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CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

068 840 598

thus supplanting the inconvenient and COLLARD & COLLARD'S most remarkable combined Player yet invented has been produced. W. In Factories and made throughout by British Workmen the by hand coihbined with a Flayer. 16. A BRITISH PRODUCTION THROUGHOUT. 11 in. . LONDON. Height 4 ft. Grosvenor Street. 2 In. Extreme Depth 23 in. MORE PERFECT PLAYING THAN HITHERTO OBTAINED. Bond Street. COLLARD & COLLARD. NO INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THE CASE. Rosewood Case ^100 net. Width 4 ft. BY COLLARD & COLLARD In -* is the Piano Forte we are accustomed to play perfected mechanical interior generally unacceptable Cabinet Player.SPECIAL ADVANTAGES BY of the "FORTe PIAPIO » COLLARD & COLLARD. T^HE "FORTE PIANO".

1907. 2'l-< net. LONDON BOSWORTH & 5. 1907 by BOSWORTH * . W. Co.: FIFTY YEARS' EXPERIENCE OF PIANOFORTE TEACHING AND PLAYING BY OSCAR BERINGER.net. Cloth. LEIPZIG Copyright <8> PARIS « VIENNA. Oxford Street. f>pinces Street. Eniered at Stationers' Hall. Co. Price 1j.

THE DOYAL Instituted. 1830. President: K. RENAUT.C. viz. LL. The Syllabus is issued annually at Easter.. 1822.A. is held twice a year in London. during the Academy Summer and Christmas Vacations.G. In addition to receiving individual lessons. and Prizes are founded METROPOLITAN EXAMINATION.M. An Examination (independent of Academy teaching) of Musical Composers or Performers and Teachers . Choral. . and by periodical Operatic Performance. D.M. Successful Candidates are created Licentiates of the Royal Academy of Music. W.. Incorporated by Royal Charter.o>ikHSirPx : MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE KING. '^ /^ imH. Mus. Patron HIS >. A ^ADEMY OF MUSIC Tenterden Street. .A.R. Students have the advantage of attending the Orchestral. Secretary. ^j fniKCK ^ MUSIC offers to Students of both sexes (whether amateur or professional) a thorough training in all branches of music under the most able and distinguished Professors.L. and Chamber Music Classes.D. . F. and the weekly lectures on music and musicians. THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF A large number and are corhpeted for of Scholarships periodically.. Prospectus and Syllabus obtainable on appUcation to F. Hanover Square. with the exclusive right to append to their names the initials LR. ^ft •*! Principal: SIR ALEXANDER CAMPBELL MACKENZIE. Evidence of their progress is given at the Fortnightly and Public Concerts..D. and receive diplomas to the effect that they are judged to be fully quaUfled for the branches of the musical profession in which respectively they have been examined. THE DUKE OF CONNAUGHT & STRATHEARN.

. Page Chapter „ „ „ „ I.. Development" Four Giants of the Pianoforte . .... .. . VII..... 23 V... III... .... Tausig as Teacher and "The Higher „ „ „ VI.... 9 17 IV. 30 37 ..... . Introductory . Leipzig in the 'Sixties . .. . . VIII. Some Composers of the last Half-Century Some Pianists of the same Period . 44 49 67 „ IX... Touch Concerts and Programmes Present and Future of the Pianoforte. .. . i II.. ...INDEX..

Cantab... Wind Harmony. Instruments. Parry. Singing. London.L. W. Oxen. and (c) October.. D. Coimterpoint.L. Patron-HIS MAJESTY THE KING. Sir C.D. .LOCAL CENTRE EXAMINATIONS. on application to: The Board A A — Telegrams:. Sir C. Harp.. St..Q. et Edin. Director of R.THE ASSOCIATED BOARD OF THK ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC and ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC FOE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS IN MUSIC. Hubert H.C. Syllabus A.C. Rudiments ofMusic. Mus. &c..H.. Secretary.Andr. open to candidates who qualify in the Local Centre Examinations.C. Cantab. et Dublin.. President— H. entry forms. The Examinations are open to all Schools and Teachers in the United Kingdom.R. and any further information will be sent. Practical Examinations at all Centres in March April. Bart.D. G.."Associa. and otherwise fulfil the requirements detailed in Syllabuses and B.M. Violoncello.. The Subjects for Examination under Syllabus A and B are comprised in the following list:— Primary Theory. Bioge. Specimen Theory Papers set in the Local Centre and School Examinations of past years can be obtained on application. price 3d per set per year. Mus. and are held during three periods as follows (a) March. Organ.A. at all Centres in March and November. W. . Double Bass.. July. London. THE PRINCE OF WALES.B. D. These Exhibitions entitle their holders to two or three years' free tuition at the Royal Academy of Music or the Royal College of Music.. Hon.V. C. post free. who are at liberty to select any or all of the above periods for Examination." Telephone 7356 Gerrard. Pianoforte. Spencer Lyttelton. C. &c. IVIackenzie. and the London District and certain Provincial Centres in No- Theory Examinations held — vember—December also. These Examinations are arranged in circuits. April (6) June.. Violin. ^5^ JAMES MUIR.. post free. : . Alexander Auditor— Sir Lesley Probvn. Viola. Syllabuses and B.O. Associated Board. K. Bedford Square. November..A. offers Six Exhibitions for competition annually. William E. Deputy-Chairman.V. Principal of R.M.C.Doc.-SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS. K-C.Doc.O.. M. LL. Chairman. Esq. LL. Syllabus B.

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.Oscar Beritiger.

giving daily recitals. I am afraid that the personal pronoun must in- evitably crop up now and again. for it must be confessed that this country stood at that time in more urgent need of musical progress than any other i of the leading nations of :the world. first made my . von Biilow. but more particularly in England. say "more particularly in England" advisedly. and for winning her present proud position amongst the foremost of her rivals In submitting the facts of this progress to a brief review. and the rest of that. Rubinstein. INTRODUCTORY. as the period of that improvement happens to coincide with my own musical growth. public appearance in 1857 *' the Crystal Palace as an infant prodigy. and I was therefore lucky enough to come into personal contact with nearly all the great pianists of that time. TN looking back over a fifty years' experience of piano- forte-playing and teaching the fact that stands out most vividly in my recollection is the enormous progress made all over the world. All the more honour to her and to her musicians for having wiped off the arrears so handsornely.! CHAPTER I. Liszt. glorious band of artists to whom the playing throughout the world I credit of raising the standard of pianoforte is chiefly due. Tausig. including Moscheles. the 'sixties during I and 'seventies of the last centuty.

and 3rd Concertos. as I quickly found out when I was able to afford them.Fifty Years' Experience of as well as playing with the orchestra a week — an two or three times engagement which lasted for the best part of nine years. formed my entire repertoire. Although the Crystal Palace concerts were admittedly the best in England after the Philharmonic and Musical Union concerts. These. however. I had every opportunity of hearing them all. Alfred Jaell. my solo-programmes there were a medley of terribly mediocre music. one was either praised to the skies. even of the best teachers. I also played duets there with my elder brother Robert. The most prominent that time in England were Arabella Goddard. almost without a break. which were then of the most perfunctory character. of Moscheles' works. Brinley Richards. Dohler. some of Schubert's Marches. arrangements of overtures. told that the piece wanted more practice in the latter event the usual prescription was an hour's scales and a dose of Czerny's Etudes de la Velocite or Cramer's Studies. and Thalberg. Ernst Pauer and Lindsay Sloper. was primitive: The method. and other music of the the same description. With the orchestra I played the Rondos of Hummel. that I did not gain more in this way than by taking lessons. I am not certain. together with a sprinkling of Lieder ohne Worte and an occasional to me positions of Liszt that . 2 and some of his operatic Fantasias. including various operatic arrangements. Osborne. the Concertos some at ist of Mendelssohn. later on. Sweet Home became a nightmare through constant repetition. . or . Nocturne or Waltz of Chopin. and. and Caprice D minor Concerto of Mozart. I had to play Kuhe. whose Home. while the only comI played were his Rhapsodic No. and for a Beethoven's pianists living long time their playing was my only instruction. Charles Halle. Ascher.

Still more enviable. a lesson. and if you were keen you tried to copy them. alas! I had overrated earning capacity.. 6d. who have the opportunity afforded them of being systematically trained from the very beginning. he or she would play the piece over to you. and played him the The one whose lesson came first waited till the worthy man was comfortably off. What a delightfully easy task they must have had! No L. noticed this failing. C. "Please.. to disturb their slumbers and interfere with their digestion! The word "slumbers" brings to my mind a story that I can vouch for. M. perhaps. such things did not enter the head of the pianoforte-teacher of those days. R. 3d. Vm the sister"! My first experience in teaching was in 1859. that'll do. to could stand finger be taken as many times a day as the poor sufferer it and this was all As for any proper — ! or touch training. Very good following trick. quiet nap during his lessons. A.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. This was the harder to bear at that particular moment. I often envy the young people of the present day. as my pride was only just Now my beat . no A. Looking back to that date. her sister as quietly taking her place and going on playing. M. The teacher woke up shortly afterwards and said. were the teachers of that time." I will leave you to imagine the shock the poor man's nerves received when his pupil sweetly answered. "Yes. no. not even an Associated Board. and then stole out of the room on tiptoe. but. pupils of his. whilst we poor beggars had to pick up the crumbs of knowledge where and how we could. R. Could your instructor play. I go and fetch your sister. and as I had rather a good opinion of myself I made up my mind to charge is. who was addicted to a Two mischievous sisters. for the mother of my first pupil me down to is. of one of the bestknown teachers of the 'sixties.

!

Fifty Years' Experience of

recovering from a nasty knock
of the
Titiens,

it

had received

at

one

Opera Concerts

at the Crystal Palace.

Madame

the great dramatic soprano,
to say in

was

singing there,

and happened
thirsty: I

my

hearing that she was very

jumped up and got her a glass of water, and boy in a short jacket, not unnaturally thought that a half-crown would be acceptable to him, and offered me one, with some smiling words. My feelings cannot be described. I drew myself up to my full 4ft. 2 in.,
she, Seeing a small

and said

in

a voice quivering with outraged dignity,
I

"No
still

thank you,

am
I

the Solo Pianist of the Crystal Palace."

A

peal of laughter from

Madame

Titiens

hurt

me

further,

and

don't beheve that the kiss she proceeded

to give
I

me

quite healed

my wounded
gift,

pride.

remember

receiving another

which caused

me

no end of gratification. Queen Marie Amelie, the wife of Louis Philippe, who was, of course, quite an old lady at the time, used frequently to come to the Palace concerts, and one day she sent an equerry with a purse and a bag of sweets as a present for me. When I learnt that they were from the Queen of France I was immensely impressed, and I remember the severe internal struggle I had as to whether I should eat the sweets or keep them as a souvenir. I am sorry to say that greed prevailed over veneration but they were very good sweets

The following press
to

criticisms written with reference

operas form a striking commentary upon the lack of musical intelligence which was so painhis
fully

Wagner and

apparent during the early

'fifties.

They were

written

by the foremost English reprinted by The Musical

critics

of the period, and

were

Courier, June 25, 1896.

not dealing with our specialized subject the pianoforte they show so clearly the remarkable difference between the opinions held on musical subjects at that time and the

Though


Pianoforte Teaching and Playing.

views that obtain at the present day, that their admission into these pages may well be pardoned. They are headed

"Wagner's Press Notices, London, 1855," and run as follows: "We hold that Herr Richard Wagner is not a musician This excommunication of pure melody, this at all utter contempt of time and rhythmic definition, so notorious in Herr Wagner's compositions (we were about to say Herr Wagner's music), is also one of the most important points of his system. It is clear to us that Herr Wagnet He, Wagner, wants to upset both opera and drama can build up nothing himself. He can destroy, but not What do re-construct. He can kill, but not give life we find in the shape of Wagnerian 'Art Drama'? So far as music is concerned, nothing better than chaos,, 'absolute' chaos .... Look at Lohengrin that 'best piece'; .... Your answer is there written and sung ... It is poison This man, this Wagner, this author of rank poison and above all, the overture to so many hideous things Der Fliegende Hollander, the most hideous and detestable this preacher of the 'future', was born to of the whole
. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

feed spiders with

flies,

not to

make happy

the heart of

man with beautiful melody and harmony ... All we can make out of Lohengrin is an incoherent mass of rubbish, with no more real pretension to be called music, than the jangling and clashing of gongs, and other uneuphonious The Musical World. instruments." "Richard Wagner is a desperate charlatan, endowed with worldly skill and vigorous purpose enough to persuade a gaping crowd that the nauseous compound he manufactures has some precious inner virtue, that they must live and ponder yet, ere they perceive ... Anythmg more rambling, incoherent, unmasterly, cannot well be conceived. Scarcely the most ordinary ballad writer but would shame him in the creation of melody, and no


Fifty Years'


Experience of

English harmonist of more than one year's growth could

be found sufficiently without ears and education to pen such vile things." Sunday Times. "The overture to Tannhauser is one of the most curious pieces of patchwork ever passed off by selfdelusion for a complete and significant creation. The instrumentation is ill-balanced, ineffective, thin, and noisy." Athencsum.
It was not only in England that these bitter attacks on Wagner were rife the musical critics of the whole world rose as one man against him, and it was not till
;

many

years later that

Wagner came

to his

own

as the

composer the world has ever seen. I think I have shown pretty clearly the backward state of things musical in the 'fifties little or no progress was being made, and the few shining examples to the contrary were cried down on all sides. But underneath this superficial stagnation a leaven was fortunately working, which was shortly to ferment the whole mass, and to create a healthy musical activity which has steadily increased from that day to this. As far as England was concerned I found a most notable improveinent on my return in 1 866 from Leipzig, where I had gone for two years' study. Brief as my absence had been, a progress little short of miraculous had been made in pianoforte-playing and teaching alike. The Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts were now firmly established in the popular favour, and regularly every Saturday there was a pilgrimage of music-lovers to this shrine of orchestral music. The Monday 'Pops' were also extremely well patronised, and in addition, pianoforterecitals were just beginning to find favour. A propos of the Monday Pops, one of the daily papers said:— "The appellation of popular concerts was originally,
greatest dramatic
:

Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Chappell took a bolder course he changed the public : — taste. and was the first artist in England to play all the Sonatas at a To Charles Halle in series of Beethoven - recitals. so that my eyes returned again and again to it. though in a cold perspiration and with spite of all I shattered nerves. But do mustn't look at her." Professor Ella. an equal improvement was H. go. I could do to resist the fatal influence. in ! Good heavens my memory will I thought. or could get away from that face ? Not for a you think I moment It seemed to exert an hypnotic fascination upon me. at any fearful rate. in fact. with the audience seated in a circle Personally. Holmes. Walter Macfarren. In pianoforte teackijtg noticeable. a misnomer. when my eye was caught by a lady at the further end of the piano who was evidently badly afflicted with . He was constantly playing one or other of them at the Popular Concerts. fied the selection of the most Most speculators would have either altered the name of the entertainment or modiof the compositions performed Mr. Vitus' dance. James' Hall. and on one occasion it nearly proved my undoing. I had just started playing Chopin's Scherzo in B minor. Beethoven's Sonatas is due the credit of popularising England. . Men like W. How got through without a breakdown I don't know. St. the poor creature was making ! the I most grimaces. These were held at the St. but get through I did. The music given was consistently ««popular character. found this a most uncomfortable arrange ment. I all round. where Ella insisted on having a low platform placed in the centre of the room for the in England. programmes performers. who was the first to introduce analytical was also doing good work with his Musical Union Chamber Concerts.

and Warblings at . The melodies of all these pieces were of a childishly sentimental description. and the Fantaisie Impromptu in Cj( minor. La Pluie des Perles. £ve by Brinley Richards. Opus 9. and raising the standard of amateur performance to a much higher levels Amateur ambition had hitherto not soared above the playing of such wishy-washy stuff as Badarzewska's Maiden's Prayer (some bars of which are reproduced at the end of this chapter). while their modulations were bald and obvious in the extreme. . Ascher's Alice. . Fritz Hartvigson and others. Where Art Thou?. to wit the Valse in Nocturne in E flat. Dannreuther. Litolffs Spinnerlied. were doing excellent work. The most popular piece now was the Sonata Pathetique of Beethoven. with his Moonlight Sonata running it a close second next in favour was the same composer's Opus 26 in A flat while of shorter and and lighter pieces Mendelssohn's Rondo Capriccioso flat. were all prime favourites. a change had come over the spirit of the amateurs' dream. Osborne. A. however.8 Fifty Years' Experience of Harold Thomas. Throughout the country they were showing an appreciable tendency to play a better of music. by G. who was also responsible for Warblings at Dawn: for the rest of the twenty -four hours he was dumb. Grieg's Norwegian Wedding March. . dominant. and other compositions of the same class. Franklin Taylor. and sub -dominant. the three of Chopin's works. . and were harmonised almost entirely in the tonic. Lindsay Sloper Frederick Westlake Arthur O'Leary. ' D were content with such pieces as Rubinstein's Melody in F". The less ambitious class . Now.

Badarzewska «ea. * . Andante. T. * ««a.LA PRIERE D'UNE VIERGE. to.

'S&. .

SOME COMPOSERS OF THE LAST HALF-CENTURY. modelled his style on Thalberg's compositions. and by the adoption in its stead of two particular dance forms. demand and supply go until the hand-in- hand for . But while Thalberg's works were decidedly difficult. 'T'HE aphorism "Every country has it the government that deserves" might with equal truth be altered to "Every country has the music it deserves. His melodies were written — a . This spirit of progress was particularly pronounced in the early 'sixties. the better.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. which the Tarantella and the at this time came into vogue Gavotte. but which really were comparatively easy to play. CHAPTER II. that and was marked by the rejection of the ultra-sentimental trash which had hitherto found such favour." With music as with everything else. thus creating a class. who soon afterwards stepped into his name. and so it was not English taste altered higher demand for music of a composition and execution alike began to show distinct signs of improvement. Sidney Smith had the knack of writing pieces that sounded very brilliant. pianoforte composer who could (and a Every great many who could not\ wrote and pubUshed them. and it was by a Tarantella that Sidney Smith first made Smith. Brinley Richards' shoes as the most popular composer of pianoforte music of England.

and seventeenth centuries bands of musicians used regularly to perambulate Italy in order to cure this disease by making the patient dance until he fell down from sheer exhaustion and in course of time the name of the spider was given to the dance. gain popularity at this time was Stephen Heller.10 Fifty Years' Experience of on much broader lines than those of Brinley Richards and Badarzewska. made his first big success with a Tarantella. and his modulations showed infinitely greater variety. if slowly. which was now progressing steadily. Another composer. The bite of the Lycosa Tarantula. which became the rage amongst the English amateurs of that period. His musicianship was of a much higher order than Smith's: he wrote 'Studies' which have become standard works. that through it people : . are now quite forgotten. like Smith. Curiously enough. which at one time infested Southern Europe. for which this violent form of dancing sixteenth. To the Gavotte-fever one important result may be attributed. used to produce a kind of hysteria. amongst which I remember four pianoforte Sonatas. has a very interesting origin. and are widely and deservedly used down to the present day. a Hungarian living in Paris. The Harpe Aeolienne was the most popular of his compositions. was the only known cure. Tarantella. and each played an honourable part in the musical education of EngHsh amateurs. a spider of great size and malignancy. though his larger works. Heller. while his passage-work was more brilliant. whose music was first introduced into England by Charles Halle. In the fifteenth. The which is a South Italian dance in 6-8 time and in quick movement gradually increasing in speed to the finish. but of quite a to different calibre. The craze for Tarantellas was equalled by that for Gavottes.

