Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Part I Professor Luke Timothy Johnson THE TEACHING COMPANY ®

Luke Timothy Johnson, Ph.D. Professor of New Testament and Christian Origins, Emory University Luke Timothy Johnson is the Robert W. Woodruff Professor of New Testament and Christian Origi ns at Candler School of Theology, Emory University, in Atlanta, Georgia. Born in 1943 and from the ages of nineteen to twentyeight a Benedictine monk, Dr. Johns on received a B.A. in philosophy from Notre Dame Seminary in New Orleans, an M.D iv. in theology from Saint Meinrad School of Theology in Indiana, and an M.A. in religious studies from Indiana University, before earning his Ph.D. in New Test ament from Yale University in 1976. Professor Johnson taught at Yale Divinity Sc hool from 1976 to 1982 and at Indiana University from 1982 to 1992 before accept ing his current position at Emory. He is the author of twenty books, including T he Writings of the New Testament: An Interpretation (2nd edition, 1998), which i s used widely as a textbook in seminaries and colleges. He has also published se veral hundred articles and reviews. He is currently at work on several books, in cluding one on the Christian creed, one on the future of Catholic biblical schol arship, and one on the influence of Greco-Roman religion on Christianity. Profes sor Johnson has taught undergraduates, as well as master’s level and doctoral stud ents. At Indiana University, he received the President’s Award for Distinguished T eaching, was elected a member of the Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teachin g, and won the Brown Derby and Student Choice Awards for teaching. At Emory, he has twice received the “On Eagle’s Wings Excellence in Teaching” Award. In 1997–1998, he was a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar, speaking at college campuses across the country. Professor Johnson is married to Joy Randazzo. They share seven children , eleven grandchildren, two greatgrandchildren, and a Yorkshire terrier named Ba iley. Johnson also teaches the courses called The Apostle Paul and Early Christi anity: The Experience of the Divine for The Teaching Company. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership i

Table of Contents Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Part I Professor Biography............................................................. ...............................i Course Scope................................... ....................................................................1 Lecture On e The World of the Greco-Roman Moralists ................2 Lecture Two How Empir e Changed Philosophy.............................4 Lecture Three The Great Schoo ls and Their Battles .........................6 Lecture Four Dominant Themes and Metaphors.............................8 Lecture Five Lecture Six Lecture Seven Lecture Eight Lecture Nine Lecture Ten Lecture Eleven The Ideal Philosopher A Comp osite Portrait........10 The Charlatan Philosophy Betrayed .....................12 Philosophy Satirized The Comic Lucian ..............14 Cicero The Philosopher as Po litician....................16 Seneca Philosopher as Court Advisor................ ...18 Good Roman Advice Cicero and Seneca..............20 Musonius Rufus The Roman S ocrates..................22 Lecture Twelve Dio Chrysostom The Wandering Rhetorician ......24 Timeline ........ ................................................................................ .....................26 Glossary................................................ .............................................................28 Bibliography.... ................................................................................ ..................32 ii ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership

Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Scope: How can a person be good when the world all around seems bad? How can som eone be wise when the surrounding culture is foolish? How can anyone be healthy when the social atmosphere is sick? Such questions are appropriate for Americans in the early twenty-first century. They are also the questions that preoccupied the moral philosophers of the early Roman Empire. The answers provided by the p hilosophers of the classical period no longer worked for them. Plato and Aristot le and Epicurus, after all, lived and taught in the small and comprehensible con text of Athens. The world of empire was vaster, more complex, and morally much m ore ambiguous. Philosophy had to shift from theory to therapy. The philosophers of the early empire were concerned with proper thinking, to be sure, but thought was always aimed at proper living. Philosophy became a way of life. This course introduces the ancient masters of practical philosophy who arose during the per iod of the late republic and early empire. They need introducing because they te nd to be neglected by most students of antiquity. Classicists ignore them becaus e they wrote in the ordinary Greek and Latin of the people rather than in the mo re elevated style of the poets and dramatists. Historians of philosophy equally neglect them because they do not notably contribute to the great metaphysical an d epistemological theories that dominate the story of ancient philosophy. They d eserve introducing because they are preeminently worth getting to know. They can still teach us. Readers looking neither for sublime language nor complex theori es but for wisdom have long known that that Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictet us are worth reading. Those fortunate enough to encounter them either in their s chooling or on library shelves have heard these ancient moralists speak with rem arkable freshness and force to the basic issues of human character with which we all must struggle. For such readers, the popular philosophers of the Greco-Roma n world deserve their self-designation as “doctors of the soul.” Precisely because t hey focus so precisely on everyday life the character of the individual and the he alth of the family they remain pertinent even today. They analyze the passions of fear and desire, of envy and rage with brilliant insight. They precisely delinea te the virtues and vices. They understand the process of moral development and t he necessity of moral education. And the great satirist among them, Lucian of Sa mosata, remains remarkably funny. Followers of the philosophical ideal appeared in different social locations and roles. Some belonged to formal schools where l ife and study were part of a common existence. Others were emperors, senators, c ourt advisors, wandering rhetoricians, and schoolteachers. They nevertheless sha red a vision concerning the good life that transcended the pleasure, possessions , and power that dominated the desires of most people. They were convinced that a dedication to virtuous living was the way not only to health but also to true happiness. Still, they were themselves completely human, and their ideals strugg led for expression in the very structures of society that they found inadequate. Learning how Cicero lived as a senator is as instructive as hearing his thought s on the good life. Knowing that Marcus Aurelius was supreme ruler of the empire gives his meditations a special significance. Epictetus’s stirring exhortations a re all the more moving when we know that he was physically disabled, a slave, an d an exile. Plutarch’s encyclopedic learning and cosmopolitan outlook owe somethin g to his social position and priestly status. The first part of this course esta blishes the social and cultural context for these teachers. We examine first the changes in society caused by the fact of empire and the reasons that philosophy needed to adopt a more therapeutic approach. We then sketch some of the major p hilosophical schools from the classical period whose influence was still discern ible in the time of empire. A consideration of the major themes and metaphors us ed by the popular philosophers prepares for a composite portrait of the ideal sa ge, and its opposite, the charlatan who betrays philosophy’s ideals while mimickin g its manner. The remainder of the course focuses on the specific figures whose lives and thought still affect the way we act and think: Lucian of Samosata, the satirist; Cicero and Seneca, the Roman statesmen; Musonius Rufus and Epictetus, the schoolmasters; Dio Chrysostom, the public speaker; and Marcus Aurelius, the emperor. To show how pervasive were the ideals of character ethics, we then exa mine the same themes in some contemporary Jewish writers, before concluding with

an extended appreciation of Plutarch of Chaeronea and a final reflection on the significance of this missing page in the history of philosophy. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 1 .

Outline I. The American and Roman Empires also navigated similar tran sitions. A. 4. practical philosophy is most treasured by ordinary folk and most despised by scholars. Both inherited previous empires through war and negotiation. Seneca. They are scattered throughout a highly pluralistic Roman Empire. 2. an d why should they be read? Philosophy can be defined as a love of knowing. say hello to Dr. Laura. are they philosophers. D. They faced the challenge of a lternative lifestyles. In each setting. B. 3. Organized religi on (including Christianity) appears to be in a state of confusion and corruption . 2. 2. 2 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . The philosophers studied in this course do not fit this profile. The philosophical and psychological options offered by M arx. and Freud fail to provide any depth of meaning. They have little of significance to say on the conv entional philosophical topics. We begin by suggesting some reasons why we might have more to learn from the ancient sage s than from those currently on camera. philosophy can answer practical questions. ph ilosophy aims at how to live sanely in a confusing and confused world. They faced the strain caused by immigration and extens ion of the franchise. 1. In what sense. Both served as the main point of attracti on and opposition. Courses in Plato and Aristotle have certain predictable features. Both asserted their dominance through m ight. II. Although they are increasingly worried about the effect of affluence and luxury. The reason is at least partly because there is much betwe en them legitimately to compare. such a s “What does it mean to be a human being? How should one live one’s life as a ration al creature?” 2. B. 1. 1. A. Epictetus. 2. and we describe our approach to these sti ll lively and enlivening doctors of the soul. meet Dr . C. fewer people actually live by the traditional values with which th ey identify. They shifted from republican to imperial values. The American Empire can be compared to the Roman on some obvious points. many experience a sense of anxiety because of cultural changes and challenges. This is a course in ancient philosophy that may defy student expectations. In this sense. Phil. more people’s lives are defined by consumerism. 1. Although they long nostalgically for tradit ional values. 1. In twenty-first–century American culture. trade.Lecture One The World of the Greco-Roman Moralists Scope: Comparisons between the ancient Roman Empire and the new American Empire are frequent and easy. 3. The extraordinary success of technology and commer ce to improve material life seem to have demanded economic slavery both for the haves and have-nots. language. 2. In each case. thought. Philosophy focuse s on the theory of being. 1. The “great explanations” of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries f ail to meet the challenge. a lov e of wisdom. This opening presentation introduces the GrecoRoman moralists in general through such a comparison: They look less like the ac ademic philosophers of today who inhabit universities and think-tanks and more l ike the talkshow therapists who haunt the contemporary media. then. 1. The role of the Greco-Roman philosophers can be approached through an extend ed comparison between the Roman and the American Empires. 2. They shifted fro m small-town virtue to big-city sophistication. and culture. 3. C. The philos ophers’ thought is placed in the context of Athenian culture. These are the sorts of questions that these philosophers answer. Darwin. and the state.

The same is the case in the ear ly Roman Empire: The popular philosophers appeared in a variety of unexpected fo rms. It is in forms of popular philosophy (above all. Inhabitants of the “American Empire” whether in the United States or abroad—are incre asingly concerned for “character” in the face of these challenges. yet addressed the same issues of value and character in accessible speech. Consider the depressed condition of philoso phy in contemporary Western culture: Who is the last outstanding philosopher you can name? 2. Supplementary Reading: J. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. S . Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius (New York: World Publishing C o. The philosop hy that responds to this spiritual crisis in the United States and in ancient Ro me appears in surprising guises. How can we account for the remarkable popularity of advisors and “se lf-help” directors in the contemporary world? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 3 . The first part of the course establishes the social and cultural context. A. 1985). Dill. in print and electronic media) that ordinary people in the American Empire find issues of value and character addressed. T. A. B. C.E. translated by E. III. Lorimer (New York: Penguin Books. edited by H. and portraits of the ideal sage and his counterfeit. The second part of the course focuses on the specific figures whose lives and thought still affect the way we live and still offer sound advice on how we shou ld live. This course introduces the popular philosophers of antiquity and suggests th at they have more to offer those seeking wisdom than many contemporary advisors. O. IV. Questions to Consider: 1. Rowell. Carcopino. 1956).. ma jor themes and metaphors. B . The forms of academic philosophy and psychol ogy today are remarkably unconcerned with the pursuit of wisdom and are more dir ected to theory and explanation.

Philosophy offered a way of renegotiating the meaning of life. Politically. and architecture. A.C .). A. Despite the founding of Hellenistic cities and the spread of Greek language and cultural institutions. when Julia n resists the Christianization of the empire in the name of philosophy.E. Greek philosophy developed in a stable social and c ultural setting. B.) dreamed that his empire w ould create a pan-Hellenic world. we deal with the lands all around the Mediterranean. The rich sense of local culture and citizen participation that had marked Athens was now subordina ted to the overarching structures and imperatives of empire.E.C. B.” IV. Athens in the sixth a nd fifth centuries had a well-developed paideia based in Homer and Hesiod. Despite Socrates’s inward turn (“know t hyself”). In the classical period. Also stable are certain deep cultural patterns associated with the Mediterranean: patriarchy.E. we focus on the period from the end of the Roman repu blic (Cicero) in the first century B. and the historiography of Herodotus and Thucydides. A. 1. made Rome master of the Mediterranean.C. the result was s ometimes alienation and anomie.) lived in a very different world. Spatially. in which the ideals of Athenian civilization w ould reach all people. in the invention of empire and in the cultura l response to empire.–second century C.C. f rom Alexandria in Egypt.) engaged in philosophy. industry.E. to genera te crisis. to the fourth century C. especially in the Athens of the fourth and fifth centuries B. D. C. this world is remarkably stable. Temporally. B. But thos e who sought wisdom in the late Roman republic and early empire (first century B . philosophers could debate the ideal form of government: Xenophon (430–355 B. Outline I. A.C. diet. II. 2. as well as the wars with the Persians. polytheism. and above all. 4 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . For those caught in the vast middle of society (neither the noble nor the menial).C.C. honor/shame. the Greek Empire fell into competing factions and quic kly became prey to the stronger will of Rome. to be sure. Chang e is found at the political level. rather.E. Greece and Italy. There were.E. The goal was to universalize th e intense civic participation that characterized Athens while breaking down the barriers that separated populations.) and his student Aristotle (384–322 B. and Aristotle all had ambitions to s hape politics. enric hed by the mysteries of Eleusis and Delphi. which from the Macedonian Wars (21 4–148 B. A preliminary description of the ancient Mediterranean world as it is underst ood for the purposes of our investigation provides a setting for the Greco-Roman moralists..C. to be a “citizen of the world.E. E. along with a strong sense of local identity. technology. they did so within an already well-established tradi tion going back to Thales (624–546 B.). Alexander the Great (356–323 B. conflicts between city-states.Lecture Two How Empire Changed Philosophy Scope: Greek philosophy found its distinctive voice in the context of the city-s tate. Customary values and practices were no longer ad equate.E. through Palestine and Asia Minor.). C. When Socrates (470–399 B . Plato.C.C. the institutions of the city-state (polis)—such as the gymnasium and military a cademy—intermarriage. the grand tradition included an encyclopedic knowledge of the world. like that between Athens and Sparta. the creation of an entirely different world. The ideal is expressed by the term cosmopol itan. the dramas of Aeschylus and Sophocle s. This presentation exam ines how empire was not. patronage. In te rms of agriculture. as Alexander the Great had anticipated. simply an exten sion of Athenian culture to other lands through military and political conquest. The tools of Hellenization were language (Greek: koine ). It was.E. III.E. Within the frame of the city-state. Alexander’s success w as mixed.E. and religious syncretism.E.) and his student Plato (427–348 B.

People at the highest and lowest levels of society were leas t affected by these circumstances. The Roman Empire: Eco nomy. C. Garnsey and R. A. Greco-Roman moralis ts in Rome writing in Greek). 3. calling for a new response from religion and philosophy. the severe stratification of society. increased mobility. V. Why are those least affected by dramatic social change the people at the very top and very bottom o f a society? 1. but the resul ting “Hellenism” was also deeply influenced by the conquered cultures: It was not At hens. to help people find meaning within themselves in an alienating env ironment. and the thr eat of coercion. 2. Philosophers sprang up in a variety of social locations and claimed t he ancient mantle of the sages. The world of Asia was made Greek. D. Christianity developed fro m the middle of the second century as potentially the most powerful religious mo vement of all. Gr eco-Roman religion responded in a number of creative ways to the need for identi ty. For many in the Roman Empire. 1. together with the form of Greek culture (thus..C. 2.E. and law stabilized the empire but at considerable cost. B. Intense identification with specific mysteries and cults brought a sense of meaning and community to some. C. Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason. Among those conditions were the size of cities. whereas those in the middle were the most aff ected. Saller. R. B. The deracinated felt most the loss of local identity and tradition. They understood philosophy primarily in thera peutic terms. Questions to Consider: 1. 1. 2. M acMullen. Unrest and Alienation in the Empi re (New York: Routledge. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 5 . The very fact of empire meant that the attempt to franchise local ident ity was doomed to failure. Rome from the second century B. carried forward the id ea of empire. Supplementary Reading: P. Ev en while a republic. What are the inevitabl e consequences of franchising a local product or culture? 2. Philosophy also adapted to the new circumstances of the Roman Empire. conditions of life m ade the bright ideal of Hellenism a nightmare of alienation and anomie. the loss of local self-determination. the presence of milita ry forces. roads. 1987). Judaism saw itself and was seen as a form o f philosophy and mystery that drew many adherents. 1992).Rome’s colonies. Society and Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press.

and virtue.C. the soul. D.) began the Academy.E. Aristotle provides antiquity with its most complete discussion of the nature of the passions and moral habits (in the Rhetoric. they disagreed on the best way of accomplishing virtue.) founded his third community in Athens as The Garden. Neoplatonism. the distinction between Socrates and Plato is not always clear. in them. Aristotle (384– 322 B. recognizing the preeminence of the sch ools there. Eudamonian Ethics.). B. 4. Plato’s characteristic themes concerning the one and the many. 1. the heritage of Greek philosophy was expressed in a variety of schools. eros. as well as males. which is deeply affected by Sto icism. Epicurus (341–270 B. The schools continued to exert some influence in the early empire an d remained competitive. By the early imperial period. the philosopher-king Marcus Aurelius endowed four ch airs of philosophy in the city of Athens. Each was associated with fo unders.C.) founded the Lycaeum. Aristotle’s logic provides the basic rules for inductive and deductive thinking. Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.C. and ethics.E. 4. 3. His physics followed the atomic theory of Democrit us.). and God are less a set of doctrines than a set of qu estions. 3.E. 5. phys ics. his was the most distinctive (and most reviled) of the four great t raditions.). E. and each had a distinctive set of opinions concerning reality. and Aristotelia nism has remained the most continuously influential philosophical tradition in t he Western world. Platonism has had a long life because there are so many a spects to Plato. which returns to a grand metaphysical syste m. His desire for ataraxia meant a withdrawal from polit ical involvement.). 2.).). His followers formed a close community based on friendship and included women and sl aves. Philosophers sharpened their polemical rhetoric as they distinguished themselves from philosophical rivals and from other public speaker s. The Dialogues are dazzling literary works covering a wide ra nge of topics. 3.C. In 176 C. the worl d of ideas. Epicureanism is f ound in the Roman period (see Philodemus and Lucretius). Outline I. 1. C. 2. 6 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . To some e xtent.C.E.. Platonism passes through several stages: A period of skepticism after Plato’s death gives way to Middle Platonism. truth. Plato (427–348 B. and eventually. their differences were based in the teachings that had developed in the v arious schools of philosophy that grew up in Greece. Aristotle’s metaphysics (hylomorphism) is less dualistic th an Plato and less passionately theological. Epicurus (341–270 B. Antisthenes (445–365 B.E. with a heal thy added dose of Cynicism (derived from Antisthenes through Diogenes). such as Pythagoras (580–500 B.Lecture Three The Great Schools and Their Battles Scope: Although the sages of the early empire agreed that the virtuous life was the best life. and Zeno (335–263 B. 3. 4. Aristotle had an e ncyclopedic range of knowledge and his school continued his tradition of empiric al research.C. and his theory of knowledge relied heavily on sensation and feeling. Each had developed a tradition of scholarship that focused o n the interpretation of the founders’ teachings. 1. The most influential traditions for the Greco-Roman mor alists were those of Stoicism (derived from Zeno through Cleanthes). Epicurus taught by means of sayings (The Sovereign Maxims) that we re memorized by followers.E. Plato’s engagement with the political order is found in The Republic a nd The Laws.E. there had been considerable mutual influence among them.E. and Nicomachean Ethics). which were less institutions than sets of teachings and practices. 1. Each had a coherent set of teachings organized around logic. a stance that generated misunderstanding. A. Plato (42 7–348 B. such as the sophists. It is the influence of Middle Platonism that we find in the moralists (especi ally Plutarch).C. 2.C. 2. By the time of the Roman Empir e.

whose theories concerning mathematics.E. 1990). whose ideas about the transmigration of souls. Stoic physics emphasized the materialit y and rationality of the world. in the first century C.C. Sophists (su ch as Aelius Aristides) attacked philosophers.E. Marcus Aurelius). A History of Ancient Philosophy.E. IV. II. 1. Virtue is less a matter of knowin g than of doing the duty defined by one’s place in the order of things (ta katheko nta).E. Supplementary Reading: A. C.) was one of the legendary sages of Greece. In the Roman period. Why is it appropriate t o think of the debates among philosophical schools in terms of dogmatism and ske pticism? 2.) is the great systematizer. 2nd ed. B. Philosophers of different schools attacke d one another’s ideas and morals (see Plutarch and Epictetus against the Stoics).) is regarded as the founder of the tradition that either denied the possibility of knowing or simply withheld judg ment. Stoicism became the most popular form of philosophy in the im perial period (see Musonius. In the imperial period.C. III.E.) is the major shaper of thi s most individualistic and countercultural of philosophies that emphasized freed om (eleutheria) and free speech (parrhesia). R.E. but Diogenes of Sinope (412/403–324/321 B.). State Univer sity of New York Press. less a concern for abstract correctness in theory than for ideas that le d to good moral behavior. 1986). 3.. Stoic ethics emphasized living in agreement with nat ure. G. The differences among schools of public influence in antiquity gave rise to a vigorous form of polemics that f eatured not only rational rebuttal but vituperation and slander.C. C. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics. Stoic logic was ext remely complex and featured the study of paradoxes. Skeptics. Reale. A. despite the dominance of the Stoic-Cynic tradition. Epicureans. Pyrrho (360–272 B. B. and Sextus Empiricus (third century C. whos e concern for purity in dress and diet. There was. philosophers could even use such rhetoric as foil f or presenting true philosophy. Cy nicism traces its origins to Socrates through his student Antisthenes (445-365 B .C .E. and whose organization of communit ies strongly influenced Plato and.) founded The Porch (Stoa). Stoics were optimistic about the possibilities of sure knowledge. A. Skepticism was found among early soph ists (see Protagoras) and deeply influenced the Academy in the third century B. In protreptic discourses. The Stoic-Cynic influence coincided with the focus of philosophy on character and the doing of one’s duty. gave rise to Neopy thagoreanism (see Apollonius of Tyana). A. edited and translated by J.E. Stoicism made the strongest possible connection between all the virtues (as well as all the vices) and between virtue and happiness. How does the use of polemical language in debates among schools also serve as a powerful instrument of group self-definition? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 7 . vol. 4: The Schools of the Imperial Age. These four tra ditions were also influenced in various ways by additional philosophical tendenc ies. (London: Duckworth. A.E.C. Zeno of Citium (335–263 B. with God understood as this immanent rationality that is the world’s soul. 4. Catan (Albany. Questions to Consider: 1. in g eneral. 2. and following Cleanth es and Chrysippus. because nature reveals divine providence. and philosophers (such as Dio of Prusa) attacked sophists in return. moral philosophy was eclectic. B. Long.C. Pythagoras (580–500 B. Epictetus.

action should correspond to speech. gre ed. The goal of moral instruction is the turning of in dividuals from a life of vice to one of virtue. 2. and collections of maxims as ways of instruction. is the point. collection s of maxims and epitomes. Inward character is more important than social status or physical appearance or wealth. Even the “tables of household ethics” take the Hellenistic oikos for granted and simply try to locate the respective duties that make for r ight ordering (oikonomia). In Greco-Roman moral discourse. The imperial system as such is not challenged but taken as a fact of nature. which carries with it a number of lesser metaphors (“to learn is to suffer”/progress/ the mirror of memory). C. Society may be twisted. Not originality. A. Metaphors are not simply rhetorical ornaments but instr uments of thought: Metaphors are modes of cognition. training. The second is medical: Virtue is health and vice is il lness. and careless speech are all considered together. and the sharing of possessions. meditations. Virt ue is best learned through imitation of living examples. Certa in themes and metaphors constantly recur. An implicit metaphor is that of paideia (education/culture/training). 1. The first is athletic: Th e quest for virtue is perceived as an Olympic contest. 1. and speech should correspond to perception. The dominant themes cluster around the transform ation of the individual rather than the society. treatises. Correspondence should exist between one’s thoughts and o ne’s words. equality. the rela tions between virtues and vices reveal startling psychological insight. powerful root metaphors serve to shape percep tions in subtle ways. but the individual can be straight. II. as when drunkenness. is the physician of the soul whose tea chings and exhortations can transform people from sick to healthy lives. A. B. and letters. what can be changed is not the state but the person. An exp licit and important metaphor for moral discourse is that of athletics: The philo sophical life is equated with the Olympic games. or “commonplaces. We have no access to private advice. II I. friendship. A. and endurance. C. but individuals can. The philosopher. biographies. 1. Two metaphors occur rep eatedly in the teaching of these popular philosophers. and concer n for reputation (honor and shame). peace. as well as between one’s words and one’s actions. B. brotherhood. Outline I. speech. Particular emphasis is placed on integrity. Th e state can’t be changed. and generosity are analyzed as part of a common wisdom that has been built u p by many thinkers. Such subjects as friendship. 2.Lecture Four Dominant Themes and Metaphors Scope: Greco-Roman philosophers teach in many literary modes.” that deal with subjects pertin ent to moral character. anger. These are the topoi. It requires great effort. but some public oral perfor mances in the form of diatribes and orations have been preserved. the learning of maxims. The paraenetic discourse by Pseudo-Iso crates called To Demonicus reveals several aspects of moral instruction. envy. C. discourses. The moralists develop clusters of ideas and language around certain topics that recur with considerab le frequency. The individual is always the focus. not incidentally. includi ng the importance of the imitation of models. Certain themes and topics are repeated throughout the literature deriving fr om the popular philosophers. B. or converse ly. Often. They use letters. The Greco-Roman moralists instructed others through a variety of oral and lit erary means. but truth. Moral advic e was communicated literarily through essays. 2. anger. It requires the same commitment . 8 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . Integrity matters: Behavior counts more th an appearances. Even codes of household ethics conc entrate on personal responsibilities.

