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TABLE OF CONTENT8 TABLE OF CONTENT8 TABLE OF CONTENT8 TABLE OF CONTENT8
J OVLRVILW OI 1HL M1 ALLIANCL SYS1LM.............................................. 4
1.1 M1 ALLIAN(L SUB-S\S1LMS............................................................................................... 4
2 ARCHI1LC1URL OI A M1 ALLIANCL DIS1RIBU1LD CON1ROL
SYS1LMS ...................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 PLRSONAL (OMPU1LR ......................................................................................................... 9
2.2 LON\ORKS (OMMUNI(A1IONS NL1\ORK...................................................................10
2.3 DLS(RIP1ION AND ROLL Ol (ON1ROLLLRS IN 1lL DIllLRLN1 M1 ALLIAN(L
S\S1LM SUB-S\S1LMS.....................................................................................................................11
2.3.1 M1 Alliance Monitoring Sub-Svstem...........................................................................................................11
2.3.2 Reírigeration Sub-Svstem...............................................................................................................................12
2.3.3 leating´Air-(onditioning lVA(, Sub-Svstem.......................................................................................13
2.3.4 Lighting Sub-Svstem........................................................................................................................................14
3 M1 500 IAMILY.................................................................................................. J5
3.1 M1 500 lAMIL\ INPU1-OU1PU1 (ONlIGURA1ION ......................................................15
3.2 3.2 - 1ABLL Ol M1 ALLIAN(L (ON1ROLLLR USING 1lL 500 lAMIL\......................15
4 DLSCRIP1ION AND ILA1URLS OI MICRO 1HLRMO CON1ROLLLRS
J7
4.1 RLlRIGLRA1ION S\S1LM (ON1ROLLLRS........................................................................18
4.1.1 (ondenser (ontroller M1 504. M1 508 or M1 512, ..............................................................................18
4.1.2 Suction Pressure (ontroller M1 504,.........................................................................................................19
4.1.3 (ompressor (ontroller ...................................................................................................................................20
4.1.4 Reírigeration (ircuit (ontroller ....................................................................................................................21
4.1.5 Sub-(ooling Svstem (ontroller.....................................................................................................................22
4.2 lVA( (ON1ROLLLR .........................................................................................................23
4.2.1 Rooí-1op Unit (ontroller M1 504. M1 508 or M1 512, ......................................................................23
4.2.2 VAV Rooí-1op Unit (ontroller M1 504. M1 508 or M1 512,............................................................24
4.2.3 Dual Path M1 508, (ontroller.....................................................................................................................25
4.3 LIGl1ING (ON1ROLLLRS..................................................................................................26
4.3.1 Relav Lighting (ontroller ...............................................................................................................................26
4.3.2 DimLight (ontroller M1 504, .....................................................................................................................2¯
APPLNDICLS............................................................................................................. 28
J IN1RODUC1ION 1O SUPLRMARKL1 RLIRIGLRA1ION SYS1LMS .... 29
1.1 PURPOSL Ol A SUPLRMARKL1 RLlRIGLRA1ION S\S1LM .............................................29
1.2 OPLRA1ION AND 1\PL Ol RLlRIGLRA1LD (ASLS........................................................29
1.3 1lLRMOD\NAMI( PRIN(IPLLS Ol RLlRIGLRA1ION.....................................................30
1.4 RLlRIGLRA1ION S\S1LM (OMPONLN1S AND lUN(1IONS..........................................31
1.5 RLlRIGLRA1ION (\(LL.....................................................................................................33
1.6 DLlROS1ING (\(LL...........................................................................................................34
1.¯ lLA1 RL(LAIM LX(lANGLR............................................................................................34
2 IN1RODUC1ION 1O 1HL SUPLRMARKL1 HVAC SYS1LM................... 35
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2.1 PURPOSL Ol 1lL lVA( S\S1LM.....................................................................................35
2.2 ML(lANI(AL (OMPONLN1S Ol ROOl-1OP UNI1S ......................................................36
2.2.1 1he table below describes the mechanical components íor a rooí-top unit and their íunctions: ....36
2.3 LLL(1RONI( (OMPONLN1S SLNSORS, Ol ROOl-1OP UNI1S ....................................3¯
2.3.1 1he table below describes the electronic components íor a rooí-top unit and their íunctions: .......3¯
2.4 lLA1ING (\(LL.................................................................................................................3¯
2.5 DLlUMIDIlI(A1ION (\(LL..............................................................................................38
2.6 AIR-(ONDI1IONING (\(LL..............................................................................................39
3 IN1RODUC1ION 1O 1HL LIGH1ING SYS1LM........................................ 40
3.1 DLS(RIP1ION Ol A LIGl1ING (ON1ROL S\S1LM.........................................................40
C.2 ÷ LIGH1ING ZONLS...............................................................................................................40
C.3 ÷ COMPONLN1S OI 1HL LIGH1ING SYS1LM ..................................................................41
C.3.J ÷ Lights.................................................................................................................................................................42
3.2 (ONlIGURING LIGl1ING (ON1ROLS .............................................................................44
3.3 LIGl1ING (ON1ROL S1RA1LG\ IN 1lL SUPLRMARKL1..............................................4¯
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1 11 1 Overview of the MT Alliance 8ystem Overview of the MT Alliance 8ystem Overview of the MT Alliance 8ystem Overview of the MT Alliance 8ystem

1.1 MT Alliance Sub-Systems

1he M1 Alliance svstem is a soítware platíorm that interacts with intelligent distributed
modules known as voae.. Nodes help monitor and control a supermarket`s sub-
svstems ligure 1.1,:

• monitoring sub-svstem
• reírigeration sub-svstem
• lVA( sub-svstem
• lighting sub-svstem
• energv management sub-svstem

1he vovitorivg .vb·.y.tev monitors the reírigerated cases 24 hours a dav to pre·ent product
shrink. 1he monitoring svstem sends an alert when a perishable product is in danger oí
being lost and speciíies the steps to take beíore losing the product. Sensors installed in the
reírigerated cases measure the temperature oí the reírigerated case and products. as well as
detect the end oí deírosting. Lach sensor comprises:

• Lower limit íor the programmable alarm
• Upper limit íor the programmable alarm
• Programmable alarm set time
• Programmable alarm recall time

1he monitoring sub-svstem carries out the íollowing íunctions:

• Reads temperatures írom sensors using a one-minute sampling inter·al
• Sa·es sensor data íor a period oí three 3, vears
• Displavs the ·arious tvpes oí products stored in the reírigerated cases and their
corresponding temperatures
• Graphicallv displavs data írom temperature sensors

1he M1 Alliance pro·ides a graphic ·iew íigures 1.2 and 1.3,. which displavs the position
oí the reírigerated cases. the tvpe oí product in each case and the product temperature.
\hen the reírigerated case temperature exceeds the programmed limits lower limit. upper
limit and alarm set time,. the M1 Alliance svstem:

• Indicates the location oí the case that triggers oíí the alarm bv changing the
reírigerated case color írom green to red
• Generates an e·ent in the alarm window: alarm origin. time and cause
• generates an alarm signal at the Alarm (enter

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Aíter an alarm has been acti·ated. the user can acknowledge the alarm and take steps to
sol·e the problem. 1he M1 Alliance svstem pro·ides user names and access codes to each
user. which makes it easier to trace the person who acknowledged the alarm.

1he í1.C .vb·.y.tev controls lVA( equipment: rooí top units. central heating and air-
conditioning. zone controllers. etc. \ith it. users can adjust the temperature and humiditv
set points in the diííerent areas oí a supermarket ligure 1.4,.

