Software testing

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Software development process
Activities and steps Requirements ·Specification Architecture ·Design Implementation ·Testing Deployment ·Maintenance Methodologies Agile ·Cleanroom ·Iterative RAD ·RUP ·Spiral Waterfall ·XP ·Lean Scrum ·V-Model ·TDD Supporting disciplines Configuration management Documentation Quality assurance (SQA) Project management User experience design Tools Compiler ·Debugger ·Profiler GUI designer ·IDE v·d·e

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test.[1] Software testing also provides an objective, independent view of the software to allow the business to appreciate and understand the risks of software implementation. Test techniques include, but are not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs. Software testing can also be stated as the process of validating and verifying that a software program/application/product: 1. meets the business and technical requirements that guided its design and development; 2. works as expected; and 3. can be implemented with the same characteristics. Software testing, depending on the testing method employed, can be implemented at any time in the development process. However, most of the test effort occurs after the requirements have

been defined and the coding process has been completed. As such, the methodology of the test is governed by the software development methodology adopted. Different software development models will focus the test effort at different points in the development process. Newer development models, such as Agile, often employ test driven development and place an increased portion of the testing in the hands of the developer, before it reaches a formal team of testers. In a more traditional model, most of the test execution occurs after the requirements have been defined and the coding process has been completed.

Contents
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1 Overview 2 History 3 Software testing topics
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3.1 Scope 3.2 Functional vs non-functional testing 3.3 Defects and failures 3.4 Finding faults early 3.5 Compatibility 3.6 Input combinations and preconditions 3.7 Static vs. dynamic testing 3.8 Software verification and validation 3.9 The software testing team 3.10 Software quality assurance (SQA) 4.1 The box approach
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4 Testing methods

4.1.1 White box testing 4.1.2 Black box testing 4.1.3 Grey box testing

5 Testing levels

5.1 Test target
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5.1.1 Unit testing 5.1.2 Integration testing 5.1.3 System testing 5.1.4 System integration testing 5.2.1 Regression testing

5.2 Objectives of testing

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5.2.2 Acceptance testing 5.2.3 Alpha testing 5.2.4 Beta testing

6 Non-functional testing 6.1 Software performance testing and load testing 6.2 Stability testing 6.3 Usability testing 6.4 Security testing 6.5 Internationalization and localization 6.6 Destructive testing 7.1 Traditional CMMI or waterfall development model 7.2 Agile or Extreme development model 7.3 A sample testing cycle 8.1 Testing tools 8.2 Measurement in software testing

7 The testing process

8 Automated testing

9 Testing artifacts 10 Certifications 11 Controversy 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

[edit] Overview
Testing can never completely identify all the defects within software. Instead, it furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behavior of the product against oracles— principles or mechanisms by which someone might recognize a problem. These oracles may include (but are not limited to) specifications, contracts,[2] comparable products, past versions of the same product, inferences about intended or expected purpose, user or customer expectations, relevant standards, applicable laws, or other criteria. Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for video game software is completely different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers, and other stakeholders. Software testing is the process of attempting to make this assessment.

[14] A common source of requirements gaps is non-functional requirements such as testability. [4] Although his attention was on breakage testing ("a successful test is one that finds a bug"[4][5]) it illustrated the desire of the software engineering community to separate fundamental development activities. Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions but can only establish that it does not function properly under specific conditions. such as scalability or security. causing a failure. maintainability. such as debugging. Non-functional testing tends to answer such questions as "how many people can log in at once".A study conducted by NIST in 2002 reports that software bugs cost the U.[15] Not all defects will . Software faults occur through the following processes. This is a non-trivial pursuit.[13] [edit] Functional vs non-functional testing Functional testing refers to activities that verify a specific action or function of the code. More than a third of this cost could be avoided if better software testing was performed. Hetzel classified in 1988 the phases and goals in software testing in the following stages:[6] • • • • • Until 1956 . a testing organization may be separate from the development team.Evaluation oriented[10] 1988–2000 .S.[3] [edit] History The separation of debugging from testing was initially introduced by Glenford J. economy $59.[12] The scope of software testing often includes examination of code as well as execution of that code in various environments and conditions as well as examining the aspects of code: does it do what it is supposed to do and do what it needs to do. usability. Dave Gelperin and William C. There are various roles for testing team members.5 billion annually.Demonstration oriented[8] 1979–1982 . A programmer makes an error (mistake).Destruction oriented[9] 1983–1987 . If this defect is executed. Functional tests tend to answer the question of "can the user do this" or "does this particular feature work". Myers in 1979. [edit] Defects and failures Not all software defects are caused by coding errors. and security. These are usually found in the code requirements documentation. that result in errors of omission by the program designer. Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process by which software is developed. e. which results in a defect (fault. unrecognized requirements.Debugging oriented[7] 1957–1978 . One common source of expensive defects is caused by requirement gaps. scalability. although some development methodologies work from use cases or user stories.. Non-functional testing refers to aspects of the software that may not be related to a specific function or user action.Prevention oriented[11] [edit] Software testing topics [edit] Scope A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. performance. In the current culture of software development.g. from that of verification. bug) in the software source code. in certain situations the system will produce wrong results.

