STICKING THEIR NECK OUT: COMPETING VISIONS FOR THE PROPOSED DIGBY NECK SUPER QUARRY: A CASE STUDY

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“Whatever the causes of its present appearance, Digby Neck is more like something a poet or a painter might dream of, than like an actual reality in our usually tame province of Nova Scotia”1 - Sir William Dawson, Geologist (1868)

In 2002, one of the world’s largest producers of concrete, the U.S. based Clayton Concrete, submitted a proposal to the Government of Nova Scotia for the opening of a massive ‘mega-quarry’ adjacent to the tiny community of Little River, located on the Digby Neck of Nova Scotia.2 The company intends to blast and mine approximately two million metric tonnes of high-grade basalt from the area each year, transport it to the Eastern United States, and use it for road and highway construction.3 This proposal, if implemented, would have a significant effect on the local economy and ecosystem. Consequently, this has enraged the local residents and rallied them into a fierce battle over the future of the area. This essay will examine the battle over Digby Neck in four main sections. First, I will provide a brief geographical and historical description of the Digby Neck area for background purposes. Secondly, I will outline the battle over the proposed quarry, explaining the major events that have occurred to date. Thirdly, I will examine each side, and the reasons for their disagreement, and finally, I will take a stand and argue why the people of Digby Neck are justified in opposing the proposed mega-quarry. Digby Neck, located on the southwestern edge of Nova Scotia, is a small, narrow peninsula roughly forty kilometers long and two kilometers wide.4 The

the peninsula and islands are referred to as Digby Neck. not only is responsible for the current geological structure of the province. the two halves of the province were slammed together. due to tectonic forces. Geologists have determined this due to the age and composition of the rocks. Pangea. as well as the remarkably similar structural characteristics. The natural landscape is a beautiful strip of Nova Scotian coastline. resulting in a mountain building event known as the Acadian Orogeny. while the southern half was a part of Northern Africa. caused as a result of the tearing apart.7 When the pre-Pangean continental masses collided. but also is responsible for the formation of the entire Appalachian Mountain chain. This mountain building event. When initially formed. Collectively.6 Prior to the formation of Pangea.3 peninsula juts out from the mainland into the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. where two . of the super-continent. which are world famous destinations for whale and bird watching. and consists primarily of a Triassic geological formation. The area. on two separate continents.5 The basalts are actually the remnants of ancient lava flows. The northern half was previously a component of the British Isles. Extending out beyond the Neck are Long and Brier Islands. called the North Mountain Basalt. the Appalachians would have been roughly the same height as the current Rocky Mountains. The boundary where the two continents collided (the two halves of Nova Scotia) was an extremely active area where earthquakes were a common occurrence. Nova Scotia was separated into two halves.

have withstood the tidal forces unlike the surrounding sandstones. glass-like rock known as basalt (a valuable resource in the present day). The basalts of North Mountain are much more resistant and therefore.9 During this period of continental separation. This lava-based formation is known today as the North Mountain Basalt. When the crust spilt. deposited layers of hardened rock hundreds of metres in thickness. Pangea began to split apart. the newly formed Nova Scotia was very hot and dry. flowing for thousands of years and hundreds of kilometers in length.11 Due to the powerful tidal forces of the Bay of Fundy (some of the highest tides on Earth). preventing any significant crystal growth and resulting in an ultra smooth and dark.10 Once the lava rose to the surface it would have flowed much like a river and cooled very quickly. as it was located in the heart of the super-continent.8 Millions of years later. far away from the ocean and near the equator. most rock is eroded quickly from the shoreline. During this period of geological history. for reasons well beyond the scope of this essay. this allowed the hot magma from the mantle to flow onto the surface as lava. This event is part of the largest known episode of volcanic activity in the Earth’s history. similar to the San Andreas Fault in California today. which are continually eroded and .4 continental margins ‘rub’ against each other. the previously weakened collision zones were the first places in the crust to split. The lava. is known as a strike-slip fault.