)be tigbtivg .vb·.y.tev is used to program lighting schedules ligure 1.5, based on the
supermarket`s opening and closing times. as well as on special davs such as legal holidavs.
1his sub-svstem also controls the intensitv oí supermarket lights based on the surrounding
light intensitv detected bv the photocell sensor.

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lIGURL 1.1

Sub-Systems Description
Monitoring The main functions of the monitoring sub-system are:
• monitoring the different types of sensors: case temperature, end-of-defrosting
cycle sensor
• saving sensor information in the MT Alliance and drawing graphs based on this
information
• generating local alarms when the temperature exceeds the limits and
acknowledges them
• sending alarms to the Alarm Center
Refrigeration

The main functions of the refrigeration sub-system are:
• maintaining case temperatures so as to protect products
• defrosting cases according to a preprogrammed schedule
HVAC

The main functions of the HVAC sub-system are:
• maintaining a comfortable temperature in the occupied zones during occupancy
mode
• lowering the temperature while in inocuppancy mode
• maintaining adequate humidity in the main area of the supermarket in order to
reduce the frequency of defrosting in the refrigerated cases
Lighting

The main functions of the lighting sub-system are:
• maintaining adequate light intensity (clients & employees) in the various zones
• lowering or turning off lights according to a programmed schedule
Energy
Management

The main functions of the energy management sub-system are:
• reducing energy consumption of the sub-systems by means of effective control
strategies
• controlling electrical loads (load shedding) during periods of high energy
consumption

MT Al li ance Sub-Systems
Refr iger atio n
Sy st em
Lig hting Sys te m
Monit or ing
Sy st em
HVAC Sy stem
I nt er f ac e
Hu mai ns- Mac hi ne s
Ot her
Sy stems
Ene r g y
M ana ge me nt
Sys t e m
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O·er·iew oí M1 Alliance Svstem:





















lIGURL 1.2
Zoomed ·iew oí M1 Alliance Svstem:





















lIGURL 1.3
Number oí
acti·e alarms
(lick to
acknowledge
Sensor with
alarm triggered
Acti·e alarms
Alarms acknowledged
Views
1oolbar
Status bar
Menu bar
Date and time
heure
(urrent user
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View oí a window íor adjusting temperature:
lIGURL 1.4

View oí a lighting schedule:

lIGURL 1.5

1. 1o select a time
range. click and
mo·e the mouse
2. Select a light state bv
clicking "ligh".
Medium`. `Low` or
Oíí`
Davs in a tvpical
week
Select a tvpical week
to deíine the weeklv
schedule
1he time speciíied will
oííset the entire
schedule accordinglv
1he blue line
represents the
setpoint on the
graph
Increase or
decrease the
setpoint or.
. Slide this cursor
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2 22 2 Architecture of Architecture of Architecture of Architecture of a MT Alliance Distributed Control 8ystems a MT Alliance Distributed Control 8ystems a MT Alliance Distributed Control 8ystems a MT Alliance Distributed Control 8ystems
lIGURL 2.1

1he distributed control svstem íor a supermarket is made up oí the íollowing components:

• a personal computer
• a Lon\orks communications network
• electronic modules called nodes or controllers that ensure the operation oí the M1
Alliance sub-svstems

2.1 Personal Computer

1he computer allows technicians and users to na·igate through the diííerent M1 Alliance
sub-svstems. 1hereíore. the personal computer is used to carrv out the íollowing
operations:
• (oníiguring the controllers oí the diííerent sub-svstems
• Sending the coníiguration to the controllers ·ia the Lon\orks communications
network
• Monitoring and controlling the diííerent sub-svstems
• 1roubleshooting a technical problem on a sub-svstem using analvsis tools
Distributed Control System for a Supermarket
RTC
Monitoring Sub-System for Refrigerated Cases
SN
26
SN
27
SN
28
SN
63
ALR TRM
Refrigeration Sub-System (Rack A)
HVAC Sub-System
Lighting Sub-System
SN
25
1 8
CND SPC
CMP
1
CMP
2
CKT
1
CMP
3
CKT
2
CKT
3
SN
29
DPU
H
SCH
RTU
VAV
VAV
1
VAV
2
E
SCH
PTC
LCU
1
LCU
2
LCU
3
DIM
5 Circuits
Interface
User
Legend
TRM: Network Terminat ion
ALR: Alarm Contr oller
RTC: Real Time Cloc k
SN: Sensor Node
CND: Conde nser Controller
SPC: Suction Pressure Contr oller
CMP: Compressor Contr oller
CKT: Circuit Contr oller
ATS : Anti-Sweat Contr oller
SCH: Scheduler
DPU: Dua l Path Control
RTU : Roof- top Unit Cont roller
VAV: VAV Box Control
PTC: Photoce ll Sensor
LCU: Light Contr ol Unit
DIM: Dimmer Control
Total 64 nodes
500 metres
Sensors
SN
30
SN
xx
Central
al arm
system
FTT
Network
Re mote communication
PC Anywhe re , Page r, e tc.
VAV
3
ATS
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In a distributed svstem. controlling sub-svstems is carried out bv the diííerent sub-svstem
controllers and not bv the personal computer. 1hereíore. ií the P( crashes. sub-svstem
operation is carried out bv the diííerent controllers and the alarms are sent to the Alarm
(enter. Onlv data írom the sensors. which are normallv sa·ed. will be lost ií the computer
crashes.
2.2 LonWorks Communications Network

1he Lon\orks l11 íree topologv, network is made up oí a pair oí twisted wires that link
the controllers to each other without restriction in the controller connection topologv. 1he
polaritv oí the wire pairs can be re·ersed in the connector to each controller without
causing operating problems with the M1 Alliance Svstem. 1o pre·ent the reílection oí
signals on the network. the network must ha·e a termination point end-oí-line resistor,.
1he Lon\orks network illustrated in the diagram ligure 2.1, is limited to 64 nodes and to
total length oí 500 meters. In certain applications. network capacitv can be increased to 124
nodes and to a total length oí 1.500 meters. through the addition oí two network ampliíiers
Repeater,.
1he communications network has three main íunctions:

• Sending computer iníormation coníiguration settings. set points, to the controllers
• Sending controller iníormation sensor and detector signals. securitv de·ice and
actuator statuses, to the computer
• Sending iníormation between controllers

(ommunications soítware in the chip oí each controller is used to send data between
controllers. and between the controllers and P(. 1he reliabilitv and períormance oí the
sub-svstems are assured bv the robustness oí the communications soítware. 1his soítware
re-sends iníormation between controllers and between the controllers and P( íollowing:
• A collision in data transmission o·er the network
• Unsuccessíul data exchange between two controllers on the network
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2.3 Description and Role of Controllers in the Different MT Alliance
System Sub-Systems
2.3.1 MT Alliance Monitoring Sub-System

1he table below lists ·arious tvpes oí controllers and modules. as well as the main
íunctions oí each controller in the Monitoring Sub-Svstem. Reíer to the diagram illustrating
the Distributed (ontrol Svstem íor a Supermarket ligure 2.1,.

Controllers/Node Legend Modules Functions
Sensor Node


SN MT 500 The sensor node is used to monitor eight (8) sensors and
generate an alarm if the signal from a sensor exceeds the low or
high limit programmed in the node.

Different types of sensors can be connected to each input:
Temperature sensor for refrigerated cases, temperature sensors
for the end of defrosting, refrigerant leak detector, etc.