scalability. walkthroughs.[16] The following table shows the cost of fixing the defect depending on the stage it was found. something that constitutes sufficient value to one person may be intolerable to another. Typical techniques for this are either using stubs/drivers or execution from a . Time detected Cost to fix a defect Time introduced Requirements Architecture Construction Requirements Architecture Construction 1× 3× 1× 5–10× 10× 1× System test 10× 15× 10× Postrelease 10–100× 25–100× 10–25× [edit] Compatibility A common cause of software failure (real or perceived) is a lack of compatibility with other application software. even with a simple product. or target environments that differ greatly from the original (such as a terminal or GUI application intended to be run on the desktop now being required to become a web application.[12][18] This means that the number of defects in a software product can be very large and defects that occur infrequently are difficult to find in testing. defects in dead code will never result in failures. Dynamic testing takes place when the program itself is used for the first time (which is generally considered the beginning of the testing stage).[17][not in citation given] For example.necessarily result in failures. in the case of a lack of backward compatibility. if a problem in the requirements is found only post-release. A defect can turn into a failure when the environment is changed. [edit] Static vs. This results in the unintended consequence that the latest work may not function on earlier versions of the target environment. performance. which not all users may be running. [edit] Finding faults early It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found the cheaper it is to fix it. old or new).[15] A single defect may result in a wide range of failure symptoms. Sometimes such issues can be fixed by proactively abstracting operating system functionality into a separate program module or library. Dynamic testing may begin before the program is 100% complete in order to test particular sections of code (modules or discrete functions). which must render in a web browser). For example. Examples of these changes in environment include the software being run on a new hardware platform. reliability—can be highly subjective. or inspections are considered as static testing. operating systems (or operating system versions. dynamic testing There are many approaches to software testing. or on older hardware that earlier versions of the target environment was capable of using. non-functional dimensions of quality (how it is supposed to be versus what it is supposed to do)—usability. alterations in source data or interacting with different software. Reviews. Static testing can be (and unfortunately in practice often is) omitted. For example. compatibility. this can occur because the programmers develop and test software only on the latest version of the target environment. More significantly. [edit] Input combinations and preconditions A very fundamental problem with software testing is that testing under all combinations of inputs and preconditions (initial state) is not feasible. then it would cost 10–100 times more to fix than if it had already been found by the requirements review. whereas actually executing programmed code with a given set of test cases is referred to as dynamic testing.

By contrast.e. According to the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology: Verification is the process of evaluating a system or component to determine whether the products of a given development phase satisfy the conditions imposed at the start of that phase. For example. A flight simulator video game would have much higher defect tolerance than software for an actual airplane. [12] In SQA. does it match the specification). The terms verification and validation are commonly used interchangeably in the industry. software process specialists and auditors are concerned for the software development process rather than just the artefacts such as documentation. tester. software testing is a part of the software quality assurance (SQA) process. What constitutes an "acceptable defect rate" depends on the nature of the software. testing departments often exist independently. is this what the customer wants). Regarding the periods and the different goals in software testing. tested to a large extent interactively ("on the fly"). spreadsheet programs are. They examine and change the software engineering process itself to reduce the amount of faults that end up in the delivered software: the so-called defect rate. [edit] White box testing ..debugger environment.. automation developer.and black-box testing. but later it was also seen as a separate profession. QA (quality assurance) is the implementation of policies and procedures intended to prevent defects from occurring in the first place. [edit] Software quality assurance (SQA) Though controversial. and there may be no SQA function in some companies.e. [edit] Testing methods [edit] The box approach Software testing methods are traditionally divided into white. Until the 1980s the term "software tester" was used generally. These two approaches are used to describe the point of view that a test engineer takes when designing test cases. [edit] Software verification and validation Software testing is used in association with verification and validation:[19] • • Verification: Have we built the software right? (i. test lead. with results displayed immediately after each calculation or text manipulation. Validation is the process of evaluating a system or component during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified requirements.[20] different roles have been established: manager. it is also common to see these two terms incorrectly defined. Although there are close links with SQA. [edit] The software testing team Software testing can be done by software testers. code and systems. by their very nature. Software testing is a task intended to detect defects in software by contrasting a computer program's expected results with its actual results for a given set of inputs. test designer. and test administrator. Validation: Have we built the right software? (i.