sharks and dolphins. and the rugged North Mountain rising hundreds of feet above sea level. herring. These fishing villages are significant to the history of the province.16 Countless species of land and sea based birds also call Digby Neck their home. with ocean on all sides. On land. Digby Neck is known by various non-profit. primarily in the form of whale and bird watching. Ecotourism. Mary’s Basin to the south are home to lobsters. ecological organizations as a ‘model community for ecotourism and sustainable development’. the natural geological beauty is accentuated with a variety of rare Atlantic coastal florae.14 To the west and north. the world famous Digby scallops. the turbulent waters of the Bay of Fundy harbour many species of seals. In fact.5 deposited on the continental shelf.13 In the sea. urchin. and of course. The entire region is dotted with tiny fishing villages on both coasts that are nestled into the coves at the base of North Mountain. along the entire long axis of the peninsula and islands. account for one of the two main contributors to the overall economy of the region. Over the years a very profitable ecotourism industry has developed. as .12 Thus. the calm waters of St. pods of endangered right whales frequent the area with their calves.15 In the summer months. Digby Neck stands alone. Wildlife on Digby Neck and the surrounding waters is abundant and diverse.18 The ecosystem is also tied to the second primary contributor to the economy: the fishing industry.17 The human inhabitants of Digby Neck have also benefited greatly from this thriving ecosystem.

”22 In this anecdote one can see that the values of the residents of Digby Neck are not necessarily driven by the economic bottom line.20 Until the mid-twentieth century. Little River. One current resident of U. The people have also had their share of disagreements over Native fishing rights. Francophones. The small fishing villages that remain today are descended from those original settlements.” like countless other Maritime communities. economically depressed. they realized that rich fishing grounds existed around the Digby Neck and settled the area. was founded soon after Champlain visited the area in 1604. The values expressed by the local people have been a key factor . He was quoted as saying.6 well as the European settlement of North America. fell in love with the area after his realtor had refused to show him a property because she was going fishing. “Have you ever heard of a real-estate agent who cares about more than the almighty buck? Right away I knew there was something different about this place.S. 19 Not long after the French (later called the Acadians) landed. the region is rural in nature.21 However. Anglophones and the Micmac peoples of the First Nations all presently reside in the region and live together in relative peace and stability. “Digby Neckers. the closest village to the proposed quarry. they were also one of the first regions in the province to initiate sustainable fishing practices. engaged in destructive over fishing. descent. and by Western standards. Comparatively though.

In April 2002.7 shaping their response to the proposed quarry and will be revisited later in the paper.23 Clayton Concrete is a New Jersey based firm and is one of the world’s largest producers of concrete. Mary’s Bay to allow for the planned. submitted a proposal to the Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour (NSDEL) for approval to open a basalt quarry near Little River. 45000 tonne. a subsidiary of Clayton Concrete. Once processed. a situation that could potentially endanger their land and their way of life. deep marine terminal. blasting open the side of the North Mountain to extract the basalt. freighter ships to access the port for direct loading. one of the many. Nova Scotia Exports. masonry block and construction sand. clearing the land of trees and other wildlife. small fishing villages on Digby Neck.S. the gravel would be shipped back to the U. The purpose of explaining the natural environment and people of the Digby Neck is to assist in comprehending their present situation.26 At full capacity. from a deep-marine terminal (which would also be built by Clayton). the quarry could produce up to two million metric tonnes of high-grade . The proposed quarry would cover approximately 380 acres. and the construction of facilities for crushing and washing it. to be used for road materials in the construction of highways in the Northeastern United States.25 The construction of the terminal would involve dredging a significant portion of St. forty to fifty.24 To produce basalt gravel would involve. plus the erection of a 600foot long.

The residents of Digby Neck. 4) To work with other groups having similar aims and objectives.8 gravel basalt per annum. and without any Environmental Assessment (EA). the residents responded by creating a support organization. could no longer keep their secret. named The Digby Neck Concerned Citizens Community. They investigated and discovered that the company had submitted plans for only a ten-acre quarry. and would have a lifespan of approximately twenty to fifty years. could not understand how the proposal was granted so quickly. 2) To promote the principle that the community affected approves any development proposed. at first angered with the NSDEL. in April 2002. in contrast with the actual 380-acre quarry they had planned.27 Clayton Concrete received their approval to mine the area in less than a week from the NSDEL. who had been very guarded about their intentions up to that point. 3) To create a heightened awareness which will nurture the preservation and stewardship of Digby Neck and Islands and the surrounding waters.28 The company. Almost immediately. Once the approval was granted. .30 The mandate of The Digby Neck Concerned Citizens Community is broken into five key commitments31: 1) To preserve the pristine nature of Digby Neck and Islands and to promote sustainable development that enhances the quality of life. specifically to avoid having to conduct an EA. the information was then accessible to the public.29 The residents reacted swiftly and with a vengeance.