Real Time Clock


RTC Real Time Clock Normally, the computer’s clock synchronizes with the clock in
each controller on the network by regularly sending the time
over the network. When the computer crashes, the real-time
clock takes over the computer and takes over this function.

Alarm Controller

ALR Alarm Controller When a sensor node generates an alarm, the information is sent
to the computer and alarm controllers:
• The computer displays the alarm in the alarm banner
• The alarm controller sends the alarm to the Alarm Center

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2.3.2 Refrigeration Sub-System

1he table below lists the ·arious tvpes oí controllers íor the reírigeration sub-svstem. the
module tvpe and the main íunctions oí each controller. Reíer to the diagram illustrating the
Distributed (ontrol Svstem íor a Supermarket ligure 2.1,:

Controllers/ // /Node Legend Modules Functions
Condenser Controller


CND MT 504
MT 508
MT 512
The condenser controller is used to maintain the condenser
temperature at a temperature higher than the outside temperature; this
allows accumulated heat to be evacuated from the refrigeration circuit.
The controller carries out this function by comparing the
pressure/temperature measured in the condenser at a programmed set
point and starts one or more fans based on the difference of these two
values.

When the condenser temperature is higher than the outside
temperature, the heat accumulated in the gaseous refrigerant from the
refrigerated cases is released into in the ambient air. This also causes
the gaseous refrigerant to liquefy.
The condenser controller can control up to twelve (12) fans with a MT
512 module.
Suction Pressure
Controller

SPC MT 504 The purpose of the suction pressure controller is to control the
pressure of the refrigerant in the suction manifold. The controller
carries out this function by comparing the pressure/temperature
measured in the suction manifold to a programmed set point, and the
controller starts one or more compressors based on the difference of
these two values.

The suction pressure controller can control up to ten (10) compressors.

Compressor Controller

CMP Compressor Ctrl In the refrigeration control system, there is one compressor controller
for each mechanical compressor. Each compressor controller receives
its start or stop command from the suction pressure controller to
maintain the refrigerant temperature in the suction manifold. After
receiving a start command, the compressor controller checks the
compressor securities (oil pressure, compressor temperature, etc.). If
conditions are normal, the compressor controller starts the
compressor. If one of the security devices sends an abnormal
condition signal, the compressor controller generates an alarm and
stops the compressor from starting.

Circuit Controller

CKT Circuit Ctrl The refrigeration circuit controller controls the refrigeration and
defrosting cycle of the refrigerated cases connected to a circuit. A
refrigeration system can have up to forty (40) circuits. All refrigerated
cases on a circuit are defrosted simultaneously according to a
preprogrammed schedule. The circuit controller carries out this
operation by controlling the opening and closing of the refrigeration
and defrosting valves of a circuit based on a programmed defrosting
schedule.

Anti-Sweat Controller

ATS

AntiSweat Ctrl In a glass refrigerated case, the anti-sweat controller prevents:
• The formation of sweat on the case glass
• The door to stick in the door frame.
The anti-sweat controller carries out this function by measuring the
humidity in the store by comparing it to a set point and, based on
difference between these two values, the glass and door frame of the
case are heated up accordingly.

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2.3.3 Heating/Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Sub-System

1he table below lists the ·arious tvpes oí controllers íor the lVA( sub-svstem. the tvpe oí
modules and the main íunctions oí each controller. Reíer to the diagram illustrating the
Distributed (ontrol Svstem íor a Supermarket ligure 2.1,:

Controllers/ // /Node Legend Modules Functions
Roof-Top Controller
Scheduler
RTU MT 504
MT 508
MT 512
The standard roof-top unit controller controls the main area of a
supermarket, i.e.,
• controls temperature
• controls humidity

As well, through the occupation scheduler, it lowers the temperature
during unoccupied periods. The type of modules used depends on the
number of cooling and heating stages of the roof-top unit.

Dual Path Controller

DPU MT 508
MT 512
The Dual Path Unit is a high energy efficiency air processing unit.
The Dual Path controller:
• controls the temperature of a supermarket
• Effectively controls humidity (typically 40% to 45%) in the
main area of a supermarket.

As well, through the occupation scheduler, it lowers the temperature
during unoccupied periods. The type of modules used depends on the
number of cooling and heating stages of the Dual Path unit.

VAV Roof -Top
Controller

RTU/VA
V
MT 504
MT 508
MT 512
A VAV roof-top unit and the VAV boxes are used in conjunction to
control the temperature of the areas surrounding a supermarket.
The VAV roof-top controller controls the air temperature and volume
in the main conduit of the unit. The VAV roof-top unit provides
constant air pressure at the input of each surrounding area. A VAV
roof-top unit can power several VAV boxes.

The type of modules used depends on the number of cooling and
heating stages connected to the unit.

VAV Box


VAV VAV Ctrl The VAV box is powered by a VAV roof-top unit, which provides air
volume at the input of the VAV box. The VAV box controls the
temperature of the surrounding areas by varying its dampers.
Therefore, the box controls the quantity of air entering the surrounding
area and activates electric heating at the end line if required.

HVAC Scheduler


H
SCH
Scheduler The scheduler enables the creation of occupied and unoccupied
schedules for increasing and decreasing the temperature of a
supermarket based on the opening and closing schedule of a
supermarket. In addition, schedules can also be created to control the
temperatures in different zones based on the occupied and unoccupied
periods. A scheduler can control several Dual Path or roof-top units.


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2.3.4 Lighting Sub-System

1he table below lists the diííerent tvpes oí lighting sub-svstem controllers. the tvpe oí
modules and the main íunctions oí each controller. Reíer to the diagram illustrating the
Distributed (ontrol Svstem íor a Supermarket ligure 2.1,:

Controllers/ // /Node Legend Modules Functions
Lighting Controller


LCU Gentec:
- Input Board
- Output Board
- Panel Relay

The indoor and outdoor lighting system of a supermarket is:
• subdivided in the lighting zones
• each zone includes one or more illuminating lights
• each lighting zone is controlled by a lighting schedule
originating from the lighting scheduler.

The lighting controller of a supermarket includes the following:
• an eight-switch input module. Each switch can be used to
override the lighting schedule of a zone in order to manually
control it
• a 16-output power module that powers the 16 relays of the
lighting panel
• 16-relay panel. Each relay is connected to one or more
illuminating lights. Lighting configuration software groups
together 16 relays of the lighting panel per zone.

The lighting controller controls the indoor and outdoor lighting zones
of a supermarket based on:
• a schedule programmed in a lighting scheduler or even
• the combination of a schedule and outdoor photocell.

If the light intensity measured by the photocell sensor is higher than
the programmed set point, the controller overrides the lighting
schedule and cancels the lighting in one or more zones of the
supermarket.

Lighting Intensity
Controller



DIM DimLight The lighting intensity controller is used with the Lighting controller
and photocell sensor. It controls the lighting intensity of the lights of a
zone based on the light intensity measured by the photocell sensor
located in the zone.

Photocell Sensor PTC Douglas
- Photocell Sensor

The photocell sensor is used to measure the light intensity outside a
supermarket or within a zone of the supermarket.
The photocell sensor signal is sent to the lighting controllers
throughout the communications network.

Light Scheduler


L
SCH
Scheduler The scheduler creates the lighting schedules in order to control the
lighting based on the opening and closing hours of the supermarket.

As well, the schedules can also be created to individually control the
lighting in different zones based on occupied and unoccupied periods.
Several schedules can be created on a single scheduler. A schedule
can control one or more zones.