" because the tester doesn't know how the software being tested was actually .[21] Two common forms of code coverage are: • • Function coverage. exploratory testing and specificationbased testing. who then can simply verify that for a given input. but it is insufficient to guard against certain risks. measured as a percentage. the test object. and a tester's perception is very simple: a code must have bugs. the tester inputs data into. either "is" or "is not" the same as the expected value specified in the test case.[22] Thus. Black box testing methods include: equivalence partitioning. all-pairs testing. black box testing has been said to be "like a walk in a dark labyrinth without a flashlight. Types of white box testing The following types of white box testing exist: • • API testing (application programming interface) .testing of the application using public and private APIs Code coverage ..improving the coverage of a test by introducing faults to test code paths Mutation testing methods Static testing .[23] Advantages and disadvantages: The black box tester has no "bonds" with the code. Using the principle.White box testing includes all static testing • • • Test coverage White box testing methods can also be used to evaluate the completeness of a test suite that was created with black box testing methods. and only sees the output from. [edit] Black box testing Main article: Black box testing Black box testing treats the software as a "black box"—without any knowledge of internal implementation. which reports on functions executed Statement coverage. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function points have been tested. the output value (or behavior). model-based testing. the test designer can create tests to cause all statements in the program to be executed at least once) Fault injection methods . which reports on the number of lines executed to complete the test They both return a code coveragemetric. boundary value analysis. Specification-based testing: Specification-based testing aims to test the functionality of software according to the applicable requirements.creating tests to satisfy some criteria of code coverage (e.g.Main article: White box testing White box testing is when the tester has access to the internal data structures and algorithms including the code that implement these. Specification-based testing is necessary. fuzz testing. On the other hand. "Ask and you shall receive." black box testers find bugs where programmers do not. This level of testing usually requires thorough test cases to be provided to the tester.

[25] Other test levels are classified by the testing objective. where only the interfaces are exposed for test. as the user would not normally be able to change the data outside of the system under test. and the minimal unit tests include the constructors and destructors. boundary values or error messages. Unit testing alone cannot verify the functionality of a piece of software. [edit] Integration testing Main article: Integration testing Integration testing is any type of software testing that seeks to verify the interfaces between components against a software design.[26] [edit] Test target [edit] Unit testing Main article: Unit testing Unit testing refers to tests that verify the functionality of a specific section of code. In an object-oriented environment. Manipulating input data and formatting output do not qualify as grey box. usually at the function level. However. Progressively larger groups of tested software components . or by the level of specificity of the test. modifying a data repository does qualify as grey box. on the one hand. and the disadvantage of "blind exploring". Normally the former is considered a better practice since it allows interface issues to be localised more quickly and fixed. Software components may be integrated in an iterative way or all together ("big bang"). [edit] Testing levels Tests are frequently grouped by where they are added in the software development process. Integration testing works to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components (modules). and/or (2) some parts of the back-end are not tested at all. [24] [edit] Grey box testing Grey box testing (American spelling: gray box testing) involves having knowledge of internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing the test cases. there are situations when (1) a tester writes many test cases to check something that could have been tested by only one test case.constructed. Therefore. As a result. this is usually at the class level. for instance. black box testing has the advantage of "an unaffiliated opinion". to catch corner cases or other branches in the code. One function might have multiple tests. Grey box testing may also include reverse engineering to determine. and system testing that are distinguished by the test target without impliying a specific process model. but testing at the user. because the input and output are clearly outside of the "black-box" that we are calling the system under test. integration-. to ensure that the specific function is working as expected. This distinction is particularly important when conducting integration testing between two modules of code written by two different developers. The main levels during the development process as defined by the SWEBOK guide are unit-. Unit testing is also called component testing.[27] These type of tests are usually written by developers as they work on code (white-box style). or black-box level. on the other. but rather is used to assure that the building blocks the software uses work independently of each other.

[29] [edit] System integration testing Main article: System integration testing System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated to any external or third-party systems defined in the system requirements. for changes added late in the release or deemed to be risky. regressions occur as an unintended consequence of program changes. Specifically.[citation needed] [edit] Alpha testing Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. Sometimes. known as beta versions. are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team. Acceptance testing is performed by the customer. beta versions are made . i. Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the hand-off process between any two phases of development.e. consisting of positive tests on each feature. or old bugs that have come back. 2. [edit] Acceptance testing Main article: Acceptance testing Acceptance testing can mean one of two things: 1. A smoke test is used as an acceptance test prior to introducing a new build to the main testing process. Typically. Such regressions occur whenever software functionality that was previously working correctly stops working as intended. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Versions of the software. Common methods of regression testing include re-running previously run tests and checking whether previously fixed faults have re-emerged. before integration or regression.[citation needed] [edit] Objectives of testing [edit] Regression testing Main article: Regression testing Regression testing focuses on finding defects after a major code change has occurred. if the changes are early in the release or deemed to be of low risk. when the newly developed part of the software collides with the previously existing code. it seeks to uncover software regressions.corresponding to elements of the architectural design are integrated and tested until the software works as a system. is known as user acceptance testing (UAT).[30] [edit] Beta testing Beta testing comes after alpha testing and can be considered a form of external user acceptance testing. to very shallow. The depth of testing depends on the phase in the release process and the risk of the added features. They can either be complete. before the software goes to beta testing.[28] [edit] System testing Main article: System testing System testing tests a completely integrated system to verify that it meets its requirements. often in their lab environment on their own hardware. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing.