and The Partnership for Sustainable Development of Digby Neck and Islands Society36. Even though Clayton was able to obtain a mining permit. Little River.34 Furthermore. Their mandate then goes on to say. Digby Neck.9 5) To stop the mega-quarry for Whites Cove. the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. they also strengthened their support through other local organizations such as The Society for the Preservation of Eastern Head35. the Sierra Club of Canada38.39 These powerful lobby groups have reinforced the position of the local residents by providing financial support and publishing anti-quarry articles on their websites and around the country. who happily use the issue to distinguish . as well as provincial Liberal41 and NDP42 politicians. The residents signed a petition of over one thousand people and submitted it to their MLA.32 The people of Digby Neck were preparing for a fight. there has been some unexpected support in the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC)40. and to actively oppose other developments which are inconsistent with the above criteria. we stand and fight to protect our land from anything that could/will affect our way of life that could cause endangerment or harm to ourselves now or for the generations to come”. as well as recruiting some of the major environmental organizations such as the Ecology Action Center37.33 It was here that the newly united residents struck their first blow. requesting that quarry proposal be axed. Also. “…in and with this committee. the residents realized that the company still required blasting and dredging permits in order to legally begin production.

the residents have continued pursuing other angles to halt the quarry development. two of the residents were able to purchase a small. intend to build a museum on the property. The residents.44 Furthermore. the support for the locals has grown continually since the quarry became an issue. and although the company will continue to own that land they will not legally be able to mine it. the Minister asked the Federal Minister of the Environment for a ‘special review of the project’. After evaluating the potential damage to the local fishing industry. even with all their support. but in support of the residents of Digby Neck. Another plan the residents have devised is to open the . which will create an 800-metre ‘buffer zone’ around the building. in the form of a detailed EA.45 A gentleman from New Jersey (ironically enough) has owned this piece of land for the past fifteen years. Just when the people were beginning to believe that their protests had been in vain and that the quarry would open.46 This buffer zone encompasses a large portion of Clayton’s land. there appeared to be no real results. the Federal Minister of Fisheries stepped in. 50’ x 50’ piece of land almost directly in the middle of the proposed quarry site. decided to sell it. Overall.43 The Minister of the Environment granted him this wish. The approval of EA has effectively delayed the construction of the quarry for at least one year. However. After months of research.10 themselves from the Conservative Party (currently in power) that they characterize as having ‘anti-environmental attitudes’. using provincial government guidelines to their advantage.

The quarry’s main selling point is the 31 supposed jobs it will create.48 Clayton believes the region is economically depressed. which eases trade restrictions between the two nations. the residents have shown remarkable ingenuity and resourcefulness in their battle for Digby Neck. and the quarry will provide much needed employment in the area. Canadian Steamship Lines (CSL). Clayton expects a large return on their investment for many reasons including: the proximity to the United States will lower transportation costs. they will require a large shipping company to transport the basalt back to the United States. which would serve as an education center for children. Thus.11 ‘Fundy Discovery Centre’ nearby. and the difference between the Canadian and U. the final remaining benefit that Clayton has not stated is that the company will generate millions of dollars in revenues from the project.S. The company has a different point of view. . A spokesman from Clayton has stated that Prime Minister Paul Martin’s former company. as well as a research outpost for the area. is the leading candidate for landing the mega-contract. Clayton claims that the people are only focusing on the potentially negative aspects of the quarry.47 All in all. a huge profit margin on this venture is the primary motivation for Clayton opening a quarry on Digby Neck. Furthermore. the high quality of the basalt. dollar combined with the current North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)50.49 Of course. due to their transportation needs.