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3 33 3 MT 500 Family MT 500 Family MT 500 Family MT 500 Family
3.1 MT 500 Family Input-Output Configuration

1he M1 500 íamilv is a line oí electronic modules de·eloped bv Micro 1hermo
1echnologies. 1he modules in the M1 500 íamilv ha·e a ·arietv oí input-output
coníigurations íor diííerent supermarket applications. 1he table below shows the diííerent
models oí the M1 500 íamilv and their coníigurations.

M T 5 0 0 F a m i l y I n p u t - O u t p u t C o n f i g u r a t i o n
M T 5 0 0 M T 5 0 4 M T 5 0 8 M T 5 1 2
A n a l o g
I n p u t s
8 8 8 8
D i g i t a l
I n p u t s
4 8
D i g i t a l
O u t p u t s
4 8 1 2
A n a l o g
O u t p u t s
4 4 4

1ABLL 3.1

3.2 3.2 – Table of MT Alliance Controller using the 500 Family

MT 500 Family
Specifications

MT-504 MT-508 MT-512
Applications See Section 4.0 for the
different MT 504 applications
See Section 4.0 for the
different MT 508 applications.
See Section 4.0 for the
different MT 512
applications.
Universal Inputs Eight (8) universal inputs
(analog or digital):
0-5 V, 0-10 V, 4-20 mA, 10 K
Thermistor. Low-pass filter on
each input.

Eight (8) universal inputs
(analog or digital):
0-5 V, 0-10 V, 4-20 mA, 10 K
Thermistor. Low-pass filter on
each input.
Eight (8) universal inputs
(analog or digital):
0-5 V, 0-10 V, 4-20 mA,
10 K Thermistor. Low-pass
filter on each input.
Digital Inputs None Four (4) digital inputs:
Each input is optically
isolated (0-15V)
Eight (8) digital inputs:
Each input is optically
isolated (0-15V)
Digital Outputs Four (4) type-C relays:
SPDT, 2A, 250 VAC.
Protected by fuses on the
module

Eight (8) type-C relays:
SPDT, 2A, 250 VAC.
Protected by fuses on the
module
Twelve (12) type-C relays:
SPDT, 2A, 250 VAC.
Protected by fuses on the
module
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MT 500 Family
Specifications

MT-504 MT-508 MT-512
Analog Outputs Four (4) configurable analog
outputs: 0-20 mA, 0-5V, 0-
10V, 2-10V.
Protected by a current limiter
(max 20 mA )

Four (4) configurable analog
outputs: 0-20 mA, 0-5V, 0-
10V, 2-10V.
Protected by a limiting
current limiter (max 20 mA )
Four (4) configurable
analog outputs: 0-20 mA,
0-5V, 0-10V, 2-10V.
Protected by a limiting
current limiter (max 20 mA
)
Dimensions 8.0” x 4.0” x 1.5”
204 mm x 102 mm x 38 mm
12.25” x 4.0” x 1.5”
312 mm x 102 mm x 38 mm
16.375” x 4.0” x 1.5”
416 mm x 102 mm x 38
mm
Set-up Mounted on wall or on
snaptrack
Mounted on wall or on
snaptrack
Mounted on wall or on
snaptrack
Power 24 VAC transformer
12 VA with center tap
24 VAC transformer
12 VA with center tap
24 VAC transformer
12 VA with center tap
Environment -40 to 75°C (-40 to 168°F)
5% to 95% R.H.
-40 to 75°C (-40 to 168°F)
5% to 95% R.H.
-40 to 75°C (-40 to 168°F)
5% to 95% R.H.
Certification UL, CSA approved

UL, CSA approved

UL, CSA approved
1ABLL 3.2


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4 44 4 Description and Features of Micro Thermo Controllers Description and Features of Micro Thermo Controllers Description and Features of Micro Thermo Controllers Description and Features of Micro Thermo Controllers
1he table below outlines the M1 Alliance controllers used in the M1 500 line. In the table. the
controllers are grouped bv sub-svstem.

Sub-Systems & Controllers MT
500
MT
504
MT
508
MT
512
Monitoring Sub-System

Sensor Node X


Refrigeration Sub-System

Suction Pressure Controller X


Condenser Controller X

X X
Sub-Cooling Controller X

Secondary Cooling System X

Evaporative Condenser Controller X


HVAC Sub-System

Standard Roof-topController X

X X
VAV Roof-top Controller X

X X
Dual Path Controller (1 Coil) X


Dual Path Controller (2 Coils) X

Lighting Sub-System

Lighting Intensity Controller X


Other Application Controllers

Mechanical Room Controller
X


X6T2P Applications Controller
X X X

X
X4P4T Applications Controller X X

X X
1able 4.0
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4.1 Refrigeration System Controllers
4.1.1 Condenser Controller (MT 504, MT 508 or MT 512)

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

UI1 *Discharge Pressure
(DP)
1

UI2 *Condenser Inlet
Press (CIP)
UI3 *Condenser Outlet
Press (COP)
UI4 *Drop Leg Temp
(DLT)
UI5 *Outdoor Air Temp
(OAT)
UI6 * Liq Header Press
(LHP)
IU7 * Liq Header Temp
(LHP)
UI8 Inverter Fault
IIVF)

Digital:

None





Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Analog:

AO1 Variable Speed
Drive (VFD)









Digital:

- MT504:
DO1 Fan 1
… …
DO4 Fan 4

- MT 508:
DO1 Fan 1

DO8 Fan 8

- MT 512:
DO1 Fan 1

DO12 Fan 12



Control Configuration and Strategies

Condenser Type: Air , Evaporative (See Note)
Condenser Config.: One or two rows
No. of Fans: Max. 12 fans
Control Point: Selection from sensors
on physical and logical inputs.
Operating Set Point: Pressure/Temperature depending
on the sensors chosen
Conversion Table: Pressure/Temperature conversion
(depending on the type of refrigerant)
Control Strategy: Single: DP, COP, DLT, etc.
Differential (floating Head):
OAT & COP
OAT & DLT
etc.
Control Type PID, Sequential
Primary Fan: Fixed speed, variable speed, cycling

Split Mode Control Strategy and Configuration

Configuration: Split on outdoor temperature
Split on Heat Reclaim 1
Split on Heat Reclaim 2
Split on Heat Reclaim 1 & 2
Split on Out Temp and Heat Reclaim
Set Point: - Split Temperature Set Point
- Unsplit Discharge Press Set Point
- Unsplit Discharge Press Auto Reset
- Split Minimum On Time

Note: Evaporative condenser controller (MT 508)
A specific plug-in is used for configuring and adjusting the
set points and monitoring the evaporative condenser.



1
All inputs tagged with an « » in this table. and in subsequent tables paragraphs 4.1.1 throught 4.3.2,. means
that the sensor signal can also originate írom the Lon\ork network logical connection,.
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Suction Pressure Controller (MT 504)

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

UI1 *Discharge Pressure
(DP)
UI2 Suction Pressure
(SP)
UI3 Liquid Header Press
(LHP)
UI4 *Heat Reclaim1
(HR1)
UI5 *Heat Reclaim 2
(HR2)
UI6 *Phase Lost
(PLM)
UI7 Refrig Leak Sensor
(RLS)
UI8 *Suction Pressure
Shift (ECE)



Logical Network
Variables (SNVT)

* Main Defrost Valve
Logical connection to
Circuit controller
* Split Valve
Logical connection to
Condenser controller




Yes

Yes

Yes





Yes

Yes

Analog:

OA1 Compressor
Variable Frequency
Drive (VFD)














Digital:

DO1 Heat Reclaim 1
DO2 Split Valve
DO3 Main Defrost
DO4 Heat Reclaim 2








Control Configuration and Strategies

Three suction pressure controllers can be installed on the
refrigeration rack to control three suction groups.
A suction pressure controller (SPC) can control up to ten
compressor controllers.