An equally ignorant and gushing lady asked him if Mr.. They proceeded to publish bon-mbt about Bach. and may still be heard a French composer on the bands at the sea-side and in the parks. he decomposes The Gavotte was a dance of French origin written in common time and commencing on the third beat of the bar. This had an immense vogue at the time. 11 were gradually led to an interest in and knowledge of Bach's compositions. who was a disciple of Mendelssohn. His music possessed more charm and poetic feeling. It was practically unknown in England until ! named Heiu-i Ghys made a big success with one which had originally been written for Louis XIII. Mr. and which he had transcribed for the piano.." Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. while in former dances of this order they only walked or shuffled. Its originality as a "danse grave" lay in the fact that the dancers Ufted their feet from the ground. It was at this time that Gilbert made his celebrated the important discovery that made written a great many. The publishers began to look for Gavottes high and low. and showed considerably better musicianship. and Bach had them wholesale. The works of F. His compositions were 2* . in 1858. with an eagerness that was attributed by the censorious to the fact that they were non. Bach had been writing any more of his charming Gavottes lately: to which Gilbert replied. Unfortunately he died. Edward Bache were the next step in the upward progress of pianoforte compositions. who is another of the EngUsh composers of that time deserves honourable mention. Bach no longer composes. madam. at the early age of twenty-five.copyright. Stemdale Bennett. "No. of which he wrote many that were on a far higher level than those of the composers I have just mentioned.

and the first piece to make his reputation in this country was his arrangement of Gluck's Gavotte from Armida. "Had Brahms kept up his practice he . Sitting at the piano he began to discover wonderful regions to us: we were all drawn into his magic circle. In this regard Schumann wrote of him. He played Sonatas that were really veiled Symphonies. smaller pianoforte pieces of the utmost fascination and charm. you must come and hear this glorious music. such music as you have never heard before. First and foremost amongst the foreign pianoforte composers of that period stands Johannes Brahms. and others again that It were nothing short of demoniacal." is. Songs whose poetry one could understand without ever hearing the words. To Schumann belongs the credit of having been the first to recognise Brahms' genius. swelling from the softest sounds of melancholy to the most triumphant shouts of jubilation. and brilliant and in many cases original passage-work. which was played here for the first time by Madame Schumann. perhaps." In later years Biilow once said to me." Ten years later Schumann wrote an article in the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik. When he visited Schumann in 1843 to show him some of his manuscripts. he had scarcely finished piece before Schumann called out to dear Clara. gracemelody.12 Fifty Years' Experience of remarkable for 'their 'symmetry of form. but they are sadly lacking in vigour and chiefly ful breadth. playing the his wife. not generally known that Brahms ex- a player as well. first "My : — a stripling over whose cradle the Graces and Heroes had watched. whose compositions are a happy combination of the classical and romantic schools. "His playing showed the hand of a genius: celled as he could turn the instrument into a full orchestra. in which he said "He came.

Johannes Brahms. .

.

while such works of his as Die Slavische Tdnze. n^ro . more remarkable for their novelty of effect and clever combinations than for any great inspiration. They show the influence of his extensive travels. His works are. Although Antonin Dvorak. generally with success. are one and all instinct with Bohemian rhythm and colour. Dvorak first came to England in 1884 and stayed my house for more than a month. and many an anecdote is related of his pungent wit. Even in his into which he embodies several he every now and then betrays his Bohemian origin. the Bohemian composer. Saint-Saens. we should not have had a ghost of a chance against him. Bilder aus dem Bohmer Wald. melodies. which possess this characteristic to an even more marked degree than do those of Grieg and Tschaikowsky. There is no genre of music to which he has not applied his hand." Brahms. a He is result which he has most successfully achieved. he felt like a babe in swaddUng-clothes The French artist. perhaps. Biilow used to say that when he sat next to Brahms. 13 could have put us all into his pocket. could be very sarcastic. while as a musical critic he wields a terribly sharp pen. He was rather a at American Symphony. certainly one of the most versatile musicians it has ever been my good fortune to meet. he merits a place in these pages if only on account of the essentially national quality of his works. like Biilow. and his Waltzes and Legends. has also had considerable influence as a pianoforte composer and player.! Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. for he has consistently endeavoured to implant into his compositions the local colour of the various countries which be has visited. who is happily still living. has not exerted much influence as a writer for the pianoforte.

and. of which he was shall never forget way one fine the secretary. but unfortunately his nerve failed him at the last moment. though they found themselves in one or two ridiculous situations. He used frequently to get up at six the morning and with a friend of who was I word of English. and go out for a stroll speak a wafe always on tenterhooks lest also unable to they should be landed in some awkward predicament. — . at the They did not get their coffee in this Dvorak's principal appearances country were Albert Hall. and found a gorgeouslyattired porter in the hall. and said. and the Crystal Palace Saturday Concerts. to make a speech. Beringer. "It's no good. as they were very difficult. no very serious contretemps occurred. "Ahl this must be a cafe. as he was much too nervous to be able At the Philharmonic he had promised to accompany some of his songs. Th& London Figaro of March 22. when a gentleman informed them in French that it was not a cafe but the Athenaeum Club. one. even in German. and of course I had had no rehearsal. feeling hungry. a task I did not relish in the least. they went into the room where the men were reading the papers and told the uniformed waiter to bring them some coffee. the Philharmonic. and had rehearsed them with the singer. They were trying hard to make themselves understood.! 14 Fifty Years' Experience of disconcerting guest to entertkin. they looked out for a cafe. as he in was a true Bohemian more senses than o'clock in his." They entered. 1884. nothing daunted. Dvorak caught sight of some men sitting at a window reading the papers. However. you must play them" and play them I had to. but. I had to attend most of the rehearsals to interpret for him. This nervousness of his detracted greatly from his success over here. I their one of their escapades. and he said. and to express his thanks to the performers. They had lost morning.

.

p.

Tschajkowsky.

Pianoforte Teaching arid Playing.

15

refers to

terms "At the Albert Hall the conditions were decidedly against Herr Dvorak. The ears of the audience had been somewhat fatigued by the encores accepted during an admirable performance of Mr. Barnby's Leeds Psalm, The Lord is King. Dvorak's Stabat Mater was not commenced very much before ten, and as after ten Albert Hall audiences have acquired
it

in the following

:

a happy knack

which had the effect of inspiriting a nervous debtUant. That nervousness was doubtless increased by the fact that one of the most homely and unpretentious of musicians had never before conducted so big a choir and orchestra, nor had appeared before so great an audience. Moreover, he seemed at times wrapped up in his own music, thinking little of his forces, and beating the measure below the music-desk, where only the front rows of the choir could possibly see the baton. Nor can the Albert Hall be considered the best place in the world wherein to listen to a composition Uke Dvorak's setting of Jacopone's hymn. In so vast, a space many of the details, of a work full of detail, must necessarily be lost." Peter Ilitsch Tschaikowsky, the Russian composer par
of dispersing, the steady exodus
set in could hardly have
e.ycelleme,
in his

also displayed a strongly national tendency compositions, the rhythm of which is essentially Russian, while most of his melodies, if not actually based on national songs, at least portray many of their characteristics. His work has achieved a wonderful vogue in this country, his Concerto in Bflat in particular having been

pubHc more frequently than any other recent work of the same description, while many of his smaller
played
in

pieces, such as his

many

of his

Chanson Triste, his Troika-Fahrt, and waltzes, have become universally popular.

His music generally bears the impress of a Slavonic temperament, now fiery and unrestrained, now melancholy

16

Fifty Years' Experience of

and despairing. He was fond of strong rhythmical effects, sudden contrasts, and unexpected modulations. His death at a comparatively early age was the more sad in that his work was showing consistent improvement, his last
compositions being unquestionably the best. This chapter would not be complete without a reference to Edward Grieg, the Norwegian composer, who has been the most popular composer of pianoforte music in England
for the last thirty years.

His compositions, like those of
are distinctly national in their

Dvorak and Tschaikowsky,
origin, nearly all his

conception, and bear constant witness to his Scandinavian

themes being reminiscent of Danish, Swedish, or Norwegian Volkslieder. His Lyrische StUcke, The Norwegian Wedding March, Humoresken, and many
compositions have achieved a popularity country unequalled by the works of any other modern composer.
others of his
this in

Since writing the

foregoing the deeply regrettable

news of this talented musician's death has reached me. On September 4th, 1907, Edward Grieg passed peacefully away, at the age of sixty-four. Born in 1843, ^^ was a fellow-student of mine at Leipzig, where he studied under Hauptmann and Richter for counterpoint, Rietz
and Reinecke
forte-playing.
for composition,

and Moscheles

for piano-

.Edward Qrieij.

.

SOME PIANISTS OF THE SAME PERIOD. and Davidson. Her technique was excellent. tall. however. I have a very distinct and pleasant recollection of her.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. especially in scales and arpeggi: her octaves. is all that its limits will The most prominent English pianist at this time was Arabella Goddard. She was a very handsome woman. like pianists of this period is an exhaustive review of the quite beyond the scope of handbook: a short summary of a few of the most popular native and foreign artists appearing at this date before the English public allow me. She made her first appearance in England in 1853 at one of the Quartette Concerts. a the first special favourite of hers being his at her best. a pupil of Kalkbrenner. who was the musical critic of the Times. there was quite works very . although with orchestra she always played from notes. 17 CHAPTER 'T'O attempt anything * this little III. operatic Fantasias of Thalberg almost to perfection. for Mose in Egitto. She was one of the first pianists to play solos from memory. In the interpretation of that style of music she correctly. were by no means so good. though she played classical was no warmth of expression in her rendering of them. as she played them all with She used to play the far too rigid a wrist and arm. Thalberg. and with perfect pianoforte hands. playing Beethoven's Sonata Opus 106 for time in England. and whom she married in i860.

he or she was absolutely certain to be cut to ribbons by the outraged newspapers. The high standard set redoubtable Davidson. had an enormous success at the time. The Times on one memorable occasion actually said. His compositions. to a degree which we. Madame Schumann. Moscheles. and have made their influence felt down to the present day. The most prominent among the foreign pianists who appeared in England at this date were Thalberg. which are now all but forgotten. Ernst Liibeck. Alfred Jaell. musical critic of the Times. and Ritter. Rubinstein. was greatly her by these two artists was hardly maintained by Ernst Pauer and Lindsay Sloper. If to the crime of being a foreigner the artist added the enormity of displaying the slightest modernising tendencies. no matter how great the improvement effected.18 Fifty Years' Experience of I need not dwell long upon the playing of Charles Halle. I think. his public appearances having continued down to His style was very like that of Arabella Goddard. the last named hailing from Paris." Madame Schumann was treated nearly as badly. All these were to be heard in the late 'fifties or early 'sixties. like her. "If you want to be shown not to play the piano. how go and hear Rubinstein. and. . and was lucky enough to meet with fair treatment at their hands. He appeared in England in 1862 and gave his farewell concert in 1863. are inclined to under-estimate. he was lacking in warmth and depth of expression but in the matter a comparatively recent date. and for a long time Arabella Goddard reigned supreme according to the Times and the press generally. For some reason or other Thalberg managed to avoid the censure of the papers. . led by the of phrasing and general musicianship he superior. and all with one exception met with an equally hostile reception from the English press.

was apt at times to become too striking. with an astonishing gradual increase most of difficulties and ornamentation. Undoubtedly Liszt's execution. and showing refined taste in every bar: his power is as remarkable as is the — — light deftness of his fingers." 3 . can at least astonish and crush them. who were the two great pianoforte rivals at that time. not on account of the platitudes which were sure to come. the brilliance of which no one could deny. whereas Thalberg's Donna del Lago is a work of the to instance one of his compositions brilliant effect. if you cannot charm the audience. writes of "the heathen row" which Liszt created at Leipzig.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Chopin rather rubbed this in to him when he said to Liszt." Mendelssohn." Mendelssohn pursues his comparison of Liszt and Thalberg with the remark that "Liszt's compositions rank beneath his execution. and it is an interesting question how long the world will be pleased to put up with such mediocre music. but on account of the profound manner of their preparation. in a letter comparing Liszt and Thalberg. literally as well as figuratively. since above all he lacks ideas of his own. 19 It may perhaps be interesting to pass in review some of the conflicting opinions held with regard to Thalberg by the great musicians of his time. "Thalberg. all his writing aiming only at showing off his virtuosity. on the contrary. for he was not infrequently known to send strings flying and hammers breaking." Schumann continues. "deceives you by brilliant hand and finger work in order to pass off his weak thoughts. you. which warns you always when they are to burst upon you. and declares that Thalberg's calm way and self-control are much more worthy of the real virtuoso. "I prefer not to play in public. Schumann says that Thalberg kept him in a certain tension of expectancy.

whom he always made dry and uninteresting. of the piano. to such an extent as sometimes to give the effect of two performers when only one was playing. and followed it immediately with Thalberg's on the same subject: when asked why he did so he said that "it was to show the difference between a god of music and a grocer. adorning a body externally beautiful. was the Pugno of little his day. I heard him play Bach. aristocratic man. Rubinstein at one of his historical recitals played Liszt's Don Juan Fantasia. which were absolutely new at the time." I need scarcely say which was which. one could never become enthusiastic over him. with whom he did not seem to have the slightest affinity. which he rendered to perfection. but possessing no soul. He wrote the greater part of his melodies for the middle difficult passages : failing technique. scales and arabesques. handsome. and were done to deith by his imitators. but. when he gave one a while perfect exposition of clear part playing. excellently groomed. Beethoven.20 Fifty Years' Experience of you another great musician's comparison same two artists. and his ornamentation was like beautiful lace-work. even when he played them himself his compositions were sadly lacking in this vital element. He sang his melodies on the piano. quickly became the rage. These ornamentations. who was invariably kindly and courteous he sat quite immoveable at the piano. even when playing the most I will give of the : he had an exquisite touch and an unwhile one admired him immensely. Alfred Jaell short. One of the greatest merits of both his composition and his playing lay in his judicious use of the pedal. and Schumann. My own recollection of Thalberg is of a tall. he adorned them both above and below with arpeggi. He was a very tremendously stout man. . sustaining them by means of the pedal. Besides his own compositions.

.

Clara Schumann. .

A dead set was made against her by . as compared with the cold reception hitherto accorded them. of the most velvety description by Davidson of the Times. When playing with orchestra she always used notes. 21 and very dapper in appearance. that never showed its claws. On account of his fatness he had to sit at a considerable distance from the keyboard.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. for his touch : was always but while his finger-work was exceljent. I was very proud when she asked me to play this concerto for her at a . and at her own recital at the Hanover Square Rooms. I had the pleasure of meeting Madame Schumann frequently. and he looked for all the world like a sleek black cat scratching the keys but the cat was an amiable one . I will conclude this chapter with a brief resume of the greatest the musical career of Clara Schumann female pianist the world has known. headed in public's measure to the great improvement in the and knowledge of music. which enabled audiences to fly in the face of a hostile press. She made her first appearance in England in 1856. Of later performers Pachmann. and to form their own opinion as to what was worthy of their support. and consequently she left England severely alone until 1865. She returned again in 1867. The great success which she and other talented foreign artists were now achieving here. he was sadly lacking in power. to my mind. and from then on she visited England nearly every year. playing at the Philharmonic. and although he played Chopin's waltzes and mazurkas quite charmingly. Musical Union. when she met with considerable success. was due the Press. not excepting the occasions when she played her husband's concerto. shows most resemblance to Jaell. his rendering of Beethoven or any big works was somewhat wanting in spirit and force. and used always to turn over for her at the a large taste Crystal Palace Concerts.

which were capable of a magnificent stretch.22 Fifty Years' Experience of rehearsal. I beheve. that appearance. always struck me was her look of absolute absorption I don't think I ever saw any artist more in her work. which nearly all her contemporaries shared. and which was no doubt due to the thin tone of the pianos of the period. completely wrapped up in her art: she never thought her personal of herself. so as to give the impression almost of kneading the keys as a result one could never hear the click of the keys when she was : playing.not generally known. In her playing there was never . with thick soft-cushioned fingers. which she was unable rtiany it to attend through in- The Schumann make disposition. She always held her fingers quite close to the key-board. with loose wrist and by a fall of the hand. — her chords. Her octaves she played in the modern way. enabling her to play tenths with the utmost ease. except perhaps in very brilliant passage work. the fault of arpeggiing nearly all She was also a composer of distinct merit a fact. never the smallest departure from the text. One fault she had. Her hands might have been made for piano playing: they were broad. excellent portraits of Madame unnecessary for me to dwell upon One thing. Every nuance marked by the composer was most conscientiously attended to. the smallest suspicion of self-display. however. which invariably show the hand of a thorough musician and frequently possess a distinctly graceful vein of melody. but only of the composition she happened to be playing. . The influence of her husband's compositions is obvious throughout her works. her whole soul steeped in the work she was rendering. She was the classical pianiste par excellence. not a blow.

.

2 .

He was always refused to teach his compositions. and made a great point of strict adherence to time. Alas! his compositions are — . I naturally selected that town. The promoters were . with a distinctly Jewish cast of countenance he had excellent pianoforte hands. and I became a student in his class." His favourite composers were Beethoven. THE 'T'HE great educational musical centre in the 'sixties * was Leipzig and when. I have nothing but pleasant recollections of my old master both in his teaching and private capacity. and trained to perfection in the old school of pianoforte playing.: Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Hauptmann. Mendelssohn. 23 CHAPTER LEIPZIG IN IV. broad and muscular. Schumann. David. Moscheles was the principal professor of pianoforte playing in 1864. 1 Mendelssohn. Weber. and Moscheles. I found myself free to devote some time to study. in 1 864. For this reason he did not appreciate Chopin. and in variety of tone. His finger technique was excellent. and his playing was to a certain extent lacking fond of rhythmical accentuation. The staff of professors was joined by Moscheles in 1846 and by Reinecke in i860. as a result of which his octaves were inclined to be heavy. This institute was founded by Mendelssohn in 843 under the modest title of "Music School". on the ground that he "was unable to play out of time. and Becker. and became a student at the Conservatoire there. 'SIXTIES. but he played everything with the rigid arm and wrist of the period. He was short of stature. Pohlenz.

His pupils included Mendelssohn. judging by a testimonial which Moscheles received from Albrechtsberger. as the music-master was not allowed to go up the visitors' staircase. which were position of eventually paid in instalments. I think. his harmonies and mcJdulations being more modern. Litolff. now His works showed a distinct advance on those of his great predecessor Hummel. and his melodies having greater depth. with the exception of his G minor Concerto and his Studies. The social musicians does not seem to have been much better abroad in those days. The noble lord apologised. during which period he was conductor and director of the Philharmonic Society. from 1826 to 1846. Barnett. apart from his teaching. from whom he took lessons in counterpoint. Lindsay Sloper. Dannreuther. O'Leary. live for a long while yet. where he was fond of chatting to me about his English experiences. &c. Franklin Taylor. He was engaged to give lessons to the two daughters of a certain noble lord. The latter will. as they are excellent preparatory studies for all composers up to and including Beethoven. Thalberg. and. I spent many a pleasant Sunday afternoon at his house. Some of his experiences in England were distinctly funny. I remember one of them. the greatest difficulty [in getting his fees. Opus 70. he was also professor for some time at the Royal Academy of Music he was certainly the most popular teacher of the pianoforte in London.24 Fifty Years' Experience of almost forgotten. Moscheles had a wonderful charm. As a man. it ran somewhat like . the footman who opened the door told him to ring the servants' bell. and lessons were arranged but when they came to an end Moscheles had : . I believe. He showed it to me with great glee. He had resided in England for twenty years. As far as my memory serves me. Moscheles naturally resented this and left the house. He went to the house and rang the visitors' bell.

Mosclieles. .

.