Why is the intense focus on the character of the individual both a streng th and a weakness in Greco-Roman moral teaching? 2. Supplementary Reading: A. Questions to Consid er: 1. Nussbaum. Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook (Philadelphia: Westmin ster. Malherbe. An even more pervasive and powerful root metaphor is medicine: The philosophi cal life is equated with the practice of medicine. 1994). The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Helle nistic Ethics (Princeton: Princeton University Press.D. such as business. J. Therapy is the name of the ga me. Develop the notion of the to pos by thinking of the proverbs and conventional slogans that are used for a con temporary subject. C. To Demonicus. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 9 . Essential Reading: Pseudo-Isocrates. M. 1986).

as well. The most obvious vic e is “love of pleasure” (philedonia). its pra ctitioners were required to define and defend it. The profession involves essentially a concern for others. These ar e compositions that encouraged following the philosophical manner of life.E. Demonax and Nigrinus. Epictetus. the preparation of the body is as necess ary as of the soul. Epictetus’s Discourse III. staff. 22. The philosopher’s liberation over vice should manifest i tself in freedom and free speech. 1. 2. moves from a discussion of envy to a consideration of the philosopher. The most deeply rooted vice is “love of money” (philargyria). Freedom (eleutheria) is possible even when the wise person is under restraints because it is a matter of inner disposition and virtue. which leads people to live at the level of the ir appetites. 4. On the Four). B. The Emperor Julian’s Or ation VI and VII take up the ideals of the Cynic life. Free speech (parrhesia) is the linguistic expression of freedom. Philosophy was also threatened by the frequent appearance of imposters (charlatans). Oration 77/78. we can derive a composite portrait of the ideal philosopher in the Roman Empire as understood by the Greco-Roman moralists thems elves. C. D. Bec ause the philosopher’s life is demanding. The sage’s rough dress. Those truly committed to the pursuit of wisdom empha sized. entirely committed to the pursuit of virtue for its own sake and to the benefit of other people. Ael ius Aristides. inner qualities of character. 1. The sense of vocation among some is quite liter ally understood as a call by God that must be obeyed. The self-und erstanding of the philosopher is best gained from protreptic discourses. The ideal philosopher is by no means a scholarly contemplative. which leads people to do everything for the sake of a profit. A. the willingness to speak the truth in all circumstances. The Clouds. C. Close attention to the protreptic discourses by Dio Chrysostom. 1. 10 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . Adoption of philosophy is a choice or even a conversion to a way of li fe that requires preparation. free from the dominant vices that direct most human activity. D. but a passionate wit ness. 2. A. which leads people to act for a good reputation. II. 2. The philosopher must himself be a person of virtue.Lecture Five The Ideal Philosopher A Composite Portrait Scope: What should the philosopher be like? Some observers in the empire focused on external appearances. Philosophers were often suspected by the empire and not a few of them were exiled as threats to society. Outline I. The subtlest vice—espe cially for a public person—is “love of glory” (philodoxia). written to encourage a commitment to the philosopher’s life: 1. 3. 3. Dio Chrys ostom. B. But such superficial marking could ea sily camouflage inner vice. is a diatribe delivered to his young students “On the Ideal Cynic. Because philosophy was a disputed and sometimes dangerous profession. beard. 3. From Socrates forward. and wallet marked him off as a critic of the larger society. phil osophers had to answer the attacks of critics (see Aristophanes. From protreptic discourses. The philosopher’s conc ern is not only with the self. The philosopher must ha ve a purity of intention and not undertake the life for unworthy motives. Lucian of Samosata wrote two treatises that positively depicted philosophers worthy of imitation.” 2. They call young men to a life that is strenuous and altruistic. and the Emperor Julian (331–363 C. instead.) ena bles the construction of a composite portrait of the ideal philosopher.

is an ine vitable aspect of the philosopher’s life. How adequately do the thre e “loves. however. Essential Reading: Julian. The ease with which the ideal could be cam ouflaged gave rise to the charlatan. Discourse III. E. Epictetus. A. There is. Lucian of Samosata. A. Diogenes). 2. C. if only the suffering that comes from be ing different. Suffering. Dio Chrysostom. money. Dio a nd Epictetus emphasize the life for others.” “herald of the gods. D. 1. Although the philosopher has no enemies. 22.” of pleasure. Using speech to correct and instruct others cal ls for discernment of the appropriate style of speech. 2. 1. Some features in the portrait are more important to some philosophers than to others. cover the possibilities of human vice? 2. Epictetus and Lucian would dis agree not only on the divine call but also on the role of harsh speech. Religious motivation is key to Epictetus but not to Lucian. 2. As with all composites. Orations VI and VII. 2. The self-image of the philosopher in this period is also rev ealed by the metaphors and models it uses. for example: “physician.” “savior. Ody sseus. including th e state. his willingness to challeng e conventions means that he meets resistance. B. B. the philosopher can expect opposition from others. Socrates. this portrait requires s ome qualifications.” “king. The major metaphors and titles tha t philosophers use of themselves indicate the strong orientation toward helping others. whereas Lucian and Julian emphasize the happiness of the sage. Demonax and Nigrinus. IV. There are real differences among the philosophers whos e discourses were used to build the composite. The r models that appear again and again are the heroes and philosophers of old who manifest the characteristics of freedom and free speech above all (Herakles. harsh or gentle.” and so on. Questions to Consider: 1. therefore. What are the implications of philosophy’s understanding of itself as a public prof ession in service to others? 1. Not all lived up to these ideals. substantial agreement that the philosophical life is not about thinking a certain way but acting a certain way. Free speech is perhaps the essential note to Lucian even if other features are lacking. As a public nuisance. III. 1. Oration 77/78. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 11 .The most important way the sage affects others is by modeling the virtuous life so that they can imitate him. and glory.

the importance of integrity of character among true philosophers. a dramatic exit. 3. 2. imitators. Lucian claims. had a long beard. 12 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . eventually.) was filled with adventure and traveling and. B. wore his hair long. The pattern of a public display of virtue and a private life of vice is brutally dissected in these attacks. They made exclusive claim s to the truth and attacks against the positions of other teachers. sandals. Philosophers in the imperial period had to defend themselves not only against detractors but also against those who counterfeited the genuine coinage. C. and wallet. Outline I. or love of pleasure. They used public spee ch as a means of flattering rather than as a means of benefit to the hearers (se e Dio. staff. 1. The Cynic had a standard garb of rough cloak. Their great est scorn and contempt was reserved for those who claimed the name of philosophe r and even wore the philosopher’s cloak. False philosophers revealed themselves by the way in which they betrayed the proper speech (logos) expected of the philosopher. Among their admirers. Lucian’s Passing of Peregrinus is the main source for the figure whose life (100–165 C. but whose behavior did not match their pr ofessed ideals. so also can we construct a composite of the figure known in antiquity as the goes.Lecture Six The Charlatan Philosophy Betrayed Scope: The understanding of philosophy as essentially a manner of life. Lucian of Samosat a provides a devastating account of a real-life contemporary philosopher (Proteu s Peregrinus) in terms of a betrayal of philosophy’s ideals. harangued people in the public square. eaten up by the vice of vainglory. A. They had the tendency to get caught up in theoretical discussions and quibbles about tech nical terminology rather than in the pursuit of virtue. philosophers enjoyed respect and a c ertain amount of authority. or charlatan. II. and ther efore. B. Many c harlatans were enamored of the attention they drew as philosophers and perverted the calling through their love of notoriety (philodoxia). The dominant vices were even more grievous when practiced by would-be philosophers than by ordinary peo ple. The polemical attacks of philosophers were directed beyond me mbers of rival schools or those sophists who spoke publicly for pay.E. A particularly sustained and effect ive dismantling of a charlatan is Lucian of Samosata’s Proteus Peregrinus. 2. The fam ous Cynic philosopher was nothing of the sort. Some used their teaching as an excuse to get rich. for this reason. those who mimicked the l ifestyle but missed the substance. IV. were not wanting. The distinctive Cynic lifestyle had popularized a social stereotype of the philosop her that was based on clothing and external manner. The Cynic typically traveled from place to place. Oration 32). A. Some philosophers preached virtue but themselves lived at the base level of philedonia. and was not overly fond of washing. is clea rly shown by the attention given by the sages to the renegades referred to as ch arlatans (goetai). A. 1. but simply someone greedy for public attention. C. III. Even more harmful were the ways in which charlatans bet rayed the proper character (ethos) of the philosopher. or when t here was a gap between their words and their actions. A. They were hypocritical when they made a show of public virtue while practicing private vice. B. and flouted sexual and di etary conventions. Just as a composite port rait of the ideal philosopher can be drawn. thus revealing themselves as lovers of money (philargyria).

B. In what manner is the conce pt of the charlatan alive and well in contemporary culture. Questions to Cons ider: 1. or love of glory. Ess ential Reading: Lucian of Samosata. The Passing of Peregrinus. How does the contemporary world evaluate “celebrity”? 2. Lucian interprets the entire career of Peregrinus as exemplifying the vice of philodoxia. Compare a contemporary political career to that of Proteus Peregrinus. and offers it as a warning against imitation. especially in the re alm of journalism? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 13 .

he has philosophy herself identify the essence of the life in freedom (eleutheria) and free speech (parrhesia). and his voluminous writings encompass many topics. such as Proteus. 3. he makes philosophy an essential part of education (paideia). His statemen ts on philosophy are. rhetorician. His attitude is complex. Lucian provides first an attack on all ph ilosophers. In his savage attacks on religi ous tomfoolery and the pomposities of pretend philosophers. and Montaigne and is the spiritual ancestor of Mark Twain and H. Hume. Anacharsis. A. B. complex. he traveled across the emp ire (Syria. Voltaire. the travails of a philosophic seeker reveal a deeper skepti cism about the entire enterprise. B. as well as other social realities (see On Salaried Posts in Great Hous es and Apology). L. In dozens of his works. E. How to Wr ite History). Many of his works are straightforward demonstrations of his rhetorical prowess at several levels o f seriousness (The Fly. Outline I. In The Fisherman. He was a brilliant observer of society at every level. he consistently admires the member s of the Cynic school: Antisthenes. Diogenes. he also had a great respect for what h e considered to be an authentic philosophical spirit. consequently.E. and he pokes fun at the pretensions of solemn moralizers. He was a shrewd observer of contemporary religious and philosop hical phenomena (The Syrian Goddess. In Dialogues of the Dead. B. In Downward J ourney and Zeus Catechized. Lover of Lies. Alexander the False Prophet. Athens. His life was one of restl ess wandering. The Ass. C. and p ompous professionalism of philosophers and their petty quarrels. The Fisherman. along with satires and parodies aimed at all the exquisite absurdities of life in the empire. At the same time. Asia Minor. Passing of Per egrinus). Lucian often shows a gr udging respect for individual philosophers and for what he regards as the essenc e of philosophy. Mencken. He attacks the charlatans. In Anacharsis. As with Mencken. 2. Most of all. Lu cian admires the atheism of the Epicureans and their skeptical attitude toward r eligious claims. His general themes include the bombast. Mencken. Menippus.E. he makes either passing or sustained reference to specific philosophers (real or fictional) and the ideals of philos ophy. Aspects of t he theme of hypocrisy are developed in The Eunuch and Dialogues of the Courtesan s. The Dance. C. But as his tr actates Nigrinus and Demonax demonstrate. Lucian reflects the truth about philosophy even as he slightly distorts it. 1. he portrays the Cynic Cyniscus positively as a ready wit and keen observer. A. He wrote in a bewilderin g variety of styles and always brilliantly. Crates. C. In Philosophies f or Sale and its sequel. Lucian most resemble s the American journalist H. L. 14 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . II.Lecture Seven Philosophy Satirized The Comic Lucian Scope: Lucian of Samosata (120–180 C. D. His works include serious compositio ns (such as How to Write History). A. In Alexander the False Prophet and The Double-Indictment.) is a comic writer of great range and comp lexity. Jonathan Swift. Much like a mirror in a fu nhouse. He is the greatest satirist of the ancient world. He directly influen ced Erasmus. In Hermotimus. he delights in exposing their frequent hypocrisy (see Timon). Rabelais. D. logic-chopping. a deep anger at the di stortion of genuine human values fueled Lucian’s glittering lampoons. the an cient world’s equivalent of Jonathan Swift or Mark Twain. III. Egypt) and shifted careers several times (sculpt or. Lucian of Samosata (ca. Although he was married and had a son. 120–180 C.) is one of history’s great humorists. Lucian is a merciless and brilliant exposer of the failings of philosophers and philosophy. then a defense of philosophy itself in her own name. bureaucrat).

Lucian’s fullest positive appreciation of philosophy is found in his portrayal of two (probably fictitious) philosophers.IV. A. Supp lementary Reading: F. Demonax. Demonax takes the form of a biography concerning “the best philosopher of which I know. G. 1926). Essential Reading: Lucian of Samosata. Bracht Branham. but it contains a straightforward moral message and portrays conversion to the philosophical life as a result of a protreptic discourse. B. How do Lucian’s compositions reveal his deep ambivalence concerning ph ilosophy? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 15 . Unruly Eloquence: Lucian and the Comed y of Traditions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Why are freedom and free speech the essential hallmarks of the Cynic phil osopher? 2.” and probably expresses Lucian’s own ideal. Questions to Consid er: 1. R. Nigrinus may have ironic elements . Lucian: Satirist and Artist (Boston: Marshall Jones Company. 1989). Allinson.

thus.) and the humiliation of exile (in 58 B.) participate at a distance.) is the most well known ancient figure and illustrates several aspects of Greco-Roman philosophy. in Athens. 1. The Republic and Laws (45–42 B. 4. and important person. and he conti nued his studies in Rhodes with the Stoic philosopher Posidonius. but he is signif icant above all for showing how even a politician can serve the cause of philoso phy. fo r starters he shows us the real-life struggle between high ideals and human frailt y. including Augustine and Jerome. We know him so well f or a number of reasons: He played a key public role in the pivotal period of Rom an history. he took time out from his career to spen d time in Athens studying again with the Epicureans and Platonists.C. he studied under the heads of the lea ding schools: Philo.). Although not entirely admirable in his own character he was vain and ambitious.E. he grew to popularity with the Lati n fathers of the Church. C.” born to wealth in the equestrian order . At age twenty-seven.C. because of the public character of his career as a politici an and because of his extensive private correspondence with friends and family. He made his way through the Cursus Honorum (th e round of public positions leading to the role of consul) because of his rhetor ical and political skill. Plutarch describes him as being a man who was driven by philotemia (love of honor) driven by ambition to be a noble. II. Philosophy was both consolation and a legacy for a better day. After the death of his daughter in 45 B. A sketch of this man’s very public life provides a context and key to his phil osophical efforts. the Stoic. his writings influenced Christi an thinkers. 3. and margi nalized. the Epicurean. C. the head of the Academy.C. Cicero embodies several dimensions of philosophy in this period: the shift from republic to empire (which Cicero foresaw and considered a disaster). many of his literary compositions and letters are extant. and he found his way into Western education reading Cicer o became a staple of education in humanities well into the twentieth century. whose rivalry fatefully caught Cicero in its web. He married several times into greater wealth. He wro te almost all his philosophical works between 46 to 43 B.E. In the sp an of five years. controlled. A.Lecture Eight Cicero The Philosopher as Politician Scope: Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 B.C. the danger of exile. The bulk of his works are rhetorical. Outline I. His was not a casual interest in philosophy. he establi shed a philosophical vocabulary for the Latinspeaking world. honorable. 2. represented b y Pompey and Caesar. Cicero was educated in philosophy a nd rhetoric in Greece and Rome. B.C.C . Cicero flourished during the waning days of the Republic and fought to mainta in its traditions in the face of growing tendencies toward empire..E.E. he is disc ussed by ancient historians. But caught up in the rivalry betwe en Pompey and Caesar.E. and Phaedrus. the eclectic nature of philosophy. to write the majority of his philosophical works.C.). he took the opportunity of a short r etirement in 47 to 44 B. when he saved the republic by quelling the Cataline conspiracy. The hi gh point of Cicero’s career was his time as consul (63 B. B.E. before his final fatal entry into the political battle. Cicero was a “new man. 16 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . including Plutarch. he tasted the height of power (as consul in 63 B. he was exiled.C. Diodorus. either in the ory or the speeches he gave as prosecutor or defender in actual cases.) is one of the most well known figures of Roman antiquity.E. A. 6..C.C. and the deep interest in morality. C icero is important for translating Greek philosophy into Latin. He is important not least because by chronicling and cataloguing so much of the entire range of Greek philosophy (with modifications of his own).E. 5. then the Triumvirate. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 B.E. he wrote most of his philosophical works in a creative frenzy between 44 to 43 B.E.

Two lost works (Consolatio and Hortensius) focused on philosophy as a m ode of life rather than simply a body of knowledge. and De Officiis (written for his son and devoted to practical ethics). C. His political writings (Republic and Laws) imitate the same wo rks by Plato. 1. Cicero turned the powers against him and was be headed. and De Fato. When he tried to reenter the public realm. 1965). A. Cicero’s writings in ethics place him in the company of Greco-Roman moral ists. virtue is the only thing that counts in life. For Cicero. B. and derivat ive from Greek models (see his use of the dialogue). ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 17 . Among the most influential of Cicero’s works are De Senectute and De Amicitia. Cicero (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pain. C. Augustine to Platonic philosophy. A. D. He wants to translate Greek philosophy into Latin as a service to the Roman public. As an exile. and distress of mind). For Cicero. he positions himse lf between the dogmatism of the Epicureans and the Stoics. Cicero (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Consider how Cicero thought of his philosophical writing as a cultural leg acy with political implications for the future. it is to have an im pact on the lives of others this is the Stoic view. he can produce a better translation than those of othe rs before him. In the Tusculan Disputat ions. believing that. Cicero is a complete Stoic. In De Natura Deorum. De Divinatione. We cannot know with c ertainty. 2. A. His major wor ks are De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum (comparing Epicurean. III. Supplementary Reading: T. he is writing these books in the hopes t hat his ideas will have an effect on his fellow Romans. wi th his rhetorical skills. ed. in the o rations entitled The Philippics. The same attitude is revealed in physics (mainly devoted to religio us issues). His severed head was put on display in the Roman forum. De Officiis. but probable knowledge enables us to follow the path of nature reasona bly. to become virtuous. Tusculan Disputations (dealing with fear of death. and Aristoteli an ethical views). eclectic in substance. Dorey. Cicero wrote De Officiis for his son. Cicero claims that Romans had “always shown more wisdom” than the Greeks in ev erything that they decided to take up from the Greeks.. D. R. How does Cicero’s response to exile and fal l from political power demonstrate the power of philosophy in the Hellenistic er a? 2. whom he encouraged to study rhetoric and philosophy. to be a phil osopher is not simply to change oneself. His appreciation for Stoicism is shown in De Officiis and Paradoxa Stoicorum. Essential Reading: Cicero. Questions to Consider: 1.D. Shackleton Bailey. 1971). B. Cicero’s phil osophical writings are encyclopedic in scope. Stoic. Topics) show his devotion to a moderate skepticism characteristic of the New Academy. IV. His works in logic (Academi ca. In this regard. E. by attacking Mark Antony. but show originality by working with the actual history and consti tution of the Roman state. D. The Hortensius was the protr eptic work that converted St.

he came from obscurity in Spain. and by dint of hi s abilities. His greatest role was as tutor to the young man who would become the Emperor Nero. B. Seneca taught a rigorous and demanding form o f Stoic morality. Seneca’s literary productions are varied in form and uneven in quality. Dimensions of his thought can be learned from three of his Moral Essays. is not of Lucian’s caliber. A. and the best way to do that is by being a philosopher. For S eneca.C. which preached engagem ent in public affairs. in particular. His 124 Mora l Epistles. was fundamentally a scholar. Seneca argues that happiness consists in f ollowing nature. to whom Seneca direct ed his best thoughts on the virtuous government and king (for example. Spain. He was ordered to commit suicide by Nero in 65. A large portion of his literary work was produced during his years of exile (41–49) and reluctant retirement (63–65). he became part of a powerful coalition (with Burr us) that effectively governed in the early years of Nero’s principate (54–62). all written to his friend Lucilius. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 B. 18 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . After studying philo sophy. Seneca was a playwright whose tragedies (eight ar e extant) had considerable impact on Renaissance drama. are perhaps most revealing of th e range and energy of his thought and his unparalleled crispness of expression. He never claimed to be a sage him self.E. The essay is noteworthy for its defense of ideals even when they can’t be met and. Some of these were directed to the young king (On Clemency). 3. A. 2. 3.) was actively engaged in the political life of Rome. 2. But when he was appointed by Agrippina as Nero’s tutor in 49.C. About his influence on the young king and about his own charac ter. C. “the highest good is harmony of the soul. but only someone striving. As tutor. in keeping with his commitment to Stoicism. attained the consulship (57 C. talented. Others were compositions prompted by occasion (such as his three essays On Consolation). On the Happy L ife is written to his brother Gallio. Like Cicero. A. Seneca was born in Corduba. which like Cicero’s. of a family that wa s extraordinarily wealthy.” Pleasure in itself is not a proble m because the virtuous life brings pleasure. his own outlook is thoroughly Stoic. His satire. On Anger) . B.Lecture Nine Seneca Philosopher as Court Advisor Scope: Lucius Annaeus Seneca (4 B. His ten tragedies had a great impact on Renaissance drama but are difficult to read today. a defense of his own great wealth. he was exiled from 41 to 49 by Claudius for adultery with Julia Livilla. he did no worse with Nero th an Plato did with Dionysius of Syracuse.–65 C. The Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius (an attac k on Caligula). 1. he began a legal career.–65 C.) shows even more dramatically than Cicero how perilous life close to the throne was for a philosopher. there have always been questions. Seneca composed many letters and essays that take up a wide range of philosoph ical topics approached from the perspective of a thoroughly Roman Stoicism. 2. Although Seneca is aware of the wide range of philosophical views and is wi lling to learn from any teacher. He spent considerable time on his Questiones Naturales but made no great contributi on. and he faced suicide in the noble Stoic fashion . He angered Caligula and was saved from execution in 31 only because of his ill h ealth. and well connected. Outline I.E. 1. had high points and lows.E. His great wealth (and its connection with usury) was a matter of embarrassment.E. C. 1. He d emonstrated his character as a philosopher by his calm resolution when ordered t o take his own life by his former student and patron. He wrote twelve Moral Essays.E. II. Yet he was forced to commit suic ide by the whim of an emperor. III.).