Suction Pressure Control Strategy

The suction pressure controller controls the pressure in the
suction manifold. The pressure is controlled by activating one
or more compressors based on the difference between the
suction pressure and suction pressure set point.

Type of Refrigerant: R22, etc.
Control Point: Suction Pressure (U2)
Control Set Point: Pressure/Temperature
Control Type: PID

Floating Suction Pressure Reset Strategy

Compares the coldest temperature in the refrigerated cases
with the temperature case set point and automatically readjust
the suction pressure. This strategy is used to save energy.

Configuration Settings:

No. of Defrosting Circuits: Circuit selection
No. of Sensors: Max. six sensors
Control Strategy: Min, Max, Med.
Sampling Period: 0–60 minutes
Pressure Step: 0–3 Psig (Kpa)
Min. Pressure Delta: - 20 Psig (Kpa)
Max. Pressure Delta: + 20 Psig (Kpa)

Suction Pressure Shift Strategy:

Pressure Offset: 0 – 20 Psig (Kpa)
Offset Time: Programmable (0–60 Minutes)










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4.1.2 Compressor Controller


Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

- None





Digital

- Low Pressure Switch
- Safety Line
- Proof of Running

Note: Connector on the
front of the
controller.












Yes
Yes

Analog:

- None





Digital:

Compressor Cmd
Unloader 1
Unloader 2

Note: Optional
electronic module
is needed for the
unloaders control


Control Configuration and Strategies

Compressor controllers are controlled by the Suction pressure
controller. The pressure is controlled by activating one or
more compressors depending on the difference between the
suction pressure and the suction pressure set point. An
optional module controls the Unloaders.

Compressor Controller Configuration Settings

- Compressor Type: Recip, Scrool, Screw
- Compressor Capacity: hp
- Variable Speed Compressor: Yes
- Min. Speed: 0–100%
- Max. Speed: 0–100%
- Option Unloader : Yes
- Number of Unloaders: 1–2
- Capacity of Each Unloader: 25% or 33%

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4.1.3 Refrigeration Circuit Controller

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

- None














Logical Network
Variables (SNVT)

* Case Temperature
* Defrost Termination
* Defrost Termination
Switch
* Door Ajar









Analog

- None



Digital

. Defr Valve 1
. Refr Valve 1
. Defr Valve 2
. Refr Valve 2
. Defr Valve 3
. Refr Valve 3
. Defr Valve 4
. Refr Valve 4
. Defr Valve 5
. Refr Valve 5



Control Configuration and Strategies

The Circuit controller controls five refrigeration circuits. Up
to eight (8) circuit controllers can be used on one rack. Thus,
40 refrigeration circuits can be controlled in the rack.

Refrigeration Cycle Control:

Mode:
- Refrig. Valve on/off control
- Mechanical EEPR
- Electronic EEPR
Control Point: Refrigerated case temperature
Control Set Point: Desired case temperature
Dead Band Set Point: Prevents cycling

Defrosting Cycle Control:

Defrosting Type: Hot Gas, Off Cycle, Electric
Defrost Strategy: On Time, On Temp, Pulse
No. Defrostings/Day: 1–8 Max
Defrost Time: Programmable
Min. Defrost Time: Programmable
Circuit Load: Kilo Btu
End of Defrosting Sensor: Analog or Digital
No. of Sensors: Max. six sensors
Defrosting Strategy: Analog: Min, Max, Med.
Digital: On state

Pump Down Cycle:

Pump Down Time Programmable

Drain Cycle:

Drain Time: Programmable


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4.1.4 Sub-Cooling System Controller

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog

UI1 * Mech Subcooler
Temp In (LQT in)
UI2 * Mech Subcooler 1
Temp Out (LQTOut 1)
UI3 * Mech Subcooler 2
Temp Out(LQTOut2)



Digital

- None


Logical Network
Variables (SNVT)

- Logical connections to
the condenser controller:
* Condenser Saturated
Temp
* Drop Leg Temp
* Outdoor Temp

- Logical connection to
the suction pressure
controller:
* Suction Pressure


Yes

Yes


Yes
Analog

AO1 SPR/CTRL
Valve
AO2 Receiver Out
Valve
AO3 Mech
Subcooler 1 Valve
AO4 Mech
Subcooler 2 Valve

Digital

DO1 Drain Valve
DO2 SPR/CTRL
Valve
DO3 Subcooler 1
Stage 1
DO4 Subcooler 1
Stage 2
DO5 Subcooler 2
Stage 1
DO6 Subcooler 2
Stage 2
DO7 Receiver Out
Valve


Control Configuration and Strategies

The sub-cooler controller can control different sub-cooling
systems:
- A condenser sub-cooling system
- A mechanical 1 sub-cooling system
- A mechanical 2 sub-cooling system
The mechanical cooling systems can control two stages.

The mechanical sub-cooling system can be configured as an
autonomous refrigeration system or dedicated refrigeration
circuit.

Each sub-cooling sub-system (condenser, mechanical) can be
configured to work autonomously or in mixed mode
(condenser & mechanical). Mixed mode is very useful in hot
climates.

- Condenser Sub-Cooling System:

- SPR/CTRL Valve Control

Control Point: Condenser Saturated Temp
(Cop 2 Cot) – Drop Leg Temp
Set Point: Desired sub-cooling
Control Type: PID
Analog Output: -Modulating SPR/CTRL valve
- Modulating Receiver Outlet Valve
Digital Output: - Selenoid SPR/CTRL valve
- Receiver Outlet Valve
- Drain Valve Control:

Control Point: Suction pressure
Set Point: Suction pressure that determines whether at
least one compressor is working
Control Type: On/Off control
Digital Output: Drain Valve

- Mechanical 1 & 2 Sub-Cooling System

Configuration: - Autonomous refrigeration system
- Dedicated refrigeration circuit
Control Point: Mech Subcooler Temp In
Set Point: Absolute temperature of liquid Control
Type: PID
Analog Output: Modulating valve of the mechanical sub-
cooling system
Digital Outputs: Stage 1 of mechanical sub-cooling system
Stage 2 of mechanical sub-cooling system


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4.2 HVAC Controller
4.2.1 Roof-Top Unit Controller (MT 504, MT 508 or MT 512)

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

UI1 *Space Air Temp
(SPT)
UI2 Return Air Temp
(RAT)
UI3 Mixed Air Temp
(MAT)
UI4 Supply Air Temp
(SAT)
UI5.*Outdoor Air Temp
(OAT)
UI6 *Space Air Humidity
(SPH)
UI7 Static Diff Pressure
(SDP)
UI8 *Outdoor Air
Humidity(AOH)

Digital:
DI1 Fan Status
(FNS)
DI2 Occupancy Timer
(OCC)
DI3 Air Filters
(OAF)
DI4 Safety Line Switch
(SLS)





Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes



Yes

Yes





Yes



Yes

Yes
MT 504:

4 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 508:

8 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 512:

12 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

Digital and analog
outputs can be
configured. The
maximum limits set
for the outputs are:

Analog output:
Modulating heating
Modulating cooling
Modulating Heat
Reclaim
Outdoor air inlet
damper
Bypass damper

Digital output:
1 fan motor
6 cooling stages
6 heating stages
3 Heat Reclaim
stages