"If this who was illustrate and using his gold pencil-case to were a red-hot poker. As I had had a great rich Richter (counterpoint). 25 this : "I hereby certify that Ignaz Moscheles has studied diligently with most me for such and such a time. in his class. Moscheles was particularly proud of the fact that he had been selected by 'Mr." he but so and that is said." Moscheles joined in the laugh that greeted One of this answer as heartily as any of us students. Professor. as he always called him. "If that were a red-hot poker. for the pleasure of playing with Of my I had him in public in Leipzig. — all done with stiff arm and He was his explaining this one day to an American. He was very particular about what he his staccato playing termed wrist. he always chose me to accompany his violin pupils." To which the Yankee coolly replied. "you would not touch it so my staccato. point. and Ferdinand David {ensemble playing and conducting). and progress that I consider him competent to gain an honest livelihood wherever he may chance to settle down"! This sounds more like a recommendation to a journeyman tailor or bootmaker than a testimonial to one of the finest musicians of his time. As and little I learnt a great deal a teacher he was most painstaking and patient. I guess I wouldn't touch it at all. — — his best pianoforte compositions was a piece called Les Contrastes. from him with regard to correct accentuation and phrasing. other Professors the most eminent were Fried- two pianos and eight hands. and many a time have I seen . that he has made such good to arrange the orchestral score of Fidelio for the pianoforte. but of touch and tone colour or nothing. To the last-named I am especially grateful for the great benefit I derived from his lessons. Carl deal of experience in accompanying at the Crystal Palace.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. which Reinecke (pianoforte).' Beethoven. He had a most violent temper.

which I had the pleasure of playing under his conductorship at the Gewandhaus Concerts in 1871. In speaking of the Meistersinger he admitted that it was the finest libretto that had ever been written for music. musically. But. and found him quite the most brilliant master of touch and technique I had yet come across. I looked around me to see if I could find someone in Leipzig who would bemean himself by teaching this most essential branch of the art. and I eventually applied to Louis Plaidy who had quarrelled with the authorities and had left the Conservatoire. . and a pupil were lucky enough to do anything well he ! got a corresponding amount of praise. one of the best of them is his Pianoforte Concerto in F sharp. I dearly loved has gone now. but although he is nearly eightythree years old he told me the stairs did not bother him at all. Herr Professor. room and the But the storm soon blew over. He lives in a second'floor flat. Finding out after a short time that the teaching of touch and technique was entirely ignored by the Professors at the Conservatoire. I had lessons from him for nearly two years. I 1 whom 1 — . as he was still very firm upon his feet." I discreetly said "Jawohl. fellow." Poor old fellow his music would have been very different Not that his compositions lack merit they are all free from vulgarity and eminently graceful. whom I had the pleasure of seeing last year in Leipzig. for "he would have written very different music to it. Plaidy then had the reputation of being the best teacher in Europe of pianoforte technique. but expressed a regret that he had not had it.26 Fifty Years' Experience of the music thrown to the other end of the culprit sent after if it. with all the rest. alas except Reinecke. I am afraid he has not gone with the times. He. his lessons. to give me private lessons. I had a delightful chat with the old found at his desk composing.

and he manuscript. he thus had the distinction of our modern fingering.. shall eventually authority on all became stone deaf. literally saturated with music. the greatest song writer after Schubert. and he played me many of his songs. until it would finally cease at the middle C. we had our Musical Union. He told me that he was entirely deaf to the lower and higher notes of the piano. and had arranged nearly Bach's orchestral works for modern orchestra. . when there. and that his hearing was gradually and progressively narrowing. There were the . . This most unfortunately proved to be the case. to the stalls of which the students could go for ninepence. our musical ardour scorned the petty discomfort In addition. and though these had no backs to them. was Gewandhaus Concerts. where modern works were most in evidence the Opera.Pianoforte Teathtng and Playing. to the final rehearsals of which we students were admitted free the Euterpe Concerts. of which hundreds of thousands of copies ha

e been sold all over the world. retaining the regardless of black keys initiating : C major fingering throughout. where he was conductor of the Symphony Concerts. and our Debating Society for the disground for the aspiring student. In this work he advocated transposing the exercises into different keys. 27 • Plaidy was the first to publish a really good book of Technical Studies for the pianoforte. Apart from the excellent instruction to be obtained in Leipzig there was a wonderful musical atmosphere about the place. Another of the shining lights of Saxony at that period was Robert Franz. I a great many of them still in never forget the shock I received one day when I asked him why he left out the lower octaves in a piece he was playing. I stayed with him several times in Halle. which made it far and away the best training- who. He was the world's greatest Bach and Handel. an excellent one.

and whom this old fellOw had always served. A favourite haunt of ours was a cafe called "Zum Kaffee-Baum. him. he declared. nearly all the stars of the musical firmament. This was really a very important affair. and I was very lucky to know artists of the period at his house. Volkland. and Kogel Scandinavia by Grieg and Johann their in the : . Our great time for playing the fool was when the Leipzig Fair . there were Amongst my many who have world. Marchesi at Leipzig in short. would happen evening after evening. as though he were evolving some new composition. . including Robert Franz. Amongst other things he told us that Schumann would drink his fifteen Seidel of beer in an evening without uttering a word. and Hofmann Germany by Wilhelmj. could not go about at all. as I rriet all the great Krebs. I had the the house of Julius Kistner. the great music publisher. Petersiha. and occasionally rapping out a rhythm on the table with his fingers. Alfred was partially paralyzed. This. Swinnerton Heap. as it was the great book and music-mart for that part of the country. Rubinstein. entirely absorbed.— 28 Fifty Years' . fellow -students since musical Nearly every nation was represented there England by Cowen. von Bernuth. Dreyschock. Joachim. Svendsen . Frank. We used to take a fiendish dehght in . although surrounded by friends: he would sit in absolute silence.was on. made mark and Hungary by Robert Freund and Josefify to take a few of the most prominent representatives of each country. and Stephen Adams America by Perabo. Asanchewski. Kleinmichel. Heckmann. who. and people used to flock to it from great distances. Marie — Jaell. whose "Kneipe" it was." and I remember an old waiter there whom we used to draw out to tell us stories of Schumann. Experience of entree to cussion of the musical questions of the day. poor fellow.

.

.

immortalized in Faust. and. gave us chase. 29 fair changing the trade-signs on the different booths after the was closed at night. I saw Leipzig taken by the' Prussians without a shot being fired: indeed many of the Leipzig ladies threw bouquets to the soldiers as they entered to take possession of the town. We were caught red-handed one evening by the nightwatchmen. In 1866 war broke out between Prussia and Austria. and indignantly asked if it was the custom in Leipzig to pursue and arrest people for carrying sketchingblocks under their arms These and other recollections came vividly back to mind when I visited the dear old place last year. We had our revenge a few nights later. however. When they saw us they fell into our trap. as no one had the slightest idea that the war would be over so soon. which advice I followed. so far as music was concerned the Conservatoire was closed. Moscheles advised me to return to England. Nevertheless. when a number of us ostentatiously passed the watchmen with big strips of pasteboard tucked under our arms. Belonging. I found the town altered and enlarged almost out of recognition. though sorely against the grain. and were ignominiously hauled off to the policestation. we were let off with a caution. a boot-maker's over a butcher's. such as Auerbach's Keller.! Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and so on. and I hailed with joy the few old places that were still in existence. to side with Austria. Saxony was bound. and the famous old Gewandhaus in the my Ritterstrasse. When at last we were caught. we were injured innocence personified. everything was at a complete standstill. to the South German Federation. putting a baker's sign over a hosier's booth. as she did. where. : . and thinking that we were at our sign-changing games again. and we led them a pretty dance as long as our wind held out.

" I went to the big Concert Grand and began with a crashing chord and. who fame. play something." AFTER was then his a two years' stay in further period of study to Berlin. had recently opened "School for the Higher Development of Pianoforte Playing. On that occasion his greeting his shoulders. his condemnation of those whom he disliked totally lacked the element of charity. was the reverse of genial. accompanied me on my first visit to the great man. too angry at the moment to care for Tausig or anybody With a shrug of — . position. I looked up and saw Tausig watching me with a sardonic smile. Ehlert. over-wrought man. lo and behold! a soft. who was his second-in-command. TAUSIG AS TEACHER AND "THE HIGHER DEVELOPMENT. but very much the reverse if he did not. a nervous. who was charming if he liked one. instead of the crash I expected. "Oh! you come from England? Well. I lost my temper and went on headlong with my playing." When I applied for admission to his classes.30 Fifty Years' Experience of CHAPTER V. muffled sound came from the instrument. at the zenith of his England I went for a where Tausig. and on the way gave me some points as to Tausig's ways and disI found him. as Ehlert had foretold. he said. To anyone who was not in sympathy with him he was capable of being fiendishly sarcastic.

Tausig. .

.

After a while he stopped I me . com- mence After another perambulation of the room. and at last stopped at the piano and said. On another occasion a Russian Countess was it. and Schoppenhauer and chess. 31 else. When I had played a few bars he swept me off the stool with the remark. He practised nearly all day long. although he was only 27 years old. yet with every note as clear as crystal. except the four hours on two days in the week which he devoted to teaching. play like a rhinoceros." He said. I recollect two instances I was playing Henselt's study." I found out later that Tausig hated his practising being heard. and staccato. said. those are English birds they can't fly. Hegel. dark eyes. "My dear Beringer. which made it almost impossibly difficult to play for anyone but Tausig himself." Then he played it Heavens how he played it prestissimo. and hair already turning grey.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. a trifle more class to my to-morrow. really "You "You must not again. Sz oiseau f'etais. of which game he was one of the — — best exponents in Berlin at that time." She very quietly retorted. they have lime on their wings. graciously. "Oh. In personal appearance he was a very small. while if your phrasing was wrong you were overwhelmed by a torrent of stinging sarcasm. and so had had the hammers of his piano felted so heavily as almost to kill all sound. slightly-built man with very piercing. How shall I describe Tausig to you? His character varied so with his mood that a consistent description is almost impossible. . will take you —come and. — — 1 — playing rather heavily : he raged about the room for some time. not as Henselt wrote : but with three notes in each hand." call me such names. As a teacher he was most minutely particular: a wrong note to him was like a red rag to a bull. "Yes. His only recreations were the reading of metaphysical works particularly Kant.

The first bar of the overture was the signal for the letting loose of Pandemonium rattles were sprung. won many still much of the hostility with which his first efforts were received was I shall displayed at the production of every fresh work. or rather «<«musical. what can I do? You do play just like a rhinoceros.whistles. and the din was added to by the shouts and cries of the Wagnerites (most of us were in the gallery) striving in — to drown noise by noise It . dog. in its and although the great composer had already staunch supporters to his side. Bilse's Orchestral Concerts. as the Wagner controversy was then at height.32 Fifty Years' Experience of he stopped her once more at the same bar. and a thousand -and -one noise-creating instruments. the most voracious musical appetite was hearing bound to get its fill. owing to its much greater size. whistles blown. and said. which was produced shortly after the publication by Wagner of a pamphlet upon the pernicious influence of Judaism on music. horns sounded. and. and the frequent performances of light and Italian opera at KroU's Garten. and only quite the succeeding adding to the uproar. the student there was nothing like so concentrated as in had constant opportunities of first-class music. What with the Opera. The Opera House witnessed some exciting scenes those days. The rich Berlin Jews determined to have their revenge. evening I have . was most exciting musical. sent in their employes armed with rattles. "My dear Countess. the Philharmonic Concerts. never forget the first performance of Die Meister- singer." Although in Berlin. in which Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn came in for special censure. the musical life Leipzig. Joachim's Quartette. having bought up the whole of the dearer parts of the house. not to speak of recitals without number.

as professors. drew down the vials of wrath upon our devoted heads from cordial support for all the musical critics of the period. with the exception of some concert-playing at Leipzig and elsewhere in Germany. towards the end of 1870. Niemann. and Marie Krebs. They went kill for us for all this they were worth. the great tenor." which was in imitation of that of Tausig's school. When war broke out between France and Germany musical Ufe in Berlin was more or less at a standstill. I returned once more to England. and when Tausig gave up his school. "For the Higher Development &c. received very my project. amongst the most noteworthy being Adolph Henselt. myself. and as he was immensely popular. my great ambition was to open an institution in I London upon the for the lines of his school at Berlin. and. has been entirely confined to this country. case. the opera was proceeded with to the bitter end. Fresh from Tausig's influence. Fritz Hartvigson. his Pteisslied was listened to. however. and my intercourse with these and many other shining lights of the musical world has left behind it none but pleasant memories. Die Meistersinger won on its merits.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Adolph Jensen. in spite of all opposition. Since that date my work. Ebenezer Prout. I had the good fortune during my stay in Berlin to meet a number of well-known musicians. with Walter Bache. For some reason or other the title. and chaffed us unmercifully. ridicule did not — In in fact their . under the presidency of Franklin Taylor. However. and in 1871 the School Higher Development of Pianoforte -playing was opened in London. was cast for the part of Walther. Franz Bendel. and was more frequently performed during the season than any other opera. but this was the only number I heard that night. and others. 33 ever spent.

we '"Higher development' is a vague term. follows of : The Telegraph article ran as "Herr institution v. free gratis we tisement we Davidson of the Times. admit. Biilow. Biilow - is the pianoforte for playing represented champion of a new school among us by an branch the 'higher development' of this of executive art.— 34 Fifty Years' Experience of attack did us nothing but good. for example. sometimes drops his notes. under the But experience of Herr v. Does the new school take the bodily action of the performer under its care? Judging from observation. and. but the ecstacies of 'higher development' theorists are hot at all abated in' consequence. It sounds well. the finest advercould possibly have wished for. In this they were "cruel only to be kind." and for nothing. in consequence.' What does it mean? Professors of 'higher development' have not as a rule proved themselves remarkable for perfect execution Herr v. our numbers went up by leaps and bounds. a sweet morsel.' — cises giving special heed to that style of 'going' which belongs to high-stepping horses. I should like to read you a quotation from the Daily Telegraph and one from the Musical World by as got. or sometimes plays wrong notes. We are bound therefore to search out their distinctive principles without reference to a strictly accurate rendering of the text. and laying down rules as to when an audience may be contemplated AA^ith-best . and like the old Scotchwoman's comforting 'Mesopotamia' can be 'rolled. Billow's playing suggests a rather anxious inquiry into the particulars of this 'higher tongue. we should expect to find in the ciirriculurn a course of exerdevelopment. They were particularly generous in couphng the title of our school with the playing of Rubinstein and Billow for mutual criticism arid condemnation.

nor Zimmerman. he treats the compositions of the greatest masters with a daring which in itself has a certain fascination. it was Rubinstein. nor Krebs. memory demonstrated playing. nor Mehlig. nor Lindsay Sloper. Biilow is far from an unmixed good. nor Dannreuther. nor Beringer. While fully acknowledging his command over an audience. it is most advisable that the raptured eyes should be elevated to the ceiling. nor Billy Holmes. Biilow." Davidson. — 35 effect. and the public an astounding capacity. "POWIS: I will telegraph von . nor even Breitner. Oh. "BOYLE: Donner und Blitzen. nor Coenen. "Herr of the incarnation of higher development." to this effect: "BOYLE "POWIS was such pianists. We watch Blondin on the high rope with an interest. nor Franklin Taylor. in the Musical World. ministers to that craving for sensation which is the curse modern music. and when v. astounding artistic His while often remarkable in the true sense. act as if He plays without the book. yes. and admiring the energy and ability which accompany it. I heard Breitner.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and in like manner we cannot but watch Herr v. attacked Rubinstein through the mouths of two fictitious people. nor Hartvigson. we must hold that the artistic influence of Herr v. Biilow deal with a Beethoven concerto or sonata. nor Halle. I (loudly): (softly): Was that thunder? "BOYLE: The No. which is none the less great because it is painful. "Baylis Boyle" and "Purple Powis. "POWIS.Biilow and . impression produced by his playing as virtually to impose silence upon his fellow could not hear Barth. is more often noteworthy for an impulsiveness so headlong that trips and stumbles are thfe result Lastly.

The school when. and was not . and the fact that our School for the Higher Development was involved in this unwarrantably bitter attack served only to recommend it it. and impose silence. To them it was obvious that von Biilow and Rubinstein were the greatest pianists of their day after Liszt and Tausig. He will 'sous terra' them all. that I chose the former alternative. until 1898. "POWIS: Aye. Franz Liszt is coming." And then followed a caricature of Rubinstein (repro- duced on the opposite page) under the heading "Highest Development. I was faced with the necessity of either closing my school or severing my connection with those institutions. there was already growing up in England a musical public which was beginning to have an opinion of its own on matters musical and to fly in the face of bigoted newspaper criticism.36 Fifty Years' Experience of "BOYLE (suddenly) : No. under pressure of my steadily-increasing work as a professor at the Royal Academy of Music and an examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music. flourished exceedingly." But though this was the general attitude of the Press at that time towards these two great artists.

^ $lu9 «ltra .gig^cst gtijtlopmmt.

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as a man — — — aspect seemed to me equally magnificent." The man who can evoke the enthusiasm of a London His fascination. he was recognised. I had the opportunity of learning to know him from every point of view. as Pianist. Regent Street one day. With four such giants as these. von Billow and Rubinstein it would still have stood out as a period of singular richness. rousing cheers for "The Habby Liszt. and. remarkable personality had an indescribable which made itself felt at once by all who came into contact with him. 37 CHAPTER VI. Tausig. must be given pride of place. This wonderful magnetism and power to charm all sorts and conditions of men was He was walking down illustrated in a delightful way. TF the latter half of the nineteenth century had given ^ us no pianoforte players of note besides the four who form the subject of the present chapter Liszt. .Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Conductor. what would it have mattered had the rest been pygmies? To Franz Liszt. who towers high above all his predecessors. As he passed the cab-rank. on his way to his concert at the St. In 1870 I had the good fortune to go with Tausig to the Beethoven Festival held at Weimar by the AUgemeiner Musik Verein. and the cabbies as one man took off their hats and gave three. James' Hall. Comand every poser. and there I met Liszt for the first time. a seven fat years of talent. in his private capacity. FOUR GIANTS OF THE PIANOFORTE.

without one or more of which no pianoforte recital seems complete. he has face of the opprobrium heaped merited the highest honours. stormy passages he was able by his art to work them up to the highest pitch of excitement: through the medium of his instrument he played upon every human emotion." which was an absolutely new form of orchestral composition. have since come into their kingdom and received due recognition. men and women when he chose to be pathetic: I have seen whole rows affected to tears. It was he. Tausig and Billow all admitted that they were mere children in comparison with Liszt. His was not in a r^-production — it was a ve-creation. who first produced Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini and many other works. though neglected and improperly understood at that time. the musical world owes him an undying debt of gratitude for having been the first to produce Wagner's Lohengrin. If only for having invented the "Symphonic Poem. which are performed far too rarely. except by paying him treble his unique and inimitable I fare. is indeed As a Conductor. alike." . The same compliment is not paid his orchestral works. which. too. As a Composer I do not think that Liszt has hitherto been esteemed as highly as he deserves. and to revive Tannhiiuser in the upon this work by the whole of the European press.38 Fifty Years' Experience of cabby. Words cannot describe him as a Pianist he was in- — comparable and unapproachable. Rubinstein. of his audience. while his pre-eminence is still undisputed in the bravura style of pianoforte works. Wagner said of his playing of Beethoven's Sonatas Opus io6 and Opus III that "those who never heard him play them in a friendly circle could not know their real meaning.

Franz Liszt. .

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when I heard him play the Beethoven Concerto. and again. who on one occasion drew a wondergreat." He went on to tell Tausig the story of Horace Vernet. As far as technique was concerned he stood head and shoulders above everyone else. that in one short Prelude or Mazurka of Chopin is embraced the entire history of the art of pianoforte-playing from its earliest beginnings down to the present day." continued Biilow. he can in turn freeze the blood in one's he performs the most amazingly daring feats by his stormy outbursts of uncontrolled passion. "You have become unapproachably of virtuosity. my dear friend." "Thus of your playing. Unfailing as my admiration of your gigantic talent has always been. merits the second place in this quartette of honour. my dear Tausig. The strength and unfailing quality of his performances borders on the incredible. veins. the quintessence of musical feeling. His friend expressed surprise at fully clever little Vernet's celerity of execution. had it occurred to him to 5» ." Last. sketch in a friend's album in the short space of ten minutes. on the last occasion when he heard Tausig play. I never believed it possible that I should one day esteem you as highly as I did Joachim.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. send it coursing along like molten fire. "You think I have only expended ten minutes on your album ? I tell you I have put a good solid thirty years' work into it. the great Liszt said of Tausig." Bulow. "What!" retorted Vernet. "Briareus himself. 39 in his capacity as a teacher I have preceding chapter. but certainly not least. Taiisig. "one may say. Every note you play is golden. as With a power short of demoniacal. SEiid to him. "Tausig is the Mephistopheles that is little of pianoforte virtuosi. to whom referred in the Weitzmann says of him.

and to marvel more and more at the profound knowledge he possessed. which was death. with promise.40 Fifty Years' Experience of all his hundred hands. he had written a pianoforte Concerto. frequently bitterly sarcastic. but the hours flew by like minutes. have equalled this Tausig of the ten brazen fingers. had he lived. that he "wondered why it should have pleased God to take away our dear little Tausig. though they have since found one imitator in Godowsky. but." There can be little doubt that Tausig. could never. who could so easily have been spared. at the early age of thirty-one. but of almost every topic under the sun. Symphonic Poems. would have won further laurels for himself as a composer: as it was. In his arrangement of Strauss' Waltzes and The Invitation to Dance of Weber. and it was . in spite of his unruly tongue. when there were so many fools left on this earth. Some of these were published. and I had become acquainted with him soon arrival. into these * * * Von Biilow the after first good fortune his I to came to England in 1873. a few years before his death. Liszt pathetically remarked to me (this was in London. becoming with them. with his Studies as Opus i. and many orchestral works of great play the piano. and. in 1886). and he remained my friend until his saw a great deal of him in 1884. starting afresh. not only of musical subjects." Again. He frequently used to stay until two or three in the morning. when he generally spent two or three evenings a week at my house. the embellishments and arabesques which he introduced works were at the time quite original. he bought up all the copies and burnt them. I learnt to love him. he dissatisfied initiated an entirely novel form of pianoforte technique. referring to the untimely death of Tausig in 1 87 1.

