INTRODUCTION

Scanning is considered as electronics imaging. An electronic imaging system usually consists of an input scanner which converts an optical image into electrical signal. This is followed by electronic hardware and software for processing or manipulation of the signal and for storage and/or transmission to an output scanner. The latter converts the final version of the signal back into optical (visible) image, typically for transient (softcopy) or permanent (hardcopy) display to a human observer. The scanning system can be divided by using infrared technology and radio frequency technology. Wireless Communication / RF Technology Wireless communication systems require frequency signals for the efficient transmission of information. Since the signal frequency is inversely related to its wavelength, antennas operating at RFs and microwaves have higher radiation efficiencies. Radio Frequency (RF) refers specifically to the electromagnetic field, or radio wave, that is generated when an alternating current is input to an antenna. This field can be used for wireless broadcasting and communications over a significant portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum from about 9 kilohertz (kHz) to thousands of gigahertz (GHz). As the frequency is increased beyond the RF spectrum, electromagnetic energy takes the form of infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays. Further, their size is relatively small and hence convenient for mobile communication. Another factor that favors RFs and microwaves is that the transmission of broadband information signals requires a high-frequency carrier signal. Wireless technology has been expending very fast. In addition to the traditional applications in communication, such as radio and television. RF and microwaves signal are being used in works and personal communication service. Keyless door entry, radio frequency identification (RFID), monitoring of patients in hospital or a nursing home, cordless keyboards for computers are and many measuring and instrumentation systems used in manufacturing some of the other areas where RF technology is being used and operate at infrared or visible light frequencies.

Later. and had the additional advantage that it made the badges hard to forge. Today. the principles of RFID were employed by the British in World War II to identify their aircraft using the IFF system (Identify Friend or Foe). primarily for inventory tracking. label airline luggage. it is even being applied to validate money and passports. Figure 3: RFID chip . time marathon runners. was carried at Los Alamos National Laboratories during the 1960s. and as a tamper safeguard for product packing. enable automatic toll-way billing (smart tag). and many forms of ID badge for access control. prevent theft. RFID tags incorporated in employee badges enabled automatic identification of people to limit access to secure areas. although it has been adopted in various niche domains. work on access control that is more closely related to modern RFID. a transceiver with decoder and a transponder (RF Tag). For many years this technology has been relatively obcure. such as to identify animals.Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a system that facilitates the tracking of objects. via a three-part technology comprised of a reader. improve car-key designs. RFID is a wireless system that works in conjuction with an organization’s information technology infrastructure to improve business processes such as inventory management and efficiency in supply chain management. For example. make toys interactive. The RFID is not a new technology.

Larger area of coverage. f. l. Non-line of sight Unattended operations are possible. integration of data in real time. d. i. identification of tags g. j. Can be used in diverse environments. cost. e. Long read range. and equipment in realtime. items. c. Tracking people. Up to several feet. complementing each other.Advantage of RFID a. . m. including live stock. n. and RFID can be used in addition to Bar Code. No line of sight requirement. The tag can stand a harsh environment. h. military. minimizing human errors and high Ability to identify moving elements that have tags embedded. o. scientific areas. k. b. Portable database Multiple tag read/write. These two technologies can be Automatic integration with back end software solutions provide end to end Labor reduction Enchanced visibility and forecasting Improved inventory management. Simultaneous automatic reading.

with advanced techniques. For example. due to embedding of electronic components in the tag.Because RFID is not a line of sight technology like barcoding. if multiple tags are read at the same time the reader will sometimes read a tag that does not exist. Ghost tags . and may be costly when designed for use under extreme environmental conditions. poor read rates are sometimes a problem when the tag is rotated into an orientation that does not align well with the reader. when RFID is used for high security operations such as payment methods. Bulkier. Just like these technologies. this competitor could determine flow rates of various products. In addition. such as a CRC. tags that are subjected to space exploration may encounter extreme temperatures. The tags required to be designed for a given application. it is possible to reduce the size. . Therefore. should be implemented in either the tag. Prone to physical/electrical damage due to environmental conditions. some type of read verification. Additionally. Dead areas and orientation problems . For example. and weight of the tags to a large extent. However. These issues can usually be minimized by properly implementing multiple readers and using tags with multiple axis antennas. From the data received.Disadvantage of RFID a. d. c.In rare cases. e. fraud is always a possibility. Security concerns . b. a competitor could set up a high gain directional antenna to scan tags in trucks going to a warehouse. there may be certain areas that have weaker signals or interference. the reader or the data read from the tag. new security problems could develop.RFID works similar to the way a cell phone or wireless network does.