the fishermen believe their nets and traps would have to be completely removed from St. Mary’s Bay could ‘choke off’ the groundfish. the vast majority of the people of Digby Neck are fighting to keep the quarry from opening.51 However. They have a variety of reasons for opposing the quarry which can be characterized into either economic or ecosystem impacts. it is the effects to the local fishery that are of the most concern to the residents. The fishermen are also greatly concerned over the possibility of contamination of their waters by a species of paramoeba common in New York harbour (where the ships would be traveling from). they would either crowd or displace other fishermen in nearby communities. Also. since the Government of Nova Scotia earns zero royalties on the mining of construction materials like basalt. the province would receive no financial benefit from the quarry. Siltation of the water as a result of runoff into St. the Clayton’s proposed shipping requirements would increase the traffic in the Bay tremendously. potential leakage and exhaust could force aquatic resources to migrate elsewhere. They also claim that as a result of moving locations. and in contrast to the 31 jobs that Clayton claims it will create for the ‘economically depressed’ area.52 Furthermore. which is toxic to shellfish. Economically speaking. the residents believe that opening the quarry could potentially cost hundreds of jobs in the fishery and tourism industries. This same paramoeba was .12 As mentioned above. Mary’s Bay to accommodate the cargo ships.53 The increased noise from shipping activities. Thus.

would be threatened. since not many people want to live near a quarry. the residents would immediately face a decline in their property values. a deterioration in water quality. . Mary’s Bay in the bilges of these cargo ships. The fishermen are worried that the paramoeba could potentially be carried into St. upon which the fishermen depend for the bulk of their livelihood.54 On land. would certainly threaten the endangered Atlantic Coastal Florae. the resulting tourist industry is referred to as ‘ecotourism’. If this occurred. On land. light pollution from a non-stop. scallops and other species.55 The quarry would also level a portion of the North Mountain. noise pollution from the continuous blasting and increased shipping traffic. when the primary tourist attractions are ecological in nature. lobsters. Hence. and even expanding in the region. gaping hole would not only displeasure the residents. 24 hour a day operation. The Digby Neck ecotourism industry is currently thriving. bare. would all negatively affect the people.56 At sea. The tourist industry is based on the ecological diversity and natural beauty of the area. but would have an adverse effect on the prosperous tourism industry of the area. The unaesthetic qualities the quarry would produce such as a decrease in air quality from dust. the destruction of already precious habitat (Digby Neck is small in land area).13 responsible for a large shellfish kill in the New York area only two to three years ago. The unsightly presence of a large. as well as a drop in the local water table. and therefore severely alter the natural landscape.

the key to environmental regeneration lies in the abilities of the liberal. democratic individual to initiate change to the present economic system. The revenues generated. would go directly back to the United States into the pockets of Clayton Concrete and therefore. can enter a community.14 the noise and vibrations from the blasting activities. demonstrates the power of global corporatism. In my position paper for this course. the individual still holds the power as a citizen and as a consumer. real . provide little income to be put back into the local economy. The rise of global corporatism has caused the erosion of the rights. the fact that the government is almost powerless to halt the proposal also illustrates how economic forces have influenced and changed laws to benefit corporate interests. directly opposing the overwhelming majority of the local people’s desires. Also. The idea that a large. multinational company with deep pockets and an abundance of resources available to it.57 Losing the whales would be a tremendous blow to the ecotourism economy due to the income generated from whale watching. In a liberal democracy. as well as the increase in shipping traffic could potentially drive the migration of the right whales away from the area permanently. in my opinion. If the above noted factors are taken into account. and is proof that the economic system requires restructuring. I have illustrated that from a Western perspective. the residents stand to lose much more than the 31 jobs they would gain from the quarry. propose to open a quarry which would severely alter the residents’ lives and threaten the ecosystem.

