Role  of  Carbohydrates  in  Good  Nutri5on  

The  word  "carbohydrate"  means  "carbon  plus  water."     Plants  use  sunlight  (photosynthesis)  to  convert  water  and  carbon  dioxide  into  carbohydrates  and  oxygen.   Key  Func)ons   •  When  your  body  needs  energy,  it  looks  for  carbohydrates  first.     •  Carbohydrates  also  protect  your  muscles  and  help  regulate  the  amount  of  sugar  circula5ng  in  your  blood   so  that  all  the  cells  get  the  energy  they  need.       How  body  uses  Carbohydrates   •  All  diges5ble  carbohydrates  are  turned  into  glucose  in  your  body.  This  blood  sugar  is  carried  by  the  blood   to  every  cell  in  your  body.   •  Glucose  is  oxidized  in  your  body  to  produce  energy,  carbon  dioxide  and  water.  ß  Oxida5on   •  If  you  have  more  glucose  than  your  body  needs  it  is  converted  to  glycogen.   •  When  the  body  needs  more  energy  it  is  changed  back  into  glucose.  ß  Respira5on     •  If  you  have  more  glucose  and  all  the  glycogen  sites  are  filled,  the  extra  glucose  is  stored  into  fat   Requirement     Carbohydrates  typically  consist  of  40  -­‐  60%  of  your  total  caloric  intake.   Research  suggests  that  adult  individuals  should  consume  a  minimum  of  120  -­‐  125  grams  of  carbohydrates  per   day  to  sa5sfy  basic  needs.      

  Lactose  (milk  sugar).  Maltose   (found  in  sprouted  grain)   Starches   Dietary  fiber  (not  a  nutrient)   Soluble  (pec5n)   Insoluble  (cellulose)   .Types  of  Carbohydrates   Types  of  Carbohydrates   There  are  2  groups  of  carbohydrates  –  simple  and  complex   Carbohydrates   Simple  (Saccharides)   Complex  (Polysaccharides)   Monosaccharides  (single   sugar  molecule)   Fruit  sugar  (fructose).   glucose  (blood  sugar)  and   galactose  (found  in  milk   products)   Disaccharides  (double  sugar   molecule)   Sucrose  (table  sugar).

    •  to  transport  some  vitamins.     •  to  keep  your  skin  healthy.  cannot  be   produced  in  the  body  and  must  come  from  the  diet         Requirement   •  Keep  total  fat  intake  between  20  and  35  percent  of  calories."  "hydrogenated  vegetable  oils.   .     •  Keep  trans  faZy  acid  consump5on  as  low  as  possible.  Again  they  are  made  of  Carbon.  or  essen5al  faZy  acids.  with  most  fats  coming  from  sources  of   polyunsaturated  and  monounsaturated  faZy  acids.  Some  FaZy  Acids    are  essen5al  (which   means  that  body  cannot  make  them).  the  healthier  it  is.  Any  packaged  goods  containing  "par5ally-­‐hydrogenated   vegetable  oils.  Hydrogen   and  Oxygen."  or  "shortening"  most  likely  contain  trans  fats.  nuts.     •  Fats  are  called  Triglycerides  because  they  are  a  combina5on  of  3  faAy  acid  molecules  plus  1  glycerol   •  Even  though  fats  are  good  for  you.     •  Consume  less  than  10  percent  of  calories  from  saturated  fats.  not  all  fats  are  good  for  you.Role  of  Fats  in  Good  Nutri)on   Fats  are  essen5al  for  good  health.     •  Consume  less  than  300  mg/day  of  cholesterol.  and  vegetable  oils.  Our  bodies  can   produce  both  monounsaturated  and  saturated  fats.     •  to  insulate  your  body  from  cold  and     •  to  cushion  your  body  from  injury   Fat  Facts   •   Fats  are  made  of  2  kinds  of  chemicals  FaZy  acids  and  glycerol.  Polyunsaturated  fats.  such  as  fish.     Key  Func)ons   •  Fats  are  needed  as  stored  energy.  The  more  unsaturated  the  fat  is.

 canola  oil   Walnuts.  These  are  called  Trans-­‐ Fats  or  Par5ally  hydrogenated  oils  or   shortening.  snack  food.  cheese.  cream.   safflower  oil.  corn  oil.     Unsaturated   (double  bonds)   Saturated  (no   double  bonds)   Animal  Fats   Plant  fats   Animal  Fats   Plant  Fats   Polyunsaturated   Monounsaturated   Polyunsaturated   BuZer.  palm  oil.  peanut   oil.Types  of  fats   Fats   In  addi5on  there  are  unnatural   compounds  produced  when  oils  are   hydrogenated  to  increase  shelf  life   and  decrease  refrigera5on   requirements.   sunflower  oil   .   chocolate   fish   Olive  oil.   fat  in  meats  or   poultry   Coconut.  fried  food  and   bakery  goods.  lard.   soybean  oil.  These  are  the  worst  kinds   of  fat  and  are  found  in  margarines.   eggs.   fast  food.