reliability and resource usage. Load testing is primarily concerned with testing that can continue to operate under a specific load. This is generally referred to as software scalability. there are also numerous open-source and free software tools available that perform non-functional testing. such as scalability. It will verify that the application still works. It can also serve to validate and verify other quality attributes of the system. Various commercial non-functional testing tools are linked from the software fault injection page. The terms load testing. This activity of non-functional software testing is often referred to as load (or endurance) testing. [edit] Software performance testing and load testing Performance testing is executed to determine how fast a system or sub-system performs under a particular workload. even after it has been translated into a new language or adapted for a new culture (such as different currencies or time zones). which establishes the correct operation of the software (correct in that it matches the expected behavior defined in the design requirements). Software fault injection. [edit] Internationalization and localization The general ability of software to be internationalized and localized can be automatically tested without actual translation. are often used interchangeably. in the form of fuzzing. non-functional testing verifies that the software functions properly even when it receives invalid or unexpected inputs. is an example of non-functional testing. Volume testing is a way to test functionality. [citation needed] [edit] Non-functional testing Special methods exist to test non-functional aspects of software. Possible localization failures include: . The related load testing activity of when performed as a non-functional activity is often referred to as endurance testing. Load testing is a way to test performance. thereby establishing the robustness of input validation routines as well as error-handling routines.[31] Actual translation to human languages must be tested. whether that be large quantities of data or a large number of users. There is little agreement on what the specific goals of load testing are.It approach towards the use of the application. too.available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users. [edit] Usability testing Usability testing is needed to check if the user interface is easy to use and understand. and volume testing. In contrast to functional testing. Non-functional testing. is designed to establish whether the device under test can tolerate invalid or unexpected inputs. Stress testing is a way to test reliability. especially for software. [edit] Security testing Security testing is essential for software that processes confidential data to prevent system intrusion by hackers. performance testing. [edit] Stability testing Stability testing checks to see if the software can continuously function well in or above an acceptable period. by using pseudolocalization. reliability testing.

[edit] Destructive testing Main article: Destructive testing Destructive testing attempts to cause the software or a sub-system to fail.[34] Further information: Capability Maturity Model Integration and Waterfall model [edit] Agile or Extreme development model . before it is shipped to the customer. Untranslated messages in the original language may be left hard coded in the source code. Some messages may be created automatically in run time and the resulting string may be ungrammatical. may be inappropriate in the target language. artificial or too technical in the target language. [edit] The testing process [edit] Traditional CMMI or waterfall development model A common practice of software testing is that testing is performed by an independent group of testers after the functionality is developed.• • • • • • • • Software is often localized by translating a list of strings out of context. misleading or confusing. Literal word-for-word translations may sound inappropriate. Software may lack proper support for reading or writing bi-directional text. Fonts and font sizes which are appropriate in the source language. technical terminology may become inconsistent. Software may use a keyboard shortcut which has no function on the source language's keyboard layout. thereby compromising the time devoted to testing. Software may display images with text that wasn't localized. translated correctly in context and don't cause failures. A string in the target language may be longer than the software can handle. This may make the string partly invisible to the user or cause the software to fail.[33] Another practice is to start software testing at the same moment the project starts and it is a continuous process until the project finishes. and the translator may choose the wrong translation for an ambiguous source string. functionally incorrect. Localized operating systems may have differently-named system configuration files and environment variables and different formats for date and currency. Software may lack support for the character encoding of the target language. in order to test its robustness. If several people translate strings. CJK characters may become unreadable if the font is too small. but is used for typing characters in the layout of the target language. a tester who knows the target language must run the program with all the possible use cases for translation to see if the messages are readable.[32] This practice often results in the testing phase being used as a project buffer to compensate for project delays. for example. • • • • To avoid these and other localization problems.

test datasets. Test result analysis: Or Defect Analysis. a plan is needed. in order to ensure that the latest delivery has not ruined anything. especially groups that use test-driven development. Test Closure: Once the test meets the exit criteria. Defect Retesting: Once a defect has been dealt with by the development team. AKA Resolution testing. documents related to the project are archived and used as a reference for future projects. or fixed software. results. testbed creation. Test development: Test procedures. by the software engineers (often with pair programming in the extreme programming methodology). • • • • • • • • [edit] Automated testing Main article: Test automation Many programming groups are relying more and more on automated testing.[37] The sample below is common among organizations employing the Waterfall development model. Then as code is written it passes incrementally larger portions of the test suites. test cases. adhere to a "test-driven software development" model. During the design phase. Unit tests are maintained along with the rest of the software source code and generally integrated into the build process (with inherently interactive tests being relegated to a partially manual build acceptance process). In this process. Test planning: Test strategy. Since many activities will be carried out during testing. found software working properly) or deferred to be dealt with later. The ultimate goal of this test process is to achieve continuous deployment where software updates can be published to the public frequently. modified. some emerging software disciplines such as extreme programming and the agile software development movement. and that the software product as a whole is still working correctly. unit tests are written first. the activities such as capturing the key outputs.e. there is a typical cycle for testing. for each integration of new. testers generate metrics and make final reports on their test effort and whether or not the software tested is ready for release. Test reporting: Once testing is completed. test scripts to use in testing software.In counterpoint. logs. Test execution: Testers execute the software based on the plans and test documents then report any errors found to the development team. test plan. The test suites are continuously updated as new failure conditions and corner cases are discovered. fixed. and they are integrated with any regression tests that are developed. testers work with developers in determining what aspects of a design are testable and with what parameters those tests work. it is retested by the testing team. Of course these tests fail initially. as they are expected to. • Requirements analysis: Testing should begin in the requirements phase of the software development life cycle. Regression testing: It is common to have a small test program built of a subset of tests. [35][36] [edit] A sample testing cycle Although variations exist between organizations. and continuous . rejected (i. lessons learned. test scenarios. There are many frameworks to write tests in. is done by the development team usually along with the client. in order to decide what defects should be treated.