Taoism or Native American beliefs (among others). The people who choose to embrace any ecocentric belief system are showing they intrinsically value nature. these same individuals as they increase in number. a term created by the Deep Ecologist philosopher Arne Naess60. the economic system will fundamentally change. environmentally friendly products. If these numbers grow large enough. 1995). the Western economic system. Social Ecology. Each individual may achieve self-realization through the adoption of one of the varieties of alternative. the controls corporatism imposes on individuals is strikingly similar to medieval feudalism. the corporations would decrease in power and influence through . Deep Ecology. through the adoption of global corporatism.15 or perceived. Furthermore. could collectively increase their power economically as consumers.58 Saul illustrates that corporatism is the antithesis of democracy. with respect to environmental sustainability. because whether it is Buddhism. ‘has taken a great leap backwards’. and through its rational ideology and hierarchical structure. According to John Ralston Saul (author of The Unconscious Civilization. and boycott large global corporations by purchasing only locally produced. of the individual. ecologically friendly worldviews. Ecofeminism.59 I believe that once each individual achieves ‘self-realization’. Which alternative worldview each individual adopts is irrelevant. they are all similar in their desire to respect nature and view the position of humanity as integrated within the structure of nature and not separate or above it.

without sacrificing their standard of living would begin the transformation. the key is to appeal to the consumer part of the individual. The residents of Digby Neck have displayed a respect for the ecosystem by openly expressing their desires for the development of a sustainable economy in the area. laws favourable to the ecosystem could be passed and a new form of society would be given the chance to evolve in much the same fashion as our current corporate dominated society has evolved: through pragmatism and self interest of the individual. In turn. They have demonstrated the first step in the aforementioned process . since the present system is overwhelmingly consumer based. Consumers would realize that if they choose to purchase locally produced environmentally friendly goods they could improve the economic success of their communities. Offering individuals environmentally friendly alternatives that are cheaper. How do we initiate this fundamental change in the minds of the individual? As illustrated in my previous essay. Furthermore. It follows that if individuals elected an environmentally aware government to power.16 declining sales and profits. environmentally friendly products and therefore. they would realize that by consuming less they would spend less. they would want to elect a government that promotes these cheaper. again making them financially better off. will exercise their power as citizens to institute change. I believe this would mark the turning point in the battle for the environment.

do not have a vested interest in stimulating individual empowerment and disseminating anti-corporate information. This is an issue that should be widely publicized. People suffer from a lack of information. that the quarry would damage the natural beauty and ecological diversity of the land and sea. first as individuals. As individuals came to realize that the quarry would damage them from both an economic and ecologic perspective. and prevent it from entering their domain is something other people in other areas can learn from. Although it is difficult to quantify. they also realize. in my opinion.61 also occurs in small communities across North America on a daily basis. Perhaps the mass media networks. What would they do without their precious advertising . similar to the situation Vandana Shiva describes in The Greening of the Global Reach as impacting the Third World. Concurrently. then as a collective group to fight Clayton Concrete. The courage of the people of Digby Neck to stand up to this corporate invasion should be applauded. the people of Digby Neck through their actions with regard to the proposed quarry have clearly demonstrated they possess an intrinsic value of the land and sea. The encroachment of corporate interests in the guise of benefit to economically recessed areas. their next step was to mobilize. as mega-corporations in their own right. As individuals.17 of transformation. they have come to the conclusion that the quarry potentially threatens the livelihood of the community. Their willingness to fight the forces of corporatism. as individuals.

18 revenues? However. that is an area of research that will have to be left to future scholars. .