.Hans von Biilow.

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On one evening he played nearly the whole of Brahms' pianoforte works by heart: on had been another. I will The first was at quote one or two characteristic instances. — He brought his Meiningen Orchestra to such a pitch of perfection that he was able to play upon it almost as if it were an instrument under his hands. and of many other important works. He made long tours through many parts of Europe with Brahms. so that. noted. 41 not until his departure that one realised how long one tsilking. Brahms conducting. was not only as a pianist that Biilow won the highest honours he was also one of the greatest conBut it . and Brahms. he showed that he had nearly every score of importance literally at his fingers' ends. as he called them Bach. too.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. the next saw Biilow playing. while on one evening Brahms would play and Bulow conduct. In 1885 I was giving . him from a purely pianistic point everything of real merit and played but I think he was greatest in the three "B's". No reference to Biilow would be complete without some allusion to the trenchant wit for which he was so ductors of the last century. These tours were phenomenally successful. Beethoven. my own expense. As an editor. I had tiie honour of playing Brahms' Grand Duet on a Chorale of Haydn for two pianos with Biilow at his last recital in r888. of of What can I say view He played ? them all brilliantly. with whom he interchanged roles. when we were discussing the improvements made in orchestration. of the Chromatic Fantaisie of Bach. a number of the less known compositions of Liszt: and on a third occasion. His was the most phenomenal memory I ever came across. he deserves great praise: every student of pianoforte music owes Biilow a debt of gratitude for his edition of the later Sonatas of Beethoven.

In the introduction to the last movement (The Return) a stormy passage occurs. waving her handkerchief. just before one of his recitals he told me that he wanted to play something of Bennett's. never came into such close personal relations with him as I did with Biilow. and said. "There now you've trod on your skirt. It was some time before my dull brain grasped what he was getting at Bennett's — "Maid of Orleans" Sonata! It is not generally known. then on two. and the A major for four pianos. but rather Uke a circus. "Very clever idea. Unfortunately the pupil broke down in the passage. to the last of these four giants of the We now piano I : come Rubinstein. et Le Retour. which deserves to be better known. L I "The Parlourmaid" Sonata. Absence. One of his best pianoforte works is The Carnival of Milan." Again. and made an utter fiasco of the meeting. but of Jewish . she must imagine that she had seen the prodigal in the distance and was rushing down the stairs to meet him. then on three. first on one horse. I believe. fallen on your nose. Beringer. who was born in Russia. the C major for three. Though I met him on many occasions. the C minor for two. if only for the sake of its sparkling Intermezzo. isn't it ? You know. Rubinstein. and Biilow snapped out. and then on four. and had selected a Bach Concert of his birth. Billow was tickled at the notion. during a lesson which he was giving a young lady on Beethoven's Sonata VAdieu. that Biilow also composed works which show a considerable amount of talent." He made another amusing remark.— 42 Fifty Years' Experience of in celebration of the 200th anniversary and my programme included the D minor Concerto for one piano. and Biilow told her that to realise the spirit of this.

Rubinstein. .Ant.

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His methods were absolutely opposed to those of Billow. the value of his compositions varies considerably some of his works reach a very high standard. damaging the works in the slightest degree. in addition. . which. Although he was a composer of no mean ability. he was far too prolific. and sadly wantmg in self-criticism. however. in his playing minute care. up to and including those of his own period. He series afforded wonderful proof of the many-sidedness of his powers. in 1887. was. without . or the F minor Variations of Haydn. in consequence. can yet be made to break the glass of a watch. like a barbarian. . who heard him play such pieces as Mozart's Rondo in A minor. while : others are diy-as-dust and uninteresting. are never likely to forget the wonderful tenderness and indescribable charm with which this Storm -Compeller was able to invest them. for all the world Uke a Nasmyth steam-hammer.Pianaforte Teaching and Playing. though capable of a blow of many hundred tons. At one timfe he played like a god at another. Those. their melodies showing genuine feeUng and depth. a prodigious feat of memory. At these Bull he played specimens of all the composers of note. two of the earliest writers of Spinet and Qavichord music. besides being a great artistic achievement. compositions that possess real merit so that this. and coatain fax too much obvious padding. while Rubinstein used to leave everything to the impulse of the moment and. when. As a result. 43 showed much more of the Tartar than of the Jew. The pieces he selected included most of the . from and Purcell. he gave his memorable of seven historical recitals in Londoin. was extraordinarily unequal. when he let his passions run away with him. whose playing was always intellectually thought out and technically filed down with the most parents.

which excellent practice has been from time to time exaggerated to such an extent. Plaidy first taught octave-playing by a fall with the weight of the hand from a loose wrist and supported arm. The present physiological treatment of this most important subject was undreamt-of at that time no real theory of Touch existed. was almost entirely neglected fifty years ago. Cramer and Clementi. and in a few cases still are. Such players as this were. that pupils often were. To Plaidy and Thalberg the credit is due of having been the first to break loose from this tradition. Touch. it was by the light of nature solely that he did so his instinct brought him to the same conclusions that we have arrived at by the light of reason. the old stiffarm and wrist tradition was still subscribed to by the majority of players. . which nowadays we rightly regard as of vital importance. and to strike the nPHE made — . however. Where a player did use. Kalkbrenner. few and far between. taught to throw their hands as far back from the wrists as possible.44 Fifty Years' Experience of CHAPTER TOUCH. the right methods. including artists of the first rank such as Moscheles. VIL wonderful improvement in pianoforte-playing during the last fifty years is to a great extent attributable to the steady development during that period of the modern ideas and theories concerning Touch.

reproduce the highest quality of singing must. is It is therefore indispensable for the player to possess as much suppleness and as many inflexions in the fore-arm. and not. As the piano cannot. No concession or sacrifice should be made to the particular mechanism of any instrument it is the task of the executant to subject that mechanism to the will of his art. after the production of the tone required. noble. to whatever instrument it be applied. as a skilful singer possesses in his voice. In melodious playing he held that the fingers should be kept on the surface of the keys. Thalberg laid in still greater stress upon the touch question : regard to cantabile playing. Another rule which he insisted upon was that in the position of the — hand for finger exercises the centre of gravity should lean towards the thumb. this pressure being maintained until the next key Curiously. from the chest. the wrist. —we —namely "One in of the first conditions for obtaining breadth of to lay aside aU stiffness. was a total waste of force. and the fingers. not realize that this un- necessary continuance of pressure. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Similarly and dramatic songSj we must sing we must require a great deaj . execution as well as pleasing sonority and great variety the production of sound. but also of swelling notes. 45 keys with the full force of the blow a most pernicious habit. "The Art of Singing applied to the Pianoforte" he says "The art of singing well. by dint of skilfulness and art. he did was depressed. a celebrated woman once said. as towards the little finger.— . And such is the fact. and succeed not only in producing the illusion of sustained and prolonged the faculty of prolonging sounds notes. and pressed firmly down upon them. rationally speaking. In the preface to his work. "In broad. hitherto taught. overcome this defect. is the same.

so to speak. from a very short distance pressing them simple. shows how advanced were Thalberg's ideas upon this most essential feature of pianoforte-playing. that the player should observe great moderation in the movements of his body. the uncontrolled comes from the hand or arm for otherfall of the fingers would not be : heavy enough to produce a tone. and warmth. or rather over-v^oxV. by energy. Dr. in his ". by plapng on them by pushing them down. and fingers of velvet: in this case the keys ought be felt rather than struck. "There is one thing which I must not omit to recommend. and learn to judge his own performance. knead the piano to tread it with a hand without bones. Adolph Kullak. holds to the old system of finger-work. that he should subject himself to severe self-criticism." fifty This extract. players work too much with their fingers and too little . copied from a work written close upon years ago.. with their intelUgence. he advocates a loose arm. . In sweet. but. with vigour. Germer. in his book on Tone-Production. and finger-pressure in cantabile playing. and graceful melodies. To Deppe is due great credit in go for being the systematically for the loosely -supported first to in arm .^Esthetic of Pianoforte- playing". we must. with it. and draw from emit. As a rule. but . and that is." which phrase inevitably implies that the weight wise. not it all the sound it can by striking the keys. 46 Fifty Years' Experience of from the piano. and great repose of the arms and hands that he should never hold his hands too high above the keyboard that he should always listen to himself when playing. published in 1876. was the first to speak of "the fall of the finger. Kullak further insists upon looseness of wrist.

Du Bois Raymond. She fully recognised the necessity of using the upper arm. instead of carrying itself over the keyboard. Caland. and Malvine Bree. who." "The hand must first of all be emancipated ^must be quite free from the hampering weight of the arm. The hand must be light as a feather. and a host of The soundness of Leschetizky upon the touch question. in her book on the Leschetizky method. a pupil of Depp e. has a chapter on Cantaplaying. to my mind. but also by the writings of two of his disciples. The lightness and freedom thus imparted to the hand is effected through the agency of the shoulder and arm muscles. immediately after tone-production: a point upon which Leschetizky himself laid stress. of tone-production. is exemplified. The hand will be — light only when it is carried.. I will quote a few sentences from her book. Marie Unschuld. in the epoch-making lectures he gave in Berlin upon the physiology of the muscles. bile. . S'dchting. many of whose conclusions are. gave a fresh and well-directed impulse to this quest for the best means. which is called "Artistic Piano-playing." In 1 88 1. shoulder. and their relation to the movements of the body. quite erroneous the subject. in which she strongly urges that the weight should be released. went further than her master. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Since that date book after book has appeared on Their authors include Marie "^aetl. not only by the admirable playing of his pupils. and back. 47 tone-production. whose system others. is an amplification of Deppe's. whose touch and tone-production are unexceptionable. and the pressure on the key relaxed. although he himself has not written any book upon the subject. but he to realise the was not sufficiently far advanced proper use of arm-weight in playing. scientifically.

Steinhausen. all that has been said hitherto with regard to touch and "The Physiological Mistakes in Pianoforte -playing. Avoid the over-practice of any one particular movement. by Natiirliche Klaviertechnik". Make use of a rolling motion of the elbow for throwing weight from one side of the hand to the other. them German publications Breithaupfs "Die : which he summarises. This latter in my opinion. few years ago. was the neglect of this precaution that some cases. by far the most important work upon technique. Tozemsend's "Balance of Arm in : Piano-Technique. and shoulders." by Tobias Maiihay. The gist of these successive efforts to systematise and elevate touch and tone-production. I now come of both to the two latest books upon the subject. Use the whole weight of the arm for big tone. from the musician's point of view. 5. (It 4. — Rfty Years' Experience of 48 seen the light Two important works by English authors have recently they are. seems to me to be contained in the following five rules: 1 Avoid all stiffness in the joints. or even from finger to finger. production.. the permanent laming of the hand. elbows. and How to Correct Them". and in pianists a 3. an eminent is. and "The Act of Touch. fingers. in : Dr. that has appeared up to the present date." published in 1903. German surgeon. wrists. . from the physiological point of view.) Discontinue pressure immediately after tone-production continued pressure means unnecessary fatigue. especially those affecting the weak fingerled to the injuring. 2. which was so prevalent among muscles.

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the daily Concerts at the Crystal Palace. the Philharmonic Concerts. including as everything new of any worth. /^NE of the simplest methods of showing the enonnous ^^ improvement in the musical taste of the English public will be to make a brief chronological survey of the concert programmes of the last fifty years. Weber. Mozart. cornet solos. The principal Concerts in the later 'fifties were the Musical Union Chamber Concerts (the forerunners of the Monday Tops'). Mendelssohn. 49 CHAPTER VIII. At the Crystal Palace the programme was of a much one or two movements out of a description Haydn or Mozart Symphony mixed up with operatic The selections. At the Philharmonic the programme consisted chiefly of compositions of Haydn. until. Dussek. and Wolfel. etc. Bennett. Beethoven. Spohr. lighter — gradually educated his audiences. CONCERTS AND PROGRAMMES. Cherubini. all as we all know. and from then on Sir August Manns. Hummel. and Jullien's Promenade Concerts at the Surrey Gardens and Lyceum Theatre. To him are due the programmes became models of that thanks of all English musicians for the encouragement 6* . waltzes by Strauss.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. programmes his all the great classical works as well should be. the conductor at the Palace. Saturday Concerts were first started in i860.

Piatti.. Excellent music Concerts. But when I tell you that in 1861 I played the Fantaisie de Concert on airs from Marta. However. listening to Beethoven. on being asked whether she had been to the last Richter concert. under whose aegis Arabella Goddard made her debut. This improvement. however. at the Promenade and Sunday concerts. so that now one can find an audience of thousands. and were obliged to discontinue the concerts after three years. so much so that such remarks as a certain lady made some years ago. "I couldn't get a ticket for less than \os. at any rate dear no. and Charles Halle. etc. Wagner. by Kuhe. at one of these concerts.td. receive adequate support from the public. which was also owed their to be heard at the Quartette origin to a small but earnest Sainton. who could appreciate good music. band of musicians. They did not. to my mind. has been particularly pronoilnced in the last decade. again. amongst whom were Sterndale Bennett. to hear a amongst decently educated "Oh band playl" ." she said. are hardly likely ever to be heard folks. Of course there was always a select circle of real music -lovers in London. the public taste has improved since then to a marvellous degree.50 Fifty Years' Experience of he gave to contemporary English composers. until at last his concerts reached that high standard of excellence which they maintained for so many years afterwards. but it was a surprisingly small one. you can imagine how carefully and how gradually Manns had to go to work. and I'm certainly not going to pay more than %s. and that this was singled out by the Press for special praise as being the best item on the programme. I have no hesitation in saying that no man has done more for English music than August Manns.

Adagio. when he conducted his The Tempest music. his first appearance was at the Palace in 1862. and I will therefore give their programmes pride of place. From the very first Manns gave them a cordial welcome. 1859. starting with one that took place in 1859. This created quite a furore. Allegro Vivace. PART I. will be found in the second of the programmes I have selected. September 17th. GRAND ARIA Spohr. In referring to these concerts I should like to draw attention to the frequency with which the names of English composers appeared on the programmes. Saturday Concert. SYMPHONY 1. of 1859. in B flat Adagio and Allegro. 51 The Crystal Palace concerts have. Minuetto Allegro. - - Haydn. and he was acclaimed return by Press and public alike as the coming English composer par excellence. of 1890. in my opinion. while the first contains an overture by Bennett Gilbert. as I have unfortunately been unable to trace any of earlier date. and the last. from "Faust"Madame RudersdorfF. and his readiness to recognise unknown talent helped to set many first of the youthful composers of this country on the rung of the ladder of fame. a selection from The Sapphire Necklace. 4. One of his works. Finale. 3. PROGRAMME. . done more than any others to foster a love of good music in the general public. On Arthur Sullivan's from Leipzig. - 2. another English composer of merit: CRYSTAL PALACE.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Anyone comparing these programmes must at once be struck with the enormous difference in intrinsic musical value between the first one.

S. "The Hunt Madame up" - Rudersdorff. Distin. "The Skylark" Madame - - - RudersdorfF. "Love will be master". (First time of Performance. A. "TheLastRose of Summer" arranged bv Orpheus Glee Union. Mr. Manns. No. Spohr. RECITATIVE bene" Mdlle. dire Sister"for Flute - - - WeMe. Euequist.) Conductor. - CONCERT OVERTURE in Eflat Bennett Gilbert. SPANISH (Expressly arranged for Meyerbeer. Canzonetta from "Dinorah" M. who on high" c. b. Song. FACKEL-TANZ DukeofCoburgGotha. in F. "La Calesero" Yradier. T. - Orpheus Glee Union. "The Sapphire Necklace" - Beethoven. A. Saturday Concert. "Pastorale" SELECTION from the MS. "Discord. SOLO for Cornet. "Angels. - Hatton. OVERTURE and ORGIE (The Huguenots) Meyerbeer. Duhem.Sullivan. ARIA. "Non temer amato Mozart. Duhem by A. "Jessonda" andrai" Mods. MANNS. 6. and ARIA. Miss Edith Wynne. Opera.) Comet. De Fontanier. . 1867 PROGRAMME. OVERTURE. Orpheus Glee Union. Violin Obbligato Herr Straus. SONG. Recitative and Prayer. Introduction (Orchestra)— Sunset. "Non piu Mozart.) PART n. IRISH MELODY.52 Fifty Years' Experience of GLEE. April 13th. Alfred Wells. — SYMPHONY a. (First time of Performance. Boehm. SOLO - Mr. is GLEE. Foster. SONG.

) Mr. 45) time at Rubinstein. - G major (First (Op. MANNS. 2) Herr Straus. Apolloni.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. \ Schubert. tliese Concerts. "A Presentiment" Mons. 1876. . Conductor. Handel.) bist die Ruh" - - SONG. (No. OVERTURE. CONCERTO No. b. (First time at these Concerts. OVERTURE. in for Pianoforte and Orchestra. 53 SOLO for Violin.) Miss Sophie L8we. "Ave Maria" Miss Edith Wynne. Timotheus cries" (Alex- ander's Feast) Signer Foil. (First time at these Concerts. ver?" - Rubinstein. 3. "Hark. "E dunque Mendelssohn. MANNS. Irom minor (No. Saturday Concert. SONG. RECITATIVE and ARIA. Liiders. Oscar Beringer. January 29tli. Schubert. Enequist. "Les francs Juges" A. "Fu dio che disse" Signer Foli. R. Conductor. - - Ch. Berlioz. SONG. OVERTURE to Byron's "Manfred" A. "Fingal's Cave" SCENA and ARIA. "Lieblingsplatzchen" Mendelssohn. De Fontanier. SYMPHONY LIED. - Vieuxtemps. AIR. Concerto'' in F sharp Adagio and Rondo. "Du in D. SONGS— a. "Revenge. Schubert. 2 of Salomon set) Haydn. PROGRAMME. the lark" : j Miss Sophie L6we.Schumann. "Gretchen am - Spinnrade" - Mdlle.

Mr. A. THE CHORAL FANTASIA Pianoforte Oscar Beringer. Mills. Paderewski. Watkin Mills. PROGRAMME.C. Hirwin Jooes. Orchestra CONCERTO for Pianoforte and Orchestra Schumann. CONCERTO C minor for Pianoforte and Orchestra in - (Op.Mackenzie. 185) Pianoforte — Mr. SYMPHONY. come" (The Martyr of Antioch) - A. "Love and The Hymen" Handel. nymph" Handel.54 Fifty Years' Experience of Saturday Concert. 80)- - Beethoven. SYMPHONY in A major. Watkin Schubert. PROGRAMME. November 1890.) Saint-Saens. -A. Ben Davies. "Ariadne" - Handel. Charles Chilley. Mr. AIR. "Anacreon"BENEDICTUS for Violins and - Cherubim. 90) - - Brahms. Raff. and The Crystal Palace Choir. Miss Edith Marriott. Miss Annie Layton. Conductor. OVERTURE. THE NOCTURNE-DUET Benedict"- "Italian" - - from "Beatrice - et - Miss Annie Marriott and Miss Edith Marriott. "Haste thee. . (Hercules) - (First time of performance here.) CHORUS. Saturday Concert. - SONG. Mons. —Mr. 1885. Mr. Charles Chilley and Crystal Palace Choir. Sullivan. Oscar Beringer. Mr. Margarita. AIR and CHORUS. Berlioz. Mendelssohn. MANNS. "The Wanderer" Mr. Mr. Miss Annie Marriott. "Come. No. OVERTURE. BALLET' AIRS from "Etienne Marcel" (First time. Crystal Palace Choir. 1st. 3 in F (Op. (Op.