Seneca’s 124 Moral Epistles seem. The essay shows some of the techniques of moral instruct ion and assembles an array of arguments for an acceptance of what fortune brings . liberal and vocational studies. On Consolation to Marcia seeks to shake a matron from her extended grief at the lo ss of her young son. The Life and Te aching of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (New York: Vantage Press.It is also noteworthy for its memorable lines. perceptions. fasting and festivals. 3. including: “All ferocity is born of weakness” you need to be able to control your reason. Serenus. how to live well and virtuously (for Seneca. 1. 1981). C. Essential Reading: Seneca . to have great variety. G. On Consolation. Stoics did not deny the role of the emotions controlling emotions does not me an suppressing them. Each subject leads to a philosophical treatment. 5. Certain themes recur frequently: friendsh ip. On Tranquillity of Mind is written to a young friend. B. 4. the blush of mo desty. drunkenness. Seneca believed women to be the eq uals of men when it came to intelligence and moral capacity. It’s a matter of application. How does the Stoic approach of “reducing expectations” and “facing reality” clash with the premises of cont emporary culture? 3. 2. Seneca responds by showing the way to a god-like stability of mind. then begin all over again. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 19 . to Marcia. but they reveal certain constant themes. the means of moral instruction. The essay’s conclu sion is pure Stoic physics: Stoics believed that the world would come to an end in conflagration. expectations. Questions to Co nsider: 1. all the blessed would share in a happy future. Supplementary Reading: G. and much more. Seneca consoles Marcia by giving her advice for overcomi ng her grief and getting on with her life. on the surface. discursiveness in reading. Strem. who complains of mental torment because of conflicting desires and drives. What is involved in the concept of philosophy as “a way of life” when it is embraced by someone as powerful and wealthy as Seneca? 2. At that time. The letters (wh ich are more like small essays than real correspondence) take up such subjects a s saving time. A. the same thing) in the face of uncertainty and death. IV. B.

Aristotle in the eighth and ninth books of Nicomachean Et hics. II. Seneca believes in testing a fr iendship. showing both his dependence on t he Greek tradition and his own distinctive Roman twist. In Epistle 9. A. fr iendship is life together. Seneca discusses friendship in several of his Moral Epistles (see 3. reaching from antiquity through the Middl e Ages. 109) but. Seneca advises us to always be a ware of the transitory nature of life and to replace a lost friend. The first part of this presentation traces some of the central the mes in the Greek understanding of friendship and their distinctive appropriation in Cicero’s great treatise On Friendship. C. B. Plutarch in his Moralia. 103. Among them are: Friends hip is equality. 3. friends are one soul. friendship is fellowship. tru e friendship is possible only among the good. 4. The second part of this presentation will draw lessons from a comp arison of their treatment of a subject that in our day is considered a medical r ather than a moral challenge. A. And few subjects received comparable sustained attention by serious thinkers . Cicero and Seneca each wrote a treatise entitle d On Old Age. Potential friends should be tested. B. The moral life was not only a matter of following rules or filling social responsibilities . B. and in the Life of Pythagoras by Jamblichus and P orphyry. The character of Greco-Roman philosophy is shown in the topics that it consid ered worth considering. 2. but the moral life was the main focus. many great philosophers took up the subjec t: Plato in the Lysis. 2. the friend is another self. because frie ndship develops virtue. Throughout this literature. The standard theoretical issues of physics and logic continued to be considered. as a good Stoic. but it was also the art of living well in every circumstance of life. 1.Lecture Ten Good Roman Advice Cicero and Seneca Scope: No aspect of life was so highly valued in Greco-Roman culture as friendsh ip. 20 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . Nevertheless. 63. III . 1. loyalty is in order. worries should be shared with friends. The level of reflection devoted to an experience that enriches life and whose absence impoverishes it reveals how far this moral philosophy was from an arid s cholasticism. Outline I. With regard to grief for lost friends. A good frien d should be loyal but also outspoken. The respective treatments of friendship by Cicero and Seneca reveal something of their distinctive outlooks (Platonic/Stoic) and situations: A. Mutual correct ion rather than flattery is the standard among the virtuous. Seneca points out that although sages do not need friends. He works with many of the commonplaces concerning friendship but elaborates them and provides example s from Roman history. He maintains that only the virtuous can truly b e friends and insists on separating from acquaintances who are non-virtuous. but then loyalty is the rule. The subject of friendship (philia. 9. emphasizes the individual’s freedom from attachment. 3. they wo uld be wise to cultivate them as a way of sharing the noble qualities of their l ives. certain perceptions concerning friendshi p were reduced to proverbs that gave rise to reflection. Beginning with Pythagoras. friends hold all things in common. Cicero’s De Amic itia is one of his most attractive minor works. including the last. Cicer o and Seneca turn repeatedly to the consideration of topics that today would not often fall in the philosopher’s purview but in antiquity were considered among th e most serious subjects to be understood: friendship and aging. The degree to which philosophy was abou t living well is revealed also by the attention paid to every stage in the human experience. He offers a definition of friendship that emphasizes bo th agreement and benevolence. amicitia) is among the oldest and most la sting in the philosophical repertoire. but once the decision has been made.

2. On Friendship. 77. and there is nothing we can do about it. 1956). The Roman Mind: Studies in the History of Thought from Cic ero to Marcus Aurelius (London: Cohen and West. 1. 70. Questions to Consider: 1. Seneca discusses old age in a number of his M oral Epistles (see 4. an issue of social management. 1. In contrast to Cicero. not to age. 3. Clarke. 26. Essential Reading: Cicero. He believed that it is still p ossible to engage the world in old age. How does the perception of old age change when it is s een as an opportunity to grow in wisdom? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 21 . but the discernment of ho w and why. A .C. What is suggested about ancient culture by the fact that “friendship” is a topic wo rthy of the most serious intellectual inquiry rather than an accidental appendag e of social existence? 2. Cicero poses the common complaint s about aging and rebuts each of them in turn. it was a matter of wisdom. L. 49. 4. 68. Among Greco-Roman philosophers. aging is primarily a medical preoccupation. of philosophy. 93).) when he produced a spate of creative works. 12. Cicero’s De Senectute was written in the same period after the death of his daug hter Tullia (45 B. B. It is important to maintain memory and s trength (by taking long walks) and to find pleasure in new interests. the refore. 76. He also believed that it is pointless to worry about death. he frequently advocates “s lipping the anchor. Philosoph y helps us “live according to nature” at every stage of life.IV. 24. such as le arning.E. The miseries of old ag e are due to lack of character. as a final gesture of freedom and. In Stoic fashi on. 82.” or committing suicide. because it is with all of us throughout our lives. conversation. On Old Age. he emphasizes the manner in which the contemplation of death sharpens the de sire to live well and wisely. Supplementary R eading: M. The moral issue is not whether. 2. In the modern world. and gardening.

who are known to us because of their pu blic lives and numerous writings. 9. 10. yet traditional i n his perception of their social roles. 1. done in o bedience to the call of God. He also suff ered exile under Nero in 65 because of his convictions. Musonius Rufus (who flourished at the same tim e) is virtually unknown to contemporaries.) B. then. His te aching should be placed in the context of a general male hostility toward women’s emancipation and participation in the early empire.) remains obscure. I. In Fragment 8 (That Kings Should Also Study Philosophy). 56). Students transcribed his discourses. 15. I. Seneca’s contemporary Musonius Rufus (c. Outline I. Musonius’s attitude toward women was unusually egalita rian.72). and the Christian theologian Origen ranks him with Herak les. The Emperor Julian links him to Socrates (Oration 6. especially the twenty-one longe r treatises recorded by his student Lucius and some thirty-two sayings recorded by others. 28). 23. III. as we find in Fragment 12 (On Sexu al Indulgence). There was a clear correspondence between his words and his deeds. In Fragment 16 (What Is the Best Provision for Old Age). Musonius Rufus rev eals his Stoic-Cynic tendencies. IV. A. We know that he opposed Nero and was exiled by him in 65. A .Lecture Eleven Musonius Rufus The Roman Socrates Scope: In contrast to Cicero and Seneca. he views agriculture not only as a noble exercise of virtue. B. remarkably open to the capacity of women to learn. Julian mentions him with S ocrates (Oration 6. had something to do with his impressive virtue . he emphasizes the need for self-control in one who demands self-con trol of subjects. He was admired by ancient philosophers. 2. D. the philosopher is a king. III. From them.E. Even Christian w riters consider him among the noblest of pagan philosophers (see Origen. we see that he was at once rigorous and humane. he left no writings of his own. He argues in Fragment 15 (That Man Is Born with an Inclination to Virtue) that virtue is not a specializ ed art but is one that is available to all and desired by all. and his student Epictetus revered him. 31. and many of the details are in dispute. as shown by Fragment 3 (That Women Too Should Study Philosophy). C. 22 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . even though he enjoyed a huge reputat ion among his fellow philosophers in antiquity. 6.72). bu t also one that can serve as a means of instruction through imitation. In his discourses dedicated to the philosophical calling.) C. (For the Stoic. Sexual intercourse is legitimate only in marriage and only for t he sake of procreation. Musonius tends toward a more optimistic view and is correspondingly demanding in his ethics. whose memories of his master give a vivid impression of his character and teaching (see Epictetus. Only the bare outlines of his life are available. and Socrates as “models of excellence of life” (Against Celsus IIII. 29. e ven though his reputation among other philosophers in antiquity was excellent. Like Socrates and Epictetus. 14. Odysseus. an d only fragments of them remain. A. Musonius argues t hat philosophy is not only a matter of knowledge but also of practice. Discourse I. Musonius’s sexua l ethics are noteworthy for their stringency. and a king should b e a philosopher. He taught students in the dialogical manner of the diatribe. Philosophers had different views concerning th e innate goodness or badness of humans. III. 7. His fame. In Fragment 11 (What Means of Livelihood Is Appropriate for a Philosopher). His present obscurity is connected to his oral mode of teaching. (He also points out that the philosopher’s life means hard work and a willingness to suffer . He may hav e been exiled a second time under Vespasian. Only fragments of his writings remain. 66). Against Celsus III. 30–100 C. A. II. Perhaps his greatest contribution to posterity was to be the teacher of Epictetus. III. whose lives are well known and whose works are extant. In contrast to Cicero and Seneca. B.

1963).B. Questions to Consider: 1. L. C. Supplementary Reading: A. ed. Van Geytenbeek. pp. Musonius is outspoken in his view that women are as capable as men of learnin g and acquiring virtue. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 23 . 31–33. C. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. 41–42. rev. yet subo rdinate by nature in the social order. Malherbe. trade was c onsidered base and agriculture was considered noble. Hijmans (Assen: Van Gorcum and Company. 1986). Why? And how can we account for the change in perception today? 2.. Consider the paradox that Musonius consi dered women equal in every respect intellectually and morally with men. Musonius Rufus and Greek Diatri be. In the ancient assessment of occupations. translated by B. 132–134. he remains deeply conservative socially : Philosophy serves to help women better serve in the household. J. Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook (Library of Earl y Christianity. Essential Readi ng: A. 151–1 54. Nevertheless.

appare ntly with no fixed abode. The god advi ses him to keep doing what he was already doing. who delivered a variety of orations f or pay throughout the cities of the empire. The two main biographica l sources (Synesius and Philostratus) disagree in their depiction. In mid-life. A. calling his fellow citizens from lives of vice and ignorance and t urning them to self-awareness and virtue (14–29). We possess a large number of the orations that were undoubtedly written in preparation for oral delivery. from both the earlier and later portions of his career. He even preaches to great cro wds in the city of Rome (31–37). His orations show that he traveled throughout the empire. he experienced a dramatic conversion to the philosophical life. 2. From that point on. His relationship to rhetoric and philosophy is disputed: 1. C.E. C.E. though he had a wife and child (see Oration 1. III. His extant eighty discourses reveal an unparalleled portrait of public civic life in the empire during the early second century. Dio is an important source for knowledge of second-century C. wearing the clothes and observing the poverty of the wandering Cynic. He preaches in the manner of Socrates. D. B. D. 1.9). His great eloquence earned him the n ame Chrysostom (“golden-tongue”). Oration 32 (“To the People of Alexandria”) offer s a sketch of the popular philosophers as viewed by one among them. A. Outline I. beca use he spent part of his life as one of their rivals. He may h ave begun as an opponent of philosophy (and of Musonius Rufus in particular) but later admired Rufus (see Oration 31.Lecture Twelve Dio Chrysostom The Wandering Rhetorician Scope: Dio of Prusa (40–120 C.) is unusual among the Greco-Roman moralists. He decides to consult the god (Apollo) at Delphi (1–8). he comes to be take n for. Bit by bit. A lthough he experienced exile (under Domition in 82). wandering Cynics. A. These orations provide a lively portrait of t he many public speakers competing for attention in Hellenistic cities. His early career was spent as a professional rhetorician or sophist.E. 24 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . The vocabulary used by Dio is itself difficult to sort out (does sophist = charlatan?).122) and considered himself to be a philoso pher. B. as well a s the qualities distinguishing the real philosopher from the charlatan. he was educated in oratory and is representative of the rebirth of Attic style called the Secon d Sophistic. II. The Alexa ndrians’ notorious addiction to entertainment is not helped by those who call them selves philosophers (1–8). His exile at first seemed onerous but began to appear as an oppor tunity. Born in Prusa of Bythinia (in Asia Minor) about 40 C. The educat ional culture of the day tended to mix the two endeavors. a philosopher (9–10). Dio enumerates the kinds of people calling themselve s philosophers: private advisors. He died in Prus a about 120. E. rhetoric and philosophy not to mention ordinary civic life—but is himself a figure of some ambigu ity. 3. he devoted himself to teaching vi rtue as a wandering philosopher. B. Dio was exiled under Domition b ecause he was an associate of someone who had been accused of plotting against t he emperor. 2. schoolteachers.. he became a friend of Traja n and dedicated four discourses on kingship to him (Orations 1–4). Dio provides an unusual autobiographical account of his “conversion” to the phil osopher’s life in Oration 13 (“On His Banishment”). and realizes that he is. rhetoricians (9–10).

wh o is characterized by his desire to come to the aid of all like a physician (see 3 7– 45). The Roman World of Dio Chrysostom (Cambridge: Harvard U niversity Press. A.” IV. B. Orations 12. The discourse begins in dialogic al style with a typical treatment of envy as the vice that leads to social uphea val and dissension (1–32). 77/78. Questions to Consider: 1. 11). In contrast. 13. The description of the man of prudence (beginning in 33) contrasts the pretender-philosopher (charlatan) to the true philosopher. Why is it appropriate th at Dio’s discourse on the ideal philosopher should serve as a response to the them e of envy? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 25 . D. How does the career of Dio illustrate the complexi ty of the debates between sophists and philosophers? 2. 32. 334–3 83. Supplementa ry Reading: C. Essential Reading: Dio Chrysostom. They are like bad physicians who do nothing to heal the sick because they lac k the courage that is reflected in free speech (parrhesia. 1978). Dio stands before them as one with a divine calling (12) to speak to them “what is profitable to the listener. “The Philosophic Missionary. S. Dill.” in Roman Society. Dio’s sense of the ideal philosopher is found in t he discourse entitled “On Envy” (Oration 77/78). P.C. Jones.

....... Musonius Rufus 37–41 . Philo of Alexandria 4–65 C........ Zeno 255 ................................. Rise of Jewish Se cts 110–40 ........... ............... 624–546 ........ .........................C............................................................... Roman Civil War 45 ....................E.......................... ................................................... Claudius 45–120 ...... Julius Caesar dictator—end of Republic 30–14 ... Plato 400–325 .............. Greece comes under Roman control 112 .......................................................................................................... Vespasian 79–81 ............. Nero 69–79 ................................. ......................................................................... . Aristo tle 356–323 .. ...... Macedonian Wars (Rom an supremacy) 167–165 ......... ............ .............. Plutarch 50–130 ...... Dio C hrysostom 41–54 ....................... ................. Xenophon 427–347 .................... .................................................. Philodemus 106–43 ................E.................. Caligula 40–120 .................................................................... Seneca C.................................. Epictetus 54–68 ..................... Lucretius 49–47 ............. 14–37 ................ .. Epicurus 335–263 .................................... Titus 26 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .................... Maccabean Revolt 147 ............E......................................................................................................... Septuagint 200–168 .................... .......... ............................................... Socrates 430–355 ............................. ......................................... Pythagoras 470–399 ............. ............... Thales 581–497 ............................................... Diogenes 384–322 ..................... Alexander the Great 340–271 ............................... Tiberius 30–100 .............. ............... Augustu s 15–50 C..........Timeline B.................................................................................................. Cicero 94–55 .............E............

............. .................. ............................ Domition 98–116 ...................................................................... Hadrian 120–180 ............................... Lucian 121–180 ...................... Julian ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 27 ................ .. Trajan 117–138 ... Marcus Aurelius 332–363 ... ...............................81–96 ......................

” used with reference to the Jewish populati on outside Palestine. that strongly influenced Stoicis m in the Roman period. amicitia: Latin noun meaning “friendship”. “Messe nger of Zeus. culminating in consul. the Stoic ideal of self-control.” akrasia: Greek noun meaning “lack of self-control. The Platonic tradition is design ated as “the academics. equi valent to the Greek philia. with “free speech. Cicero i s eclectic. ataraxia: Greek noun meaning “without turmoil”. ekpyrosis: Greek noun meaning “conflagration”. and associated with strength and wisdom. Aristotelianism: The philosophical s chool founded by Aristotle. 28 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . the opposite of skepticism: holding definite positions concernin g reality and the capacity to know it. In our literature. particularly in its physical d imensions. diatribe: A dialogical form of exhortation used in classro om instruction. especially involving speech. used with reference to th e Stoic expectation of a consummation of all things by fire.” referring to the stages of progression in official Roman leadership. bios: Greek noun meaning “life” in the biological sense . making use of a variety of lively stylistic elements. characterized by boldness in life and speech. and diet. in this respect.” one of the two ideals of the Cynic movement in particular.” anomie: A sociological term for a state of normlessness and lack of clear boundaries. also called the Lycaeum.” allegory: A narrative with both figurative and literal meaning. brachylogia: Greek noun meaning “brevity in spee ch. anthropomorphism: The use of human images in describing the d ivine. Cursus Honorum: Latin phrase meaning “round of honors. charl atan: A fake or counterfeit philosopher who mimes the manner but falsifies the r eality. deontology: A form of ethics that focuses on acts under t he aspect of duty and seeks to supply universal rules for behavior. as in Epictetus. asceticism: The practice of severe self-control in all physical matters. eclecticism: The practice of drawing from several philosophical t raditions rather than staying in the framework of one. as in “the hands of God” or “the anger of God. the Epicurean ideal of tra nquility. sex.” adoleschia: Greek noun meaning “garrulousness” or “compulsive tal kativeness. diaspora: Gr eek term meaning “scattering” or “dispersal. Cynic ism: The philosophical movement deriving from Antisthenes and Diogenes of Sinope .” apatheia: Greek noun meaning “witho ut passion”. angelos: A messenger or scout. cosmology: An understanding of the world. auspices: The form of technical prophecy carried out by Roman priests using the entrails of birds. The Epicureans and Stoics are dogmatists in this sense.” the opposite of garrulousness.Glossary Academy: The school in Athens founded by Plato. a method of interp reting myths to yield moral meaning. dogmatism: In philosophy. giving rise to anot her world. eleutheria: Greek noun meaning “freedom”. a narrative account. biography.