19 Endnotes .

Nova Scotia Website: “Rock Quarry Doesn’t Rock in Digby Neck”.gov. August 6. “Rock Quarry Doesn’t Rock in Digby Neck” 29 Sierra Club of Canada.cbc.com/ns2/quarry/ 31 Ibid 32 Ibid 33 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.cpawsns. http://www.. Special Publication 1. http://atlantic. No. http://novascotia. http://www.novaserve. The Last Billion Years: A Geological History of the Maritime Provinces of Canada (Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd.sierraclub.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_quarry020502 34 NovaServe. 1982) p.html 40 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 1980). August 6. “Rock Quarry Doesn’t Rock in Digby Neck”. 128 10 Ibid. Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia (Atlantic Geoscience Society.ns. “Rock Quarry Doesn’t Rock in Digby Neck” 41 Nova Scotia Liberal Caucus Website: “Balser Should Make Up His Mind On Who To Help”.196 13 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head Website: http://museum. p. Geological Background and Physiography of Nova Scotia (Halifax: Ford Publishing. 2004. Roland. http://magazine.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1967 4 Roland. 12 Roland. 24 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://magazine.V. p. NovaServe Magazine. 128 8 Ibid.ns. Halifax. “Digby Neck Oppose Quarry”.cbc. p.ca/camp_digby. p. 4: Winter 2003.ecologyaction. “Digby Mega-Quarry” 30 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry Website: http://www.ca/article601.cbc.htm 26 Ibid 27 NovaServe Magazine Website: “Digby Neck Quarry – Light on the Horizon?”. 2001) p. 128 11 J.ca/EAC_WEB_1/RELEASES/NSENTopTen. (Editor’s Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. http://novascotia. Nova Scotia Website: “Gravel Quarry Not Welcome in Digby Neck”.pdf 38 Sierra Club of Canada. p.gulfofmaine.ca/musdir/societyforthepreservationoftheeasternhead.196 6 Atlantic Geoscience Society.P.org/new/minerelease. “Digby Mega-Quarry” 39 Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society – Nova Scotia Chapter Website: “Assessment Process for Mines Flawed”.ca/article980.ns. http://www. 2003 20 Ibid 21 Ibid 22 Ibid 23 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. “Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys” 15 Ibid 16 Ibid 17 Ibid 18 Andi Rierdon.1 Albert E. 196 2 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Donohoe.novaserve.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_quarry020612 3 Kelly Toughill. “Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys”.126 9 Ibid.novaserve.ns. p. http://magazine. p.html 35 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head 36 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry 37 Ecology Action Center Website: “Top Ten Environmental Issues – Election 2003”. Bujak and H.htm 14 Kelly Toughill.asp 19 Toughill. .html 28 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.org/times/winter2003/editorsnotes.“As Quarry Conflict Makes Clear – Nova Scotia Needs a Coastal Policy”.ca/modules.).angelfire. 128 7 Ibid.196 5 Ibid. http://novascotia. Nova Scotia Website: “Digby Residents Will to Try and Stall Quarry”.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_digby021011 25 Sierra Club of Canada: Atlantic Canada Chapter Website: “Digby Mega-Quarry”. Volume 7.

2003 56 Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head 57 Toughill. “The Greening of Global Reach”(Fernwood Books. Atlantic Geoscience Society. “Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World” (North Atlantic Books. Naess. Berkeley. 1: Spring 2003).ca/010/0001/0001/0023/draft_e. p. 2003 58 John Ralston Saul. Halifax.raw+PE03Jul30+2 43 Toughill. The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology. Geological Highway Map of Nova Scotia. (The House of Anansi Press Inc. “Digby Residents Building to Stop Building”. No. NS. “Layton Raps Short Term Focus on Jobs”. J.com/newsrel2/february18b2003. 1995. 2003 44 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. http://www.. The House of Anansi Press Inc. August 6. John Ralston. Vandana. Halifax.herald. 2003 52 Ibid 53 Ibid 54 Rierdon.html 48 Sierra Club of Canada. The Halifax Herald Ltd. H.liberalcaucus-ns. August 6. Winter 2003 55 Toughill. Berkeley. Bujak.. Toronto. August 6.. 1995. p. The Unconscious Civilization. “Self-Realization: An Ecological Approach to Being in the World”. CA. Halifax: Nimbus Publishing Ltd. Global Ecology: A New Arena of . “Digby Neck Oppose Quarry” 51 Toughill. Saul.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_digbyquarry20030124 46 NovaServe Magazine. Special Publication 1. http://novascotia. 151 42 Bibliography Atlantic Geoscience Society. (2001). Volume 7.ceaa-acee. Toronto. Anthony. “Draft Agreement”. Arne. CA. Shiva. ON. p. 1982. The Last Billion Years: A Geological History of the Maritime Provinces of Canada.ca/cgi-bin/home/displaypackstory?2003/07/30+228.htm 45 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Albert E. 1995).gc. 1993. 18 61 Vandana Shiva. p. “On the Road to a Bay of Fundy Discovery Center”.org/times/spring2003/editorsnotes. 2 59 Ibid. ON). http://www. http://www.P. 1980. 1993). The Unconscious Civilization. “The Greening of Global Reach”.html Cooper. North Atlantic Books. Ford Publishing Co. August 6. “Digby Mega-Quarry” 49 Toughill. http://www. 2003 50 NovaServe.V. “Digby Neck Quarry – Light on the Horizon?” 47 Andi Rierdon. August 6.2-3 60 Arne Naess..gulfofmaine.ns. and Donohoe.News Release. Roland. Halifax. (Editor’s Notes: Gulf of Maine Times.cbc. Geological Background and Physiography of Nova Scotia.