Control Configuration and Strategies

- Fan Motor Control:
Modes: On, Off, Auto, Occupy/On Unoccupy/Auto
- Outdoor Air Inlet Damper Control:
Control: On/Off
Modes: - Occupy Mode Open at %,
- Unoccupy Mode Close at %)
- Modulating (Free cooling)
Control Point: Outdoor temperature (Free cooling)
- Bypass Damper Control:
Control Type: Modulating
Control Point: Static pressure in conduit
Set Point: Desired static pressure
- Air-Conditioning Control:
Control Type: Modulating/ Stage (6 Maximum)
Control Point: Indoor temperature
Set Point: Cooling temperature set point in
occupied/unocupied mode
- Heating Control Via Heat Reclaim:
Control Type: Modulating/Stage (3 Maximum)
Control Point: Indoor temperature
Set Point Desired indoor temperature
- Auxiliary Heating Control:
Control Type: Modulating/Stage (6 Maximum)
Control Point: Indoor temperature
Set Point: Heating temperature set point in occupied
or unoccupied mode
- Humidity Control
- Modes: Off, Humidification, Dehumid, Auto
- Humidification: Modulating control
Control Point Space Humidity/Saturation point
Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.
- Dehumidification: Stage control (6 cooling stages max.)
Control Point Humidity/Saturation point
Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.
- Auto: Humidification/Dehumidification
Dead Band: Humidity & Dehumid dead band
Set Point: Humidity or saturation point
shifted by the dead band
Load Shedding Control: With a load shedding request
(Logical network variable). The following elements can be
load shedded:
- Fan motor
- Cooling, heat reclaim and heating stages
- Auxiliary modulating heating and heat reaclaim
- Outdoor air inlet and bypass damper

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4.2.2 VAV Roof-Top Unit Controller (MT 504, MT 508 or MT 512)

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:

UI1 Return Air Temp
(RAT)
UI2 Mixed Air Temp
(MAT)
UI3 Supply Air Temp
(SAT)
UI4 Return Air Pressure
(RAP)
UI5 Return Air Humidity
(RAH)
UI6 Mixed Air Filter
(MAF)
UI7 *Outdoor Air Temp
(OAT)
UI8 Supply Air Pressure
(SAP)


Digital:

DI1 Fan Status
(FNS)
DI2 Occupancy Timer
(OCC)






Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes



Yes





Yes


MT 504:

4 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 508:

8 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 512:

12 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

Digital and analog
outputs can be
configured. The
maximum limits set
on the outputs are:

Analog:

Bypass damper
Outdoor air damper
Modulating heating
Modulating cooling
Modulating humidifier
Modulating fan

Digital:

1 fan motor
6 cooling stages
6 heating stages


Control Configuration and Strategy

- Fan Motor Control:
Modes: On, Off, Auto, Occupy/On Unoccupy/Auto
- Outdoor air inlet damper control:
Control: On/Off
Modes: - Occupy Mode Open at %,
- Unoccupy Mode Closed at %
- Modulating (free cooling)
Control Point: Outdoor temperature (free cooling)

- Humidity Control:
Modes: Off, Humid., Dehumid, Auto
- Humidification : Modulating control
Control Point: Humidity/Saturation point in the return
air
Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.
- Dehumidification: Stage control (6 cooling Stages max.)
Control Point Humidity/Saturation point in the return
air
Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.
- Auto: Humidification/Dehumidification
Dead Band: Humidity & Dehumid dead band
Set Point: Humidity or saturation point shifted by
the dead band

- Supply Air Pressure Control:
- Modes: Bypass damper or Fan speed control
- Control Point: Supply air pressure
- Set Point: Desired supply air pressure
- Modulating Out : Bypass damper or Fan speed control
- Supply Air Temperature Control:
- Mode: - Outside Temp.
- Return Temp
- VAV box request
- Control Type: Modulating or stages
- Control Point: Supply air temperature
- Set Point Depends on mode:
- Supply temp. readjust by outside temperature
- Supply temp. readjust by return temperature
- Supply temp. readjust by VAV box request

Load Shedding Control: With a load shedding request
(Network variable), the following items can be load
shedded:
- Fan motor
- Cooling, heat reclaim and heating stages
- Auxiliary modulating heat reclaim and heating
- Outdoor air intake damper
- Bypass damper
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4.2.3 Dual Path (MT 508) Controller

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog:
UI1*Space Air Temp
(SPT)
UI2 Return Air Temp
(RAT)
UI3 DX Coil Temp
(DXT)
UI4 Supply Air Temp
(SAT)
UI5 *Outdoor Air Temp
(OAT)
UI6 *Space Air Humidity
(SPH)
UI7 Liquid Saturated
Temp(LST)
UI8 *DX Coil Diff Press
(DXDP)

Digital:
DI1 Fan Status
(FNS)
DI2 Occupancy Timer
(OCC)
DI3 Return Air Filter
(RAF)
DI4 Outside Air Filter
(OAF)





Yes


Yes

Yes


Yes

Yes

Yes




Yes

Yes
Yes

MT 504:
4 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 508:
8 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

MT 512:
12 digital outputs
4 analog outputs

Digital and analog
outputs can be
coníigured. 1he
maximum limits
set on the outputs
are:

Analog
Outside damper
Bvpass damper
Return damper
Modulating heating


Digital
1 lan motor
6 cooling stages
6 heating stages
3 reclaim stages


Control Configuration and Strategy

- Ian Motor Control:
Modes: On. Oíí. Auto. Occupv´On .
Unoccupv´Auto
Speed: Low. ligh. ligh´Occ & Auto´Unocc.
(ontinuous - Oíí on Drip 1ime
- Damper Control:
Adjustments made bv balancing technicians
- Mode: OAD BAD RAD
- Unoccupied ° ° °
- Occupied ° ° °
- Lmergencv (ooling ° ° °
- \inter Occupation Mode ° ° °
- Cooling Control:
- (ontrol: Stage 6 maximum,
- (ontrol Point: Indoor temperature
- Set Point: (ooling temperature set point.
occupied´unoccupied mode
- Heat Reclaim Control:
- (ontrol: Stage 3 maximum,
- (ontrol Point: Indoor temperature
- Set Point: Desired indoor temperature
- Heating Control:
- (ontrol: Modulating
- (ontrol Point: Indoor temperature
- Set Point: leating temperature set point in
occupied´unoccupied mode
- Dew Point Control:
- (ontrol: Stage 6 maximum,
- (ontrol Point: Indoor temp. & humiditv
- Set Point: Desired dew point

- Load Shedding Control: \ith an load shedder
request network ·ariable,. the íollowing items can be
load shedded:
- lan motor
- (ooling and reclaim stages
- Modulating heating
- Outdoor air inlet damper
- Bvpass damper
- Return damper


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4.3 Lighting Controllers
4.3.1 Relay Lighting Controller

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Logical Network
Variables (SNVT)
Analog:
*Lux Level Sensor


Digital:
- Groups 1 to 6: (Zone)
* Occupancy Sensor
* Group Override Switch
* Occupancy Schedule





-Digital:
l6 pulsed relays



Analog:
- None
Control Configuration and Strategy

By configuring the 16 lighting relays in six different
groups, relay lighting controller can control six lighting
zones.
- Configuration of groups of relays 1 to 6
- Used to assign a relay to a group.
- For each group. If the light operation time equalization
option is activated, the relays for a group may be
assigned to one of the two sub-groups to equalize the
light operation time of the sub-groups.

- Control of Groups 1–6:
- Light Operation Time Equalization Control for a Group
Alternates between the sub-groups of a lighting group
in order to equalize the light operation time
- Lighting Control Logic :
- Schedule Only
- Logical function AND between photocell sensor and
schedule
- Logical function OR between photocell sensor and
schedule
- Motion Detector Control
The motion detector can override the lighting schedule
for a given period of time. The period of time is
programmable.
- Override Control:
Override command from a switch, which temporarily
activates a lighting group. The activation time is
programmable.