used negatively.” or “reason. goes: A Greek noun meaning “charlatan”. epideictic: One of the three forms of rhetoric (w ith deliberative and forensic) that simply “displayed” something for hearers for the ir praise or blame. One of the forms of moral instruction. hesychia: Greek noun meaning “quiet” or “si lence”.enkrateia: Greek noun meaning “self-control. characterized by communitarian ideals and asceticism.” The fixed disposition to harm an enemy. logic: In philosophy. Hellenism: Greek culture. regarded by some moralists as having some elements of nobility. lype: Greek noun meaning “sorrow”. the rational principle at work in the world.” or reason. misos: Greek noun meaning “hate. later. Practiced often as a showpiece by sophists. Neopythagoreanism: The renewal of the Pythagorean tradition in th e first century B. as well. goal. kathekonta: Greek for “duties” or “respo nsibilities.” used specifically for th e form of the Greek language that developed in the Hellenistic period. logos: Greek noun meaning “word. eros: Greek noun meaning “love” in the sense of the drive to unite with th e loved one. developed through habit. one of the three di visions of study. having to do with right thinking and the possibilities of know ing truth. compared to the Pythagoreans. hegemonikon: In Stoicism. it increasingly became th e place for intellectual training. ethos: Greek noun (with a long e) that means character in the moral sense.” or “speech. especially in the definition of envy. homonoia: Greek noun m eaning “harmony” or “peace. an elusive ideal for war-like and frequently warring peoples. packing much in a sma ll frame. the “governi ng principle. used to identify Ari stotelianism. Lycaeum: The location in Athens w here Aristotle established his school independent of Plato. used in ancient polemic for those co nsidered as corrupting the ideals of philosophy or religion. ethics: In philosophy. and universal ly admired among philosophers. identified above all with Plotinus. associated with Apollonius of Tyana and. koine: Greek for “common. ethos: Greek noun (with a short e) that mea ns habit or custom. Essenes: One of the Jewish sects.E. loci: Latin nou n locus (“place”) used in the plural with reference to collections of standard state ments on a certain subject. Used by t he majority of the popular moralists (except Cicero and Seneca).” the opposite of akrasia. especially for repu tation or profit. hyle: Greek noun meaning “matter” in the sense of “stuff.. an ideal especially of the Epicureans. distinct from the love that is friendship (philia) or donative (aga pe). a characteristic acquired by repeated practice.” with specific reference to the social obligations incumbent on holdi ng a certain place in the world. the study of m orality: its basis.” In Stoicism.” an ideal in the public realm that resembles friendship in t he private. gymnasium: Originally identified as a place for athletics (the re was one in Athens both at the Academy and Lycaeum). who sought “the quiet life. with suc h Neoplatonists as Porphyry and Jamblichus. especially as it was dissemina ted after the time of Alexander the Great. the passive principle on which the active pneuma or logos operates.” In Stoicism above al . and means. Neopla tonism: The last period of the Platonic tradition as such. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 29 .C.” but also o f philosophers generally as the prerequisite to learning. epitome: A summa ry or abbreviation. see topoi.

envy is always a vice and a despicable one.” omens: Signs. paraenesis: Greek noun meaning “advice. but the verbal and physical e xpression of the emotion. and Joseph. the study of the natural world. Platonism: The philosophical tradition deriving from Plato and moving t hrough several stages.” indicating the close connection between the two in ancient p erspective. one of the main ideals of the Cynic tradition but a dmired widely as a sign of courage. “love of honor.” a key concept in a character ethics that include s the possibility of incremental growth and improvement. pronoia: Greek noun mea ning “providence. philia: Greek noun meaning “friendship.” one of the fundamental disordered passions. Septuagint: Translation of the Jewish Scriptur e (Torah) into Greek in Alexandria. orge: Gre ek noun meaning “anger/wrath. considered as a vice. the divine reason that is immane nt in the visible world in the form of air and fire. portents. which can be positive. the excessive form of ph ilotimia. the relation of the gods to material reality. religio: Latin noun meaning “religion. Patriarch: Term used in Judaism for the ance stors of the people.” and meaning “the ordering of a household” in every respect. 30 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .” a topic consider ed worthy of close philosophical attention. Pharisees: Jewish sect renowned for its close attention to the interpretation of the law. philargyria: Greek noun meaning “love of money. oikos: Greek noun meaning “house” and “household”. oikoumene: Greek noun meaning “inhabited world. protreptic: A form of deliberative rhetoric in which someone is urged to f ollow a certain mode of life.” the lowest and basest form of vice. the basic societal un it of the Hellenistic world.” In Stoicism. usually regarded as of supernatural origin. In the Roman period. associated with the high-priestly families and connect ed by Josephus to the Epicureans.E. prok ope: Greek noun meaning “progress. a ssociated by Josephus with the Stoic philosophy. Isaac. including cosmol ogy and what now would be called theology.” which includes the public acts of the state as much as private feeling and behavior. physics: In ancient philosophy. including kin relations and slaves.” Used with reference to the mora l advising appropriate in father-son relationships. along with clie nts and friends. that alert humans to the significance of events (storms. Saducees: One of the Jewish sects. the root for “politics. dreams).” The key debate between Epicureans and others is whether the gods were involved in the governance of the world and whether that governance had mea ning. specifically Abraham.” often used synonym ously with “empire. in contra st to zelos. philodoxia: Greek noun meaning “love o f glory” or the disordered desire for notoriety and fame. pneuma : Greek noun meaning “breath” or “spirit. Middle Platonism is dominant. parrhesia: Greek noun meanin g “freedom of speech” or “boldness”. philedonia: Greek noun meaning “love of pleasure.C. circa 250 B. polis: Greek noun meaning “ci ty-state”. Jacob.oikonomia: Greek term derived from “house.” Not simply the emotion. paideia: Greek noun meaning both “education” and “culture.” which is good. phthonos: Greek noun meaning “envy”. often polemically a sserted of the Epicureans.” as well as “cosmopolitan” (citizen of the world).

syncretism: In religion. Negatively. zelos: Greek noun meaning either “jealousy. meaning an unpri ncipled cleverness in argument. Skeptics either deny alto gether the possibility of knowing truth or think that only probable judgments ca n be made. som eone with little regard for truth. topoi: Greek noun for “place” in the plural. Polemically.” Associated with the refusal to speak ab out the Mysteries or the Pythagorean teachings.” In the Hell enistic period. an approach that emphasizes the ends or the goals of human actions. including activities both public and private. Torah: The Jewish Scripture. referring to the collections of standard treatments of rheto rical subjects (see loci). with a strong emphasis on personal morality.” Therapeutae: A group of Jewish contemplatives in Egypt d escribed by Philo of Alexandria.sige: Greek noun meaning “absolute silence. teleology: In ethics. a rhetorician. with specific reference to the five books ascribed to Moses. usually for pay. tyche: Greek noun meaning “chance. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 31 .” in which case it is equivalent to envy and bad. as in “Second Sophi stic. as is possible in a polytheistic framework. opposed to providence. threskeia: Greek noun meaning “religion” in the bro adest sense. which domin ated in the Roman period. skepticism: The opposite tendenc y to dogmatism in philosophy. meaning rhetorical.” in which case it equals “em ulation” and is good. or “zeal. theos: Greek noun meaning “a god” or “God. the merging and identificatio n of deities. Stoicism: The philosophical school deriving f rom Zeno and Cleanthes.” sophist: A public speaker. taking one of two forms. Neutrally. sophistic: Associated with the sophists.

but one that still h as considerable merit as an introduction to the Roman moralists. Goulet-Caze. 1993. Spanforth (New York: Oxford University Press. R. Arnold. Satirist and Art ist. Originally published in 1940. New York: Oxford Universi ty Press. Supplementary Reading: Allinson. Edwards (New York: The MacMillan Company. Cantarella. the ancient primary texts that form the substance of this course are most easily found in the Loeb Classical Library (Ca mbridge: Harvard University Press. 1989). Hellenistic Jewish texts not provided by the Loeb Classical Library are avail able in J. this is a splendid evocation of the material feel of the anci ent city and the daily rounds of its inhabitants. 1927–).Bibliography Essential Reading: With few exceptions. G. The required sections of Musonius Rufus are found in A. The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiqu ity and Its Legacy. O’Cuilleanain. edited by S. New York: Barnes and Noble. 1911. Julian. J. 32 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . H. 1967). Seneca. Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. and intellectual context. Lucian. this serves to inform the reader o n a subject the moralists (patriarchal as they are) neglect. Epictetus. Boston: Marshall Jones Company. New York: Penguin Books. Dio Chrysostom. For further reference to names and topics insufficiently clarified in the lectures. Berkeley: University of Californi a Press. eds. Marcus Aurelius. J. this book covers all the important dimensions of the educational proc ess.. R. T. 1989. social. Plutarch and His Times. 1977. as well as Josephus an d Philo. excellent for establishing the context fo r Dio and Lucian. Roman Women: Their History and Habits. Roman Stoicism. Anderson. Bloomington: Indiana University Pres s. London: Routledge. A study of Lucian in the context of the Se cond Sophistic that emphasizes his subversive humor and shows how it works. Haase (Berlin: de Gruyter. Charlesworth. 3rd edition. E. An older popular treatment of Lucian that provides an accessible and interesting survey of his work. An accessible introduction to the life and writings of Plutarch in his political. Hornblower and A. A succinct and authoritative survey of the complexity of sexual behavior in the i mperial period. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Unruly Eloquence: Lucian and the Comedy of Traditions. abbreviate d below as ANRW. 1986 ). 1992). edited by P . 1985. Look here under author for the writings of Cicero. 8 + 2 supplementary volumes. 1962. Rowell. Mo ral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook (Philadelphia: Westminster Press. V. namely half of huma nity. J. An older survey. The Second Sophistic: A Cultural Phenomenon in the Roman Empire. Ca mbridge: Cambridge University Press. More recent than Marrou (see below) and more tightly focused on o ur period. Berkeley: University of California Press. B. Barrow. A massive collection of first -rate and thorough scholarly articles on every aspect of life and thought in the empire (with a great many of its articles in English) is Aufstieg und Niedergan g der roemischen Welt. together with some moralists views. F. G. 1967. D. Bonner. Carcopino. R. translated by C. Malherbe. edited by W. B. and M. V. Annas. 1926. The Morality of Happiness. Cambr idge: Harvard University Press. E. Bisexuality in the Ancien t World. 199 6). O. P. S. edited by H. New Haven: Yale University Press. Balsdon. A thorough treatment of the rebirth of Attic ideals among rhetoricians in the second century of the common era. Branham. H. A collection of essays that deepens our knowledge of the movement itself and shows how its s pirit has continued in Western culture. and Plutarch. F. 1992. 2 volumes (Garden City: Doubleday. Asserting that ancient ethics makes sense as an argument concern ing means rather than ends. A lthough more work has been done subsequently. check The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1993. This series of more than 500 volumes co ntains original language and translated versions of ancient Greek and Latin writ ers. 1996. and The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. J. Lucian. Bran ham. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Annas posits happiness as the goal and enters into t he debate between schools concerning the means.

Clarke, M. L. The Roman Mind: Studies in the History of Thought from Cicero to M arcus Aurelius. London: Cole and West, 1956. A set of short studies devoted to E picurean and Stoic tendencies in the Roman period, as reflected in political, ph ilosophical, and religious thought. Copelston, F. A History of Philosophy. Volum e 1: Greece and Rome. Garden City: Doubleday, 1962. Although I use it to make a point in my final presentation, this multivolume history of philosophy from its beginnings to the present is remarkable for its competence and consistency. Dill , S. Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius. New York: World Publishing Comp any, 1956. This is a reprint of the 1904 publication by one of those marvelous c lassical scholars whose like we shall not see again. A rich and vivid portrayal of the culture in the period defined by the title. Dillon, J. The Middle Platoni sts, 80 B.C. to A.D. 220, rev. ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. A car eful study of all the figures representing Middle Platonism. For our purposes, u seful because of the attention given to Plutarch and Philo. Dorey, T. A., ed. Ci cero. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965. This set of essays covers various aspects of the many-sided figure; see especially A. E. Douglas, “Cicero the Philos opher,” pp. 135–170. Dupont, F. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. Translated by C. Woodall . Oxford: Blackwell, 1989. A more recent alternative to Carcopino (see above) an d, like him, an “everything you wanted to know about the ancient city’s life” sort of popular book. Feldman, L. H. “Flavius Josephus Revisited: The Man, His Writings, a nd His Significance,” ANRW II, 21.2 (1984): 763–862. Josephus was and remains a cont roversial figure. The essay provides an expert assessment of the reassessments. Foucault, M. The History of Sexuality. Volume 3: The Care of the Self, translate d by R. Hurley. New York: Random House, 1986. A remarkably sensitive interpretat ion of the moral and medical discourse concerning sexuality in the Hellenistic p eriod. Galinsky, K. Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction. Princeton: P rinceton University Press, 1996. With a sharp focus on the early empire, this tr eatment provides a rich cultural matrix for studying the philosophers of the per iod. Garnsey, P., and R. Saller. The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. A responsible survey—using a weal th of primary data of all the subjects indicated by the title during the period be tween 27 B.C.E. to 235 C.E. Goodenough, E. R. An Introduction to Philo Judaeus, 2nd rev. ed. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1963. A short but highly effective intr oduction to Philo’s life and writings, with an emphasis on the apologetic characte r of his work as a whole and on his mystical tendencies. Hersbell, J. P. “The Stoi cism of Epictetus: Twentieth Century Perspectives.” ANRW II, 36.3:2, 148–163. As the title suggests, this essay considers specifically the mix of Stoic and Cynic el ements in Epictetus. Hijmans, B. L. Askesis: Notes on Epictetus’ Educational Syste m. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1959. Attention is paid to the elements of practice and “tra ining” undergone by the students who were taught by “that marvellous old man.” Hollada y, C. R. “Jewish Responses to Hellenistic Culture,” in R. Bilde et. al, eds., Ethnic ity in Hellenistic Egypt, pp. 139–163. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1992. A cl ear and helpful description of the variety of responses along the spectrum of se paration and assimilation among Jews in Alexandria. Jones, C. P. Plutarch and Ro me. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. Helpful especially for understanding Plutarch’s Lives, this book first shows the Roman context of the thinker and how his biogr aphies shape that context literarily. Kennedy, G. A. Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times, 2nd ed. Chapel Hil l, University of North Carolina Press, 1999. A standard reference for ancient rh etoric, with a useful definition of terms and discussions of issues. Lacey, W. K . Cicero and the End of the Roman Republic. London: Hodder and Staughton, 1978. A straightforward and readable biography that emphasizes the political dimension . Leskey, A. A History of Greek Literature, 2nd ed., translated by J. Willis and C. de Heer. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1963. A compendious survey of all of Greek literature, with short summaries of compositions and a sense of whe re they fit in the larger story. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 33

Lewis, N., and M. Reinhold, ed. Roman Civilization: Selected Readings, 3rd editi on. Volume 1: The Republic and the Augustan Age. Volume 2: The Empire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. A valuable collection of primary texts, in tra nslation, illustrating every dimension of life in the empire, from agriculture t o religion. Long, A. A. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics, Epicureans, Skeptics, 2n d ed. London: Duckworth, 1986. A fresh and responsible survey of the various sch ools in the Hellenistic period, providing the essential information concerning t heir tenets (and lack thereof). Long, A. A., and D. N. Sedley. The Hellenistic P hilosophers. Two volumes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. The first volume is entirely in English and provides translations and commentaries of tex ts drawn from the philosophers according to topic. The second volume provides th e texts in the original Greek and Latin. Lutz, C. A. Musonius, “The Roman Socrates .” Yale Classical Studies 10. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1947. An extremely valuable edition of the extant Musonius Rufus fragments, together with an Engli sh translation. MacMullen, R. Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason, Unrest and Al ienation in the Empire. New York: Routledge, 1992. A wonderful analysis of “the ot her side” of Roman society. For our purposes, valuable especially for the attentio n it gives to imperial suspicion of philosophers. Malherbe, A. J. “Hellenistic Mor alists and the New Testament,” ANRW II, II, 26. 1 (1992): 267–333. The article exten sively surveys modes of instruction and major themes, showing how the moralists help readers understand the language of the New Testament, especially Paul the A postle. . Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1 986. A fine collection of primary texts, organized according to modes of teachin g and major themes. Marrou, H. I. The History of Education in Antiquity. Transla ted by G. Lamb. New York: Sheed and Ward, 1956. A classic survey of educational ideals and practice in the Greek and Latin world. Mossman, J., ed. Plutarch and His Intellectual World. London: Duckworth, 1997. A collection of scholarly artic les devoted to several aspects of this writer. Of special interest is the essay by Francesca Albini, “Family and the Formation of Character,” pp. 59–71. Nussbaum, M. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. Princeton: Pri nceton University Press, 1994. A major study that takes the metaphor of medicine that runs across all schools and shows how it is used variously in the differen t traditions. Ogilvie, R. M. The Romans and Their Gods in the Age of Augustus. N ew York: W.W. Norton, 1969. An accessible study that throws light especially on the religious perceptions and practices of ordinary people, providing valuable b ackground for “philosophical religion.” Reale, G. A History of Ancient Philosophy. V olume 3: The Systems of the Hellenistic Age. Volume 4: The Schools of the Imperi al Age. Edited and translated by J. R. Catan. Albany: State University of New Yo rk Press, 1985 and 1990. A more thorough treatment than Copelston (see above), w ith a strong emphasis on the doctrines of the respective schools according to th e usual rubrics. Rutherford, R. B. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius: A Study. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. A monograph that considers every aspect of the em peror’s remarks to himself. Shackleton Bailey, D. R. Cicero. New York: Charles Scr ibner’s Sons, 1971. A biography that is distinguished by its heavy use of the lett ers, providing a remarkably intimate and circumstantial picture of the statesman . Strem, G. G. The Life and Teaching of Lucius Annaeus Seneca. New York: Vantage Press, 1981. A popularly written introduction that focuses mainly on his life b ut also summarizes his teaching according to topics. Swain, S., ed. Dio Chrysost om: Politics, Letters and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. A u seful collection of scholarly essays on several aspects of Dio’s life and thought. Of particular interest is the essay by F.E. Brent, “Dio on the Simple and Self-Su fficient Life,” pp. 261–278. Tarn, W. W. Hellenistic Civilization, 2nd rev. ed. with G. T. Griffith. New York: World Books, 1952. A compact analysis of the goals of Alexander and the complex ways in which they were realized in the new synthesis called Hellenism. Tcherikover, V. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. Transl ated by S. Appelbaum. New York: Athanaeum, 1970. An early but still classic stud y of Diaspora Judaism in the Greek context, with particular attention to the ten sions experienced by Jews in that setting. 34

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©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 35 . Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism. L. P. This monograph provides the data fo r the life of Musonius Rufus. Rev. Christianity. translated by A. 1987. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. A. Two volumes. Like Carcopino and Dupont. and Islam. Veyne provides a sense of the ordinary lives of ordinary people in the empire. C. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. A major study th at had the effect of rehabilitating Philo as a philosopher and locating his impo rtance in Platonism and his influence on later traditions. Hijmans. 1963. 1947. Volume 1: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. as well as an analysis of his thought as expressed in the fragments of his diatribes. Assen: Van Gorcum. translate d by B. Musonius Rufus and the Greek Diatribe.. Goldhammer. A.Van Geyterbeek. but with less detail. ed. A History of Private Life. Veyne. H. Wolfson .

Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Part II Professor Luke Timothy Johnson THE TEACHING COMPANY ® .

he received the President’s Award for Distinguished T eaching. Born in 1943 and from the ages of nineteen to twentyeight a Benedictine monk. and won the Brown Derby and Student Choice Awards for teaching. speaking at college campuses across the country. Professor Johnson taught at Yale Divinity Sc hool from 1976 to 1982 and at Indiana University from 1982 to 1992 before accept ing his current position at Emory. he was a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar. Emory University Luke Timothy Johnson is the Robert W. two greatgrandchildren. Professor of New Testament and Christian Origins. Professor Johnson is married to Joy Randazzo. and an M. They share seven children . At Emory. before earning his Ph. one on the future of Catholic biblical schol arship. He is the author of twenty books. which i s used widely as a textbook in seminaries and colleges.A. Johns on received a B. Profes sor Johnson has taught undergraduates.D. 1998). He is currently at work on several books. in theology from Saint Meinrad School of Theology in Indiana. He has also published se veral hundred articles and reviews. Dr. and one on the influence of Greco-Roman religion on Christianity. in New Test ament from Yale University in 1976. and a Yorkshire terrier named Ba iley.A. in religious studies from Indiana University. Georgia. as well as master’s level and doctoral stud ents. in Atlanta. was elected a member of the Faculty Colloquium on Excellence in Teachin g. At Indiana University. in cluding one on the Christian creed. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership i . Emory University.D iv. an M. In 1997–1998.Luke Timothy Johnson. he has twice received the “On Eagle’s Wings Excellence in Teaching” Award. eleven grandchildren. Johnson also teaches the courses called The Apostle Paul and Early Christi anity: The Experience of the Divine for The Teaching Company.D. in philosophy from Notre Dame Seminary in New Orleans. including T he Writings of the New Testament: An Interpretation (2nd edition. Ph. Woodruff Professor of New Testament and Christian Origi ns at Candler School of Theology.

.. ......... .............................4 Epictetus The Stoic Path to Virtu e...........8 Marcus Aurelius Meditations of the King .............. Anger.............................24 Timeline .............26 Glossary................................6 Epictetus The Messenger of Zeus.10 Jews Thinking Like G reeks .......... and Talking Too Much .........16 Plut arch and Philosophical Religion...............i Course Scope.............. ..................................22 Lecture Twenty-Four The Missing Page in Philosophy’s Story..................................Table of Contents Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Part II Professor Biography.........................................................................................2 Epictet us Philosopher as Schoolteacher ................. ................................................20 Plutarch Envy...1 Lecture Th irteen Lecture Fourteen Lecture Fifteen Lecture Sixteen Lecture Seventeen Lectur e Eighteen Lecture Nineteen Lecture Twenty Lecture Twenty-One Lecture Twenty-Two Lecture Twenty-Three Dio Chrysostom Preaching Peace and Piety......... ........................................28 Bibliography.............................................18 Plutarch on Virtue and Educating Children................12 Philo Judaism as Greek Philosophy............... ............................................................. ........................................ .............................................................................................32 ii ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership ..........................14 Plutarch Biography as Moral Instruction...... ........... ..............

