3) First three steps to determine SR Actual Design Last three steps to perform the substitution . Design pvt using HMA on Aggregate Base • Select aggregate base thickness • Fig 11.15-11. Design pvt using Emulsified Asphalt Mix • Fig 11.11 • Assume 2” HMA surface • Determine THMA 2.14 • Assume 2” HMA surface • Determine TEMUL 3. Determine minimum HMA thickness • Table 11.

Planned Stage Construction Apply successive HMA layers according to predetermined schedule: • Based on the concept of remaining life • Second stage constructed before first shows significant distress Why? What are the advantages/reasons for planned stage? 1. emulsified mix Type I base.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 5. May detect weak spots during 1st stage (organic peat in subgrade) .000.2. When funds are insufficient 2.000 psi • Design ESAL = 1. and 8” aggregate subbase • ESUB = 10. When traffic is unpredictable (Utah Olympics example) 3.000 WORK EXAMPLE ON THE BOARD Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6.5 Combined Design Example Given: Need to design a pavement with HMA surface.

Assume Dr1 = 0.6 .6) Dr 0 0. By dividing n1 with 0. that by the end of Stage 1 we reach a damage ratio of 0.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6. n1 is the predicted traffic for the specific location for X-amount of years N1 is the DESIGN life ESALs for h1.2 Planned Stage Procedure 1. So.6 at the end of the 1st stage (after Xamount of years & n1 loads) the pavement reached 60% of its life span 3.1 Relative Damage Where: • n1 = Actual (predicted) ESALs for Stage 1 • N1 = Allowable ESALs for initial thickness h1 Dr1 = n1 N1 Stage 1 = X-amount of years.6 Stage 1 X-years & n1 (actual) loads Remaining life 1 Design Life for N1 loads 2. Meaning that the pavement will fail (20% cracking / ½” rutting) after N1 applications of loads What happens if n1=N1? Dr = 1 … so our pavement will fail at the end of stage 1! BUT. Define a relative damage for the end of the first stage (AI suggests 0. we want to construct the second stage before the first one starts showing signs of distress Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6.6 we get a design N1 that allows so much traffic.

so that after n1 loads the relative damage will be equal to 0.) Stage 1: Purpose is to select an initial thickness that will have some remaining life after the initial applied (n1) ESALs • Specify Dr1 after Stage 1(AI suggests Dr1 = 0.6) N1 = n1 Dr1 • N1 = allowable ESALs for Stage 1 • Use N1 to obtain thickness h1 that will provide sufficient protection. the remaining life that carries over to the 2nd stage is Dr2 • Dr2 = 1-Dr1 • For the 2nd stage we expect to have n2 ESALs over Y-amount of years N2 = n2 (1 − Dr1 ) • Use N2 to obtain thickness h2 that will provide sufficient protection for the expected traffic.) Stage 2: For the 2nd stage design we need to consider the existing structure from Stage 1. n2 • hoverlay = h2 – h1 .Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6.2 Planned Stage Procedure (cont.6 Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6.2 Planned Stage Procedure (cont.

1 Planned Stage Construction Example Given: • • • • Full-depth HMA pavement to undergo two-stage construction ESUB=10. Material Characterization Calculate subgrade MR (Topic 5): • Confining stress: σ1=σ2=2 psi • Deviator stress: σd=6 psi 8. n1=150. n2=850.2.000 ESAL Second Stage: 15 years.6 First Stage: 5 years.000 ESAL Determine h1 & h2 (hoverlay) WORK EXAMPLE ON THE BOARD Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 7. Variability/Reliability • Subgrade MR values WILL vary within a design unit (segment) • If material and test method remain the same.000 psi & Dr1=0.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 6. we may assume that MR is normally distributed with mean MR(avg) MR(min) MR(avg) MR(max) .

104-106.Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 8. Need to get at least eight subgrade samples 2’ x x x x x x x x 2.1 Three Levels of Reliability 1. 106 or more. design using MR75 • 60% probability that MR>MR60 • 75% probability that MR>MR75 3. Evaluate the samples and rank in descending MR order 3. design using MR87 • 87. Calculate percent equal or greater than • C1= MR values in descending order • C2= # of values equal to or greater than • C3 = C1 C2 C3 100% × C2 # of values . 104 ESAL or less.2 Variability/Reliability Method 1.5% probability that MR>MR87 MR(min) MR87 MR75 MR60 MR(avg) MR(max) 50% of values less than MRAVG 50% of values greater than MRAVG Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 8. design using MR60 2.

2 Variability/Reliability Method (cont) 4. Plot Percent Greater/Equal Than Vs Resilient Modulus Which value is the most conservative estimate? .Topic 6 – Asphalt Institute Design Procedure 8.

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