Gibson. The two first programmes of this series will. Op. January 3rd. and others. the beginning. - Liszt. started on Monday. Alfredo Piatti. Melody (Op. 1859. and had a great share in their success. 1" - INVITATION Berlioz) to the - Waltz - (for Orchestra by - Weber. and lasted without interruption until 1900. 35 SOLOS for Pianoforte:— a. be found of especial interest. "Awake! Awake b. of the second exclusively English : . Puderewski. while the viola was played by Doyle.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. I think. 16) Rhapsody No. Piatti. another of the performers there. whose 'cello playing was of almost was also associated with them from equal excellence. Next in importance from an educational point of view were the Monday Popular Chamber Concerts. From their first inceptibn Joseph Joachim was connected with them. 12 SERENADE. Straus. was an excellent second violinist. 65. the music of the first being exclusively Italian. They were familiarly known as tJie Monday 'Pops'. Zerbini. Louis Ries. If my memory does not play me false. and their success was in a great measure due to the fact that this incomparable violinist figured so prominently on their programmes. At one (A the Monday 'Pops' in 1884 I had the honour of playing with him and with Joachim in Dvorak's Trio. he was the first to introduce Brahms' Chamber Music into England at one of these concerts.

and Two Violoncellos E major Boccherini. for Pianoforte alone (Didone Abbandonata) (First time. Viola. Herr Ries. for 2 Violins. (Fint time. third set. 20). JAMES'S HALL.56 Fifty Years' Experience of MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS AT THE ST. Op. in G minor.) (Gl' Orazi Curiazi) Cimarosa. ARIA. and Signor . Monday. Viola and Violoncello (First time.) Herr Becker. Herr Ries. Herr Ries. "Com' ape ingegnosa" (Tarrare)- - Salieri. DUETTO. Op.GRAND SONATA. Mdlle. "Resta ed i in pace. Mr. SCENA TRAGICA . RECiTATIVO pena" e RONDO. Winn. in Eflat major (No. M.) Clari. Paque. and Signor PART II. in Eflat. ARIA. "Cantando un' di" (First time. 2) (First time. PROGRAMME (exclusively selected from the Vocal and Instrumental works of Italian Masters). 1860. Mr. Miss Snsaona Cole. Miss Arabella Goddard.) - Clementi. Mr. in I. Doyle. "Ah non sai qual Sarti.) SONATA. (No. and Signor Piatti. 1). 11.) Cherubim. PART QUINTET. 6. (First time. for 2 Violins and ViolonCorelli.) Mdlle. (First time. Piatti. Euphrosyne Paiepa. Herr Becker. Piatti. idolo (First mio" Ume. for 2 Violins.) Herr Becker. GRAND QUARTET. cello (No. Enphrosyne Parepa and Miss Susanna Cole. February 27th. Doyle.

) Herr Becker. 67 GRAND ARIA. Mr. and Signor Piatti. "Se il del mi divide" (Didone Piccini. MADRIGAL. and Mr. QUARTETT. Doyle. . Doyle.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. "In vain would I forget thee" (Bertha) - - Henry Smart. and Signor Conductor.) Mdlle. Viola. Xennant and Mr. Winn. (First time. Herr Ries. Sims Reeves.) Paganini. BENEDICT. Almaviva. Herr Becker. Osborne. "lo son Lindoro" (First time. April (exclusively selected 9tli. Miss Eyles. 5). (Rosina. Sainton. SONG. G major. in D major Rossini. "Rough wind the Rose" G. for 2 VioUns. "The Dew-drop and SONG. Euphrosyne Parepa. VARIATIONS ARIA on "Nel cor pih" forVioUn alone (First time. never go (Charles II) a-wooing" - Macfarren. Winn. J.) Siviglia Paesiello) chi sk questo suo foglio" Rossini.) Mr. for 2 Viola. "O che umor" (First time. and Bartolo). Mr. Herr Ries. M. and Violoncello Miss Susanna Cole. The London Glee and Madrigal Union. Monday. that meanest loud" Mr. from the Vocal and Instrumental works of English Composers.) TERZETTO "Ah Mr. Santley. and Violoncello Alfred Mellon. "Maidens.) PART QUARTET.Davidson. (Baibiere di DUETTO (Almaviva and Bartolo). Piatti. A. PROGRAMME. (Almaviva). Mr. SONG.W. in L Violins. (First time. - Mr. Mr. 1860. (No. TennaDt. 'J'ennant. Abbandonata) (First time.

Straus. the Mill-stream. Mr. "Blow. and - SONG. Mr. January 31st.58 Fifty Years' Experience of SONG. - and Violoncello Beethoven. SKETCHES. Fiatti. Viola. M. L. GLEE. and the Fountain". Mr. Sims Reeves. Op. Ceha's Arbour" The London Glee and Madrigal Union. 1870. SONG. forte F sharp - minor. for 2 Violins. for Piano- alone Mendelssohn. gentle gales" Bishop. for "Lovely maiden. and Signor GLEE. "Near Woodstock Town" English Ditty) - (Old - W. Conductor. Sainton. Miss Eyles. W. Monday. Mr. Fiatti. Ries. "By Horsley. Lindsay Sloper. Joachim. Chappell. PART TRIO. - MM. Miss Blanche Cole. Sims Reeves. PART L QUARTET. "The SONG. . Santley. FANTASIA. "The Lake. The London Glee and Madrigal Union. Mr. Lindsay Bell-Ringer" Sloper. in Bflat major. PROGRAMME. Sainton. 74. SONATA. SONG. in E flat. L. - Wallace. in >Ir. IL E. Herr Faaer. Balfe. "I wander by each night" my dear one's door - - J. Pianoforte alone Sterndale Benmtt. Violin - and Violoncello - Macfarren. for - Pianoforte. for Pianoforte - and Violin - - Dussek. keep thy heart me" Mr. "Vedrai carino" in Mozart. BENEDICT. Lindsay Sloper. Hatton. - M. and M.

Violin. Op. Op. in F minor. MM. Pauer. Mr. ZERBINI. Monday. Mr. Beethoven. Janotha. 1. L. Janotha. Anna Schauenbm:g. . Cminor. Violoncello Mdlle. Ries. SONG. and Piatti. BALLADE. for Violin alone Herr Joachim. No. Chopin. and Violoncello Madame Norman-Nferuda. and Conductor. Beethoveti. forte IL in D major. - and MtizarU Signor Piatti. in Aflat. 95. ZERBtNl.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Anna Schauenburg. Zerbini. SONG. - - - Madame Norman-Nferuda. - Mdlle. "Penitence" Miss Blanche Cole. for Pianoforte alone Mdlle. Cdrelh. "BussUed" Beethoven. Joachim. Conductor. 1880. for PianoViolin. TRIO. - - Bach. for 2 Violins. " Schwedisches Lied" Mdlle. - SONG. for Pianoforte. PART SONAtA. II. MM. January 19th. PART QUARIET. Viola. for Violin. 59 PART CHACONNE. 3. - Geyer. and Violoncello Beethoven. I. TRIO. and Fiatti. in forte. in Bflat. with Piano- accompaniment Madame Norman-M^ruda. PROGRAMME.

its concerts dating as far March. A brief survey in their of the main achievements order. in SONATA. . -Although the Philharmonic Society the oldest Musical back as have purposely refrained from giving its programmes the pride of place to which their antiquity. Nevin. I of the trust Society. E. Op. MM. Marchot. for Pianoforte and ViolinBusoni and Ysaye. and RECITATIVE and ARIA. PART I. chronological be sufficiently interesting to condone my sin in thus exceeding the period with which this booklet claims to deal. "One Spring Morning" Miss Beatrice Spencer. Op. 1891. PROGRAMME. "Deh tardar" (Le Nozze di Figaro)- vieni. Signer Busoni. J. SONATA. QUARTET. Op. for Pianoforte - Beethoven. Ill. II. will. Jacob. Miss Beatrice Spencer. Van Hout. dedicated to Kreutzer. in C sharp minor.60 Fifty Years' Experience of Monday. Mr. A major. Beethoven. "Air de la M6re-Bobi" (Rose et Colas) Monsigny. 47. Ysaye. and Violoncello MM. alone in C minor. Accompanist. 131. apart from their high musical value. Viola. - non Mozart. HENRY is BIRD. for the reason that this Society has until recent years depended upon the support of a select and comparatively small circle of musicians rather than upon that of the institution in England. b. fully entitles them. I general public. February 18th. PART SONGS :— a. 1813. Violins. for 2 Beethoven.

some of the it." of Moscheles in Society were also responsible for the appearance 1821. as a timegiver was decisive. The conductor used to sit at a pianoforte. . Conducting at the time was totally unUke that which obtains at the present day. whose concerts Clementi was the first to conduct. I took my stand with a score at a separate music-desk in front of the orchestra. but when I besought them to grant me at least one The triumph of the baton trial. drew my directing baton from my coat pocket. to attempt system. in Violin and also Harp with his wife a symphony of his was performed in the same year. and it was not till Spohr's visit in 1820 that the use of the baton was first introduced into England. and created a sensation by his The bravura playing. It first half of the was under their aegis that Cherubini made 1815. when he played a manuscript Concerto of his own. v?hen two overtures of his were performed. 61 The thanks of all of us are dxie to the Philharmonic Society for having introduced nearly every musician of note to the English public during the last century.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. directors would have protested against cedure. in the following terms: when my to remedy this defective came to direct. and gave Quite alarmed at such novel prothe signal to begin. and a Duet for his first English appearance. they became pacified. while in 1820 Spohr played his Dramatic Scena for Violin. In his autobio- graphy he refers to the incident "1 resolved. and no one was seen again seated at the piano during the performance of symphonies and overtures. At the morning rehearsal turn on the day I was to conduct. This had hithero been the practice at the Philharmonic. and whin anything went wrong he touched the notes on the piano or gave the cue with his hands. .

o for the com- In season. This was his last public appearance in England. In 1827 Liszt. and played his Fantaisie Characteristique stir un Air Indien cfOberon. In 1 8 54 the first performance of a Schumann took place. playing one of Hummel's Concertos.62 Fifty Years' Experience of la 1825 Beethoven wrote his Ninth Symphoniy for the Philharmonic. made appearance in England. conducted a manuscript public. a feat almost unparalleled at the time. In 1842 Joachim. also without success. and 1826 Weber conducted the third concert of the evoked great enthusiasm. In 1829 Mendelssohn. Symphony of his own at one of these concerts. receiving a position. whert only thirteen years of age. own Symphony . also for the first time in this country. his works being generally condemned by the musical critics. made In his debut as a composer and pianist his first English in his Con- certo in Eflat. this being his first introduction to the English In 1 83 1 Hummel appeared. 1836 Tbalberg made appearance. In 1833 Sterndale Bennett. but these performances were not particularly successful. playing his Second Caprice for Piano and Orchestra. his first who was then sixteen years old. sum of £e. played the Beethoven Concerto from memory. and retained In 1852 the directors invited Berlioz to conduct some compositions. of his 846. at the age of twenty. in 1 Costa was nominated conductor the post until 1854. then a student of seventeen. In 1 846 Mendelssohn played Beethoven's Concerto in G. for he died in November of the same year.

M. . von Weber.C.

.

any previous lengthy and useful career. The subjoined programmes bring the work of the Society up to a comparatively recent date: in as flourishing a condition as at may be point in PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. militari I. t>3 Costa resigned. in D minor. met with very little success. PART SINPONIA. the Press attacking him as When Wagner with one man. the directors entrusted Richard the conductorship for the season of He was then quite unknown in England. In 1857 Rubinstein first faced an English audience. April 20th. and Beethoven's Ninth Symphony might never have been written. so that it when its it celebrates its centenary six years hence. the very oldest of all English musical institutions. playing his own Concerto in G. and when one remembers that. one realises what a great claim it has to the gratitude of the whole musical world. Mendelssohn. the appearance in England of many of these illustrious musicians would have been greatly retarded. Surely this claim will be allowed. These are achievements of which any institution might well boast. . for Pianoforte Miss Arabella Goddard. who played Beethoven's Concerto in Eflat. Spohr. in This year was further notable for the first appearance England of Madame Schumann. and adequate support given to this. "Di in Eflat. Monday. 8 Signer - - Haydn. onori" (Jessonda) Belletti. ARIA. but for the Philharmonic Society.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and 1855. No. 1857. - - CONCERTO.

Monday. "Pourguoi m'evitez-vous"? Beethoven. G. PART SYMPHONY. Paer. "Quel sepolcro" (Agnese) Madame RudersdorfF and Signor Belletti.64 Fifty Years' Experience of RECITATIVE. DUETTO. No. Mr. - mein Heil" (Oberon) Madame RudersdorfF. - OVERTURE. in II. - Cherubini. No. No. for W. RECITATIVE bel in I. No. Spohr. W. Conductor. "Eil' edler Held". PART II. (First time of performance in this country. 2 - - Beethoven. SYMPHONY. (La Reine - de Saba) - - - Gounod.Kummer. for Violoncello Signor - F. ARIA. Piatti. ARIA. 9. . CUSINS.Bennett vien" (Matilda) - Hummel. "The Naiades" ROMANZA. W. Professor STERNDALE BENNETT. OVERTURE. Cummings. "Ah! - tral tuo timor" al - (n Seraglio) Mozart. - OVERTURE. D. "Les Deux Journees" Cherubini. "Du. H. - PART SINPONIA. Viohn - Herr Joachim. CONCERTINO. "L'ombrosa notte CONCERTO. "Les Abencerages" Conductor. Cummings - OVERTURE.S. Miss Louisa Pyne. 1867. 7 DUO. "En forme d'une scene - chantante". "Euryanthe" - Weber.) Miss Louisa Pyne and Mr. H. - Mendelssohn.A. Mr. in A. 1 ed "Costanza! presso C minor. W. March llth. ciglio". Weber.

) a) b) "WinterHed"- - - "Widmung" Schumann.) Bisaccia. CUSINS. AIR. A. — (First time at these concerts. Weber. "Dalla tore sua romita" (Saffo)Madame Edith Wynne. OVERTURE. Thursday. H. Spohr.Cttsins. for Pianoforte Schumann. Ed. Conductor. 5 Gounod. Mendelssohn. - Handel. 1 6 for Pianoforte . Madame Valleria. Henry Holmes. Cummings. for Violin Mr. in Aminor. OVERTURE. H. 1877. OVERTURE. Conductor. "Oh River. . DUETTO. Grieg. Beethoven. "Da te lontan piu vivere" Madame Edith Wynne and Mr.) Madame Valleria.. No. "Ruy Bias" RECITATIVE and AIR. "Oberon" W. No. PART I. G. Mr. W. March 10th. SYMPHONY. in Aminor. Mr. - Mendelssohn. DRAMATIC CONCERTO. "Melusine" Mendelssohn. Cummings. dear river" (Nadeshda) (First time at these concerts. Dannreuther. E minor. ODE. in C minor. PROGRAMME. February 22nd. GEORGE MOUNT. (Accompanied by Signer FINALE (Perpetuum mobile) from Suite in (Composed expressly for this Society. Op.) F Moszkowski. Goring Thomas. W. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. PROGRAMME. 1887. LIEDER: in PART n. SYMPHONY. Ed. CONCERTO . 4 - - - Brahms.G. W. "Where'er you walk" (Semele) Mr. Mr. 65 Thursday. CONCERTO. "Scena Cantante". Madame Schumann.

66 Fifty Years' Experience of .

.

Paderew'ski. .

Gertrude Peppercorn. since it is obvious that. Pugno. Frederick Dawson. shall confine myself to statement of facts. and unenviable. IN bringing this short forte fifty years' history of the piano- a brief without any attempt at elaborate comment. PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE PIANOFORTE. The most eminent of the foreign pianists of the present day are Paderewski. Vianna da Motta. Busoni. Adelina de Lara. in dealing with contemporary happenings. Riesler. 67 CHAPTER IX. visits to this country. the lack of perspective makes the task of criticism and comparison equally difficult I up to date. Katherine Goodson. I can scarcely be blamed for adopting this policy.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Nearly all of these pay frequent professional : — . and Sapellnikoff while the fair sex is strongly represented by such talented artistes as Theresa Carreno. Leonard Berwick. Godowsky. real music-lovers mann. Backer Grondal. Clothilde Kleeberg. Pachmann. Moritz Rosenthal. and Marie Stockmarr. Agnes Zimmerpianists. In England we have at the present day a greater number of good art seriously. The most prominent of those who have been before the public for some time are Fanny Davies. Sophie Menter. who take their than has ever before been the case. Howard .

To my mind the two chief causes of this marvellous improvement are. Vera Margolies. pupils. who. Irene Scharrer. Winifred Christie. are Englishmen. and. To the Associated Board of the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music is due the utmost credit for having instituted a system of musical examinations which . Felix Swinstead. Marmaduke Barton .68 Fifty Years' Experience of and Cuthbert Whitemore. honours-list I must add the names of Eugen and Frederick Lamond. These alone make a enough showing. York Bowen . (i) the infinitely better teaching given (2) the excellent system of musical examinations which now obtains throughout the country. one can only be devoutly thankful for the change. Ley. Arthur . Such are Adela Jones. which it would be hard to equal in any other country. . in private as well as in public. though domiciled in Germany. Meyrick. but treading close upon their heels is a talented band of younger artists who are now rapidly forcing their way to the front. England may well be proud of her possession of such an array of talent. as indeed is proved by the excellent playing of their to the student. It would perhaps be invidious for me to single out the most eminent pianoforte-teachers by name suffice it to say that there is at the present moment an extraordinarily large number of earnest and thoroughly competent English professors. and when one compares the present this d' Albert To prosperity of the art with its utter stagnation of fifty years back. Margaret Bennett. Percy Grainger. and for the factors that have brought that change to pass. whose methods compare favourably with those of the best teachers in other countries. Marguerite Elzy. and Herbert Fryer. and worthy in every way to be included. brave Rosamond Newstead Verne.

thus at the same time testing the teacher's capacity to the full. For teachers these degrees have become almost a necessity they are the musical "hall-mark'' which guarantees the possessor to have the knowledge. Much fact that of the value of these examinations lies in the they force a would-be candidate to learn to play good music and to play it correctly. the first year of these examinations.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. necessary for a competent teacher. Eistedfodds. A — practical proof that the importance of being able to put L. and contrast it with what I hear now. . A. I have adjudicated at many of these in various parts of the country. More important even than these are the examinations for the degree of Licentiateship of the Royal Academy of Music and that of Associateship of the Royal College of Music. and give them a definite object foi which to work. When I recall the playing to which I had to listen in 1 890. R. they implant a healthy spirit of emulation into the hearts of the competitors. after one's name is recognised. but there can be no doubt (as an examiner for the Association from its inception I can claim some authority for the statement) that the result of these examinations at least has been a marked improvement in the ability of the examinees. R. is M. or A. the yearly increase in the candidature for the qualifying examinations. Much has been and against examinations as a real test of the candidates' skill. it seems almost incredible to me that so great a change for the better has been effected in such a short time. and have invariably found that the standard of playing steadily improves year by year. Further aid towards progress has been lent by the competitive musical festivals. practical and theoretical. 69 said both for embraces the whole of the British Empire. etc. C. M.

Max Reger. Moszkowski. practically impossible for the ball of progress ever far to stop rolling. it is made the art of pianofortereflect playing of recent years. and Albanesi. Italy has Martucci. Sjorgen. Sibelius. Liapunow. Russia indisputably first amongst the nations number compare with Tschaikowsky. who Hves in who hves in London. while to Madame Chaminade we owe some salon music of real . Rachmaninoff. German composers of the highest rank : in his earlier pianoforte-music severely alone Richard Strauss. and many others. and Cesar Cui? lay claim to an equal what other country can of talented composers to Scandinavia runs Russia very close with Grieg. There are not many composers of Polish and Bohemian nationality. pure but by no means simple. Blumenfeld. and some very left minor sateUites. I must call the impressionist style. Faure is much less of an impressionist. must plead guilty to this charge. writes really beautiful melodies. Scriabine. Xaver Scharwenka. This school writes programme music. Esposito.. 70 Fifty Years' Experience of These. and Novacek. and it is most gratifying to with these causes continuing in active existence. in my opinion. Sinding. Of have I late years Sgambati. and — frequently merit. of whom the most prominent are Paderewski. compositions. Glazounow. Even composers of repute. Dublin. Arensky. Uke Vincent d'Indy and Debussy. are the prime causes of the in extraordinary advance that. complete the scanty tale. As for as compositions for the pianoforte are conis cerned. for lack of a better term. France has recently gone in for what. and portrays emotions by a happy disregard of the rules of harmony. whom I confess do not understand.