The philosophers of the early empire were concerned with proper thinking. Epictetus’s stirring exhortations a re all the more moving when we know that he was physically disabled. a slave. they were themselves completely human. They were convinced that a dedication to virtuous living was the way not only to health but also to true happiness. Plato and Aristot le and Epicurus. the popular philosophers of the Greco-Roma n world deserve their self-designation as “doctors of the soul. Musonius Rufus and Epictetus. Readers looking neither for sublime language nor complex theori es but for wisdom have long known that that Seneca. and schoolteachers. of envy and rage with brilliant insight. and Epictet us are worth reading. This course introduces the ancient masters of practical philosophy who arose during the per iod of the late republic and early empire. They precisely delinea te the virtues and vices. senators. before concluding with . Philosophy had to shift from theory to therapy. Others were emperors. They need introducing because they te nd to be neglected by most students of antiquity. lived and taught in the small and comprehensible con text of Athens. Cicero and Seneca. The first part of this course esta blishes the social and cultural context for these teachers. an d an exile. For such readers. Historians of philosophy equally neglect them because they do not notably contribute to the great metaphysical an d epistemological theories that dominate the story of ancient philosophy. Philosophy became a way of life. the satirist. Those fortunate enough to encounter them either in their s chooling or on library shelves have heard these ancient moralists speak with rem arkable freshness and force to the basic issues of human character with which we all must struggle. They d eserve introducing because they are preeminently worth getting to know. the public speaker. the Roman statesmen. To show how pervasive were the ideals of character ethics. Marcus Aurelius. the emperor. They understand the process of moral development and t he necessity of moral education. We examine first the changes in society caused by the fact of empire and the reasons that philosophy needed to adopt a more therapeutic approach. They can still teach us. And the great satirist among them. and power that dominated the desires of most people. A consideration of the major themes and metaphors us ed by the popular philosophers prepares for a composite portrait of the ideal sa ge. and Marcus Aurelius. we then exa mine the same themes in some contemporary Jewish writers. c ourt advisors. after all. and its opposite. We then sketch some of the major p hilosophical schools from the classical period whose influence was still discern ible in the time of empire. possessions . wandering rhetoricians. Dio Chrysostom. and morally much m ore ambiguous. Learning how Cicero lived as a senator is as instructive as hearing his thought s on the good life. They analyze the passions of fear and desire. Some belonged to formal schools where l ife and study were part of a common existence.Practical Philosophy: The Greco-Roman Moralists Scope: How can a person be good when the world all around seems bad? How can som eone be wise when the surrounding culture is foolish? How can anyone be healthy when the social atmosphere is sick? Such questions are appropriate for Americans in the early twenty-first century. The remainder of the course focuses on the specific figures whose lives and thought still affect the way we act and think: Lucian of Samosata. more complex. Classicists ignore them becaus e they wrote in the ordinary Greek and Latin of the people rather than in the mo re elevated style of the poets and dramatists. The answers provided by the p hilosophers of the classical period no longer worked for them. the schoolmasters. They are also the questions that preoccupied the moral philosophers of the early Roman Empire. the charlatan who betrays philosophy’s ideals while mimickin g its manner. to be sure. Plutarch’s encyclopedic learning and cosmopolitan outlook owe somethin g to his social position and priestly status. and their ideals strugg led for expression in the very structures of society that they found inadequate. Still.” Precisely because t hey focus so precisely on everyday life the character of the individual and the he alth of the family they remain pertinent even today. Lucian of Sa mosata. Knowing that Marcus Aurelius was supreme ruler of the empire gives his meditations a special significance. but thought was always aimed at proper living. They nevertheless sha red a vision concerning the good life that transcended the pleasure. Followers of the philosophical ideal appeared in different social locations and roles. The world of empire was vaster. remains remarkably funny.

©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 1 .an extended appreciation of Plutarch of Chaeronea and a final reflection on the significance of this missing page in the history of philosophy.

He takes up local issues and address es them with boldness. As a trained rhetorician. E. The connection between personal character ethics and political morality is m ade explicit in Dio’s discourses on concord (homonoia) among cities in his native Asia Minor. its greatness is a matter of moral character.44. B. Dio is among th e more profoundly religious of the Greco-Roman moral philosophers.Lecture Thirteen Dio Chrysostom Preaching Peace and Piety Scope: Dio of Prusa is distinctive among the popular philosophers of the early e mpire in another way: As a public speaker who traveled from city to city. “On Philosophy”. Among our G reco-Roman philosophers. “The Wise Man Is Happy”). 2. D. “On Deliberation”). 32. 3. Oration 26. 1. because of) imperial rule. In his “Ol ympic Discourse: Or on Man’s First Conception of the Divine” (Oration 12). personal and public virtue go hand-in-hand. A. He has a number of discourses devoted to the theme of kin gship. Outline I. virtue and vice. Oration 17. A city is not made great through its natural advantages or its mater ial accomplishments. he was concerned for the empire as a whole and for th e cities within it. Instead. 2 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . “On Virtue”. Oration 44 (“A Friendly Address for His Native Land on I ts Proposing Honors for Him”) shows how the subject of virtue remains constant thr oughout. Dio’s addresses to the cities of Nicea and Nicomedia (Orations 38–39) and those to his home city of Prusa and Apameia (Orations 40–41) reveal the sort of rivalries that existed even within (or. 41. 80) and his argument in Oration 8 (“On Virtue”) that Diogenes is the true Olympic athlete. 40. A second public issue in antiquity was civic religion. Oration 19. 1. 42. Dio is an example of a philosophical monotheism th at developed independently in Greco-Roman culture. A. Note particularly the three discourses on slavery and freedom (Orations 14. not simply individual. Dio’s “Olympic Discourse” ( Oration 12) contains a rightly famous discussion on the popular religious piety that focused on the many gods represented by statues in public places and the ph ilosophical piety that discerned. I n each dispute. “On Covetousness”. His extant orations show his concern for matters pertaining to education and the rhetorical art (see Oration 18. perhaps. A. we see how his pleas for concord between cities evoke some of the other major themes of ancient philosophy. Some of his pure “show pieces” that he delivered early in his career (“On the Parrot” and “On the Fly”) are not extant. Four are addressed to the Emperor Trajan (Orations 1–4) and two others may have been (Orations 56 and 62). “Training for Public Speaking”. C. 43. which can be discerned as much in a city as in an individual. In this lecture. II. In his exhortation s to harmony. Dio is distinctive for the role he played as a public p reacher of civic morality. Oration 69. a single divine force. 49). 33. 45. We as k whether Dio provides a way of connecting character ethics and political morali ty. 2 . He refers to his divine calling as a philosopher in Oration 13 and Oration 32. “On L istening”. 48. “On Pain and Distress of Spirit”. 39. 15. Dio argues. B. For Dio and the Greco-Roman moralists. he had the opportunity and often the requirement of addressing issues of civic. Oration 71. Dio considers peace always superior to war and extends the ideals of friendship and the evils of envy to the political realm. Dio depicts the ideal of the philosopher-king. Many of his speeches were given to civic assemblies (see Orations 31. 34. 38. Dio offer s a noble philosophical statement that links popular piety and reason. III. Dio speaks publicly to each city involved. B. Dio was able to provide public discourses on a wide range of subjects. but a secondhand report of hi s Encomium on Hair gives a sense of the epideictic rhetoric that pleased crowds. beneath these many separate expressions of the gods. Many of Dio’s extant orations take up stan dard philosophical topics and might be delivered to any audience (see Oration 16 . Oration 23.

Supplementary Reading: S. 2.. Art can ca pture some aspect of God but not all of God’s features (Orations 74–78). law. ed. Swain.1. The God who creates the world is the best artist of all (Orations 82–84)! Essential Reading: Dio Chrysostom. and art in impressing ideas of the divine on humans (Orat ions 44–48) but concentrates on the last. 6. How does a “character ethics” conc erned for virtue translate into a “social ethics” in Dio’s orations on concord? 2. Letters. 5. and Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford U niversity Press. He shows how the notion of the divine is found in humanity. His discourse is stimulated by the statue of Zeus by Pheidias at the Olympic Gam es. 3. The Epicureans are scorned because they place pleasure as the center of their existence over the gods (Orations 36–37). Orations 12 and 44. Questions to Consider: 1. 2000). 39). in an innate knowledge that arises from the universal experience of the world by h umans (Orations 26–34. despite its in adequacy (Oration 63)—speech can do more than sculpture (Orations 65–69). the production of statues. Wha t does Dio’s “Olympic Discourse” tell us about public speech and religion in the empir e? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 3 . 4. Dio has Pheid ias defend the use of the human form to depict Zeus (Oration 59). 7. Dio Chrysostom: Politics. first of all. Dio discusses th e role of poetry.

and the use o f personal examples. Bo rn a slave and suffering from lameness (possibly the result of abuse while a sla ve). but on its demands and hardships. In his discourses. He lived in great simplicity and had a sweetness of disposition. physics. and like him. B. 22 (“On the Calling of a Cynic”). He seeks to counter students’ sense that philosophy is a matter of dress or lifes tyle. and we are dependent for knowledge of his thought on his student Arr ian’s transcriptions of these marvelously powerful and convincing classroom lectur es (in four books) and the small compendium of his sayings called the Enchiridio n (or “Handbook”). A sense of this pedagogical style and of Epictetus’s typical concerns—can be gained from Discourse II. of any age. a freedman of Nero. Epictetus (c. 17. his setting. Outline I. He left no compositions. he studied under Muso nius Rufus and founded his own school for would-be philosophers of the Stoic sch ool while in exile in Nicopolis (in Epirus). E. like his teacher (and like Socrates).) is universally and properly recognized as one of the great moral teachers of Roman antiquity or.E. They have a lively dialogical style that includes cer tain standard features: a fictional interlocutor. C. III. citation of authorities (especially poets). abrupt a nswers and expletives. following the teachings of the Stoic tradition that he had learned from his own teacher. Physically disabled and poor. and who perceive the improvement which may be derived from his writings” (Ag ainst Celsus 6. Epictetus does not fo cus on the attractive features of the life.Lecture Fourteen Epictetus Philosopher as Schoolteacher Scope: Epictetus (c. C. II. Epictetus taught o nly orally. is a splendid example of a protreptic discourse on philosoph y. 29–40. 68) but was banished from Rome by the Emperor Domition in 89 or 93. Born of a slave woman in Hierapolis of Phrygia and himself a slave (his name means “acquired”) of Epaphroditus. above all Chrysippus. mingling Stoici sm with strong doses of Cynicism. 50–130 C. He founded a school for young would-b e philosophers in Epirus. The discourses resemble seminar session s rather than lectures. Ninety-six of these diatribes were transcribed by Flavius Arrianus (also author of the Anabasis) in four books. This first lecture on Epictetus focuses on his life.2). Epictetus teaches his students in the dialogical style ca lled the diatribe.) exemplifies the character of the Greco-Roman moralis ts in both his life and his teaching. B. he was freed sometime after the death of Nero (c. to learn t he theory of logic. Even the skeptic Lucian calls him “that marvellous old man” (The Ignorant Book Collector 14). which urges students to the highest possible ideals of this life. for that matter. A.E. he taught students until his death. and ethics. A. Discourse III. The ordinary course of instruction undoubtedly included re ading and analyzing standard Stoic authorities. Epictetus was manumitted at the death of Nero in 68 but was banished un der Domition in 89 or 93. and his manner of teaching through the lively discourses kno wn as diatribes. Again. The Christian Origen compares him to Plato but considers him more accessib le: He is “admired by persons of ordinary capacity. Arrian also published an epitome of Epictetus’s teaching in the Enchiridion. 4 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . He taught orally in the form of t he diatribe. A. There. rhetorical questions. B. who have a desire to be benefi tted. 50–130 C. D. Because he was addressing students seeking to become philosophers. The continuing impact of Epictetus’s vi vid voice and strong spirit is wonderfully depicted in Thomas Wolfe’s novel A Man in Full. Musonius Rufus. insisting that it requires a lifelong commitment to virtue.

He serves all of society (77–82). 1959). L. 3. The Cynic does not se rve the self but is sent by Zeus as a scout to humans. in which struggle is con stant (50–52). Askesis: Notes on Epictetus’ Educational System (Assen: Van Gorcum . A sample of a Socratic sermon is given (26–44). Supplementary Reading: B. Why are the discourses of Epictetus so immedi ately gripping and so vividly memorable? 2. 17. Hijmans. 2. B ecause the true Cynic must offer his own life as an example from which people ca n learn (45–49). following in the path of Diogenes (24) and Socrates (26).1. 6. Such a vocation is dangerous to undertake unless one knows oneself and is in accord with the deity (53–61). which is the best of all political involvements (83–85). The true Cynic must be called by God (2–8) and must rely on his self-respect (9–16). How is personal transformation the m ain element in Epictetus’s curriculum for young philosophers? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 5 . a purity of intentio n (94–96). 22. III. but above all. Questions to Consider: 1. Discourses II. The Cynic requires a fit body (86–89) and natural wit and charm (90–92). The Cynic calling is a lonely one. he is because constantly preoccupied with moral purpose (100–109). 5. The Cy nic does not have friends (62–66) or family (68–77). his life must resemble a moral Olympics. the Cynic is a general who directs the lives of others without meddling (97–99). Essential Reading: Epictetus. keeping his governing principle (hegemonikon) pure (19–22). 4.

23. 2. we stil l have the power to control our own thoughts the way we perceive reality. the importance of physics is percei ving how the universe is providentially ordered by nature. Epictetus clearly had the capacity to discourse learnedly on th e technical aspects of Stoic philosophy. A. 149–151). The Epicureans’ withdrawal from society and political involvement betrays th e social character of humans (I. indicate that he taught his s tudents the rudiments of theory in the three branches of that philosophy: logic. and ethics. II. is not what being a Stoic is about. III. The control over one’s own assent so that error and impulse ar e avoided. even learned ones. he organizes his training around three areas of practice (III. and e thics.Lecture Fifteen Epictetus The Stoic Path to Virtue Scope: Epictetus’s discourses show how the theories of the Stoic philosophy were c onstantly put in service of moral transformation. Outline I. 20). but he is mainly interested in the mora l transformation of his students. especially the personal twist he put s on each branch of the doctrine: The real point of logic is understanding how t he world works and making proper inferences. 2 ). 9). Our freedom lies in the power to contro l our minds our reason. A. He is intensely loyal to the Stoic tradition that he learned from Musonius R ufus and is outspoken in his criticism of rival philosophical schools (see Disco urse II. 1. His frequent references to Chr yssipus. B. To keep his students’ attention on the ess ential task of practicing virtue and growing in moral character. The Academicians are condemned for their skeptical suspension o f judgment (I. 19–28). we learn the basics of Stoic doctrin e as communicated to students by Epictetus. the great systematizer of Stoic doctrine. 27. In this lecture. B. A. physics. Epictetus combines an exceptionally narrow focus with a brilliant variety of exhortations. “On Things that are under our Control and not under our Control” (I. But we choose to be concerned about many things things th at burden us and drag us down. A. to determi ne what is real and what is not. 19. A good example of Epictetus’s understanding of philosophical theory an d practice is found in his first Discourse. “To Those w ho Take Up the Teachings of the Philosophers Only to Talk about Them.” that having opinions. 3. Here is the practical dimension of epistemology and logic. physics. the goal of ethics is living in accordance with nature as rational beings. B. 4. IV. But his constant reminders that theory was useless without the practice of virtue shows that his real interest was in the way students pro gressed in moral practice. the consequence of corrupt judgment and behavior (III. Even under duress. 2. Epictetus’s own focus is completely on the ethic al dimension of Stoicism. The management of impulses and choices: Learn what is appropriate to do in different circumstances (relatio ns with others). B. and for the sophistical arguments used by Pyrrho (I. The gap bet ween book-learning and virtue among his students is a constant theme in his diat ribes: 6 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . 5. He argues in II. Rather than distinguish among logic. A fu ndamental distortion of philosophy is to make it only a matter of learning theor y and not a matter of personal transformation. How should we train ourselves? By learning wha t is not ours to control and what is ours to control. 2): 1. 3. who find it all too easy to be distracted by t heory because it is so much simpler. 1). 7. Logic helps us understand the world and our rol e in it. Epictetus exhor ts them from a variety of angles. The management of desires and aversions: Never desire the unattainable and never se ek to flee the unavoidable (control of passions). Epictetus argued that it was fitting that th e gods had placed under mankind’s control only the power to make correct use of ex ternal impressions the power of reason.

Knowing Chrysippus is im portant only insofar as it helps one understand the law of nature and live accor ding to it (I. 9. “The Stoicism of Epictetus: Twentieth Century Perspectives. 29. Questions to Consider: 1. 4. 36. 26.3: 2. Learning that does not lead to action is useless. Students say that they recognize that progress should be in virtue. 35 and 55–57). 13). Haas (Berlin: de Gruyter. Supplementary Reading : J. Discourses I. 1989) II. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 7 . 5. 1. 19). 148–163. 2. P. 17. 6. A false philosopher is one whose words are falsified by his actions (II.1. Consider how Epictetus’s exhortations reveal the per ennial tendency among students to prefer learning facts to changing practices.” Aufs tieg und Niedergang der roemischen Welt. The exclusive study of argumentation can distract from the pursuit o f virtue and lead to vanity and enslavement (I. 8. 19.” (I. and II. “A Stoi c is a Stoic in deed. 4–10). 13–21). but they mea sure their own advance in philosophy by the amount of Chrysippus they have read (I. Hershbell. Essential Reading: Epictetus. 3. edited by W. Reading philosophy to impress others at banquets is a fo rm of vanity (I. 4. Why is the distinction betwe en what is in our control and what is not in our control so critical to the Stoi c understanding of wisdom? 2. 9).

4. these components appear as the traditional four eleme nts: earth. while air a nd fire are active. B. to turn them from vice and toward virtue. and Seneca see m mostly formal. God creates humans to be spectators of his creation and to interpre t his world. We have observed a wide range of opinions concerning the rela tionship of philosophy to religious belief and practice. In considering the philosopher as a “messenger [angelos] of Zeus” (III.” He views his own life as one in service to divine providence. Of these. Fragment 13. It will end in a grea t conflagration (ekpyrosis) that will give birth. Because the world itself is in some sense divine. He is fond of quoting Cleanthes’s “Hymn to Zeus. water. To “follow nature” in Stoicism means implicitly to “follow God. in turn. a living being and the be st possible world. Their sense of moral obligation is not intrinsically linked to a personal sense of the divine. 16. 1. A. At the level of observation. 14. it is p rovidentially guided. A. Musonius. Epictetus believes tha t most people complain because they do not perceive the world properly as reflecti ve of God’s mind. III. 22. 8 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . 3. The physics of classical Stoicism supports a positive view of nature and of God. air. 2. In contrast to all these (and in a degree greater even than Marcus Aurelius). Lucian of Samosata a pplauds the religious skepticism and effective atheism of the Epicureans (Alexan der the False Prophet) and lauds the religious critique of Demonax. Epictetus is a genuinely religious figure. zeus) is the immanent principl e governing the world. 1. 17. is the vehicle of reason (logos) that governs—and is immanent within—the entire world. Spirit. The religious affections o f Lucian are hard to discern. They form spirit (pneuma) that pervades and shapes all thing s. Although he uses the lang uage of Stoicism about nature. Outline I. the two realities merge. 11–13. II. fire. In fact. Epictetus stands out as much for his personal re ligious fervor as for the rigor of his moral teaching. 14. The Stoic universe is. which he received from Musonius Rufus. and all that is and happens bears the signs of rational de sign.” I II. There are two elements: passive matt er (hyle) and active god (theos). I. 15. and those of Dio. earth and water are passive. 2. He speaks frequent ly in defense of God’s providence (pronoia): see I. Dio is considerably more pious (see Orations 12 and 13) but evinces l ittle personal fervor. B. it is as something more than the rational dimension of the physical world. Epictetus occupies a distinctive position among Greco-Roman moralists with respe ct to religion. D. We can prove God from the very structure o f nature. A. “God” (dios. II. to another equally pe rfect world identical to the present. then. I. C. III. with an intense personal piety that is distinctive. 6. Distinctive to humans is the gift of rationality. because it is the embodiment of reason. it is clear that when he speaks of Zeus. which is a share in t he divine nature. 14. enabling humans to discern the patterns of the world and follo w them appropriately. Humans should act in imitation of God. The world is material but is also enti rely a manifestation of divine rationality. which totally interpenetrate each other. E.Lecture Sixteen Epictetus The Messenger of Zeus Scope: The Greco-Roman philosophers remind us that high moral standards and reli gious convictions do not necessarily go hand-in-hand. 3. in turn. Epictetus infuses this Stoic understanding. who interpret s reality and his own role as a teacher in terms of a philosophy suffused with r eligious sensibility. And his understanding of the true Cynic is as a messenger of God to humans for their benefit. 23). Cicero. Cicero (O n the Nature of the Gods II–III) finds the dogmatism of the Stoics as implausible as the atheism of the Epicureans and prefers the suspension of belief of the Aca demics.

7–8. 6–8. 34. I. I. 11. 16. Dill. 14. 1. we do not understand the “other side” of what we interpret negatively God ha s his reasons for the bad things that happen in the world. 5. 30. 3. III. B. 1. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 9 . Is it a paradox or not that the philosopher who most represents the “margin s” of ancient society is also the most passionately devoted to God’s providential ca re? 2. 4. 1. 1. 8. 5. 14. I. IV. Questions to Consid er: 1. II. III. C. D. But the Stoic response is that one should get along as best one can under the (negative) circumstances. 12. He powerfully interprets his own life in the framework of God’s providence (see I. 1 08). 95. 6. IV. Discourse I. for example. IV. 29. “The Philosophic Theologian. I. 6. 23. 7. I. 10–14. I. III. 1–3. 4–8.All things happen in accordance with reason. The downside of th is view is that it can lead to social conservatism and even impassivity in the f ace of negative experiences. II. Enchiridion 53). 42. I. II. 9. 8. 3–7 and 18–19. 32. How does Stoicism give a distinctive twist to the ancient maxim “follow God”? 5. I . 4–6 a 46–50. 1.” in Roman Society. Epictetus frequently invokes the “Hymn of Cleanthes” (“Lead Thou me on. 131. 384–440. 4 . 15–21. 6. IV. 7. o Zeus and Destiny! …I’ll follow you”) and clea ly understands life in its terms (see II. 29. 17. 16. 26. I. Essential Reading: Epictetus. 22. 27–28. His language about God i s both passionate and personal: see. 89. 1. I. 24. 17. 8–11. Supplementary Reading: S. I. I. So why do the wicked prosper and th e good suffer bad things? Because we do not know how to interpret life with true insight.

3. Marcus Aurelius comes as close to realizing Plato’s ideal as any actual historical figure. As an emperor. who was a Platonist but. Despite the philosoph ical tutoring of early emperors. Sextus (grandson of Plutarch) showed hi m how to “live according to nature” (1. This series of thoughts begins by expressing thanks to all those who had influenced him. the Meditations. and Stoicism) in Athens in 176. Born of a noble family and adopted by the Em peror Antoninus Pius in 138. however. nev ertheless. 2. He singles out the personal and moral qualities of his relatives (bot h natural and adoptive). These me ditations are better known today than they were in antiquity. Aristoteliani sm.34–36. written in a vigorous Greek. Roman rulers were mainly suspicious of philosophers. such as widows a nd slaves. 37–38). constantly schooled himself in the practices of philosophical discipline. exhortations not to bet. Of particular importance was the impact of Epicte tus.7). The pervasive popularity of the philosophical ideal in the imperial period is demonstrated dramatically by the example of Marcus Aurelius (121–180 C. he was als o generous in his appraisal. whose personal circle also included philosophers of various schools. 2. embracing both the slave Epictetus and the Emperor Marcus himself. and Laws IV (711 B–D). and VII. 1. 7. 11. he continued the poli cies of repression directed at Christians. all dedicat ed to the life of virtue.9) and to beware the nature of tyrants. He was an adopted son of the Emperor A noninus Pius and became emperor in 161. and remained alive i n the “Kingship Discourses” of Dio Chrysostom (Orations 1–4). Platonism. His selection of qualities revea ls the values he most appreciates. qualities he constantly sought in himself. 17 (540 D). From what we know of some figures. whose preoccupation with the inner life of the virtuous person is echoed by the emperor. His friends are specially singled out for their robust moral challenge and intellectual contributions. to have few wan ts. II. C. Outline I. to keep fingernails clean! 4. for example.E. A. and friends. taught the king the meaning of “living according to nature. or Roman Empire) during a time of constant war and plague. Marcus Aurelius became co-ruler in 161 and sole emp eror in 169. Marcus Aurelius also pays tribute to the nephew of Plutarch. 1. A. His teachers are praised f or communicating good moral values and a variety of intellectual influences. His grandparents and natural parents are thanked for their simplicity (the simple life was an important theme in Roman life) and piety. a pro fessional philosopher from Chaeronea called Sextus. as demonstrated by the frequent exiling of the figu res we are studying.19. 18 (483 C–E). teachers. The moral values included.). He died while on military campaign in 18 0. He was educated in law and philoso phy.” The Meditati ons of Marcus Aurelius shows how democratic the ideals of philosophy were within the empire. His Meditations in twelve books. Th e ideal of the philosopher-king was classically expressed by Plato in his Republ ic V. 10 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . Rusticus i s thanked for leading Marcus to Epictetus (1. to turn a deaf ear to slander. sets down his thoughts “to himself” in what amounts to a philos ophical diary while he was engaged in the business of ruling the oikoumene (the known world. 3. and his sole literary work. such as Nero. He died while on military campaign in the Danube region in 180. whose influence pervades the Me ditations (see 4. B.Lecture Seventeen Marcus Aurelius Meditations of the King Scope: Among the most attractive representatives of ancient moral philosophy is the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121–180 C.). to crave sim ple furnishings. he was moderately successful in mitigating some of the anomalies in Roman law and in bettering the lot of disadvantaged classes. The first book of the Meditations is justly renowned for its humble and deli cate recollection of the intellectual and spiritual influences in Marcus Aureliu s’s life. was composed while engaged in hi s military campaigns.41. a nd endowed the four chairs of philosophy (Epicureanism. not to be taken up with trifles.E. Despite a number of apologies addressed to him. 4.