- Day/Night Control Specifies day/night status
- Control: On/Off
- Control Point: Intensity sensor (Lux)
- Day/Night Set Point: Value of day/night set point
- Set Point Dead Band: Prevents cycling
- Day/Night Time: Programmable

- load Shedding Control:
- Configuration: A load shedding level from 1 to 4 can be
assigned to each lighting relay. Therefore, each relay
belongs to a group of load shedding levels 1-4.
- Control: An external load shedding command (Levels
1–4) Load shed a specific group.

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4.3.2 DimLight Controller (MT 504)

Inputs Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy
Analog
Zone 1:
UI1 Light Level Sensor 1
UI2 Light Level Sensor 2
UI3 Light Level Sensor 3
UI4 Local Override Switch
Zone 2:
UI5 Light Level Sensor 1
UI6 Light Level Sensor 2
UI7 Light Level Sensor 3
UI8 Local Override Switch

Network Logical
Variables (SNVT)

* DimLight 1 Command
* DimLight 2 Command

Note: Commands that can
control intensity (Low, Med
and High) of the Dimlight
lighting. These commands
come from the Light
Scheduler Controller.

* Zone 1 Remote Override
* Zone 2 Remote Override

Note: Overrride commands
have higher priority than
the lighting schedule

* Relay Command 1
* Relay Command 2
* Relay Command 3
* Relay Command 4

Note: Commands that
individually activate the
relays on outputs DO1- DO4



Yes
Yes
Yes


Yes
Yes
Yes


Analog:

AO1 Dim Control 1
AO2 Dim Control 2

(For HID Offload
Ctrl)––










Digital

DO1 Relay out 1
DO2 Relay out 2
DO3 Relay out 3
DO4 Relay out 4

Note: Reserve
relays activated by
the Relay Command
1-4 commands



Control Configuration and Strategy

The Dimlight controller takes into account the day’s
lighting when controlling the lighting intensity of the main
area of a supermarket. Intensity is controlled by the
modulating the HID lights ballast. The Dimlight controller
can control two zones.

The Dimlight controller uses the relay lighting controller,
which:
- Configures the lighting groups (zones)
- Controls lighting schedules
- Carries out overrides of lighting schedules

- Lighting Set Point Zone Control with DimLight
Control Point: Analog photocell sensors
(Light Level Sensor 1-3)
Strategy: Minimum, Maximum, Medium
Set Point:
- Low Set Point: For the Low Dimlight command
- Med Set Point: For the Med. Dimlight command
- High Set Point: For the High Dimlight command
The commands are from the Scheduler Controller
Control Type PID
Analog Output: Dimmer Control 1- 2
-
- Override Commands:
Mode: Local/Remote
Value: Intensity can be programmed
Time: Time can be programmed

- Load Shedding Control:
A Load Shedding command (logical network variable) in %
used by Dimlight to reduce the lighting intensity to a given
value








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Appendices

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1 11 1 ¡ntroduction to 8upermarket Refrigeration 8ystems ¡ntroduction to 8upermarket Refrigeration 8ystems ¡ntroduction to 8upermarket Refrigeration 8ystems ¡ntroduction to 8upermarket Refrigeration 8ystems
1.1 Purpose of a Supermarket Refrigeration System

A supermarket reírigeration svstem has two main íunctions:
• to reírigerate cold storage rooms used to store products beíore thev are transíerred to
the reírigerated cases:
• to maintain an optimal temperature in cold storage rooms and reírigerated cases in
order to conser·e products.

1he storage temperature oí products in the cold storage rooms and reírigerated cases
·aries according to the tvpe oí product. 1he table below lists se·eral products and their
conser·ation temperature range.

Types of Products Temperature (° °° °C) Temperature (° °° °F) Case 1ypes
Vegetables, fruits, flowers
Meat, seafood
Dairy products, beer, soft drinks
Food preparation room

2°C and higher
-1.1°C to 0.0°C
1.1°C to 2.2°C
4.4°C to 7.2°C
35°F and higher
30°F to 32°F
34°F to 36°F
40°F to 45°F
Medium temperature

Deep-frozen products
Ice cream, frozen food

-31.7°C to -26.1°C
-37.2°C to -31.7°C
-25°F to -15°F
-35°F to -25°F
Low temperature

1.2 Operation and Type of Refrigerated Cases

1he main íunction oí reírigerated cases is to displav products so that clients can easilv
access them. A tvpical supermarket has ¯0 to 90 reírigerated cases. Reírigerated cases are
selected based on the íollowing criteria:
• abilitv to conser·e products during their liíe
• abilitv to showcase product qualitv to increase sales

In general. there are se·eral tvpes oí reírigerated cases:
• reírigerated cases equipped with glass doors
• well-tvpe reírigerated cases
• multideck reírigerated cases
• reírigerated displav cases: seaíood/delicatessen meats/readv-made meals
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1he low-temperature and ·erv-low-temperature reírigerated cases must be deírosted on a
regular basis to remo·e írost that has accumulated on the e·aporator as a result oí the
humiditv in the supermarket. Deírosting can be carried out in diííerent wavs:
• (old liquid reírigerant circulation is stopped in the e·aporator and the electrical heater
that heats the e·aporator starts up
• (old liquid reírigerant circulation is stopped in the e·aporator and hot gas is circulated
in the e·aporator
• in certain cases. cold liquid reírigerant circulation is simplv stopped and the ambient air
deírosts the e·aporator

ííC|Rí ].]

1.3 Thermodynamic Principles of Refrigeration

1he operating cvcle íor a reírigeration svstem is based on the two íollowing phvsics
principles:

1. íeat trav.ter alwavs occurs írom a hot area to a colder area.
2. Ií the pre..vre in a reírigerant increases. its tevperatvre will also increase. saturated range,
CMP
1
CMP
2
CMP
3
CMP
4
Refrigeration System
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
Condenser
Suction Manifold
Hot Gas Supply Manifold
Discharge Manifold
Evaporator
Case #1
Other
Cases
Circuit
#1
Other
Cases
Circuit
# 2
Circuit
# X
Heat Reclaim
Liquid Supply Manifold
Gaseous
Coolant
Gaseous
Coolant
Liquid
Coolant
Gaseous
Coolant
EPR-Refrig
Valve
EPR-Refrig
Valve
EPR-Refrig
Valve
Defrost
Valve
Defrost
Valve
Defrost
Valve
Main
Defrost
Valve
Heat
Exchange Valve
RACK
A
C D
Expander
HVAC
System
B
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1.4 Refrigeration System Components and Functions

In the íigure abo·e. the components inside the dashed box represent the components oí a
reírigeration rack. Reírigeration racks are normallv located in the mechanical room behind
the supermarket. 1he cold liquid reírigerant oí the reírigeration rack is íed to the
reírigerated cases in the main area oí the supermarket bv the conduits called circvit.. In
general. a supermarket has two reírigeration racks. Lach rack can íeed up to 40
refrigeration circuits: there are one to ten refrigerated cases per circuit.