Posted on October 11. Nova Scotia Website: “Gravel Quarry Not Welcome in Digby Neck”. http://www. Fernwood Books. (Ed. http://magazine.cbc.gc. http://www. http://magazine.).com/ns2/quarry/ Ecology Action Center Website: “Top Ten Environmental Issues – Election 2003”.htm Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Website: “Draft Agreement – Establishment of a Joint Review Panel for the Whites Cove Quarry Project”.raw+PE03Jul30+2 Digby Neck and Islands Stop the Quarry Website: http://www. http://novascotia. Posted on July 30.cpawsns.cbc.htm Cooper.ns. Nova Scotia Website: “Rock Quarry Doesn’t Rock in Digby Neck”. 2002.herald. NS.pdf May.ca/010/0001/0001/0023/index_e.liberalcaucus-ns. http://www.Political Conflict. http://novascotia.gulfofmaine. Posted on July 31.html NovaServe Magazine Website: “Digby Neck Quarry – Light on the Horizon?” Posted on January 26. Halifax.org/new/minerelease. Volume 7. Nova Scotia Website: “Digby Residents Building to Stop Building”. 1: Spring 2003.ns.ca/article980.com/jag/h073103.ca/cgi-bin/home/displaypackstory? 2003/07/30+228. 2003. “On the Road to a Bay of Fundy Discovery Center”.ca/article601. Internet Resources Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www. 2002. The Halifax Herald Limited Website: “N.gc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_quarry020502 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Posted on August 11. Editor’s Notes: Gulf of Maine Times. Anthony.safecleanup.com/newsrel2/february18b2003.gov. http://www.ns. Posted on June 12. 2003. http://www. 2003. Needs Environmentally Friendly Government”.ns.html NovaServe Magazine Website: “Digby Neck To Oppose New Quarry” Posted on October 10.S. No.ca/news/details. 2003.asp?id=20030811001 Nova Scotia Liberal Caucus Website: “Balser Should Make Up His Mind On Who To Help”. 2002. The Halifax Herald Limited Website: “Layton Raps Short Term Focus on Jobs”. Elizabeth. http://novascotia.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_digby021011 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.ceaa-acee.ceaaacee. 2002. http://www.html Rierdon.html .htm Nova Scotia Department of Environment and Labour Website: “Draft Agreement Released for Public Comment”. News Release Posted On: February 18.ca/EAC_WEB_1/RELEASES/NSENTopTen.novaserve.cbc.ecologyaction.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_digbyquarry20030124 Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society – Nova Scotia Chapter Website: “Assessment Process for Mines Flawed”.cbc. 2002. Posted on January 24.angelfire. http://novascotia.ca/010/0001/0001/0023/draft_e. Posted on May 2.html Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Website: “Whites Point Quarry and Marine Terminal Project”.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=ns_quarry020612 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2003. 2003.novaserve. http://www. Andi. Posted on August 23.http://www.org/times/spring2003/editorsnotes. Nova Scotia Website: “Digby Residents Will to Try and Stall Quarry”.

August 6. http://atlantic. http://magazine.ca/camp_digby. “As Quarry Conflict Makes Clear – Nova Scotia Needs a Coastal Policy”. 2004.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1967 . http://www. NovaServe Magazine.gulfofmaine. “Digby Neck Turned Into Quarrys”.org/times/winter2003/editorsnotes.sierraclub.ns. Volume 7. (Ed.gov. No.).htm Society for the Preservation of the Eastern Head Website: http://museum. 4: Winter 2003.novaserve.ca/musdir/societyforthepreservationoftheeasternhead. Editor’s Notes: Gulf of Maine Times.asp Sierra Club of Canada: Atlantic Canada Chapter Website: “Digby Mega-Quarry”. Kelly.ns.Rierdon.htm Toughill. Andi.ca/modules.