• [edit] Measurement in software testing Usually. portability. permitting step-by-step execution and conditional breakpoint at source level or in machine code Code coverage reports Formatted dump or symbolic debugging. completeness.integration software will run tests automatically every time code is checked into a version control system. allowing run-time performance comparisons to be made Performance analysis (or profiling tools) that can help to highlight hot spots and resource usage A regression testing technique is to have a standard set of tests. which are used to assist in determining the state of the software or the adequacy of the testing. quality is constrained to such topics as correctness. [edit] Testing tools Program testing and fault detection can be aided significantly by testing tools and debuggers. efficiency. Test plan A test specification is called a test plan. such as capability. Differences detected indicate unexpected functionality changes or "regression". There are a number of frequently-used software measures. • • • Some of these features may be incorporated into an Integrated Development Environment (IDE). it can be very useful for regression testing. tools allowing inspection of program variables on error or at chosen points Automated functional GUI testing tools are used to repeat system-level tests through the GUI Benchmarks.[citation needed] but can also include more technical requirements as described under the ISO standard ISO/IEC 9126. using a tool like diffkit. The idea is to make them more cautious when developing their code or . security. which cover existing functionality that result in persistent tabular data. Testing/debug tools include features such as: • Program monitors. reliability. permitting full or partial monitoring of program code including: ○ ○ ○ • Instruction set simulator. The developers are well aware what test plans will be executed and this information is made available to management and the developers. [edit] Testing artifacts Software testing process can produce several artifacts. maintainability. permitting complete instruction level monitoring and trace facilities Program animation. While automation cannot reproduce everything that a human can do (and all the ways they think of doing it). where there should not be differences. it does require a welldeveloped test suite of testing scripts in order to be truly useful. often called metrics. and usability. However. and to compare pre-change data to postchange data. compatibility.

No certification currently offered actually requires the applicant to demonstrate the ability to test software. events. Test script The test script is the combination of a test case. This has led some to declare that the testing field is not ready for certification. It can occasionally be a series of steps (but often steps are contained in a separate test procedure that can be exercised against multiple test cases. spreadsheet. and descriptions. multiple sets of values or data are used to test the same functionality of a particular feature. who generated the results. Clinically defined a test case is an input and an expected result. No certification is based on a widely accepted body of knowledge. Traceability matrix A traceability matrix is a table that correlates requirements or design documents to test documents. Today. database. Initially the term was derived from the product of work created by automated regression test tools. and descriptions of the following tests. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. and actual result. automated. requirement references from a design specification. test scripts can be manual. and configurations are all referred to collectively as a test harness.[39] . and test data. Test data In most cases. It is also useful to provide this data to the client and with the product or a project. input. a series of steps (also known as actions) to follow. and what system configuration was used to generate those results. test step. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. whereas other test cases described in more detail the input scenario and what results might be expected. In a database system. Test harness The software. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing.making additional changes. These steps can be stored in a word processor document. and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated.[38] This can be as pragmatic as 'for condition x your derived result is y'. preconditions. you may also be able to see past test results. output. as a matter of economy) but with one expected result or expected outcome. [edit] Certifications Several certification programs exist to support the professional aspirations of software testers and quality assurance specialists. tools. expected result. or a combination of both. The optional fields are a test case ID. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. samples of data input and output. All the test values and changeable environmental components are collected in separate files and stored as test data. test category. or order of execution number. Test case A test case normally consists of a unique identifier. or to verify that the test results are correct. Some companies have a higher-level document called a test strategy. It is used to change tests when the source documents are changed. related requirement(s). A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps. depth. author. test procedure. or other common repository. Test suite The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite.