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31). Essential Reading: Marcus Aurelius. 10.4.4.6. III.19. 12. 12. living according to reason (2.9.18). There is little distinction b etween “nature” and “God” or “the Gods. 3.10.16. vir tuous in every respect (1.10. imitating the wise (4.1.20. D.69. Precisely because his philosophy and manner of life appeared in one of the most privileged and powerful positions imaginable. see 3. The king tells himself to “keep all thy thoughts on God” (6.5.6.31). 4. 5. 12. 8. 5.13. B. 9.3. 4.30.20. 7. appears as the philosopher-king in action.2.1.31–32). rather than on the accidental (3. 6.40 . 10.13.19. 7.23. 3.26).1.4. 8.15.12.28).3. 6.33. the mark of a good cha racter is to pass through each day as if it were the last. that is. 7. 3.17. 9. 9. 3. 12. The world reveals the divine reason in all its aspects (see 2. 10.20). Questions to Consider: 1.9. C.16.10. 6.38). 4.B. The emperor’s piety is shown by the fin al part of the opening book.2. 3. 12.9. Supplementary Reading: R. 11.48). 5. The Meditations of Marcus Aure lius: A Study (Oxford: Clarendon Press.36). 12.2.12. 5. Marcus Aurelius detests vice.2.33. 9.17.17). Philosophy he regards as th e way to a life of virtue even in the setting of a court (2.23. His longest tribute is dedicated to his adoptive father. 6. E.67. 9.7. Rutherford. 5. 12.5. 5. Controlling percept ions is the key to a reasonable life (2. 8.25. 9.1. Books 2–12 of the Meditations amount t o a set of exhortations addressed “to himself” that strike the same themes repeatedl y. 6. 8. B.25.3. IV.26.31.21). 7. and contentment (4. 5.39.4. This demands looking inward (7. especially those connected to the pursuit of pleas ure (2. 7.2 3. 8.14 ).9). 7. 11. which as emperor of th e oikoumene. Medi tations. 8.3. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 11 .4.11. and the body and soul are directed by the mind (nous.4.3). 6. 6 . Marcus Aurelius presents a particularly poignant contrast to the conventional notions of “the good life” in contemporary America.31. When life follows nature. 9. He deplores the skepticism of the Epicureans and defends providence (2.5.10). F.13. 4. 6. and seeks virtue in every matter (6.28.6.3. How is the character of Marcus Aurelius itself revealed in the first book of his Medita tions? Consider the construction of a similar essay for yourself. 6.75.) C. 12.59) and concentrating on the essenti als. 5.54. who in his son’s depiction.21. the Emperor Antoninu s Pius. 4.21) and. above all. 4. 7. 7. 12.2. “Following God” means.9).” who are constantly regarded as the source of every hing good (2.6. 7.32.7) and “follow God” (7. 6. 5. in effect.23.20). A.46.29.16). 1989). 4.5.7). 11. 7. 4. 7.10. in which he thanks the gods for all the gifts that had come to him through others (1. perhaps (2.12. of one’s own mortal ity less difficult in a time of plague and warfare. 6. living according to nature. 9. t hen follows tranquility of mind (5. For Marcus Aurelius. gave him a strong sense of commonality with all rational beings and a profound sense of service to the common good (4. 8. 10. 12. 4.16. Distinctive to Marcus Au relius is his understanding of world-citizenship (12. Comment on the proposition that the constant reminder of mortality in Marcus Aurelius’s Medit ations is an enhancement rather than a diminishment of life. (The ancient world had a strong sense of the diff erence between a king and a demagogue. 12. Essential to living virtuously is un derstanding the transitory character of all mortal existence (2.30.18.22. 11 . 2.1.18.9. 5.32. 6. 8. simplicity (3.28. 10. 5.

The Essenes resemble the Pythagoreans in their teachings and in their community mode of life. not least in his description of Jewish sects in terms of philosophical schools. A. Apart from its distinct ive adherence to monotheism (but remember Dio and others among the philosophers) .) uses the form of the symposium derived from Plato and Xenophon to express the superiority of Jewish wisdom to Greek. One of the main topics is how the king should be a lover of wisdom. we see the influence o f Hellenistic philosophy. C. When he descri bes the several competing Jewish parties in Palestine. Hermotimus). each patriarch is associated with a specific virtue (Joseph has self-control) or vice (Simeon has envy).118–166.C.–fir st century C. The Letter of Aristeas (between third century B.E.Lecture Eighteen Jews Thinking Like Greeks Scope: The power and persuasiveness of Hellenistic moral philosophy is nowhere m ore evident than in its impact on Jewish thinkers of the imperial period. their emphasis on freedom. The Jewish scripture was translated into Greek in Alexandria around 250 B.C. E. The Testaments of the Twe lve Patriarchs (the twelve sons of Jacob) (second century B. A. II.E. but does s o in the form of an encomium on reason and self-control. A. 1. and became the basis of an extensive Hell enistic-Jewish literature that was religiously distinct but culturally assimilat ed (the Septuagint).11–25). Althou gh Greek-speaking Jews in both Palestine and the Diaspora regarded their ancestr al traditions as older and better than those of the Greeks and Romans and certainl y considered belief in one God superior to polytheism they nevertheless adopted th e perspectives of Greek philosophy. D. Outline I. The Fourth Book of Maccabees (first century C. in both Palestine and the Diaspora. The Saducees resemble the Epicureans because o f their denial of fate and God’s role in history.C. and clothes Jewish values in the language and percep tions of Greek philosophy.E. In his Life 2.) is a pseudonymous appropriation of a Greek teacher of maxims fr om the sixth century B. The process of Hellenizatio n within Judaism began as early as Alexander the Great. B. as both a way of communicating themselves to the larger world and of understanding themselves in the framework of the domina nt culture. Antiquities of the Jews 18. Judaism was able to accommodate other aspects of Greco-Roman culture in the fr amework of its ancestral traditions. 12 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . justice.E. 2. Greco-Roman moral philosophy showed its influence on Judaism through a varie ty of literary expressions.E. Likewise in the scriptural interpretation of Aristobol os. temperance. B. where Jews had lived in great numbers for centuries. Jose phus describes his early life in terms of a philosophical search in which he tri es one Jewish “school” after another (compare Lucian. The success of Greco-Roman moral philosophy is attested by its wide acceptanc e even within the Judaism of the imperial period. and t heir denial of the soul’s continued existence.E. The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides (first century B.C. C. it was accepted by many others. III. Josephus uses the languag e of Greek philosophy and its “schools” (The Jewish War 2. courage) in an extr aordinary fashion. Judai sm is frequently portrayed as a form of Greek philosophy. Thus. In Josephus’s Life and Antiquities of the Jews. The Jewish martyrs are shown to exhibit the virtues (prudence.) combines a tho roughly Jewish concern for the law and cult (and eschatology) with Greco-Roman m oral teaching. and although it was oppo sed by some. In apologetic writings.E.) celebrates the martyrdom of those who resisted syncretistic worship. we find the same allegorical techniques for saving Torah that were used by S toic philosophers on Homer. and first century C. B.C.

266–366.” in P. an adulterous affair. pp. 1992). R. Supplementary R eading: C. Holladay. Essential Reading: Fourth Maccabees. Josephus makes it appear close to the Cynic tradition in its love of freedom and its contempt for pain. such as anthropomorphic qualities ascribed to G od (see Fragments 2 and 4). Among Stoic philosophers. What is said about Judaism and Hellenistic culture that philosophy could embrace both cultural systems? 2. the erotic union is interpreted as the combination of strife and love in harmony..118 as the work of a “sophist. In The Odyssey 8. 1. such as Aristobolos (second century B.C.” that i s. Greek philosophical influence is also at work in the allegorical interpretat ion of Jewish scripture. The Pharisees resemble the Stoics because they combine a belief in fate (and God ) with a commitment to free will. “Jewish Responses to Hellenistic Culture.E. Similarly. used allegory to remove inappr opriate implications from Torah. 2. In Heraclitus’s Homeric Questions 69.. IV.” but in Antiquities. we find “the loves of Ares and A phrodite and how they first began their affair in the house of Hephaestus. How does allego rical interpretation serve to save both sacred texts and sound moral standards? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 13 . B. A. The “Fourth Sect” (associated with Juda the Galilean) is dismissed in The Jewish War 2. Hellenistic Jewish interpreters. Questions to Consider: 1. 4. Bilde et al .3. Ethnicity in Hellenistic Egypt. the scandalous passages in Homer and Hesiod were interpreted allegorically in order to save the text and p rovide moral examples. and they maintain a future for the virtuous so ul. 139–163 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Pr ess. eds.). wh o was associated with the Aristotelian tradition.

31. C.Lecture Nineteen Philo Judaism as Greek Philosophy Scope: The synthesis of Judaism and Greek philosophy found its most prolific exp ression in the writings of Philo Judaeus of Alexandria (15 B. geometry. however. is the supreme ex ample of the fusion of Judaism and Greco-Roman philosophy.). B. Questions on Genesis 1. 14 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .C. Isaac. Philo of Alexandria. harmonies. His allegorical interpretation of scripture imitated the practice of philosophers with the troublesome parts of the Greek myths. He also uses philosophical traditions eclectically. Aristotelianism. seeking to interpret to outsiders the beauty of his own tradition in terms they would understand and. all his writings have an apologetic character. His Platonism comes through also in his tinge of mysticism the flight of the soul to the realm of the divine (see On the Creation 71).–50 C. On the Decalogue 54). interpreting hi s tradition to insiders in the common terms of the culture. Homer. And his portrayal of a J ewish contemplative community argues that the ideals of philosophy found their b est realization among these ascetic Jews. D. in 39–40. C. He defended his local co mmunity against oppression (Against Flaccus) and. scorning those who abandoned the practice of circumcision to assimilate Greek culture (Migration of Abraham 89–93). as the best of philosophers. the proper historical placement of Philo is difficult: Is he idiosyncratic or repres entative? B. Philo’s Greek intellectual and philosophical heritage was eclectic. Allegorical Interpretation III. at the same time. He is familiar with the allegorical interpretation of the philosophers applied to Homer (Embassy 93–113. Stoicism supplies moral vocabulary and the tendency to allegorize myths. and Jacob in terms o f moral virtues and Moses. He draws on a wide variety of Greek authors. in which the Academy becomes influenced by S toicism. Because so much of his work was preserved (by Christians) and so little of his contemporaries’. See his understanding of the two different accounts of the creation of humans in Genesis 1–2 (Allegorical Inte rpretation I.E. Outline I. philosophy. A. He was deeply faithful to Judaism.E. 102). II. Philo was educated in the Gymnasium.C. He portrayed the Jewish patriarchs Abraham. Philo is a Platonist and himself a key figure in t he development of Middle Platonism. headed a delegation to the Emperor Caligula to defend Jewish rights (Embassy to Gaius). Aristotle offers him a cosmological and ethic al framework. 2.E. A memb er of a wealthy and influential Jewish family and himself fiercely devoted to hi s ancestral traditions he was part of a delegation that petitioned Caligula when t he emperor threatened to profane the Jerusalem temple Philo was also thoroughly st eeped in Hellenistic culture. quoting from Plato. and he unhesitatingly interpreted Jewish tradition s from the perspective of GrecoRoman philosophy. or Philo Judaeus (c. See his interpretation of the “hea venly tabernacle” shown to Moses in Exodus 25. and Semitic cosmology. Above all. 1. astronomy. 3. He probably knew no Hebrew and interpreted the Jewish scripture according to the Septuagint . He does not develop a philosophical system but uses whateve r lies to hand as a means of “philosophically” interpreting difficult passages of sc ripture (see On the Posterity and Exile of Cain).). Part of a wealthy and influential Alexandrian Jewish family. grammar.4). The Pythagoreans feed his fascination with numbers (Decalogue 20–31) and strict ascet icism (On the Contemplative Life).–50 C. He draws from many sources simultaneously and indiscriminately. and probably was trained in arithmetic.E. which he regarded as divinely inspired. and Euri pides side-by-side with the Bible (see On Dreams 139–163).40 (Questions and Answers on Exodus 82. logic. A. espe cially epic and tragic poets. 15 B. and rhetoric. He admires and draws from virtually everyone except the Epicureans. To some degree. D. Philo agreed with them that sacred texts should teach proper m orality.

Like other philosophers. 2nd rev.8–65). however. and practice. B. demonstrates that Judaism is the best of all philosophies. 1. D. for example. For the most part. Q uestions to Consider: 1. Essent ial Reading: Philo. These biblical categories are introduced by the depiction of Moses as the philosopherking (1. C. 2. His treatment of the patriarchs Abraham. Above all.158– 159). and showed courage and selfcontrol.” On Abraham. For Philo. it is Moses who.1–18 and On the Contemplative Life 14–18). however. Life of Moses. Philo writes tractates on set philosophical th emes.” according to the triad of “teaching.III. Philo interprets Mosaic legislation consistently in terms of i ts ability to shape both individual and communal virtue (see also On the Virtues and On Rewards and Punishments). he finds his moral instruction in the interpr etation of Torah. 1.148). In what respects would Philo agree and dis agree with other Greco-Roman moralists on the character of the good life? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 15 . ed. In his description of the Jewish groups the Essenes and the Therapeutae. An I ntroduction to Philo Judaeus. describes how he was pious . In the Life of Mos es. Philo presents a picture of Jews living in a philo sophical community (Hypothetica 11. (New York: Barnes and Noble. nat ural endowment. Goodenough. 3. and Jacob s hows how they are virtuous as “ensouled law. 2.187–291). In On the Decalogue and Special Laws. A. and prophet ( 2. but an understanding of how to live in the world. Isaac. by his life and writings (the Law!). How is the elasticity of Platonism demonstrated by the inclusion of Philo in that school? 2.66–186). Supplementary Reading: E. Philo shows Moses to be lawgiver (2. R. the real point of philoso phy is not a theory about the world. On Joseph shows the young Jewish exile who became Pharaoh’s vizier to be the paragon of sta tesmanship. showed hospitality. was kind. 1963). as for other Hellenistic philosophers. the best source for this understanding was the Jewish Law. Moses’s life was the model of the virtues that he taught through his legislation (Life of Moses 1. high priest (2. such as That Every Good Man Is Free (on the Stoic paradox) and On Providen ce. For Philo.

Many of his writings are lost. fortysix in the form of co mparative matches and four individually. essays. Plutarch has. His learning is encyclopedic an d his literary production. A. He lectured publicly in Rome on Platonic philosophy and performed so me civic roles (consul under Trajan and proconsul in Greece under Hadrian). Julius Caesar). servi ng for many years as a priest of the god Apollo at Delphi. and collecti ons of anecdotes. one of the most attractiv e and humane figures of the ancient world. picking up a vast amount of learning wherever he went. 3. befo re retiring to his hometown. His life combined. with particular attention to t he lives of Alexander and Caesar. His Moralia (fifteen volumes in the Loeb C lassical Library) comprises sixty-five lectures. His life was correspondingly placid and productive. extensive. as well as the calmest and most dispassionate judgment. D. II. He studied in Athens an d occasionally visited Rome but spent most of his time in his native town. 1.E. with his devotion to Plat o’s vision of reality. He remains an insightful and persuasive moral teacher. 1. 2. the most cosmopolitan and subtle mind among the Greco-Roman moralists. and Asia Minor. It was universally agreed that morality was learne d through the imitation of examples even more than through maxims or exhortation . 1. B. C. 2. Born of a wealthy and well-connected family in Boeotia. H is “Table-Talk” alone is worth admission. He traveled extensively in Gree ce. Plutarch deserves extended attention for several reasons: 1. Plutarch of Chaeronea (45–120 C. eleme nts of the active and the contemplative. 4. The Parallel Lives of Greeks and Romans (eleven volumes in Loeb) contains fifty biographies. 3. 3. A. focusing as it did on plot. particularly in war. The writing of a “life” (bios) was uniquely capable of providing instruction in character ethics (ethos).) is a fitting figure with which to conclude a survey of Greco-Roman moralists. The Greco-Roman novel was underdeveloped in terms of character. remembering that there is both a literary and philosophical connection between this work and the Moralia.Lecture Twenty Plutarch Biography as Moral Instruction Scope: Plutarch of Chaeronea (45–120 C.) lived under the Emperors Nerva. It could make the argument for or against the role of providence (pronoia) in human affairs. and teaching students. perhaps . it showed how love (eros) cou ld overcome chance (tyche). and Hadrian at a time when the Roman Empire enjoyed some of its best and most s table government and when Greek and Latin literature saw its last great flourish ing. 2. B. but specifically on the character of that pers on as revealed in dispositions and deeds. we review his major ethic al writings (The Moralia and The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans). In this lecture. Italy. dialogues.E. He amasses an astonishing amount of lore about an tiquity that remains of first importance to students of the Greek and Roman peri od. Egypt. We not e how his biographies serve as moral instruction. serving as a priest of the shrine of Apollo at Delp hi. His writings are literarily diverse and distinguished. The biography not only focuses on a single person. Demosthenes and Cicero. Outline I. At best. The history was mostly devoted to the great deeds of nations and generals. together with his use of Aristotelian logic and ethics. revealing a remarkable intellectual curiosity and erudition. Antony and Cleopatra. in equal measure. They have had a great impact in the West (see Shakespeare’s Coriolanus. but what remains is still substantial and impressive. It was natural that biography should become an instrument of moral instructi on in the imperial period. We begin with a consideration of h is Lives. 2. He is a significant figure in Middle Platonism. 16 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . he studied philosophy under Ammonius of Lamptrae (a Platonis t with a strong Aristotelian bent) in Athens. Trajan.

B. H e turns a critical eye toward legendary accounts and exaggeration but is open to the phenomena of omens and dreams. in Demosthenes and Cicero. focus on character is paramount. 1. The Lives of Alexander and Caesar and The L ives of Demosthenes and Cicero. 3. Philo’s Life of Moses shows that the life and teaching of the Je wish leader formed the best philosophy. His overall thesis is that cha racter is destiny. Barrow. A number of biographies show the interest in moral instruction through exempl ary narrative. Essential Reading: Plutarch. A. His “comparisons” in eighteen of the Parallels e specially elucidate moral issues. How does the bios uniquely offer itself as an instrument of moral instructi on? 2. Jamblichus and Porphyry each wrote a Life of Pythagoras as a means of popularizing Neopythagorean moral teaching. despite Plutarch’s intentions. But even legislators can be compared at the level of morality (see Lycurgus and Numa).C. Xenophon’s Cyropaedia presents an idealized picture of the Persi an King Cyrus. 1967). Plutarch’s is the most ambitious and impressive effort to marry serious biograph y (as opposed to sheer legend) and moral inquiry. III . What do we learn about the nature of Greco-Roman philosophy by Plutarch’s c onstant focus on character rather than on accomplishments? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 17 . His biographies are filled with factual information ground ed in his research (some of it contained in the apophthegmata of the Moralia). H. 2. h e ignores their technical feats in rhetoric to concentrate on their moral dispos itions. In some of the biographies. C. Plutarch an d His Times (Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Supplementary Reading: R. When dealing with figures of great and publ ic accomplishment. the narrative of deeds sometimes swallows moral analysis (see Alexander [criticized for becoming overly superstitious] and Caesar [criticized for becoming arrogant]). Questions to Consider : 1. Thus.

18 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . Because Plutarch was a Platonist. The real point of religious belief and practice is the way it leads to a moral life. 1.E. Plutarch. For this reason. public. Therefore. his understanding of Greco-Roman religion w as both subtle and complex. D.” finally. Pro Flacco. Plutarch saw religion (thresk eia/religio) as part of the social fabric. Oration 30. There are m any gods and many religious rituals. such as the auspices (they were.” “That Epicurus Actually Makes a Pleasant Life Impossibl e. and prophecy (he was a priest at Delphi). II. 2. E. “Reply to Colotes” 31–34 [Mor 1125C–1127E]). B. as well as a man generally dedicate d to traditional practices. The odd practices of the cult are not to be considered as superstitious. Similarly. but rather. As a philosophe r. and how superstition is more dangerous than athe ism before considering some of his treatises dealing specifically with religious i ssues. And “The Obsolescence of Oracles” takes up the serious problem of the failure of prophecy: Why does the Delphic oracle not speak as of old? Plutarch’s “Isis and Osiris. The Epicurean elevation of pleasure led t o the destruction of individual and communal virtue. is unseemly. Its denial of the gods’ in volvement in the world eroded the stability of society.C. as signals to deeper int erpretation.Lecture Twenty-One Plutarch and Philosophical Religion Scope: As an official functionary in a cult. The cult of the Egyptian goddess Isis and her consort Osiris re ached Greece before 330 B. he reject ed superstition as worse than atheism. By making Epicurus th e “divine” center of a cult. This lecture considers some of his general views how religion is an essential part of the stabi lity of the state. Cicero. A. Religion is not simply a matter of private opinion or individual behavior or personal feeling. therefore. a sect against the state (see also Christianity). a woman priestess of the cult of Apollo at Delphi who (not untypically) was devoted to Isis. as well as to the gods. we see a philoso pher who seeks to combine loyalty to tradition with a critical spirit of inquiry . His philosophical reflect ion on “The E at Delphi” offers alternative explanations for the presence of the cry ptic inscription in the temple precincts. inquiring into the truth of relig ion is itself a religious quest (1–2) [Mor 351D–F]. visible. B. Like many ancients. provides insight into the pro blems created for the philosophical mind by religious myth. 2. In his many essays devoted to religious subjects. 1. part of the state ritual). The attitude of euse beia applied to the state. but if understood “philosophically. therefore. C. Plutarch asserts from the beginning that the search for God an d the search for truth go together. A. after all . Plutarch dedicates this essay to Clea. 2.” enables one to avoid “s uperstition which is no less an evil than atheism” (11) [Mor 355B–D]. Two of these arise from his own cultic setting.” and “Is ‘Live Unknown’ a Wise Precept?”).34. as well. however. Plutarch. D. it placed a single figure in competition with gods and. Plutarch’s tractate “Isis and Osiris” reveals his basic approach to religio us questions. Outline I. if take n literally. but only one god beneath them all who rules the world (67–68) [Mor 377F–378B]. The myth. 1. Although he respected omens. with most of the popular philosophers Lucian notably the exception detested Epicure anism (see “Reply to Colotes. particularly when th e myth seems to be a form of superstition. Plutarch provides insight into the way a sympathetic philosopher viewed religion during the empire’s most stable period. C. and there is inscriptional evidence for its pres ence in Corinth and in Chaeronea.. It was intrinsically connected to the public l ife of the polis/civis and was. 3. Plutarch was also troubled by uncritical religious beliefs and pract ices. for example. having “moral and practical value” (8) [Mor 353F]. he deprecated the dogmatism of the Stoics concerning the divinity of the world reason (see “On Stoic Self-Contr adictions”). part of the “givenness” of the world (see Libanius.