Percy Pitt. Miss Pianoforte and her many lovers will also continue flourishing. I have a friendly bone to pick with the Seniors. during that . Paul Corder. in spite of the incursions of the pianola and various other types of music-making machinery. and have paid homage to the wall-flower. for while such men as those have mentioned flourish in this country. to wit his excellent Concerto for that instrument. and to trace. Sir Hubert Parry has entirely neglected this branch of composition. What has poor Miss Pianoforte done to them. experience In it I have endeavoured to give an absolutely unbiassed This I account of the progress of pianoforte-music in this country. They have written They have one and charge. step by step. only written one pianoforte work. the enormous improvement that has taken place. including such works as McEwen's Sonata. York Bowen.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. that she should be shunned and neglected. Swinstead. them she is the belle of the ball. during a considerable number of years. Sir Charles Stanford has recently written three pieces on Dante's Inferno. Since his very earliest attempts. is his grand total. have been more For gallant. is as it should be. Elgar has only contributed a few unimportant trifles. I am glad to say. here and elsewhere. and Co wen has been equally parsimonious. Farjeon. The Juniors. and the many charming works of Eugen d' Albert. like a poor Sir little wall-flower at a dance? all laid themselves open to this Alexander Mackenzie has. 71 In glancing at the more strictly classical composers of the present day in England. some admirable excellent pianoforte compositions. I believe. and the rest. the Sonata by Dale. but this. now bring this resume of my fifty years' I must of pianoforte-teaching and playing to a close.

never yet ran smooth but.72 Fifty Years' Experience of Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. . with music playing a more and more important part in the life and culture of the nations period. art. The End. of the world. Sets-back there have been. hke that of true love. must always be. I dare to say that that progress will and that the pianoforte will never lose its present proud position as one of the most valuable factors in the education of humanity at large continue uninterruptedly. and for the path of true .

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e been sold all over the world. retaining the regardless of black keys initiating : C major fingering throughout. where he was conductor of the Symphony Concerts. and our Debating Society for the disground for the aspiring student. In this work he advocated transposing the exercises into different keys. 27 • Plaidy was the first to publish a really good book of Technical Studies for the pianoforte. Apart from the excellent instruction to be obtained in Leipzig there was a wonderful musical atmosphere about the place. Another of the shining lights of Saxony at that period was Robert Franz. I a great many of them still in never forget the shock I received one day when I asked him why he left out the lower octaves in a piece he was playing. I stayed with him several times in Halle. which made it far and away the best training- who. He was the world's greatest Bach and Handel. an excellent one.

and whom this old fellOw had always served. A favourite haunt of ours was a cafe called "Zum Kaffee-Baum. him. he declared. nearly all the stars of the musical firmament. This was really a very important affair. and I was very lucky to know artists of the period at his house. Volkland. and Kogel Scandinavia by Grieg and Johann their in the : . Our great time for playing the fool was when the Leipzig Fair . there were Amongst my many who have world. Marchesi at Leipzig in short. would happen evening after evening. as though he were evolving some new composition. . including Robert Franz. Amongst other things he told us that Schumann would drink his fifteen Seidel of beer in an evening without uttering a word. and Hofmann Germany by Wilhelmj. could not go about at all. as I rriet all the great Krebs. I had the the house of Julius Kistner. the great music publisher. Petersiha. and occasionally rapping out a rhythm on the table with his fingers. Alfred was partially paralyzed. This. Swinnerton Heap. as it was the great book and music-mart for that part of the country. Rubinstein. entirely absorbed.— 28 Fifty Years' . fellow -students since musical Nearly every nation was represented there England by Cowen. von Bernuth. Dreyschock. Joachim. Svendsen . Frank. We used to take a fiendish dehght in . although surrounded by friends: he would sit in absolute silence.was on. made mark and Hungary by Robert Freund and Josefify to take a few of the most prominent representatives of each country. and Stephen Adams America by Perabo. Asanchewski. Kleinmichel. Heckmann. who. and people used to flock to it from great distances. Marie — Jaell. whose "Kneipe" it was." and I remember an old waiter there whom we used to draw out to tell us stories of Schumann. Experience of entree to cussion of the musical questions of the day. poor fellow.

.

.

immortalized in Faust. and. gave us chase. 29 fair changing the trade-signs on the different booths after the was closed at night. I saw Leipzig taken by the' Prussians without a shot being fired: indeed many of the Leipzig ladies threw bouquets to the soldiers as they entered to take possession of the town. We were caught red-handed one evening by the nightwatchmen. In 1866 war broke out between Prussia and Austria. and indignantly asked if it was the custom in Leipzig to pursue and arrest people for carrying sketchingblocks under their arms These and other recollections came vividly back to mind when I visited the dear old place last year. We had our revenge a few nights later. however. When they saw us they fell into our trap. as no one had the slightest idea that the war would be over so soon. which advice I followed. so far as music was concerned the Conservatoire was closed. Moscheles advised me to return to England. Nevertheless. when a number of us ostentatiously passed the watchmen with big strips of pasteboard tucked under our arms. Belonging. I found the town altered and enlarged almost out of recognition. though sorely against the grain. and were ignominiously hauled off to the policestation. we were let off with a caution. a boot-maker's over a butcher's. such as Auerbach's Keller.! Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and so on. and I hailed with joy the few old places that were still in existence. to side with Austria. Saxony was bound. and the famous old Gewandhaus in the my Ritterstrasse. When at last we were caught. we were injured innocence personified. everything was at a complete standstill. to the South German Federation. putting a baker's sign over a hosier's booth. as she did. where. : . and thinking that we were at our sign-changing games again. and we led them a pretty dance as long as our wind held out.

" I went to the big Concert Grand and began with a crashing chord and. who fame. play something." AFTER was then his a two years' stay in further period of study to Berlin. had recently opened "School for the Higher Development of Pianoforte Playing. On that occasion his greeting his shoulders. his condemnation of those whom he disliked totally lacked the element of charity. was the reverse of genial. accompanied me on my first visit to the great man. too angry at the moment to care for Tausig or anybody With a shrug of — . position. I looked up and saw Tausig watching me with a sardonic smile. Ehlert. over-wrought man. lo and behold! a soft. who was his second-in-command. TAUSIG AS TEACHER AND "THE HIGHER DEVELOPMENT. but very much the reverse if he did not. a nervous. who was charming if he liked one. instead of the crash I expected. "Oh! you come from England? Well. I lost my temper and went on headlong with my playing." When I applied for admission to his classes.30 Fifty Years' Experience of CHAPTER V. muffled sound came from the instrument. at the zenith of his England I went for a where Tausig. and on the way gave me some points as to Tausig's ways and disI found him. as Ehlert had foretold. he said. To anyone who was not in sympathy with him he was capable of being fiendishly sarcastic.

Tausig. .

.

After a while he stopped I me . com- mence After another perambulation of the room. and at last stopped at the piano and said. On another occasion a Russian Countess was it. and Schoppenhauer and chess. 31 else. When I had played a few bars he swept me off the stool with the remark. He practised nearly all day long. although he was only 27 years old. yet with every note as clear as crystal. except the four hours on two days in the week which he devoted to teaching. play like a rhinoceros." He said. I recollect two instances I was playing Henselt's study." I found out later that Tausig hated his practising being heard. and staccato. said. those are English birds they can't fly. Hegel. dark eyes. "My dear Beringer. which made it almost impossibly difficult to play for anyone but Tausig himself." Then he played it Heavens how he played it prestissimo. and hair already turning grey.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. a trifle more class to my to-morrow. really "You "You must not again. Sz oiseau f'etais. of which game he was one of the — — best exponents in Berlin at that time." She very quietly retorted. they have lime on their wings. graciously. "Oh. In personal appearance he was a very small. while if your phrasing was wrong you were overwhelmed by a torrent of stinging sarcasm. and so had had the hammers of his piano felted so heavily as almost to kill all sound. slightly-built man with very piercing. How shall I describe Tausig to you? His character varied so with his mood that a consistent description is almost impossible. . will take you —come and. — — 1 — playing rather heavily : he raged about the room for some time. not as Henselt wrote : but with three notes in each hand." call me such names. As a teacher he was most minutely particular: a wrong note to him was like a red rag to a bull. "Yes. His only recreations were the reading of metaphysical works particularly Kant.

The first bar of the overture was the signal for the letting loose of Pandemonium rattles were sprung. won many still much of the hostility with which his first efforts were received was I shall displayed at the production of every fresh work. or rather «<«musical. what can I do? You do play just like a rhinoceros.whistles. and the din was added to by the shouts and cries of the Wagnerites (most of us were in the gallery) striving in — to drown noise by noise It . dog. in its and although the great composer had already staunch supporters to his side. Bilse's Orchestral Concerts. as the Wagner controversy was then at height.32 Fifty Years' Experience of he stopped her once more at the same bar. and a thousand -and -one noise-creating instruments. the most voracious musical appetite was hearing bound to get its fill. owing to its much greater size. whistles blown. and said. which was produced shortly after the publication by Wagner of a pamphlet upon the pernicious influence of Judaism on music. horns sounded. and. and the frequent performances of light and Italian opera at KroU's Garten. and only quite the succeeding adding to the uproar. the student there was nothing like so concentrated as in had constant opportunities of first-class music. What with the Opera. The Opera House witnessed some exciting scenes those days. The rich Berlin Jews determined to have their revenge. evening I have . was most exciting musical. sent in their employes armed with rattles. "My dear Countess. the Philharmonic Concerts. never forget the first performance of Die Meister- singer." Although in Berlin. in which Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn came in for special censure. the musical life Leipzig. Joachim's Quartette. having bought up the whole of the dearer parts of the house. not to speak of recitals without number.

as professors. drew down the vials of wrath upon our devoted heads from cordial support for all the musical critics of the period. with the exception of some concert-playing at Leipzig and elsewhere in Germany. towards the end of 1870. Niemann. and Marie Krebs. They went kill for us for all this they were worth. the great tenor." which was in imitation of that of Tausig's school. When war broke out between France and Germany musical Ufe in Berlin was more or less at a standstill. I returned once more to England. and when Tausig gave up his school. "For the Higher Development &c. received very my project. amongst the most noteworthy being Adolph Henselt. myself. and as he was immensely popular. my great ambition was to open an institution in I London upon the for the lines of his school at Berlin. and. has been entirely confined to this country. case. the opera was proceeded with to the bitter end. Fresh from Tausig's influence. Fritz Hartvigson. his Pteisslied was listened to. however. and my intercourse with these and many other shining lights of the musical world has left behind it none but pleasant memories. Die Meistersinger won on its merits.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Adolph Jensen. in spite of all opposition. Since that date my work. Ebenezer Prout. I had the good fortune during my stay in Berlin to meet a number of well-known musicians. with Walter Bache. For some reason or other the title. and chaffed us unmercifully. ridicule did not — In in fact their . under the presidency of Franklin Taylor. However. and in 1871 the School Higher Development of Pianoforte -playing was opened in London. was cast for the part of Walther. Franz Bendel. and was more frequently performed during the season than any other opera. but this was the only number I heard that night. and others. 33 ever spent.

we '"Higher development' is a vague term. follows of : The Telegraph article ran as "Herr institution v. free gratis we tisement we Davidson of the Times. admit. Biilow. Biilow - is the pianoforte for playing represented champion of a new school among us by an branch the 'higher development' of this of executive art.— 34 Fifty Years' Experience of attack did us nothing but good. for example. sometimes drops his notes. under the But experience of Herr v. Does the new school take the bodily action of the performer under its care? Judging from observation. and. but the ecstacies of 'higher development' theorists are hot at all abated in' consequence. It sounds well. the finest advercould possibly have wished for. In this they were "cruel only to be kind." and for nothing. in consequence.' What does it mean? Professors of 'higher development' have not as a rule proved themselves remarkable for perfect execution Herr v. our numbers went up by leaps and bounds. a sweet morsel.' — cises giving special heed to that style of 'going' which belongs to high-stepping horses. I should like to read you a quotation from the Daily Telegraph and one from the Musical World by as got. or sometimes plays wrong notes. We are bound therefore to search out their distinctive principles without reference to a strictly accurate rendering of the text. and laying down rules as to when an audience may be contemplated AA^ith-best . and like the old Scotchwoman's comforting 'Mesopotamia' can be 'rolled. Billow's playing suggests a rather anxious inquiry into the particulars of this 'higher tongue. we should expect to find in the ciirriculurn a course of exerdevelopment. They were particularly generous in couphng the title of our school with the playing of Rubinstein and Billow for mutual criticism arid condemnation.

nor Zimmerman. he treats the compositions of the greatest masters with a daring which in itself has a certain fascination. it was Rubinstein. nor Krebs. memory demonstrated playing. nor Mehlig. nor Lindsay Sloper. Biilow is far from an unmixed good. nor Dannreuther. nor Beringer. While fully acknowledging his command over an audience. it is most advisable that the raptured eyes should be elevated to the ceiling. nor Billy Holmes. Biilow." Davidson. — 35 effect. and the public an astounding capacity. "POWIS: I will telegraph von . nor even Breitner. Oh. "BOYLE: Donner und Blitzen. nor Coenen. "Herr of the incarnation of higher development." to this effect: "BOYLE "POWIS was such pianists. We watch Blondin on the high rope with an interest. nor Franklin Taylor. in the Musical World. ministers to that craving for sensation which is the curse modern music. and when v. astounding artistic His while often remarkable in the true sense. act as if He plays without the book. yes. and admiring the energy and ability which accompany it. I heard Breitner.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and in like manner we cannot but watch Herr v. attacked Rubinstein through the mouths of two fictitious people. nor Hartvigson. we must hold that the artistic influence of Herr v. Biilow deal with a Beethoven concerto or sonata. nor Halle. I (loudly): (softly): Was that thunder? "BOYLE: The No. which is none the less great because it is painful. "Baylis Boyle" and "Purple Powis. "POWIS.Biilow and . impression produced by his playing as virtually to impose silence upon his fellow could not hear Barth. is more often noteworthy for an impulsiveness so headlong that trips and stumbles are thfe result Lastly.

The school when. and was not . and the fact that our School for the Higher Development was involved in this unwarrantably bitter attack served only to recommend it it. and impose silence. To them it was obvious that von Biilow and Rubinstein were the greatest pianists of their day after Liszt and Tausig. He will 'sous terra' them all. that I chose the former alternative. until 1898. "POWIS: Aye. Franz Liszt is coming." And then followed a caricature of Rubinstein (repro- duced on the opposite page) under the heading "Highest Development. I was faced with the necessity of either closing my school or severing my connection with those institutions. there was already growing up in England a musical public which was beginning to have an opinion of its own on matters musical and to fly in the face of bigoted newspaper criticism.36 Fifty Years' Experience of "BOYLE (suddenly) : No. under pressure of my steadily-increasing work as a professor at the Royal Academy of Music and an examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music. flourished exceedingly." But though this was the general attitude of the Press at that time towards these two great artists.

^ $lu9 «ltra .gig^cst gtijtlopmmt.

.

as a man — — — aspect seemed to me equally magnificent." The man who can evoke the enthusiasm of a London His fascination. he was recognised. I had the opportunity of learning to know him from every point of view. as Pianist. Regent Street one day. With four such giants as these. von Billow and Rubinstein it would still have stood out as a period of singular richness. rousing cheers for "The Habby Liszt. and. remarkable personality had an indescribable which made itself felt at once by all who came into contact with him. 37 CHAPTER VI. Tausig. must be given pride of place. This wonderful magnetism and power to charm all sorts and conditions of men was He was walking down illustrated in a delightful way. TF the latter half of the nineteenth century had given ^ us no pianoforte players of note besides the four who form the subject of the present chapter Liszt. .Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Conductor. what would it have mattered had the rest been pygmies? To Franz Liszt. who towers high above all his predecessors. As he passed the cab-rank. on his way to his concert at the St. In 1870 I had the good fortune to go with Tausig to the Beethoven Festival held at Weimar by the AUgemeiner Musik Verein. and the cabbies as one man took off their hats and gave three. James' Hall. Comand every poser. and there I met Liszt for the first time. a seven fat years of talent. in his private capacity. FOUR GIANTS OF THE PIANOFORTE.

without one or more of which no pianoforte recital seems complete. he has face of the opprobrium heaped merited the highest honours. stormy passages he was able by his art to work them up to the highest pitch of excitement: through the medium of his instrument he played upon every human emotion." which was an absolutely new form of orchestral composition. have since come into their kingdom and received due recognition. men and women when he chose to be pathetic: I have seen whole rows affected to tears. It was he. Tausig and Billow all admitted that they were mere children in comparison with Liszt. His was not in a r^-production — it was a ve-creation. who first produced Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini and many other works. though neglected and improperly understood at that time. the musical world owes him an undying debt of gratitude for having been the first to produce Wagner's Lohengrin. If only for having invented the "Symphonic Poem. which are performed far too rarely. except by paying him treble his unique and inimitable I fare. is indeed As a Conductor. alike." . The same compliment is not paid his orchestral works. which. too. As a Composer I do not think that Liszt has hitherto been esteemed as highly as he deserves. and to revive Tannhiiuser in the upon this work by the whole of the European press.38 Fifty Years' Experience of cabby. Words cannot describe him as a Pianist he was in- — comparable and unapproachable. Rubinstein. of his audience. while his pre-eminence is still undisputed in the bravura style of pianoforte works. Wagner said of his playing of Beethoven's Sonatas Opus io6 and Opus III that "those who never heard him play them in a friendly circle could not know their real meaning.

Franz Liszt. .

.

when I heard him play the Beethoven Concerto. and again. who on one occasion drew a wondergreat." He went on to tell Tausig the story of Horace Vernet. As far as technique was concerned he stood head and shoulders above everyone else. that in one short Prelude or Mazurka of Chopin is embraced the entire history of the art of pianoforte-playing from its earliest beginnings down to the present day." continued Biilow. he can in turn freeze the blood in one's he performs the most amazingly daring feats by his stormy outbursts of uncontrolled passion. "You have become unapproachably of virtuosity. my dear friend." "Thus of your playing. Unfailing as my admiration of your gigantic talent has always been. merits the second place in this quartette of honour. my dear Tausig. The strength and unfailing quality of his performances borders on the incredible. veins. the quintessence of musical feeling. His friend expressed surprise at fully clever little Vernet's celerity of execution. had it occurred to him to 5» ." Last. sketch in a friend's album in the short space of ten minutes. on the last occasion when he heard Tausig play. I never believed it possible that I should one day esteem you as highly as I did Joachim.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. send it coursing along like molten fire. "You think I have only expended ten minutes on your album ? I tell you I have put a good solid thirty years' work into it. the great Liszt said of Tausig." Bulow. "What!" retorted Vernet. "Briareus himself. 39 in his capacity as a teacher I have preceding chapter. but certainly not least. Taiisig. "one may say. Every note you play is golden. as With a power short of demoniacal. SEiid to him. "Tausig is the Mephistopheles that is little of pianoforte virtuosi. to whom referred in the Weitzmann says of him.

and to marvel more and more at the profound knowledge he possessed. which was death. with promise.40 Fifty Years' Experience of all his hundred hands. he had written a pianoforte Concerto. frequently bitterly sarcastic. but the hours flew by like minutes. have equalled this Tausig of the ten brazen fingers. had he lived. that he "wondered why it should have pleased God to take away our dear little Tausig. though they have since found one imitator in Godowsky. but." There can be little doubt that Tausig. could never. who could so easily have been spared. at the early age of thirty-one. but of almost every topic under the sun. Symphonic Poems. would have won further laurels for himself as a composer: as it was. In his arrangement of Strauss' Waltzes and The Invitation to Dance of Weber. and it was . in spite of his unruly tongue. when there were so many fools left on this earth. Some of these were published. and I had become acquainted with him soon arrival. into these * * * Von Biilow the after first good fortune his I to came to England in 1873. a few years before his death. Liszt pathetically remarked to me (this was in London. becoming with them. with his Studies as Opus i. and many orchestral works of great play the piano. and. in 1886). and he remained my friend until his saw a great deal of him in 1884. starting afresh. not only of musical subjects." Again. He frequently used to stay until two or three in the morning. when he generally spent two or three evenings a week at my house. the embellishments and arabesques which he introduced works were at the time quite original. he bought up all the copies and burnt them. I learnt to love him. he dissatisfied initiated an entirely novel form of pianoforte technique. referring to the untimely death of Tausig in 1 87 1.

.Hans von Biilow.

.

On one evening he played nearly the whole of Brahms' pianoforte works by heart: on had been another. I will The first was at quote one or two characteristic instances. — He brought his Meiningen Orchestra to such a pitch of perfection that he was able to play upon it almost as if it were an instrument under his hands. and of many other important works. He made long tours through many parts of Europe with Brahms. so that. noted. 41 not until his departure that one realised how long one tsilking. Brahms conducting. was not only as a pianist that Biilow won the highest honours he was also one of the greatest conBut it . and Brahms. he showed that he had nearly every score of importance literally at his fingers' ends. as he called them Bach. too.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. the next saw Biilow playing. while on one evening Brahms would play and Bulow conduct. In 1885 I was giving . him from a purely pianistic point everything of real merit and played but I think he was greatest in the three "B's". No reference to Biilow would be complete without some allusion to the trenchant wit for which he was so ductors of the last century. These tours were phenomenally successful. Beethoven. my own expense. As an editor. I had tiie honour of playing Brahms' Grand Duet on a Chorale of Haydn for two pianos with Biilow at his last recital in r888. of of What can I say view He played ? them all brilliantly. with whom he interchanged roles. when we were discussing the improvements made in orchestration. of the Chromatic Fantaisie of Bach. a number of the less known compositions of Liszt: and on a third occasion. His was the most phenomenal memory I ever came across. he deserves great praise: every student of pianoforte music owes Biilow a debt of gratitude for his edition of the later Sonatas of Beethoven.