[40] Software testing certification types • • Exam-based: Formalized exams. can also be learned by self-study [e. which need to be passed. Advanced Level (CTAL) offered by the International Software Testing Qualification Board[45][46] TMPF TMap Next Foundation offered by the Examination Institute for Information Science[47] TMPA TMap Next Advanced offered by the Examination Institute for Information Science[47] CMSQ offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI). or professionalism as a tester.g. traditional . for ISTQB or QAI][41] Education-based: Instructor-led sessions. J.[42] CSQA offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)[42] CSQE offered by the American Society for Quality (ASQ)[48] CQIA offered by the American Society for Quality (ASQ)[48] Testing certifications • • • • • • • • • • • Quality assurance certifications • • • • [edit] Controversy Some of the major software testing controversies include: What constitutes responsible software testing? Members of the "context-driven" school of testing[49] believe that there are no "best practices" of testing. International Institute for Software Testing (IIST)].[50] Agile vs.. Foundation Level (CTFL) offered by the International Software Testing Qualification Board[45][46] ISTQB Certified Tester. Certified Associate in Software Testing (CAST) offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)[42] CATe offered by the International Institute for Software Testing[43] Certified Manager in Software Testing (CMST) offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)[42] Certified Software Tester (CSTE) offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)[42] Certified Software Test Professional (CSTP) offered by the International Institute for Software Testing[43] CSTP (TM) (Australian Version) offered by K. and cannot guarantee their competence.Certification itself cannot measure an individual's productivity. their skill. where each course has to be passed [e. Ross & Associates[44] ISEB offered by the Information Systems Examinations Board ISTQB Certified Tester. or practical knowledge. but rather that testing is a set of skills that allow the tester to select or invent testing practices to suit each unique situation.g..

The tests then can be considered as a way to capture and implement the requirements. FL. automated Some writers believe that test automation is so expensive relative to its value that it should be used sparingly. software implementation[56] Should testing be carried out only at the end or throughout the whole process? Who watches the watchmen? The idea is that any form of observation is also an interaction—the act of testing can also affect that which is being tested. ^Exploratory Testing. Florida Institute of Technology. Orlando.Should testers learn to work under conditions of uncertainty and constant change or should they aim at process "maturity"? The agile testing movement has received growing popularity since 2006 mainly in commercial circles. Quality Assurance Institute Worldwide Annual Software Testing Conference.[55] More in particular.[57] [edit] See also Software Testing portal Book: Software testing Wikipedia Books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print. November 2006 . Software design vs.[citation needed] Exploratory test vs. test-driven development states that developers should write unit-tests of the XUnit type before coding the functionality.g.[51][52] whereas government and military[53] software providers use this methodology but also the traditional test-last models (e. Cem Kaner. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acceptance testing All-pairs testing Automated testing Dynamic program analysis Formal verification GUI software testing Manual testing Orthogonal array testing Pair Testing Reverse semantic traceability Software testability Static code analysis Web testing [edit] References 1. in the Waterfall model). scripted[54] Should tests be designed at the same time as they are executed or should they be designed beforehand? Manual testing vs.

2nd Ed. ^ Gelperin. Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press. September 2007 3. ISBN 0470042125. NIST report 4. CACM31 (6).html. http://www. B. B. CACM31 (6). ^ Leitner. ^ Company. Hetzel (1988). Adam. ^From 1957–1978 there was the demonstration oriented period where debugging and testing was distinguished now . Dobb's journal of software tools for the professional programmer (M&T Pub) 12 (1-6): 116. Adam. ISSN 0001-0782. that software satisfies the requirements. Oriol.S. "The Growth of Software Testing". Fiva. Inc. "The Growth of Software Testing". B. Hetzel (1988). Croatia). D. A. 10. (1979). Ciupa. 7. ^From 1988 on it was seen as prevention oriented period where tests were to demonstrate that software satisfies its specification.com/?id=7RoIAAAAIAAJ. 13. Hetzel (1988). Gelperin.2. economy $59. ^ ab Section 1. Gelperin. D. B. 11.. D. Gelperin.. 9... New York. ^ ab Myers..wiley. Glenford J. Jack and Nguyen. Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press.5 billion annually. 480 pages. CACM31 (6)..Writing Test Cases". ISSN 00010782. Meyer. Dorota (2007). when testing was often associated to debugging: there was no clear difference between testing and debugging. Dorota (2007). ^1983–1987 is classified as the evaluation oriented period: intention here is that during the software lifecycle a product evaluation is provided and measuring quality. 8. p. People's Computer (1987). where the goal was to find errors. ISBN 0-471-04328-1. pp. Huizinga. ^until 1956 it was the debugging oriented period. et al: John Wiley and Sons. ^Software errors cost U. Gelperin. ISBN 0-471-358460. D.. Proceedings of ESEC/FSE'07: European Software Engineering Conference and the ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering 2007. Dr. Hetzel (1988). ISSN 0001-0782. Huizinga.in this period it was shown. http://books. CACM31 (6). "Dr. D.. (Dubrovnik.. 41–43. International Software Testing Qualifications Board . M. ^The time between 1979–1982 is announced as the destruction oriented period. 5... Testing Computer Software. "The Growth of Software Testing". 86. B. pp.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd0470042125. ISSN 0001-0782. ^ Kolawa. ISSN 0001-0782. John Wiley and Sons. The Art of Software Testing. CACM31 (6). Falk.html. A. Automated Defect Prevention: Best Practices in Software Management. "The Growth of Software Testing". "Contract Driven Development = Test Driven Development . ^ Kolawa. I.google. CACM31 (6).2. "The Growth of Software Testing". Gelperin. http://www. B. ^ abcKaner. Hetzel (1988). to detect faults and to prevent faults. Hung Quoc (1999)..com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd0470042125. Cem.. Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus. 12. Automated Defect Prevention: Best Practices in Software Management. ISSN 0001-0782.1. Dobb's journal of software tools for the professional programmer".wiley. Hetzel (1988). D. B. 15. 6. ISBN 0470042125. "The Growth of Software Testing". 14.