Essential Reading: Plutarch. and tran smigration of souls (Mor 563B–567E). but these must be combined with religious caus es.” A. A discussion of punishment directed at the descendents of the wicked (Mor 556–560) leads to the exposition of a myth c oncerning the immortality of the soul. The god’s benefits change over the course of time as circ umstances (such as changes in population) shift (8 [414B–D]). Some offenders are capable of offering benefits to oth ers—delay in punishment enables them to provide such benefits (Mor 552D). God’s delay in punishing teaches us to be slow in retaliation so that we do not commit error (Mor 530C). 4.” Supplementary Reading: J. Aristotle offers natural explanations (44 [434B–C]). but is inherent in t he life of the wicked person (Mor 553F). Pluta rch and His Intellectual World (London: Duckworth. Punishment is also sometimes not delayed. 3. “On the Obsolescence of Oracles” (Mor 40 9E–438E) addresses the most serious issue of the apparent failure or decline of pr ophecy in his own shrine. punishment of souls after death. B. IV. as well (48 [436 D–E]). The problem is posed by the decline of a once-flour ishing prophetic shrine (5 [412A] and 8 [414B]). adopting the cautio us tone of the Academy when speaking about God (4 [Mor 549E–550C]). Plutarch eschews any dogmatism. E. C.III. B. “The E at Delphi” (Mor 384D–39 4C) shows the philosopher struggling to make sense of “divine revelation” in the for m of a particularly obscure inscription at Delphi. 4. and mann er (Mor 553D). ed. God d efers punishment in order to provide it in the appropriate time. 1997). God is our m odel. “Isis and Osiris” an d “On the Delays of Divine Vengeance. A. As priest of Apollo at Delphi.. The dialogue is a defense of divine providence (pronoia) after an attack on it by Epicurus. Plutarch had the occasion (and necessity) of addressing urgent religious issues philosophically. place. 1. 2. 3. Questions to Consider: 1. 2. He offers f our reasons why God seems to delay the punishment of wrongdoers: 1. The subtlety and richness of Plutarch’s religious re asoning in the Platonic mode is shown in his dialogue “On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. The change must be due to go d’s will—to think otherwise would be to deny the divine source of the cult in the fi rst place (8 [413B]). “The Oracles at Delphi No Lo nger Given in Verse” (Mor 394D–409D) takes up the issue of change in religious pract ice and the form of revelation from God. Mossman. In what way does Plutarch’s “philosophical religion” differ from the view of relig ion developed in the Enlightenment? 2. D. What religious and political implications of Epicureanism made it so distasteful to moralists of other traditions? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 19 . C. God allows time for repentance from error among wrongdoers (Mor 551C).

are ju dgments translated consistently into action (14)? 5. He does not. The essays are profoundly affected by Plutarch’s own social setting: He writes as a male for males and as a wealthy aristocrat for members of the same c lass. 1.” “How to Tell Flatterer from a Friend. a willingness to pursue it despite opinions of others (6). when speaking. or progress.” 1. C. a nd mental capacities.” “On Listening to Lectures. No one had a better grasp on the difficulties of this proc ess and its stages than Plutarch. approach them confidently despite our lingering faults (16). are the emotions and passions in better control (13).Lecture Twenty-Two Plutarch on Virtue and Educating Children Scope: The ancient moralists disputed how virtue was acquired. is one selfcritical (10). II. Outline I. Is there a greater desire for p hilosophy (5). In this lecture. Do we seek to imitate good people (15). whose writings on the subject have influenced educators through the ages. but rather as a lifelong process that can be understood in terms of progress (prokope) and education (paideia). thinking that this leads to contradictions (2). present an ideal tha t is so rigorous that it appears unattainable. Plutarch opposes the Stoics. and his treatise “On the Education of Children. indeed. This conditioning process involves all of a person’s physical. There is no “standin g still” in human life. one is eit her moving forward or moving backward. according to the patterns of disposition and behavior (habits/virtues). The essay opens with a theoretical discussio n. he understands philosophy not as a matter of sudden conversion. does one value the criticism of friends mo re than flattery (10–11)? 4. B. like some other moralists. emotional. no point of absolute accomplishment.” which lays down the basic theory. Habits are developed by repet ition. we consider his tractate “On Progress in Virtue. His perceptions were attractive to ancient Christian thinkers (see Jerome and Johannes Mauropus) interested in spiritual t ransformation and to modern thinkers committed to moral education (see Montaigne . in effect. 2. Is the concern for growth internalized? Does one practice virtue for its own sake (10). from total vice to total virtu e. an educational vision: “The Education of Ch ildren. Plutarch has remained an important source for people dedicated to the formati on of character. Rather. is nothing more than a certain “power” consistently to act in accord with the perception of the good. Is there a shift fro m style to substance: Is one’s own discourse simpler rather than more elaborate (7 ). Dryden. A. In “Progress in Virtue” (Mor 75B–86A). Can one measure the effects? Are dreams progressively free of vice (12). along with those that seem alien and surprisingly challenging. The essays nevertheless contain insights of enduring value that can be translated and have been— into other social contexts. Plutarch provides a checklist for the perso n dedicated to growth in virtue. does no one seek to improve rather than to win applause (9–10)? 3. B. Rousseau. Virtue. Emerson). that resulted from the cultiv ation of habits. who believe that the wise man acquires virtue as a whole and all at once. but most agreed t hat it involved some form of prokope. A.” which sounds on many points that are surprisingly familiar. and he combines a commitment to v irtue with an appreciation of beauty and culture. a lack of measurement on others’ scales (envy and jealousy) (7)? 2. Bacon. stay s erious about all our faults (17)? 20 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . The first volume of his Moralia contains five essays that describe.” and “How a Young Man May Become Aware of His Progress in Virtue. 1. does one listen to the speech of others for substance rather than adornment ( 8). D.” “How the Young Man Should Study Poetry. Plutar ch thinks that there is progress in virtue as in other arts (1) and seeks to pro vide the signs by which that progress can be measured (3). 2. There are definite signs of progress that can be marked if one engages in self-examination. Most of all.

Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny (B erkeley: University of California Press. “Progress in Virtue” and “The Education of Children.” Supplementary Reading: S. and teachers (7) must be chosen carefully and with an eye to charac ter. Parents should not overtax c hildren with too high expectations. Plutarch repeats how important education and training are: What is distin ctive to humans is the mind and reason. Bonner. C. it is entirely consistent with his views. Even the training of the body is aimed at the development of discipline and self-restraint (11). yet should remain involved (13). The attit udes of parents make a big difference through every stage. Essential Reading: Pl utarch. keep them away from foul language and bad associati ons. 3. Plutarch’s ideas on moral progress are well expressed in “The Education of Chil dren” (Mor 1A–14C). B. At ado lescence. 1977). but reason and habit can compensate even when natural endowment is deficient. pedagogues. praise and rebuke must be measured appropriately (12). the n applies it through the several stages of a child’s life. G. I. reason (logos). all other go ods are trivial (8). and habit (ethos) (4). The History of Edu cation in Antiquity. when young men run wild. 1956). 3. parents must exercise strict control yet also be understanding they were also young once (16–19)! 5.III. but it is education in philosophy that i s most critical for formation in character (10) 4. The combination of all three is necessary. In comparison to education. 2. 1. He provides a theoretical framework. but if not by Plutarch. The issue of male admirers of young men is a difficult one (13–15). translated by G. 4. General education is important. E. A. The circumstances of birth (3) and the consequences of feeding by the mother or hired persons (5) are critical. Marrou. F. Que stions to Consider: 1. Fathers should always presen t themselves to their sons as a model to be imitated (20). He acknowledges that he writes for the rich but hopes th at his ideals can be universalized even by the poor (11). T he virtues of character (ethikas aretas) are the virtues of habit (ethikas areta s). Character (ethos) is habit (ethos) long continued. Lamb (New York: Sheed and Ward. 2. Children’s companions (6). D. F. In what ways would contem porary pedagogy agree and disagree with Plutarch’s ideas on educating children? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 21 . How does the notion of progress (prokope) govern Plutarch’s understanding both of philosophy and of education? 2. They sho uld train children’s memories. H. Moral excellence dep ends on nature (physis). Some doubt the essay’s authenticity. Children gain more by encouragement and reasoning than by physical blows and ill treatment. Note the impressionability of infants. Every stage of life and every aspect of training is taken into consideration: 1.

The clarity and. 4. superiority of the ancient understanding of human character in all its complexity can once more be perceived by those who today are slowly emerging from the dark fascinations of depth psychology.” II. 3. Eve rywhere we find this sort of analysis. B. only against other humans (3). passions.” “On Love of Wealth. In “On Control of Anger” (Mor 452F–464D). and Talking Too Much Scope: If the Greco-Roman moralists were adept at describing the virtues. the “ulcer of the soul” (S tobaeus. Thus. yet contain characteristic distinctive touches: “Tranquillity of Mind. C. envy is not compatible with justice and is base (5). we gain some acquaintance with his discussions of three vices that were discussed broadly by ancient philo sophers: anger. They are also different in importa nt ways: Hate has boundaries and envy has none. 38. envy is always a vice. who catalogued. Hate is found in both animals and humans. B. This essay reveals Plutarch’s love of compa rison (see his Lives). hate is specific and directed. In this reg ard. Anger. 2. Plutarch is again a superb source. Essential to ancient cognitive psychology and character ethics is the analysi s of vices and virtues. Hate is compatible with justice a nd has a certain nobility. In contrast to zelos. Rhetoric and Nicomachean Ethics). as well as his dependence on Aristotle. which focus on acts and their consequences. Envy is more responsive to external circumsta nces and tends to keep growing. His Moralia is filled with precise and s ubtle examinations of human failing. who defined envy (phthonos) as a sorrow (lype) at someone possessing something simply because the y have it (Rhetoric 1387B). Hate seek s to injure the enemy. we can detect the influence (acknowledged or not) of Aristotle. 48). Of particular interest is the way in wh ich these vices are seen to intertwine and influence one another. rational control. III. They had a well-developed sense of the absurdities of human frailty.” “On Curiosity. envy. it might be argued. and habits. Envy seeks to reduce the other to one’s own level (8). A. He enumerates the elements in anger (orge ) that make it so difficult to heal.” “Brothe rly Love. The interconnection and distinction among vices is the subject of the short essay “On Envy and Hate” (Mor 536E–538E). A. which can be positive. Over the course of time . D. Outline I.Lecture Twenty-Three Plutarch Envy. Anthologium Graecum). but envy. dispositions. hate is directed against both animals and human s. hate decreases as the enemy is less wicked. whereas e nvy is only found in humans (4). In this lecture. defined. in the same wa y that the virtues are mutually reinforcing. Phil osophy of this sort inevitably involves the psychology of the individual. they e xcelled in their depictions of vice. Plutarch’s Moralia includes a number of essays that illustrate such topoi. 1. Plutarch both diagnoses the illness that is this vice and prescribes the cure. He notes that passions and vices are interconnected in the way th at diseases are and that both envy and hate oppose the “goodwill” and friendship (ph ilia) that seek the good of the other (1). and described the virtues and vi ces (see Aristotle. They clearly were close observers of themselves and others. A. character ethics focuses o n the agent’s emotions. and one that is ignoble (Rhetoric 1388A). Here is where their real psychological pene tration is evident. III. whereas envy increases with th e virtue of the one envied (6). Plutarch begins with the similarities between envy and hate (misos). whereas hate tends to diminish (7). and garrulousness. C. standard treatments of the virtues and vices (topoi/loci) were developed and c ollected as the accumulation of philosophical insight (see Stobaeus. 22 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . In contrast to teleological and deontological forms o f ethics. w hile envy is diffuse (2).

Anger is not incurable (2). Although it identifies itself as manly and courageous. such as pausing for reflection before s peaking and. L ike drunkenness (4). and they were notoriously “laconic” in their speech. Real courage is found in gentleness (9). it can never achieve what it most desires. not only ourselves. to see what a nger is and does (1 and 6). and grows into a great tyranny that takes us over and makes us find fault with everything (3 and 5). it listens to nothing (2). calling it self “righteous anger” (8). C. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 23 . distorts one’s physical appearance (6). like a slow-acting medicine (1–2). 2. it is a manifestation of lack of self-control (akrasia. It is important to slow down (10). fame). then brevity in speech (brachylogia) is best (17): 1. Bear in mind the truths about human limitations. A.” Supplementary Reading: J. B. The Spartans were renowned for their strength and self-control. S ilence (sige) is best (2) as shown by the attitude at the Mysteries (8. with a sense of being hurt and despised (11) that is grounded in sensuality and selfishness (13). To always want to speak at once is a sign of haste and arrogance (19). The wisdom of the past is shown by the brief adages of the sages. 1. It is easy to detect in this fashion (4). “On Envy and Hate. 2. Do not feed the anger b y “acting out” in words or deeds (4). to “rein in the tongue” (3) by forming habits of deliberation (19). Essential Reading: Plutarch. Ques tions to Consider: 1. If not silence. therefore. Even the oracles of the god are brief and direct. 16). Annas. 1. 3. but requires long-range treatment before it takes hold. anger shuts down reason (2). The Morality of Happiness (New York: Oxford University Press. It is necessary. 11–12 ). above all. including the reminder that we all need indulge nce (16). We need to observe others.” “On Control of Anger.It often starts small (2). littleness. as well as making the speaker the object of detestation (7. Garrulousness (adoleschia) is a vice that is difficult to heal with reasonab le words precisely because the compulsive talker never listens to anyone else (1 ). because it drives them off (2). Do Plutarch’s discourses on anger and talkativeness show him to be a goo d or inadequate doctor of the soul? 1. it is actually a sign of weakness. B. 2. 1993). money. We need to ignore it when it begins and keep silent (5 and 13). The re is no controlling a loose tongue (14). Qui et (hesychia) is necessary for learning. cultivate cheerfulness in all circumstances (14). When full b lown. and fear (8–9).” and “On Talkativeness. because when it appears. Plutarch’s tractate “On Talka tiveness” (Mor 502B–515A) combines all the standard features of the topos in a typic ally charming fashion and is marred mainly by its own length and loquaciousness. alters one’s voice (6). and causes one to act ineffectively because of haste and impulsiv eness (10). 2. IV. namely attentive hearers. 3. 17). cultivating silence (23). It does untold damage and is a danger to others. Unlike other vices (love of pleasure. 3. based on the Sermon on the Mount? 2. keep spe ech soft (8). How does Plutarch’s discussion about hate and envy differ fr om what we would expect from a Christian discussion.

Scholars of re ligion have missed the diverse responses to popular religion in the moralists an d the way in which. And because of their unswerving attention to moral character. 1. In Greec e and Rome (1962). one line to Plutarch’s mor al teaching! 2. B. Julian). B. 2. Names now utterly o bscure receive strong attention (see Apollodorus of Seleucia and Antisthenes of Rhodes). In both. C. their literature. Religious devotion to the gods is good when it is reasona ble and supports moral behavior. f ollowing the same plot line of schools and individuals. 2. Only lately have students of the New Testament given close attention for more than ling uistic parallels to these contemporary writers. but with reference only to Plato. In the influential fourth-century C. He devotes only four pages to their ethics. he devotes eight full pages of discussion to ethics. The Greco-Roman moralists—including Jewish philosophers—who have occupied the pas t twenty-three lectures are usually regarded as a footnote to the main story of Western philosophy. philosophy was perhaps as central to the life of the larger culture as at any time in the history of the West. Moral exhortation does not fit. wandering rhetoricians (Dio). including emperors (Mar cus Aurelius. The Greco-Roman moralists have consistent ly escaped the scan of the scholars. the moralists. Diogenes Laertius mentions only Plutarch (4. the y remind us. equestrians (Cicero). Classicists have been drawn to language and literature. but he misses the point. and doctrines (doxai) having to do with physics. Philosophy provided a common language for people from widely different cultural backgrounds (Plutarch and Philo are both Platonists!) and set the basic terms f or the discussion of the meaning and goals of life (far more than religion). Plato and Aristotle a nd Epicurus are originative and interesting. II. He hits all nine of t he figures we have discussed. unimaginative. their thinking is a religious movement. Aristotle. 1. 9. A.Lecture Twenty-Four The Missing Page in Philosophy’s Story Scope: The story of philosophy is often told as though thoughts about the world and thoughts about thinking were at the heart of the enterprise. Pleasure is a completely inadequate basis fo r the good life. The Greco-Roman moralists remind us of the deeper issue that has always. in some cases. More important. logic. 2. sch ools. Their language i s common. the philosophers of t he imperial period united in an anti-Epicurean stance that is at once optimistic and public minded: 1. 24 . Philosophers have been concerned w ith questions of being and of knowing (physics and logic).1. and Epicurus. at best derivative. a low point before the rebirth of metaphysics in Neoplatonism. Philosophy was widespread through every rank in society. 3. Yet during the period of the early empire. Lives of Eminent P hilosophers. A. It is all about ideas. This presentation shows how the Greco-Roman moralists tend to be neglected by schola rs. It drew attent ion from ordinary people (Lucian) and drew the suspicion and wrath of emperors ( see the frequency of exile).60) and then only his Lives. he devotes ninety-three pages to post-Epicurean philosophy. he sets the plot for philosophy’s story: founders. A similar outlook is found i n the modern. as well. senators (Seneca). and ethics. in his twenty-one–page conclusion to the entire peri od. regional gentry (Plutarch). compendious History of Philosophy by Frederick Copelston. Outline I.E. More telling. yet have always been important to those who seek wisdom. devoting about twenty pages to them. He mentions other philosophers (such as Philodemus of Gadara) of o ur period and others still later (such as Sextus Empiricus). that if philosophy is understood as the love of wisdom. Despite their differences. been at the heart of philosophy. C. 1. the question of how to live well as a human being. at least up until very recently. the moralists seem unworthy of notice. and asks how the st ory of philosophy might look if the page dealing with them were read more carefu lly. th en it is impoverished if it becomes only another way of analyzing language. and slaves (Epictetus).

©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .

Essential Reading: Plutarch. and reas on is capable of being educated. Human impulses (both positive and negative) are cap able of being controlled and being made more productive through reason. The key question is not the origin of life (or how to produce it!) but how to live worthily as a hu man person. 3. It unde rstands philosophy in terms of wisdom rather than knowledge. both for the individual an d the community. 1. It shows how progress can be made in moral transformation. What are the major weaknesses and strengths of Greco-Roman moral teaching? Do the strengths outweigh the weaknesses and mak e it still worth engaging? ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 25 . Despite its manifest limitations and weaknesses. E. temperance. D. Questions to Consider: 1. Volume 1: Greece and Rome (Westminster Maryland: Image Books. It appreciates how virtue is learned through personal exampl e and demands living in a manner that others can imitate. Lives of Eminent Philosophers. the moral discours e of the early empire deserves at least as much attention as that offered today in the media. 1. How could philosophy be taught in the modern university if it were again defined as a way of life to be lived rat her than a subject to be studied? 2. It propo ses that humans are called to responsibility in their conduct of life that is mo re than private. 1962). It uses psychology in the service of shaping good character rather than as an excu se for bad character.3. The contrast between envy and friendship is app licable to relations between states as it is to relations between persons. and courage are t ranslatable to the public realm. Greco-Roman moral teaching is a page of philosophy’s story that deserves care ful re-reading. The virtues of justice. “How to Tell a Friend from a Flatterer. 2. 4. III. Cope lston. prudence. It appreciates the dangers inherent in the lack of self-con trol. It focuses on the ethics of character. Humans are essentially social and owe their best efforts to the common good rath er than their private peace. C. not only thr ough knowledge but through the formation of habits through practice. B. Supplementary Reading: F. A History of Philosophy.” Diogenes Laertius. It understands the corrupting effect of disordered desi res and passions. 2. especially for those in contemporary Western culture. A. It understands the effect of mutual correction and encouragement and demands that friends not be fl atterers.

............................................................................................................................. ......................................................................................... 624–546 ............................ ............................ Lucretius 49–47 .......... 14–37 .................... Plato 400–325 .............. Pythagoras 470–399 ....................... Tiberius 30–100 ................................ Greece comes under Roman control 112 ................... Roman Civil War 45 ................ Philo of Alexandria 4–65 C.................................. Diogenes 384–322 .................... Vespasian 79–81 ......................................... Alexander the Great 340–271 .................................................................................... .......... Nero 69–79 ......... Rise of Jewish Se cts 110–40 ..... . ..... .............. Macedonian Wars (Rom an supremacy) 167–165 .................... ......................................................Timeline B......................................... ............ Seneca C. Thales 581–497 .......... .......... Epicurus 335–263 ................................ Augustu s 15–50 C..... Julius Caesar dictator—end of Republic 30–14 ...........................................E......... Maccabean Revolt 147 ................ Titus 26 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership ............... . .. .............. .............C......................... Dio C hrysostom 41–54 .................. Musonius Rufus 37–41 ......... Septuagint 200–168 .......................... .................... Philodemus 106–43 ....................................... Caligula 40–120 .... Plutarch 50–130 ...E......................................................................... Xenophon 427–347 ............... ................. Cicero 94–55 .................... Aristo tle 356–323 ..............................................................E.............................................E......... Zeno 255 ............................................... Claudius 45–120 ..................... Epictetus 54–68 ...... ........................................... Socrates 430–355 ..............................................