In the introduction to the last movement (The Return) a stormy passage occurs. waving her handkerchief. just before one of his recitals he told me that he wanted to play something of Bennett's. never came into such close personal relations with him as I did with Biilow. and said. "There now you've trod on your skirt. It was some time before my dull brain grasped what he was getting at Bennett's — "Maid of Orleans" Sonata! It is not generally known. then on two. and the A major for four pianos. but rather Uke a circus. "Very clever idea. Unfortunately the pupil broke down in the passage. to the last of these four giants of the We now piano I : come Rubinstein. et Le Retour. which deserves to be better known. L I "The Parlourmaid" Sonata. Absence. One of his best pianoforte works is The Carnival of Milan." Again. and made an utter fiasco of the meeting. but of Jewish . she must imagine that she had seen the prodigal in the distance and was rushing down the stairs to meet him. then on three. first on one horse. I believe. fallen on your nose. Beringer. who was born in Russia. the C major for three. Though I met him on many occasions. the C minor for two. if only for the sake of its sparkling Intermezzo. isn't it ? You know. Rubinstein. and Biilow snapped out. and then on four. and had selected a Bach Concert of his birth. Billow was tickled at the notion. during a lesson which he was giving a young lady on Beethoven's Sonata VAdieu. that Biilow also composed works which show a considerable amount of talent." He made another amusing remark.— 42 Fifty Years' Experience of in celebration of the 200th anniversary and my programme included the D minor Concerto for one piano. and Biilow told her that to realise the spirit of this.

Rubinstein. .Ant.

.

His methods were absolutely opposed to those of Billow. the value of his compositions varies considerably some of his works reach a very high standard. damaging the works in the slightest degree. in addition. . which. Although he was a composer of no mean ability. he was far too prolific. and sadly wantmg in self-criticism. however. in his playing minute care. up to and including those of his own period. He series afforded wonderful proof of the many-sidedness of his powers. in 1887. was. without . or the F minor Variations of Haydn. in consequence. can yet be made to break the glass of a watch. like a barbarian. . who heard him play such pieces as Mozart's Rondo in A minor. while : others are diy-as-dust and uninteresting. are never likely to forget the wonderful tenderness and indescribable charm with which this Storm -Compeller was able to invest them. for all the world Uke a Nasmyth steam-hammer.Pianaforte Teaching and Playing. though capable of a blow of many hundred tons. At one timfe he played like a god at another. Those. their melodies showing genuine feeUng and depth. a prodigious feat of memory. At these Bull he played specimens of all the composers of note. two of the earliest writers of Spinet and Qavichord music. besides being a great artistic achievement. compositions that possess real merit so that this. and coatain fax too much obvious padding. while Rubinstein used to leave everything to the impulse of the moment and. when. As a result. 43 showed much more of the Tartar than of the Jew. The pieces he selected included most of the . from and Purcell. he gave his memorable of seven historical recitals in Londoin. was extraordinarily unequal. when he let his passions run away with him. whose playing was always intellectually thought out and technically filed down with the most parents.

which excellent practice has been from time to time exaggerated to such an extent. Plaidy first taught octave-playing by a fall with the weight of the hand from a loose wrist and supported arm. The present physiological treatment of this most important subject was undreamt-of at that time no real theory of Touch existed. was almost entirely neglected fifty years ago. Cramer and Clementi. and in a few cases still are. Such players as this were. that pupils often were. To Plaidy and Thalberg the credit is due of having been the first to break loose from this tradition. Touch. it was by the light of nature solely that he did so his instinct brought him to the same conclusions that we have arrived at by the light of reason. the old stiffarm and wrist tradition was still subscribed to by the majority of players. . which nowadays we rightly regard as of vital importance. and to strike the nPHE made — . however. Where a player did use. Kalkbrenner. few and far between. taught to throw their hands as far back from the wrists as possible.44 Fifty Years' Experience of CHAPTER TOUCH. the right methods. including artists of the first rank such as Moscheles. VIL wonderful improvement in pianoforte-playing during the last fifty years is to a great extent attributable to the steady development during that period of the modern ideas and theories concerning Touch.

reproduce the highest quality of singing must. is It is therefore indispensable for the player to possess as much suppleness and as many inflexions in the fore-arm. and not. As the piano cannot. No concession or sacrifice should be made to the particular mechanism of any instrument it is the task of the executant to subject that mechanism to the will of his art. after the production of the tone required. noble. to whatever instrument it be applied. as a skilful singer possesses in his voice. In melodious playing he held that the fingers should be kept on the surface of the keys. Thalberg laid in still greater stress upon the touch question : regard to cantabile playing. Another rule which he insisted upon was that in the position of the — hand for finger exercises the centre of gravity should lean towards the thumb. this pressure being maintained until the next key Curiously. from the chest. the wrist. —we —namely "One in of the first conditions for obtaining breadth of to lay aside aU stiffness. was a total waste of force. and the fingers. not realize that this un- necessary continuance of pressure. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Similarly and dramatic songSj we must sing we must require a great deaj . execution as well as pleasing sonority and great variety the production of sound. but also of swelling notes. 45 keys with the full force of the blow a most pernicious habit. "The Art of Singing applied to the Pianoforte" he says "The art of singing well. by dint of skilfulness and art. he did was depressed. a celebrated woman once said. as towards the little finger.— . And such is the fact. and succeed not only in producing the illusion of sustained and prolonged the faculty of prolonging sounds notes. and pressed firmly down upon them. rationally speaking. In the preface to his work. "In broad. hitherto taught. overcome this defect. is the same.

so to speak. from a very short distance pressing them simple. shows how advanced were Thalberg's ideas upon this most essential feature of pianoforte-playing. that the player should observe great moderation in the movements of his body. the uncontrolled comes from the hand or arm for otherfall of the fingers would not be : heavy enough to produce a tone. and warmth. or rather over-v^oxV. by energy. Dr. in his ". by plapng on them by pushing them down. and fingers of velvet: in this case the keys ought be felt rather than struck. "There is one thing which I must not omit to recommend. and learn to judge his own performance. knead the piano to tread it with a hand without bones. Adolph Kullak. holds to the old system of finger-work. that he should subject himself to severe self-criticism." fifty This extract. players work too much with their fingers and too little . copied from a work written close upon years ago.. with their intelUgence. he advocates a loose arm. . In sweet. but. with vigour. Germer. in his book on Tone-Production. and finger-pressure in cantabile playing. and graceful melodies. To Deppe is due great credit in go for being the systematically for the loosely -supported first to in arm .^Esthetic of Pianoforte- playing". we must. with it. and draw from emit. As a rule. but . and that is." which phrase inevitably implies that the weight wise. not it all the sound it can by striking the keys. 46 Fifty Years' Experience of from the piano. and great repose of the arms and hands that he should never hold his hands too high above the keyboard that he should always listen to himself when playing. published in 1876. was the first to speak of "the fall of the finger. Kullak further insists upon looseness of wrist.

Du Bois Raymond. She fully recognised the necessity of using the upper arm. instead of carrying itself over the keyboard. Caland. and Malvine Bree. who." "The hand must first of all be emancipated ^must be quite free from the hampering weight of the arm. The hand must be light as a feather. and a host of The soundness of Leschetizky upon the touch question. in her book on the Leschetizky method. a pupil of Depp e. has a chapter on Cantaplaying. to my mind. but also by the writings of two of his disciples. The lightness and freedom thus imparted to the hand is effected through the agency of the shoulder and arm muscles. immediately after tone-production: a point upon which Leschetizky himself laid stress. of tone-production. is exemplified. The hand will be — light only when it is carried.. I will quote a few sentences from her book. Marie Unschuld. in the epoch-making lectures he gave in Berlin upon the physiology of the muscles. bile. . S'dchting. many of whose conclusions are. gave a fresh and well-directed impulse to this quest for the best means. which is called "Artistic Piano-playing." In 1 88 1. shoulder. and their relation to the movements of the body. quite erroneous the subject. in which she strongly urges that the weight should be released. went further than her master. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Since that date book after book has appeared on Their authors include Marie "^aetl. not only by the admirable playing of his pupils. and back. 47 tone-production. whose system others. is an amplification of Deppe's. whose touch and tone-production are unexceptionable. and the pressure on the key relaxed. although he himself has not written any book upon the subject. but he to realise the was not sufficiently far advanced proper use of arm-weight in playing. scientifically.

Steinhausen. all that has been said hitherto with regard to touch and "The Physiological Mistakes in Pianoforte -playing. Avoid the over-practice of any one particular movement. by Natiirliche Klaviertechnik". Make use of a rolling motion of the elbow for throwing weight from one side of the hand to the other. them German publications Breithaupfs "Die : which he summarises. This latter in my opinion. few years ago. was the neglect of this precaution that some cases. by far the most important work upon technique. Tozemsend's "Balance of Arm in : Piano-Technique. and shoulders." by Tobias Maiihay. The gist of these successive efforts to systematise and elevate touch and tone-production. I now come of both to the two latest books upon the subject. Use the whole weight of the arm for big tone. from the musician's point of view. 5. (It 4. — Rfty Years' Experience of 48 seen the light Two important works by English authors have recently they are. seems to me to be contained in the following five rules: 1 Avoid all stiffness in the joints. or even from finger to finger. production.. the permanent laming of the hand. elbows. and How to Correct Them". and in pianists a 3. an eminent is. and "The Act of Touch. fingers. in : Dr. that has appeared up to the present date." published in 1903. German surgeon. wrists. . from the physiological point of view.) Discontinue pressure immediately after tone-production continued pressure means unnecessary fatigue. especially those affecting the weak fingerled to the injuring. 2. which was so prevalent among muscles.

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the daily Concerts at the Crystal Palace. the Philharmonic Concerts. including as everything new of any worth. /^NE of the simplest methods of showing the enonnous ^^ improvement in the musical taste of the English public will be to make a brief chronological survey of the concert programmes of the last fifty years. Weber. Mozart. cornet solos. The principal Concerts in the later 'fifties were the Musical Union Chamber Concerts (the forerunners of the Monday Tops'). Mendelssohn. 49 CHAPTER VIII. At the Crystal Palace the programme was of a much one or two movements out of a description Haydn or Mozart Symphony mixed up with operatic The selections. At the Philharmonic the programme consisted chiefly of compositions of Haydn. until. Dussek. and Wolfel. etc. Bennett. Beethoven. Spohr. lighter — gradually educated his audiences. CONCERTS AND PROGRAMMES. Cherubini. all as we all know. and from then on Sir August Manns. Hummel. and Jullien's Promenade Concerts at the Surrey Gardens and Lyceum Theatre. To him are due the programmes became models of that thanks of all English musicians for the encouragement 6* . waltzes by Strauss.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. programmes his all the great classical works as well should be. the conductor at the Palace. Saturday Concerts were first started in i860.

Piatti.. Excellent music Concerts. But when I tell you that in 1861 I played the Fantaisie de Concert on airs from Marta. However. listening to Beethoven. on being asked whether she had been to the last Richter concert. under whose aegis Arabella Goddard made her debut. This improvement. however. at the Promenade and Sunday concerts. so that now one can find an audience of thousands. and were obliged to discontinue the concerts after three years. so much so that such remarks as a certain lady made some years ago. "I couldn't get a ticket for less than \os. at any rate dear no. and Charles Halle. etc. Wagner. by Kuhe. at one of these concerts.td. receive adequate support from the public. which was also owed their to be heard at the Quartette origin to a small but earnest Sainton. who could appreciate good music. band of musicians. They did not. to my mind. has been particularly pronoilnced in the last decade. again. amongst whom were Sterndale Bennett. to hear a amongst decently educated "Oh band playl" ." she said. are hardly likely ever to be heard folks. Of course there was always a select circle of real music -lovers in London. the public taste has improved since then to a marvellous degree.50 Fifty Years' Experience of he gave to contemporary English composers. until at last his concerts reached that high standard of excellence which they maintained for so many years afterwards. but it was a surprisingly small one. you can imagine how carefully and how gradually Manns had to go to work. and I'm certainly not going to pay more than %s. and that this was singled out by the Press for special praise as being the best item on the programme. I have no hesitation in saying that no man has done more for English music than August Manns.

Adagio. when he conducted his The Tempest music. his first appearance was at the Palace in 1862. and I will therefore give their programmes pride of place. From the very first Manns gave them a cordial welcome. 1859. starting with one that took place in 1859. This created quite a furore. Allegro Vivace. PART I. will be found in the second of the programmes I have selected. September 17th. GRAND ARIA Spohr. In referring to these concerts I should like to draw attention to the frequency with which the names of English composers appeared on the programmes. Saturday Concert. SYMPHONY 1. of 1859. in B flat Adagio and Allegro. 51 The Crystal Palace concerts have. Minuetto Allegro. - - Haydn. and he was acclaimed return by Press and public alike as the coming English composer par excellence. of 1890. in my opinion. while the first contains an overture by Bennett Gilbert. as I have unfortunately been unable to trace any of earlier date. and the last. from "Faust"Madame RudersdorfF. and his readiness to recognise unknown talent helped to set many first of the youthful composers of this country on the rung of the ladder of fame. a selection from The Sapphire Necklace. 4. One of his works. Finale. 3. PROGRAMME. . done more than any others to foster a love of good music in the general public. On Arthur Sullivan's from Leipzig. - 2. another English composer of merit: CRYSTAL PALACE.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Anyone comparing these programmes must at once be struck with the enormous difference in intrinsic musical value between the first one.

S. "The Hunt Madame up" - Rudersdorff. Distin. "The Skylark" Madame - - - RudersdorfF. "Love will be master". (First time of Performance. A. "TheLastRose of Summer" arranged bv Orpheus Glee Union. Mr. Manns. No. Spohr. RECITATIVE bene" Mdlle. dire Sister"for Flute - - - WeMe. Euequist.) Conductor. - CONCERT OVERTURE in Eflat Bennett Gilbert. SPANISH (Expressly arranged for Meyerbeer. Canzonetta from "Dinorah" M. who on high" c. b. Song. FACKEL-TANZ DukeofCoburgGotha. in F. "La Calesero" Yradier. T. - Orpheus Glee Union. "The Sapphire Necklace" - Beethoven. A. Saturday Concert. "Pastorale" SELECTION from the MS. "Discord. SOLO for Cornet. "Angels. - Hatton. OVERTURE and ORGIE (The Huguenots) Meyerbeer. Duhem.Sullivan. ARIA. "Non temer amato Mozart. Duhem by A. "Jessonda" andrai" Mods. MANNS. 6. and ARIA. Miss Edith Wynne. Opera.) Comet. De Fontanier. . 1867 PROGRAMME. OVERTURE. Orpheus Glee Union. Violin Obbligato Herr Straus. SONG. Recitative and Prayer. Introduction (Orchestra)— Sunset. "Non piu Mozart.) PART n. IRISH MELODY.52 Fifty Years' Experience of GLEE. April 13th. Alfred Wells. — SYMPHONY a. (First time of Performance. Boehm. SOLO - Mr. is GLEE. Foster. SONG.

) Mr. 45) time at Rubinstein. - G major (First (Op. MANNS. 2) Herr Straus. Apolloni.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. \ Schubert. tliese Concerts. "A Presentiment" Mons. 1876. . Conductor. Handel.) bist die Ruh" - - SONG. (No. OVERTURE. CONCERTO No. b. (First time at these Concerts. OVERTURE. in for Pianoforte and Orchestra. 53 SOLO for Violin.) Miss Sophie L8we. "Ave Maria" Miss Edith Wynne. Timotheus cries" (Alex- ander's Feast) Signer Foil. (First time at these Concerts. ver?" - Rubinstein. 3. "Hark. "E dunque Mendelssohn. MANNS. Irom minor (No. Saturday Concert. SONG. RECITATIVE and ARIA. Liiders. Oscar Beringer. January 29tli. Schubert. Enequist. "Les francs Juges" A. "Fu dio che disse" Signer Foli. R. Conductor. - - Ch. Berlioz. SONG. OVERTURE to Byron's "Manfred" A. "Fingal's Cave" SCENA and ARIA. "Lieblingsplatzchen" Mendelssohn. De Fontanier. SYMPHONY LIED. - Vieuxtemps. AIR. Concerto'' in F sharp Adagio and Rondo. "Du in D. SONGS— a. "Revenge. Schubert. 2 of Salomon set) Haydn. PROGRAMME. the lark" : j Miss Sophie L6we.Schumann. "Gretchen am - Spinnrade" - Mdlle.

Mr. A. THE CHORAL FANTASIA Pianoforte Oscar Beringer. Mills. Paderewski. Watkin Mills. PROGRAMME.C. Hirwin Jooes. Orchestra CONCERTO for Pianoforte and Orchestra Schumann. CONCERTO C minor for Pianoforte and Orchestra in - (Op.Mackenzie. 185) Pianoforte — Mr. SYMPHONY. come" (The Martyr of Antioch) - A. "Love and The Hymen" Handel. nymph" Handel.54 Fifty Years' Experience of Saturday Concert. 80)- - Beethoven. SYMPHONY in A major. Watkin Schubert. PROGRAMME. November 1890.) Saint-Saens. -A. Ben Davies. "Ariadne" - Handel. Charles Chilley. Mr. AIR. "Anacreon"BENEDICTUS for Violins and - Cherubim. 90) - - Brahms. Raff. and The Crystal Palace Choir. Miss Edith Marriott. Miss Annie Layton. Conductor. OVERTURE. THE NOCTURNE-DUET Benedict"- "Italian" - - from "Beatrice - et - Miss Annie Marriott and Miss Edith Marriott. "Haste thee. . (Hercules) - (First time of performance here.) CHORUS. Saturday Concert. - SONG. Mons. —Mr. 1885. Mr. Charles Chilley and Crystal Palace Choir. Sullivan. Oscar Beringer. Mr. Margarita. AIR and CHORUS. Berlioz. Mendelssohn. MANNS. "The Wanderer" Mr. Mr. Miss Annie Marriott. "Come. No. OVERTURE. BALLET' AIRS from "Etienne Marcel" (First time. Crystal Palace Choir. 1st. 3 in F (Op. (Op.

Gibson. The two first programmes of this series will. Op. January 3rd. and others. the beginning. - Liszt. started on Monday. Alfredo Piatti. Melody (Op. 1859. and had a great share in their success. 1" - INVITATION Berlioz) to the - Waltz - (for Orchestra by - Weber. and lasted without interruption until 1900. 35 SOLOS for Pianoforte:— a. be found of especial interest. "Awake! Awake b. of the second exclusively English : . Puderewski. while the viola was played by Doyle.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. I think. 16) Rhapsody No. Piatti. another of the performers there. whose 'cello playing was of almost was also associated with them from equal excellence. Next in importance from an educational point of view were the Monday Popular Chamber Concerts. From their first inceptibn Joseph Joachim was connected with them. 12 SERENADE. Straus. was an excellent second violinist. 65. the music of the first being exclusively Italian. They were familiarly known as tJie Monday 'Pops'. Zerbini. Louis Ries. If my memory does not play me false. and their success was in a great measure due to the fact that this incomparable violinist figured so prominently on their programmes. At one (A the Monday 'Pops' in 1884 I had the honour of playing with him and with Joachim in Dvorak's Trio. he was the first to introduce Brahms' Chamber Music into England at one of these concerts.

and Two Violoncellos E major Boccherini. for Pianoforte alone (Didone Abbandonata) (First time. Viola. Herr Ries. for 2 Violins. (Fint time. third set. 20). JAMES'S HALL.56 Fifty Years' Experience of MONDAY POPULAR CONCERTS AT THE ST. Op. in G minor.) (Gl' Orazi Curiazi) Cimarosa. ARIA. and Signor . Monday. Viola and Violoncello (First time.) Herr Becker. Herr Ries. Herr Ries. "Com' ape ingegnosa" (Tarrare)- - Salieri. DUETTO. Op.GRAND SONATA. Mdlle. "Resta ed i in pace. Mr. SCENA TRAGICA . RECiTATIVO pena" e RONDO. Winn. in Eflat major (No. M.) Clari. Paque. and Signor PART II. in Eflat. ARIA. "Cantando un' di" (First time. 2) (First time. PROGRAMME (exclusively selected from the Vocal and Instrumental works of Italian Masters). 1860. Mr. Miss Snsaona Cole. Miss Arabella Goddard.) - Clementi. Mr. in I. Doyle. "Ah non sai qual Sarti.) SONATA. (No. and Signor Piatti. 1). 11.) Cherubim. PART QUINTET. 6. (First time. for 2 Violins and ViolonCorelli.) Mdlle. (First time. Piatti. Euphrosyne Paiepa. Herr Becker. Piatti. idolo (First mio" Ume. for 2 Violins.) Herr Becker. GRAND QUARTET. cello (No. Enphrosyne Parepa and Miss Susanna Cole. February 27th. Doyle.