James Bach. ^ Principle 2. 30. Retrieved 2008-08-19.mcs. Retrieved 2008-0113. ^ Beizer. ^Globalization Step-by-Step: The World-Ready Approach to Testing. ISBN 0-201-80938-9. The Art of Software Testing. Artem (November 16. Steve Cornett 22. Section 1.org/portal/web/swebok/html/ch5#Ref2. ^Introduction. ^ Tran. http://www. http://www. ISBN 978-0-615-23372-7. (1993) (PostScript). 3. 25. 2007). Microsoft Developer Network 32. ISBN 0-471-08112-4. p. 34. ISBN 0-442-20672-0. ISBN 0-471-04328-1. ^ van Veenendaal. p. Bret Pettichord (2001). ^Bach. Software Testing Techniques (Second ed. ^ McConnell. ^ Laycock. ^http://www. Code Complete (2nd ed. Testing Object-Oriented Systems: Objects. How to Become a Software Tester. 159. Steve (2004). Retrieved 17 June 2010.1 26. 28. USA: Carnegie Mellon University. In Koopman.com/articles/requirements_based_testing.computer.430. ^ Savenkov. ^e)Testing Phase in Software Testing:33. http://agilesoftwaredevelopment.org/educational-resources/glossary. Wiley. P. Retrieved 2009-11-16. Effective Software Testing.ac. "XP Practice: Continuous Integration".uk/people/gtl1/thesis. 18.16.satisfice. Gelperin and W. John Wiley and Sons. Topics in Dependable Embedded Systems. pp. 21. (1979).php#A. and Tools. Glenford J.). Patterns. 29. ISBN 0- 20179-429-2.org/portal/web/swebok/html/ch5#Ref2. Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus. 23.3. Elfriede (2002). 20. 31. Roman (2008). Eushiuan (1999). ISBN 1559370793. . "Verification/Validation/Certification". G.le. Addison-Wesley Professional. Sheffield University. T. Roman Savenkov Consulting. Cem. UK. http://www. ^ Binder.). Code Coverage Analysis. ^ see D. http://www. Dept of Computer Science. ^Kaner. 960. The Theory and Practice of Specification Based Software Testing. Computer32 (6): 113–114. IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries.gz. ISBN 0- 7356-1967-0. ^http://www. (1999). Boris (1990). p. James (June 1999).cmu. "Risk and Requirements-Based Testing" (PDF).edu/~koopman/des_s99/verification/index. Lessons Learned in Software Testing: A Context-Driven Approach. pp. 45. Hetzel 21.html. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 35. Erik.astqb. New York: IEEE. International Software Testing Qualifications Board 19. p.computer. ^ Dustin. ^ IEEE (1990). Addison Wesley. ^ Myers.com/xp/practices/continuous-integration.ece. 145– 146..C. 24.ps.2 27. 4. pp.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-13. Microsoft Press. ^ Marchenko. "Standard glossary of terms used in Software Testing". 17. Robert V.

". Topics in Dependable Embedded Systems. young students of the Project Management Institute. 47. 46. 41. Addison Wesley. ^IEEE article on Exploratory vs.org/. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department.jacoozi. http://web. http://www. 56.pdf. Cem (2003). Non Exploratory testing 55. ^ abAmerican Society for Quality 49. 42. 1999. http://www.istqb.mil/crosstalk/2004/0 4/0404willison.astqb. ^ Kaner.pdf. ^Article referring to other links questioning the necessity of unit testing 57. ^ Gurses. "NSF grant proposal to "lay a foundation for significant improvements in the quality of academic and commercial courses in software testing"" (pdf). ^ An example is Mark Fewster. "Measuring the Effectiveness of Software Testers" (pdf). ^ abcdeQuality Assurance Institute 43. Cem (2001). ^context-driven-testing. ^Article on taking agile traits without the agile method.stsc.org/web/20051029135922/http://www. 2: Guide to the ISTQB Advanced Certification as an Advanced Test Manager.org/general/nsf_grant. http://www. ^ abEXIN: Examination Institute for Information Science 48. ^ Pan. 37. Ross & Associates 45.testingeducation.36. "Agile Software Development for an Agile Force". 38. 2007). http://www. Archived from the original on unknown. IEEE standard for software test documentation. ^“We’re all part of the story” by David Strom. 40.archive. ^Microsoft Development Network Discussion on exactly this topic [edit] External links . ^ Willison. Santa Barbara: Rocky Nook Publisher.S.html. CrossTalk (STSC) (April 2004). Carnegie Mellon University.org/a/mest. Rex (December 2008). http://www. ISBN 0-7381-1443-X. http://www.ece. See also Agile adoption study from 2007 53. Levent (February 19. 39. "Agile 101: What is Continuous Integration?".com 50. July 1.af. John S. ^ Kaner. (April 2004). Dorothy Graham: Software Test Automation. ^ IEEE (1998).org/. ISBN 0-201-33140-3. Jiantao (Spring 1999).cmu.testingeducation. 2009 52. New York: IEEE. "Software Testing (18-849b Dependable Embedded Systems)". ISBN 1933952369. ^ ab"ISTQB in the U.hill. J. 54. Advanced Software Testing.edu/~koopman/des_s99/sw_testing/. ^IEEE article about differences in adoption of agile trends between experienced managers vs. ^ Black.Vol.com/blog/?p=18. ^K. ^ abInternational Institute for Software Testing 44. 51. Retrieved 2009-11-16. ^ ab"ISTQB".