  •  •      Vegetarians  cannot  get  complete  proteins  since  these  are  only  provided  by  animal  products.  Vegetables  and  legumes  such  as  peas.  Each  with  its  own  shape.   •  Protein  is  made  of  small  building  blocks  called  amino  acids  hooked  end-­‐to-­‐end  like  beads  on  a   necklace.     •  Vegetarian  is  someone  who  does  not  eat  meat  but  they  eat  animal  products  such  as  milk.   •  To  become  ac5ve  these  chains.     •  Complete  protein  contains  all  9  of  the  essen5al  amino  acids  in  the  right  amounts  needed  by  the  body   eg:  Poultry.  eggs.  Combina5on  of  incomplete  proteins  that  provide  all  amino  acids.  nails.  down  etc.   .   Eg:  rice  and  beans.   cheese.  So  they  need  to  eat   complementary  proteins.  whole  wheat  bread  and  peanut  buZer  are  complementary  proteins."  which   means  "first   •  A  large    amount  of  your  skin.  silk.  gela5n  etc.  cheese  and   yoghurt.  Vegans  do  not  eat  or  use  any  animal  products.  hair.  Some  proteins  are  made   out  of  100s  of  amino  acids  and  some  with  1000s  of  amino  acids.  blood  and  muscles  is  made  of  protein.  fish.  size   and  proper5es.  cream.  such  as  dairy.    There  are  9  essen5al  amino  acids  that  cannot  be  made  by  your  body.  beans.  There  are  20  standard  amino-­‐acids  (+2  other  ones).  meat.  eggs  or  wear   wool.Role  of  Protein  in  Good  Nutri)on   •  Protein  is  an  essen5al  nutrient  whose  name  comes  from  the  Greek  word  "protos.  folder  and  twist  into  different  forms.   •  Proteins  can  be  complete  or  incomplete.   •  Incomplete  proteins  lack  some  essen5al  amino  acids  eg.  dairy  products  from  cow’s  milk  such  as  buZer.   peanuts.

  Generally  children  need  about  1  gm  per  1  kg  of  their  weight.       Requirements:   It  is  possible  to  consume  too  much  protein.028  ounces  per  2.    (0.    Since  body   cannot  store  unused  protein  or  amino  acids.  maintain  5ssues  and   regulate  cell  func5on.  new  proteins  are  synthesized  less  efficiently.  legumes.  enzymes  oken  need   specific  vitamins  and  minerals.   About  half  of  the  protein  consumed  daily  is  converted  into   enzymes.2  pounds)   Adults  need  0.  and  soy       Key  Func)ons   The  body  uses  protein  to  build  new  cells.2  pounds)   As  you  grow  older.  you  need  a  daily  supply  of  proteins  in  your  diet.  and  muscle  mass  (protein  5ssue)  diminishes   while  fat  content  stays  the  same  or  rises.  pregnant  women.    The  amount  of  protein  needed  for  good  health  varies.  and  athletes  may  oken  require  more  protein   on  a  daily  basis.  individuals  with  injuries.     Infants.035  ounces  per  2.Role  of  Protein  in  Good  Nutri)on   Food  Sources   Meat.8  gm  per  1  kg  of  their  weight.  the  specialized  "worker  proteins"  that  regulate  the   speed  of  biological  reac5ons  in  your  body  and  permit  it  to   perform  func5ons  such  as  diges5ng  food  and  assembling  or   dividing  molecules  to  make  new  cells  and  chemical   substances.  poultry.  cheese.  This  is  why  muscle  seems  to  "turn  to  fat"  in  old  age.  (0.  nuts.  fish.  To  perform  these  func5ons.  eggs.       .  adolescents.

•  Are  worker  molecules  that  are  necessary  for  virtually  every  ac5vity  in  your  body   Proteins     .

 milk.  E.   carrots.  B12  etc).  eggs     B12   D   K   Makes  bones  hard   Helps  blood  clot.  broccoli.  fish   Spinach  and  green  leafy  vegetables.  egg  yolk.  fish.  C.  nerve   cell  maintenance   Meats.  All  the  others  you  have  to  eat  foods  that   have  these  essen5al  vitamins.     Rickets  (bones  bend   easily)   .   Vit Helps   ami n   A     Source   Deficiency   Supports  vision.  Breaking  down   faAy  acids  /  amino  acids.  poultry.  sweet   immunity  and  reproduc5on     potatoes.  K       Of  these  only  D  and  K  can  be  made  in  your  body.  skin.  D.  bone   mango.  shellfish.  pumpkin.  buZernut  squash.  tomato  juice.  regulates   blood  calcium   Sun.  beef  liver   New  cell  synthesis.•  •  •  Vitamins  are  organic  substances  that  your  body  needs  for  normal  growth  and  metabolism   –  –  (organic    =  containing  carbon)   (metabolism  =  the  chemical  processes  going  on  in  your  body)   Vitamins   Important  vitamins  –  A.  eight  different  B’s  (B1.   and  tooth  growth.

eggs Shrimp. fish. butternut squash. beef liver Fruits and vegetables Supports vision. antioxidant Promotes bone mineralization New cell synthesis. immunity and reproduction Collagen synthesis. milk. regulation of oxidation reactions. sweet potatoes. . Breaking down fatty acids / amino acids. skin. egg yolk. bone and tooth growth. poultry. polyunsaturated vegetable oils. nerve cell maintenance Antioxidant. wheat germ. carrots. amino acid metabolism. fatty fish Meats. supports cell membrane stabilization C Ascorbic Acid D B12 E Self-synthesis milk. sweet potatoes. cod. pumpkin. helps iron absorption. tomato juice. broccoli. tofu. liver. shellfish.Vitamin A Retinol Function Vitamins   Source mango.

Major  Func5ons  of  Nutrients    in  the  Body   .