) Herr Becker. 67 GRAND ARIA. Mr. and Signor Piatti. "Se il del mi divide" (Didone Piccini. MADRIGAL. and Mr. QUARTETT. Doyle. . Doyle.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. "In vain would I forget thee" (Bertha) - - Henry Smart. and Signor Conductor.) Mdlle. Viola. Xennant and Mr. Winn. (First time. Herr Ries. Sims Reeves.) Paganini. BENEDICT. Almaviva. Herr Becker. Osborne. "lo son Lindoro" (First time. April (exclusively selected 9tli. Miss Eyles. 5). (Rosina. Sainton. SONG. G major. in D major Rossini. "Rough wind the Rose" G. for 2 VioUns. "The Dew-drop and SONG. Euphrosyne Parepa. VARIATIONS ARIA on "Nel cor pih" forVioUn alone (First time. never go (Charles II) a-wooing" - Macfarren. Winn. J.) Siviglia Paesiello) chi sk questo suo foglio" Rossini.) Mr. for 2 Viola. "O che umor" (First time. and Bartolo). Mr. Herr Ries. M. and Violoncello Miss Susanna Cole. The London Glee and Madrigal Union. Monday. that meanest loud" Mr. from the Vocal and Instrumental works of English Composers.) TERZETTO "Ah Mr. Santley. and Violoncello Alfred Mellon. "Maidens.) PART QUARTET.Davidson. (Baibiere di DUETTO (Almaviva and Bartolo). Piatti. A. PROGRAMME. (Almaviva). Mr. SONG.W. in L Violins. (First time. - Mr. Mr. 1860. (No. TennaDt. 'J'ennant. Abbandonata) (First time.

Straus. the Mill-stream. Mr. "Blow. and - SONG. Mr. January 31st.58 Fifty Years' Experience of SONG. - and Violoncello Beethoven. SKETCHES. Fiatti. Viola. M. L. GLEE. and the Fountain". Mr. Sims Reeves. Op. Ceha's Arbour" The London Glee and Madrigal Union. 1870. SONG. forte F sharp - minor. for 2 Violins. for Piano- alone Mendelssohn. gentle gales" Bishop. for "Lovely maiden. and Signor GLEE. "Near Woodstock Town" English Ditty) - (Old - W. Conductor. Sainton. Miss Eyles. W. Monday. Mr. Fiatti. Ries. "By Horsley. Lindsay Sloper. Joachim. Chappell. PART TRIO. - MM. Miss Blanche Cole. Sims Reeves. PART L QUARTET. "The SONG. . Santley. FANTASIA. "The Lake. The London Glee and Madrigal Union. Mr. Lindsay Bell-Ringer" Sloper. in Bflat major. PROGRAMME. Sainton. 74. SONATA. SONG. in E flat. L. - Wallace. in >Ir. IL E. Herr Faaer. Balfe. "I wander by each night" my dear one's door - - J. Pianoforte alone Sterndale Benmtt. Violin - and Violoncello - Macfarren. for - Pianoforte. for Pianoforte - and Violin - - Dussek. keep thy heart me" Mr. "Vedrai carino" in Mozart. BENEDICT. Lindsay Sloper. Hatton. - M. and M.

Violin. Op. Op. in F minor. MM. Pauer. Mr. ZERBINI. Monday. Mr. Beethoven. Janotha. 1. L. Janotha. Anna Schauenbm:g. . Cminor. Violoncello Mdlle. Ries. SONG. and Piatti. BALLADE. for Violin alone Herr Joachim. No. Chopin. and Violoncello Madame Norman-Nferuda. and Conductor. Beethoveti. forte IL in D major. - and MtizarU Signor Piatti. in Aflat. 95. ZERBtNl.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Anna Schauenburg. Zerbini. SONG. - - - Madame Norman-Nferuda. - Mdlle. "Penitence" Miss Blanche Cole. for Pianoforte alone Mdlle. Cdrelh. "BussUed" Beethoven. Joachim. Conductor. 1880. for PianoViolin. TRIO. - - Bach. for 2 Violins. " Schwedisches Lied" Mdlle. - SONG. for Pianoforte. PART SONAtA. II. MM. January 19th. PART QUARIET. Viola. for Violin. 59 PART CHACONNE. 3. - Geyer. and Violoncello Beethoven. I. TRIO. and Fiatti. in forte. in Bflat. with Piano- accompaniment Madame Norman-M^ruda. PROGRAMME.

its concerts dating as far March. A brief survey in their of the main achievements order. in SONATA. . -Although the Philharmonic Society the oldest Musical back as have purposely refrained from giving its programmes the pride of place to which their antiquity. Nevin. I of the trust Society. E. Op. MM. Marchot. for Pianoforte and ViolinBusoni and Ysaye. and RECITATIVE and ARIA. PART I. chronological be sufficiently interesting to condone my sin in thus exceeding the period with which this booklet claims to deal. "One Spring Morning" Miss Beatrice Spencer. Op. 1891. PROGRAMME. "Deh tardar" (Le Nozze di Figaro)- vieni. Signer Busoni. J. SONATA. QUARTET. Op. for Pianoforte - Beethoven. Ill. II. will. Jacob. Miss Beatrice Spencer. Van Hout. dedicated to Kreutzer. in C sharp minor.60 Fifty Years' Experience of Monday. Mr. A major. Beethoven. "Air de la M6re-Bobi" (Rose et Colas) Monsigny. 47. Ysaye. and Violoncello MM. alone in C minor. Accompanist. 131. apart from their high musical value. Viola. - non Mozart. HENRY is BIRD. for the reason that this Society has until recent years depended upon the support of a select and comparatively small circle of musicians rather than upon that of the institution in England. b. fully entitles them. I general public. February 18th. PART SONGS :— a. 1813. Violins. for 2 Beethoven.

some of the it." of Moscheles in Society were also responsible for the appearance 1821. as a timegiver was decisive. The conductor used to sit at a pianoforte. . Conducting at the time was totally unUke that which obtains at the present day. whose concerts Clementi was the first to conduct. I took my stand with a score at a separate music-desk in front of the orchestra. but when I besought them to grant me at least one The triumph of the baton trial. drew my directing baton from my coat pocket. to attempt system. in Violin and also Harp with his wife a symphony of his was performed in the same year. and it was not till Spohr's visit in 1820 that the use of the baton was first introduced into England. and created a sensation by his The bravura playing. It first half of the was under their aegis that Cherubini made 1815. when he played a manuscript Concerto of his own. v?hen two overtures of his were performed. 61 The thanks of all of us are dxie to the Philharmonic Society for having introduced nearly every musician of note to the English public during the last century.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. directors would have protested against cedure. in the following terms: when my to remedy this defective came to direct. and gave Quite alarmed at such novel prothe signal to begin. and a Duet for his first English appearance. they became pacified. while in 1820 Spohr played his Dramatic Scena for Violin. In his autobio- graphy he refers to the incident "1 resolved. and no one was seen again seated at the piano during the performance of symphonies and overtures. At the morning rehearsal turn on the day I was to conduct. This had hithero been the practice at the Philharmonic. and whin anything went wrong he touched the notes on the piano or gave the cue with his hands. .

o for the com- In season. This was his last public appearance in England. In 1827 Liszt. and played his Fantaisie Characteristique stir un Air Indien cfOberon. In 1 8 54 the first performance of a Schumann took place. playing one of Hummel's Concertos.62 Fifty Years' Experience of la 1825 Beethoven wrote his Ninth Symphoniy for the Philharmonic. made appearance in England. conducted a manuscript public. a feat almost unparalleled at the time. In 1842 Joachim. also without success. and 1826 Weber conducted the third concert of the evoked great enthusiasm. In 1829 Mendelssohn. Symphony of his own at one of these concerts. receiving a position. whert only thirteen years of age. own Symphony . also for the first time in this country. his works being generally condemned by the musical critics. made In his debut as a composer and pianist his first English in his Con- certo in Eflat. this being his first introduction to the English In 1 83 1 Hummel appeared. 1836 Tbalberg made appearance. In 1833 Sterndale Bennett. but these performances were not particularly successful. playing his Second Caprice for Piano and Orchestra. his first who was then sixteen years old. sum of £e. played the Beethoven Concerto from memory. and retained In 1852 the directors invited Berlioz to conduct some compositions. of his 846. at the age of twenty. in 1 Costa was nominated conductor the post until 1854. then a student of seventeen. In 1 846 Mendelssohn played Beethoven's Concerto in G. for he died in November of the same year.

M. . von Weber.C.

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any previous lengthy and useful career. The subjoined programmes bring the work of the Society up to a comparatively recent date: in as flourishing a condition as at may be point in PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. militari I. t>3 Costa resigned. in D minor. met with very little success. PART SINPONIA. the Press attacking him as When Wagner with one man. the directors entrusted Richard the conductorship for the season of He was then quite unknown in England. In 1857 Rubinstein first faced an English audience. April 20th. and Beethoven's Ninth Symphony might never have been written. so that it when its it celebrates its centenary six years hence. the very oldest of all English musical institutions. playing his own Concerto in G. and when one remembers that. one realises what a great claim it has to the gratitude of the whole musical world. Mendelssohn. the appearance in England of many of these illustrious musicians would have been greatly retarded. Surely this claim will be allowed. These are achievements of which any institution might well boast. . for Pianoforte Miss Arabella Goddard. who played Beethoven's Concerto in Eflat. Spohr. in This year was further notable for the first appearance England of Madame Schumann. and adequate support given to this. "Di in Eflat. Monday. 8 Signer - - Haydn. onori" (Jessonda) Belletti. ARIA. but for the Philharmonic Society.— Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. and 1855. No. 1857. - - CONCERTO.

Monday. "Pourguoi m'evitez-vous"? Beethoven. G. PART SYMPHONY. Paer. "Quel sepolcro" (Agnese) Madame RudersdorfF and Signor Belletti.64 Fifty Years' Experience of RECITATIVE. DUETTO. No. Mr. - mein Heil" (Oberon) Madame RudersdorfF. - OVERTURE. in II. - Cherubini. No. No. for W. RECITATIVE bel in I. No. Spohr. W. Conductor. "Eil' edler Held". PART II. (First time of performance in this country. 2 - - Beethoven. SYMPHONY. (La Reine - de Saba) - - - Gounod.Kummer. for Violoncello Signor - F. ARIA. Piatti. ARIA. 9. . CUSINS.Bennett vien" (Matilda) - Hummel. "The Naiades" ROMANZA. W. Professor STERNDALE BENNETT. OVERTURE. Cummings. "Ah! - tral tuo timor" al - (n Seraglio) Mozart. - OVERTURE. D. "Les Deux Journees" Cherubini. "Du. H. - PART SINPONIA. Viohn - Herr Joachim. CONCERTINO. "L'ombrosa notte CONCERTO. "Les Abencerages" Conductor. Cummings - OVERTURE.S. Miss Louisa Pyne. 1867. 7 DUO. "En forme d'une scene - chantante". "Euryanthe" - Weber.) Miss Louisa Pyne and Mr. H. - Mendelssohn.A. Mr. in A. 1 ed "Costanza! presso C minor. W. March llth. ciglio". Weber.

) a) b) "WinterHed"- - - "Widmung" Schumann.) Bisaccia. CUSINS. AIR. A. — (First time at these concerts. Weber. "Dalla tore sua romita" (Saffo)Madame Edith Wynne. OVERTURE. Thursday. H. Spohr.Cttsins. for Pianoforte Schumann. Ed. Conductor. 5 Gounod. Mendelssohn. - Handel. 1 6 for Pianoforte . Madame Valleria. Henry Holmes. Cummings. for Violin Mr. in Aminor. OVERTURE. H. 1877. OVERTURE. Conductor. "Oh River. . DUETTO. Grieg. Beethoven. "Da te lontan piu vivere" Madame Edith Wynne and Mr.) Madame Valleria.. No. "Ruy Bias" RECITATIVE and AIR. "Oberon" W. No. PART I. G. Mr. W. March 10th. SYMPHONY. in Aminor. Mr. - Mendelssohn. DRAMATIC CONCERTO. "Melusine" Mendelssohn. Cummings. dear river" (Nadeshda) (First time at these concerts. Dannreuther. E minor. ODE. in C minor. PROGRAMME. February 22nd. GEORGE MOUNT. (Accompanied by Signer FINALE (Perpetuum mobile) from Suite in (Composed expressly for this Society. Op.) F Moszkowski. Goring Thomas. W. Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. PROGRAMME. 1887. LIEDER: in PART n. SYMPHONY. Ed. CONCERTO . 4 - - - Brahms.G. W. "Where'er you walk" (Semele) Mr. Mr. 65 Thursday. CONCERTO. "Scena Cantante". Madame Schumann.

66 Fifty Years' Experience of .

.

Paderew'ski. .

Gertrude Peppercorn. since it is obvious that. Pugno. Frederick Dawson. shall confine myself to statement of facts. and unenviable. IN bringing this short forte fifty years' history of the piano- a brief without any attempt at elaborate comment. PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE PIANOFORTE. The most eminent of the foreign pianists of the present day are Paderewski. Vianna da Motta. Busoni. Adelina de Lara. in dealing with contemporary happenings. Riesler. 67 CHAPTER IX. visits to this country. the lack of perspective makes the task of criticism and comparison equally difficult I up to date. Katherine Goodson. I can scarcely be blamed for adopting this policy.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. Nearly all of these pay frequent professional : — . and Sapellnikoff while the fair sex is strongly represented by such talented artistes as Theresa Carreno. Leonard Berwick. Godowsky. real music-lovers mann. Backer Grondal. Clothilde Kleeberg. Pachmann. Moritz Rosenthal. and Marie Stockmarr. Agnes Zimmerpianists. In England we have at the present day a greater number of good art seriously. The most prominent of those who have been before the public for some time are Fanny Davies. Sophie Menter. who take their than has ever before been the case. Howard .

To my mind the two chief causes of this marvellous improvement are. Vera Margolies. pupils. who. Irene Scharrer. Winifred Christie. are Englishmen. and. To the Associated Board of the Royal Academy and Royal College of Music is due the utmost credit for having instituted a system of musical examinations which . Felix Swinstead. Marmaduke Barton .68 Fifty Years' Experience of and Cuthbert Whitemore. honours-list I must add the names of Eugen and Frederick Lamond. These alone make a enough showing. York Bowen . (i) the infinitely better teaching given (2) the excellent system of musical examinations which now obtains throughout the country. one can only be devoutly thankful for the change. Ley. Arthur . Such are Adela Jones. which it would be hard to equal in any other country. . in private as well as in public. though domiciled in Germany. Meyrick. but treading close upon their heels is a talented band of younger artists who are now rapidly forcing their way to the front. England may well be proud of her possession of such an array of talent. as indeed is proved by the excellent playing of their to the student. It would perhaps be invidious for me to single out the most eminent pianoforte-teachers by name suffice it to say that there is at the present moment an extraordinarily large number of earnest and thoroughly competent English professors. and when one compares the present this d' Albert To prosperity of the art with its utter stagnation of fifty years back. Margaret Bennett. Percy Grainger. and for the factors that have brought that change to pass. whose methods compare favourably with those of the best teachers in other countries. Marguerite Elzy. and Herbert Fryer. and worthy in every way to be included. brave Rosamond Newstead Verne.

thus at the same time testing the teacher's capacity to the full. For teachers these degrees have become almost a necessity they are the musical "hall-mark'' which guarantees the possessor to have the knowledge. Much fact that of the value of these examinations lies in the they force a would-be candidate to learn to play good music and to play it correctly. the first year of these examinations.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. necessary for a competent teacher. Eistedfodds. A — practical proof that the importance of being able to put L. and contrast it with what I hear now. . A. I have adjudicated at many of these in various parts of the country. More important even than these are the examinations for the degree of Licentiateship of the Royal Academy of Music and that of Associateship of the Royal College of Music. and give them a definite object foi which to work. When I recall the playing to which I had to listen in 1 890. R. they implant a healthy spirit of emulation into the hearts of the competitors. after one's name is recognised. but there can be no doubt (as an examiner for the Association from its inception I can claim some authority for the statement) that the result of these examinations at least has been a marked improvement in the ability of the examinees. R. is M. or A. the yearly increase in the candidature for the qualifying examinations. Much has been and against examinations as a real test of the candidates' skill. it seems almost incredible to me that so great a change for the better has been effected in such a short time. and have invariably found that the standard of playing steadily improves year by year. Further aid towards progress has been lent by the competitive musical festivals. practical and theoretical. 69 said both for embraces the whole of the British Empire. etc. C. M.

Max Reger. Moszkowski. practically impossible for the ball of progress ever far to stop rolling. it is made the art of pianofortereflect playing of recent years. and Albanesi. Italy has Martucci. Sjorgen. Sibelius. Liapunow. Russia indisputably first amongst the nations number compare with Tschaikowsky. who Hves in who hves in London. while to Madame Chaminade we owe some salon music of real . Rachmaninoff. German composers of the highest rank : in his earlier pianoforte-music severely alone Richard Strauss. and many others. and Cesar Cui? lay claim to an equal what other country can of talented composers to Scandinavia runs Russia very close with Grieg. There are not many composers of Polish and Bohemian nationality. pure but by no means simple. Blumenfeld. and some very left minor sateUites. I must call the impressionist style. Faure is much less of an impressionist. must plead guilty to this charge. writes really beautiful melodies. Scriabine. Xaver Scharwenka. This school writes programme music. Esposito.. 70 Fifty Years' Experience of These. and Novacek. and it is most gratifying to with these causes continuing in active existence. in my opinion. Sinding. Of have I late years Sgambati. and — frequently merit. of whom the most prominent are Paderewski. compositions. Glazounow. Even composers of repute. Dublin. Arensky. Uke Vincent d'Indy and Debussy. are the prime causes of the in extraordinary advance that. complete the scanty tale. As for as compositions for the pianoforte are conis cerned. for lack of a better term. France has recently gone in for what. and portrays emotions by a happy disregard of the rules of harmony. whom I confess do not understand.

Percy Pitt. Miss Pianoforte and her many lovers will also continue flourishing. I have a friendly bone to pick with the Seniors. during that . Paul Corder. in spite of the incursions of the pianola and various other types of music-making machinery. and have paid homage to the wall-flower. for while such men as those have mentioned flourish in this country. to wit his excellent Concerto for that instrument. and to trace. Sir Hubert Parry has entirely neglected this branch of composition. What has poor Miss Pianoforte done to them. experience In it I have endeavoured to give an absolutely unbiassed This I account of the progress of pianoforte-music in this country. They have written They have one and charge. step by step. only written one pianoforte work. the enormous improvement that has taken place. including such works as McEwen's Sonata. York Bowen.Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. that she should be shunned and neglected. Swinstead. them she is the belle of the ball. during a considerable number of years. Sir Charles Stanford has recently written three pieces on Dante's Inferno. Since his very earliest attempts. is his grand total. have been more For gallant. is as it should be. Elgar has only contributed a few unimportant trifles. I am glad to say. here and elsewhere. and Co wen has been equally parsimonious. Farjeon. The Juniors. and the many charming works of Eugen d' Albert. like a poor Sir little wall-flower at a dance? all laid themselves open to this Alexander Mackenzie has. 71 In glancing at the more strictly classical composers of the present day in England. some admirable excellent pianoforte compositions. I believe. and the rest. the Sonata by Dale. but this. now bring this resume of my fifty years' I must of pianoforte-teaching and playing to a close.

never yet ran smooth but.72 Fifty Years' Experience of Pianoforte Teaching and Playing. . with music playing a more and more important part in the life and culture of the nations period. art. The End. of the world. Sets-back there have been. hke that of true love. must always be. I dare to say that that progress will and that the pianoforte will never lose its present proud position as one of the most valuable factors in the education of humanity at large continue uninterruptedly. and for the path of true .

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