com Automated software testing metrics including manual testing metrics [show]v·d·eMajor fields of computer science M a t h e m a t i c a lMathematical logic ·Set theory ·Number theory ·Graph theory ·Type theory ·Category theory ·Numerical analysis ·Information theory f o u n d a t i o n s T Automata theory ·Computability theory ·Computational complexity theory ·Quantum computing h theory e o r y o f c o m .At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Software testing at: The Department of Software testing • • • Software testing tools and products at the Open Directory Project "Software that makes Software better" Economist.

p u t a t i o n A l g o r i t h m s a n d Analysis of algorithms ·Algorithm design ·Computational geometry d a t a s t r u c t u r e s P Parsers ·Interpreters ·Procedural programming ·Object-oriented programming ·Functional r programming ·Logic programming ·Programming paradigms o g r a m m .

P a r a l l e l .i n g l a n g u a g e s a n d C o m p i l e r s C Multiprocessing ·Grid computing ·Concurrency control o n c u r r e n t .

a n d D i s t r i b u t e d s y s t e m s S o f t w a r e e Requirements analysis ·Software design ·Computer programming ·Formal methods ·Software n testing ·Software development process g i n e e r i n g ..

S y s t e m a r c Computer architecture ·Computer organization ·Operating systems h i t e c t u r e T e l e c o m m u n i c a t iComputer audio ·Routing ·Network topology ·Cryptography o n & N e t w o r k i n g .

D a t a Database management systems ·Relational databases ·SQL ·Transactions ·Database b indexes ·Data mining a s e s A r t i f i c i a l Automated reasoning ·Computational linguistics ·Computer vision ·Evolutionary i computation ·Expert systems ·Machine learning ·Natural language processing ·Robotics n t e l l i g e n c e C Visualization ·Computer animation ·Image processing o m p u t e r g r a p .

h i c s H u m a n – c o m p u t e Computer accessibility ·User interfaces ·Wearable computing ·Ubiquitous computing ·Virtual r reality i n t e r a c t i o n S Artificial life ·Bioinformatics ·Cognitive science ·Computational chemistry ·Computational c ineuroscience ·Computational physics ·Numerical algorithms ·Symbolic mathematics e n t i f i c c o m p u .

t i n g Note: Computer science can also be split up into different topics or fields according to the ACM Computing Classification System. [show]v·d·eSoftware engineering F i e Requirements analysis • Systems analysis • Software design • Computer programming • Formal lmethods • Software testing • Software deployment • Software maintenance d s C o n Data modeling • Enterprise architecture • Functional specification • Modeling language • c Programming paradigm • Software • Software architecture • Software development methodology e Software development process • Software quality • Software quality assurance • Software • p archaeology • Structured analysis t s O r i e n t Agile • Aspect-oriented • Object orientation • Ontology • Service orientation • SDLC a t i o n s Development Agile • Iterative model • RUP • Scrum • Spiral model • Waterfall model • XP • Vmodels Model • Incremental model • Prototype model M o d Other Automotive SPICE • CMMI • Data model • Function model • Information model • e models Metamodeling • Object model • Systems model • View model l s Modeling IDEF • UML languages .

S o f t w a r e Kent Beck • Grady Booch • Fred Brooks • Barry Boehm • Ward Cunningham • Ole-Johan Dahl • Tom DeMarco • Martin Fowler • C. Hoare • Watts Humphrey • Michael A.org/wiki/Software_testing" Categories: Software development process | Software testing Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2011 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008 Personal tools • • • Views Log in / create account Article Discussion Namespaces Variants . A. R. Jackson • Ivar e Jacobson • Craig Larman • James Martin • Bertrand Meyer • David Parnas • Winston W. Royce n Colette Rolland • James Rumbaugh • Niklaus Wirth • Edward Yourdon • Victor Basili • g i n e e r s R e l a t e d Computer science • Computer engineering • Enterprise engineering • History • Management • Project management • Quality management • Software ergonomics • Systems engineering f i e l d s Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.

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