...................... Lucian 121–180 ............... ..... ........................................ Domition 98–116 .................................................. ......................... Julian ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 27 .............. Trajan 117–138 ......... ....................... Hadrian 120–180 ......................................... Marcus Aurelius 332–363 ..............81–96 .

auspices: The form of technical prophecy carried out by Roman priests using the entrails of birds. ataraxia: Greek noun meaning “without turmoil”. a narrative account. In our literature. also called the Lycaeum. eleutheria: Greek noun meaning “freedom”. diaspora: Gr eek term meaning “scattering” or “dispersal. used with reference to th e Stoic expectation of a consummation of all things by fire. 28 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . cosmology: An understanding of the world.” akrasia: Greek noun meaning “lack of self-control. dogmatism: In philosophy. brachylogia: Greek noun meaning “brevity in spee ch.” one of the two ideals of the Cynic movement in particular. as in “the hands of God” or “the anger of God. sex. and diet.” used with reference to the Jewish populati on outside Palestine. diatribe: A dialogical form of exhortation used in classro om instruction. with “free speech. eclecticism: The practice of drawing from several philosophical t raditions rather than staying in the framework of one. amicitia: Latin noun meaning “friendship”. as in Epictetus.” adoleschia: Greek noun meaning “garrulousness” or “compulsive tal kativeness. anthropomorphism: The use of human images in describing the d ivine.” the opposite of garrulousness. especially involving speech. deontology: A form of ethics that focuses on acts under t he aspect of duty and seeks to supply universal rules for behavior. ekpyrosis: Greek noun meaning “conflagration”. the Epicurean ideal of tra nquility. giving rise to anot her world. and associated with strength and wisdom. in this respect. a method of interp reting myths to yield moral meaning. “Messe nger of Zeus. characterized by boldness in life and speech. making use of a variety of lively stylistic elements.” referring to the stages of progression in official Roman leadership. culminating in consul. The Platonic tradition is design ated as “the academics.Glossary Academy: The school in Athens founded by Plato. biography. that strongly influenced Stoicis m in the Roman period. The Epicureans and Stoics are dogmatists in this sense.” apatheia: Greek noun meaning “witho ut passion”. the Stoic ideal of self-control. particularly in its physical d imensions. angelos: A messenger or scout. Cursus Honorum: Latin phrase meaning “round of honors. asceticism: The practice of severe self-control in all physical matters.” anomie: A sociological term for a state of normlessness and lack of clear boundaries. bios: Greek noun meaning “life” in the biological sense . equi valent to the Greek philia. Cynic ism: The philosophical movement deriving from Antisthenes and Diogenes of Sinope . Aristotelianism: The philosophical s chool founded by Aristotle. the opposite of skepticism: holding definite positions concernin g reality and the capacity to know it.” allegory: A narrative with both figurative and literal meaning. charl atan: A fake or counterfeit philosopher who mimes the manner but falsifies the r eality. Cicero i s eclectic.

homonoia: Greek noun m eaning “harmony” or “peace. having to do with right thinking and the possibilities of know ing truth. the study of m orality: its basis. epideictic: One of the three forms of rhetoric (w ith deliberative and forensic) that simply “displayed” something for hearers for the ir praise or blame. ethos: Greek noun (with a short e) that mea ns habit or custom. and universal ly admired among philosophers. logic: In philosophy. Used by t he majority of the popular moralists (except Cicero and Seneca). Neopythagoreanism: The renewal of the Pythagorean tradition in th e first century B. later. Neopla tonism: The last period of the Platonic tradition as such.” The fixed disposition to harm an enemy.” or “speech. the “governi ng principle. gymnasium: Originally identified as a place for athletics (the re was one in Athens both at the Academy and Lycaeum). packing much in a sma ll frame. hesychia: Greek noun meaning “quiet” or “si lence”.” but also o f philosophers generally as the prerequisite to learning. ethics: In philosophy.” or “reason. one of the three di visions of study. misos: Greek noun meaning “hate. goal. it increasingly became th e place for intellectual training. logos: Greek noun meaning “word. koine: Greek for “common. and means.” the opposite of akrasia. especially as it was dissemina ted after the time of Alexander the Great. with suc h Neoplatonists as Porphyry and Jamblichus. Practiced often as a showpiece by sophists. Lycaeum: The location in Athens w here Aristotle established his school independent of Plato. ethos: Greek noun (with a long e) that means character in the moral sense.” used specifically for th e form of the Greek language that developed in the Hellenistic period. Essenes: One of the Jewish sects.C.” In Stoicism above al . ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 29 . an ideal especially of the Epicureans. who sought “the quiet life. epitome: A summa ry or abbreviation. distinct from the love that is friendship (philia) or donative (aga pe). used to identify Ari stotelianism. a characteristic acquired by repeated practice. regarded by some moralists as having some elements of nobility. especially in the definition of envy.E. an elusive ideal for war-like and frequently warring peoples. the passive principle on which the active pneuma or logos operates. identified above all with Plotinus.” an ideal in the public realm that resembles friendship in t he private.” with specific reference to the social obligations incumbent on holdi ng a certain place in the world. used in ancient polemic for those co nsidered as corrupting the ideals of philosophy or religion. goes: A Greek noun meaning “charlatan”. One of the forms of moral instruction. developed through habit. characterized by communitarian ideals and asceticism. used negatively. Hellenism: Greek culture. hyle: Greek noun meaning “matter” in the sense of “stuff. associated with Apollonius of Tyana and. see topoi. loci: Latin nou n locus (“place”) used in the plural with reference to collections of standard state ments on a certain subject. lype: Greek noun meaning “sorrow”. especially for repu tation or profit. the rational principle at work in the world.. hegemonikon: In Stoicism. kathekonta: Greek for “duties” or “respo nsibilities. compared to the Pythagoreans.enkrateia: Greek noun meaning “self-control.” or reason. as well. eros: Greek noun meaning “love” in the sense of the drive to unite with th e loved one.” In Stoicism.

” often used synonym ously with “empire. philodoxia: Greek noun meaning “love o f glory” or the disordered desire for notoriety and fame.E. the divine reason that is immane nt in the visible world in the form of air and fire.” a topic consider ed worthy of close philosophical attention.” a key concept in a character ethics that include s the possibility of incremental growth and improvement.” one of the fundamental disordered passions. Patriarch: Term used in Judaism for the ance stors of the people. which can be positive. paraenesis: Greek noun meaning “advice. pronoia: Greek noun mea ning “providence. and Joseph. circa 250 B.” which is good. protreptic: A form of deliberative rhetoric in which someone is urged to f ollow a certain mode of life. Isaac. Middle Platonism is dominant. oikos: Greek noun meaning “house” and “household”. physics: In ancient philosophy. the relation of the gods to material reality. associated with the high-priestly families and connect ed by Josephus to the Epicureans.” Not simply the emotion. one of the main ideals of the Cynic tradition but a dmired widely as a sign of courage. paideia: Greek noun meaning both “education” and “culture. the root for “politics.” the lowest and basest form of vice. that alert humans to the significance of events (storms. in contra st to zelos. considered as a vice. dreams). 30 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .” Used with reference to the mora l advising appropriate in father-son relationships. portents.” and meaning “the ordering of a household” in every respect. the basic societal un it of the Hellenistic world. but the verbal and physical e xpression of the emotion. Jacob. envy is always a vice and a despicable one. along with clie nts and friends. In the Roman period.” indicating the close connection between the two in ancient p erspective.” omens: Signs. Platonism: The philosophical tradition deriving from Plato and moving t hrough several stages. Saducees: One of the Jewish sects. oikoumene: Greek noun meaning “inhabited world. usually regarded as of supernatural origin. philargyria: Greek noun meaning “love of money. Pharisees: Jewish sect renowned for its close attention to the interpretation of the law. orge: Gre ek noun meaning “anger/wrath. phthonos: Greek noun meaning “envy”. pneuma : Greek noun meaning “breath” or “spirit.C. religio: Latin noun meaning “religion. the study of the natural world. including cosmol ogy and what now would be called theology. specifically Abraham. Septuagint: Translation of the Jewish Scriptur e (Torah) into Greek in Alexandria. the excessive form of ph ilotimia. prok ope: Greek noun meaning “progress. often polemically a sserted of the Epicureans.oikonomia: Greek term derived from “house. philia: Greek noun meaning “friendship. a ssociated by Josephus with the Stoic philosophy.” The key debate between Epicureans and others is whether the gods were involved in the governance of the world and whether that governance had mea ning.” as well as “cosmopolitan” (citizen of the world).” In Stoicism. polis: Greek noun meaning “ci ty-state”. parrhesia: Greek noun meanin g “freedom of speech” or “boldness”. philedonia: Greek noun meaning “love of pleasure. “love of honor.” which includes the public acts of the state as much as private feeling and behavior. including kin relations and slaves.

theos: Greek noun meaning “a god” or “God. Neutrally.” sophist: A public speaker. a rhetorician. meaning rhetorical.sige: Greek noun meaning “absolute silence. Skeptics either deny alto gether the possibility of knowing truth or think that only probable judgments ca n be made. including activities both public and private. opposed to providence. Torah: The Jewish Scripture. syncretism: In religion. as in “Second Sophi stic.” in which case it is equivalent to envy and bad. sophistic: Associated with the sophists. Polemically. Negatively. usually for pay. an approach that emphasizes the ends or the goals of human actions.” in which case it equals “em ulation” and is good. the merging and identificatio n of deities. skepticism: The opposite tendenc y to dogmatism in philosophy. threskeia: Greek noun meaning “religion” in the bro adest sense. teleology: In ethics.” Therapeutae: A group of Jewish contemplatives in Egypt d escribed by Philo of Alexandria. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 31 . taking one of two forms. som eone with little regard for truth. zelos: Greek noun meaning either “jealousy. as is possible in a polytheistic framework. with specific reference to the five books ascribed to Moses. topoi: Greek noun for “place” in the plural. which domin ated in the Roman period.” Associated with the refusal to speak ab out the Mysteries or the Pythagorean teachings. Stoicism: The philosophical school deriving f rom Zeno and Cleanthes. referring to the collections of standard treatments of rheto rical subjects (see loci). or “zeal. tyche: Greek noun meaning “chance. with a strong emphasis on personal morality.” In the Hell enistic period. meaning an unpri ncipled cleverness in argument.

Bonner. Bisexuality in the Ancien t World. Originally published in 1940. Ca mbridge: Cambridge University Press. 3rd edition. Goulet-Caze. 1989). J. Charlesworth. edited by S. 1986 ). R. 8 + 2 supplementary volumes. and Plutarch. 199 6). and M. Balsdon. J. Julian. An accessible introduction to the life and writings of Plutarch in his political. Berkeley: University of Californi a Press. social. A lthough more work has been done subsequently. Bloomington: Indiana University Pres s. 2 volumes (Garden City: Doubleday. together with some moralists views. Dio Chrysostom. this book covers all the important dimensions of the educational proc ess. Asserting that ancient ethics makes sense as an argument concern ing means rather than ends. J. edited by P . Mo ral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook (Philadelphia: Westminster Press. B. Seneca. S. Haase (Berlin: de Gruyter. Roman Stoicism.. Anderson. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Epictetus. translated by C. 1911. 1926. H. O. A succinct and authoritative survey of the complexity of sexual behavior in the i mperial period. Lucian. Cambr idge: Harvard University Press. and The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 1993. this is a splendid evocation of the material feel of the anci ent city and the daily rounds of its inhabitants. 1992). Arnold. Berkeley: University of California Press. R. as well as Josephus an d Philo. This series of more than 500 volumes co ntains original language and translated versions of ancient Greek and Latin writ ers. More recent than Marrou (see below) and more tightly focused on o ur period. F. edited by H. G. Marcus Aurelius. R. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. G. A collection of essays that deepens our knowledge of the movement itself and shows how its s pirit has continued in Western culture. Barrow. A thorough treatment of the rebirth of Attic ideals among rhetoricians in the second century of the common era. 1989. Unruly Eloquence: Lucian and the Comedy of Traditions. Education in Ancient Rome from the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. Branham. 1992. 32 ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership . T. 1927–).Bibliography Essential Reading: With few exceptions. A study of Lucian in the context of the Se cond Sophistic that emphasizes his subversive humor and shows how it works. Malherbe. but one that still h as considerable merit as an introduction to the Roman moralists. V. H. B. E. Carcopino. F. abbreviate d below as ANRW. New York: Penguin Books. Annas. namely half of huma nity. 1962. The Cynics: The Cynic Movement in Antiqu ity and Its Legacy. edited by W. D. Hornblower and A. O’Cuilleanain. excellent for establishing the context fo r Dio and Lucian. the ancient primary texts that form the substance of this course are most easily found in the Loeb Classical Library (Ca mbridge: Harvard University Press. The required sections of Musonius Rufus are found in A. 1985. Look here under author for the writings of Cicero. 1977. and intellectual context. The Second Sophistic: A Cultural Phenomenon in the Roman Empire. 1993. London: Routledge. check The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Satirist and Art ist. An older survey. Edwards (New York: The MacMillan Company. Rowell. A massive collection of first -rate and thorough scholarly articles on every aspect of life and thought in the empire (with a great many of its articles in English) is Aufstieg und Niedergan g der roemischen Welt. Lucian. E. Plutarch and His Times. Cantarella. Hellenistic Jewish texts not provided by the Loeb Classical Library are avail able in J. The Morality of Happiness. V. 1967. For further reference to names and topics insufficiently clarified in the lectures. J. Supplementary Reading: Allinson. P. eds. New Haven: Yale University Press. New York: Barnes and Noble. New York: Oxford Universi ty Press. Bran ham. Boston: Marshall Jones Company. An older popular treatment of Lucian that provides an accessible and interesting survey of his work. 1967). this serves to inform the reader o n a subject the moralists (patriarchal as they are) neglect. Roman Women: Their History and Habits. Spanforth (New York: Oxford University Press. 1996. Annas posits happiness as the goal and enters into t he debate between schools concerning the means.

148–163. this essay considers specifically the mix of Stoic and Cynic el ements in Epictetus. “Jewish Responses to Hellenistic Culture. to A. 1992. C. 1978.” in R. New York: Thomas Y. Princeton: P rinceton University Press. Berkeley: University of California Press.. 1987. 1971. As the title suggests. The History of Sexuality. 135–170. 1986. with a useful definition of terms and discussions of issues. “Flavius Josephus Revisited: The Man. A History of Greek Literature. 1963. This is a reprint of the 1904 publication by one of those marvelous c lassical scholars whose like we shall not see again. 220. Copelston. A. as reflected in political. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 33 .” pp..3:2. and R. Daily Life in Ancient Rome. B. An Introduction to Philo Judaeus. Askesis: Notes on Epictetus’ Educational Syste m. de Heer. Galinsky. to 235 C.C. Lacey. P. W. C. R. Willis and C. “Cicero the Philos opher. Crowell Company. Feldman. With a sharp focus on the early empire. translated by J. Cicero and the End of the Roman Republic. 1959. 80 B. Leskey.” ANRW II. University of North Carolina Press. A.E. translate d by R. T. A more recent alternative to Carcopino (see above) an d. J. 139–163. Plutarch and Ro me. The Middle Platoni sts.C. like him. Jones. pp. 1962. Classical Rhetoric and Its Christian and Secular Tradition from Ancient to Modern Times. a nd His Significance. J.Clarke. Chapel Hil l. “The Stoi cism of Epictetus: Twentieth Century Perspectives. The essay provides an expert assessment of the reassessments. A car eful study of all the figures representing Middle Platonism.. L. this tr eatment provides a rich cultural matrix for studying the philosophers of the per iod. 1999. eds. A standard reference for ancient rh etoric. Garnsey. Assen: Van Gorcum. 36. Helpful especially for understanding Plutarch’s Lives. Hersbell.” ANRW II. Woodall . 1996. Kennedy. His Writings. ed. 2nd ed.D.. E. F. E. Douglas. an “everything you wanted to know about the ancient city’s life” sort of popular book.” Hollada y. see especially A. New York: Random House. A History of Philosophy. Translated by C. this multivolume history of philosophy from its beginnings to the present is remarkable for its competence and consistency. P. Although I use it to make a point in my final presentation. Goodenough. Dillon. Volume 3: The Care of the Self. this book first shows the Roman context of the thinker and how his biogr aphies shape that context literarily.2 (1984): 763–862. ph ilosophical. rev. London: Hodder and Staughton. Dupont. 1989. A. Foucault. A responsible survey—using a weal th of primary data of all the subjects indicated by the title during the period be tween 27 B. Oxford: Clarendon Press. K . with short summaries of compositions and a sense of whe re they fit in the larger story. Garden City: Doubleday. 1956. Volum e 1: Greece and Rome. New York: Barnes and Noble. New York: World Publishing Comp any. L. 1956. u seful because of the attention given to Plutarch and Philo. H. with an emphasis on the apologetic characte r of his work as a whole and on his mystical tendencies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. A set of short studies devoted to E picurean and Stoic tendencies in the Roman period. Hijmans. Oxford: Blackwell. Josephus was and remains a cont roversial figure. 21. L. 2nd rev. F. A straightforward and readable biography that emphasizes the political dimension . The Roman Empire: Economy. Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius. This set of essays covers various aspects of the many-sided figure. ed. 1965. 1996. A compendious survey of all of Greek literature. Ci cero. and religious thought. K. London: Cole and West. ed. al. G. Dorey.E. Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction. 2nd ed. Society and Culture. S. Attention is paid to the elements of practice and “tra ining” undergone by the students who were taught by “that marvellous old man. A cl ear and helpful description of the variety of responses along the spectrum of se paration and assimilation among Jews in Alexandria. M. The Roman Mind: Studies in the History of Thought from Cicero to M arcus Aurelius. Saller. Ethnic ity in Hellenistic Egypt. P. 1963. Hurley. A rich and vivid portrayal of the culture in the period defined by the title. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. A remarkably sensitive interpretat ion of the moral and medical discourse concerning sexuality in the Hellenistic p eriod. R. A short but highly effective intr oduction to Philo’s life and writings. M. Bilde et. Dill . Ithaca: Cornell University Press. For our purposes.

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. Reinhold. 2n d ed. A more thorough treatment than Copelston (see above). The Life and Teaching of Lucius Annaeus Seneca. illustrating every dimension of life in the empire. Transl ated by S. Transla ted by G. B. H. 26. Tarn. Sedley. The Hellenistic P hilosophers. Unrest and Al ienation in the Empire. The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius: A Study. G. Volume 4: The Schools of the Imperi al Age. A valuable collection of primary texts. R. Strem. valuable especially for the attentio n it gives to imperial suspicion of philosophers. II. W. A u seful collection of scholarly essays on several aspects of Dio’s life and thought. Tcherikover. The second volume provides th e texts in the original Greek and Latin. A fine collection of primary texts. V. London: Duckworth. Marrou. 1971. A. London: Duckworth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Long. together with an Engli sh translation. For our purposes. in tra nslation. Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews. The Therapy of Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics. 1947. Epicureans. J. Philadelphia: Westminster. N ew York: W. R. New York: Columbia University Press. I.. Musonius.” Yale Classical Studies 10. 1990. 1986. “Dio on the Simple and Self-Su fficient Life. Albany: State University of New Yo rk Press. Two volumes. T. A monograph that considers every aspect of the em peror’s remarks to himself. New Haven: Yale University Press. ed. with G. and D. An extremely valuable edition of the extant Musonius Rufus fragments. ed. Letters and Philosophy. The History of Education in Antiquity. Enemies of the Roman Order: Treason. 1969. A major study that takes the metaphor of medicine that runs across all schools and shows how it is used variously in the differen t traditions. 34 . 3rd editi on. Roman Civilization: Selected Readings. An accessible study that throws light especially on the religious perceptions and practices of ordinary people. The first volume is entirely in English and provides translations and commentaries of tex ts drawn from the philosophers according to topic. A popularly written introduction that focuses mainly on his life b ut also summarizes his teaching according to topics. Of particular interest is the essay by F. A.” ANRW II. Princeton: Pri nceton University Press. from agriculture t o religion. Of special interest is the essay by Francesca Albini. A wonderful analysis of “the ot her side” of Roman society. providing valuable b ackground for “philosophical religion. Griffith. providing the essential information concerning t heir tenets (and lack thereof)..E. Lamb. A. 261–278. S. A compact analysis of the goals of Alexander and the complex ways in which they were realized in the new synthesis called Hellenism. A classic survey of educational ideals and practice in the Greek and Latin world. 1994. C. R. Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics. Rutherford. “Hellenistic Mor alists and the New Testament. A fresh and responsible survey of the various sch ools in the Hellenistic period. Mossman. W. R. 2000. showing how the moralists help readers understand the language of the New Testament.” Reale. A.” pp. J. 1987. Catan. New York: Sheed and Ward. Brent. Swain. 1956. M. 1 (1992): 267–333. 1981. A History of Ancient Philosophy. w ith a strong emphasis on the doctrines of the respective schools according to th e usual rubrics. Ogilvie. 1992. 1997. G. N. with particular attention to the ten sions experienced by Jews in that setting. Lutz. D. ed. The article exten sively surveys modes of instruction and major themes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.W. R. providing a remarkably intimate and circumstantial picture of the statesman . Norton. An early but still classic stud y of Diaspora Judaism in the Greek context. New York: Charles Scr ibner’s Sons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A biography that is distinguished by its heavy use of the lett ers. Cicero. Skeptics. Long. A collection of scholarly artic les devoted to several aspects of this writer. organized according to modes of teachin g and major themes. ed. New York: Routledge. Edited and translated by J. Plutarch and His Intellectual World. “The Roman Socrates . New York: Vantage Press. Volume 2: The Empire. Dio Chrysost om: Politics. 1 986. especially Paul the A postle. G. New York: Athanaeum. 1952. The Romans and Their Gods in the Age of Augustus. Shackleton Bailey.” pp. 59–71. A. and M. Appelbaum.Lewis. Volume 1: The Republic and the Augustan Age.. 2nd rev. M. MacMullen. A. Hellenistic Civilization. Moral Exhortation: A Greco-Roman Sourcebook. Malherbe. New York: World Books. 1970. V olume 3: The Systems of the Hellenistic Age. “Family and the Formation of Character. Nussbaum.. 1985 and 1990. 1989. N.

©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership .

1963. Rev. Wolfson . Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1987. Two volumes. Veyne provides a sense of the ordinary lives of ordinary people in the empire. Veyne.Van Geyterbeek. Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism. Hijmans. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. translated by A. L. P. A. ed. A. A History of Private Life. H. Musonius Rufus and the Greek Diatribe. ©2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership 35 . and Islam. translate d by B. 1947. Goldhammer. A major study th at had the effect of rehabilitating Philo as a philosopher and locating his impo rtance in Platonism and his influence on later traditions. Volume 1: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. This monograph provides the data fo r the life of Musonius Rufus. but with less detail. as well as an analysis of his thought as expressed in the fragments of his diatribes.. Assen: Van Gorcum. C. Christianity. Like Carcopino and Dupont.