1he operating temperature oí each reírigeration rack depends on the tvpe oí products that
are to be stored in the reírigerated cases. 1he operating temperature oí a rack depends on
the pressure´temperature oí the reírigerant in the suction maniíold. In general. the racks
are classiíied as íollows:

Name of
Rack
1emperature (° °° °C)
Suction Manifold
1emperature (° °° °I)
Suction Manifold
Low temperature
-3¯.2°( to -3.9°(° °° °I -35°l to 25°l° °° °I
A·erage
temperature
-34.4°( to -9.4°( -30°l to 15°l° °° °

1he table below describes the components oí a retrigeratiov rac/ and their íunctions:
Components Numbers Functions
Compressors (CMP) 2 to
10/Rack
The compressors (CMP) are at the heart of a refrigeration system:
They help circulate the refrigerant throughout the system.
They increase the pressure/temperature of the gaseous refrigerant
at the condenser inlet.
The number and power rating of compressors in a refrigeration
system depend on the refrigeration system load, i.e., the number
of refrigerated cases connected to the system.

Condenser 1/Rack The condenser is located on the supermarket roof. It transfers to
the ambient air the heat absorbed by the refrigerant during its
passage in the evaporators of the refrigerated cases. This heat
transfer process is based on the fact that the temperature of the
gaseous refrigerant at the condenser input is at a higher
temperature than the ambient temperature. (Principe 1).
In addition, during this process, the gaseous refrigerant at the
condenser input is transformed into liquid refrigerant at the
condenser output.

Circuits
10 to 40 /
Rack
Conduits between the mechanical room and the main area of a
supermarket, which are used to transport:
• Cold liquid refrigerant during the refrigeration cycle.
• Hot gas during the defrosting cycle.

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Components Numbers Functions
Defrost Valve
1/Circuit
During the defrosting cycle:
• The defrost valve is open and allows hot gas from the hot gas
supply manifold flow into the circuit to defrost the
refrigerated cases.
• The refrigeration valve is closed.
The frequency for defrosting a circuit is based on a programmed
schedule. The defrosting schedule is programmed so that one or
two circuits are defrosted simultaneously depending on the load
of each circuit (number of refrigerated cases on the circuit and
their temperature).

Refrigeration Valve
1/Circuit During the refrigeration cycle:
• The refrigeration valve is open and lets cold liquid circulate
in cases connected to the circuit.
• The defrost valve is closed.

EPR Valve
1/Circuit The EPR valve is used to adjust the refrigerated cases
temperature (evaporators) connected to a circuit.

Main Defrost Valve
1/Rack The main defrost valve is opened during hot gas defrosting in one
of the circuits. Opening the valve creates differential pressure,
which lets hot gas circulate in the defrost circuit(s).

Hear Reclaim Valve
1/Rack When this valve has been activated, the warm gas from the
discharge flows through the heat reclaim system located in the
main conduit of the HVAC system. This heats the air circulating
in the main conduit of the HVAC system. This valve is activated
following a heating or dehumidifier request from the HVAC
control system.

Suction Manifold
1/Rack During the refrigeration cycle, the suction manifold receives, via
each circuit, the gaseous refrigerant from the refrigerated cases.
The suction manifold is used to supply the compressors with
refrigerant.

Discharge Manifold
1/Rack The discharge manifold is connected to the compressor discharge.
The compressors compress the gas refrigerant in the discharge
manifold at a very high pressure/temperature.

Liquid Supply
Manifold
1/Rack The liquid supply manifold receives the liquid refrigerant from
the condenser. The liquid supply manifold is used to supply the
refrigerated cases by cooling the liquid in order to lower the
temperatures of the refrigerated cases.
Hot Gas Manifold
1/Rack The hot gas manifold is fed by the compressor discharge
manifold. During a defrosting cycle, the defrost valve is open and
supplies the defrost circuit with hot gas to defrost the refrigerated
cases.

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Components Numbers Functions
Evaporator
1 to
3/case
The evaporator is used to cool the refrigerated case. During the
refrigeration cycle, the cold liquid refrigerant runs through the
evaporator that absorbs the heat from the case and cools the
refrigerated case. During this process, the liquid refrigerant is
transformed into gas refrigerant as it absorbs heat.

Thermostatic
Expansion Valve
1 to
3/case
This valve has three functions: Firstly, and most importantly, it
lowers pressure (thus temperature) of the liquid refrigerant from
the liquid supply manifold, to provide very cold liquid
refrigerant to the evaporator (Principle 1). Secondly, it controls
the flow of refrigerant into the case, according to the load
demand from the case (products removed and added, etc.).
Thirdly, the valve controls the superheat to prevent liquid
refrigerant at the inlet of the compressors, thus preventing
physical damage of the compressors.


Fan–Evaporator
1 to
3/case
The fan/evaporator circulates cold air over the products as well
as creates an air curtain that separates the products from the
warmer ambient air in the supermarket.


1.5 Refrigeration Cycle

1he reírigeration cvcle is described in the reírigeration svstem diagram abo·e. 1he main components
oí the reírigeration cvcle are the compressor. condenser. thermostatic expansion ·al·e and
e·aporator. 1he reírigeration cvcle is described in points A. B. ( and D in the Reírigeration Svstem
diagram.

Point A: Since the thermostatic expansion ·al·e lowers the pressure´temperature oí the liquid
reírigerant Principle 2,. the liquid reírigerant in Point A is ·erv cold. As the liquid reírigerant ílows
through the e·aporator. it absorbs the heat írom the reírigerated case and cools the reírigerated case.

Point B: Bv absorbing the heat írom reírigerated case. the liquid reírigerant passes to a gaseous state
at the e·aporator outlet. 1he temperature diííerential Superheat, between the inlet and outlet oí the
e·aporator is controlled bv the thermostatic expansion ·al·e. 1his ·al·e maintains this temperature
diííerential bv ·arving the ílow rate oí the reírigerant into the e·aporator based on the reírigerated
case load quantitv and temperature oí the products in the case,. During the reírigeration cvcle. the
reírigeration ·al·e on the circuit is open and the reírigerant is passed to the suction maniíold and
compressors.

Point (: \hen the gaseous reírigerant mo·es to the compressors. the pressure´temperature oí
reírigerant is increased. and the gaseous reírigerant temperature in the discharge maniíold and at the
inlet oí the condenser becomes ·erv high.

Point D: Since the gaseous reírigerant temperature in the condenser is higher than the temperature oí
the outdoor ambient air. there is a heat exchange between the gaseous reírigerant and the ambient air
Principle 1,. In turn. the heat absorbed bv the reírigerant heat írom the reírigerated case, is released
into the ambient air when it mo·es to the condenser. As well. this heat exchange liqueíies the
reírigerant in the condenser. 1hereíore. the reírigerant in Point D is in a liquid state. 1he liquid
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reírigerant at the outlet oí the condenser is passed to the liquid supplv maniíold and to the
thermostatic expansion ·al·e and the reírigeration cvcle starts all o·er again.

1.6 Defrosting Cycle

During the deírosting cvcle. a circuit deírost ·al·e is open and the circuit`s LPR-Reírigeration ·al·e
is closed. 1he hot gas reírigerant in the deírost supplv maniíold írom the compressor deírost
maniíold is circulated into the reírigerated case e·aporators oí the deírost circuit: this operation
deírosts the e·aporators. Since the e·aporators are ·erv cold. the gaseous reírigerant becomes liquid
and sent to the liquid supplv maniíold.
1.7 Heat Reclaim Exchanger
1he heat reclaim unit is located in the main conduit oí the lVA( svstem. lollowing a heat or
dehumidiíication request. a signal is sent írom the lVA( controller to the Suction pressure
controller. 1he Suction pressure controller opens the heat reclaim ·al·e. enabling the hot gas
reírigerant in the discharge maniíold to pass through the heat reclaim ·al·e. 1his. in turn. heats the
air circulating in the main conduit oí the lVA( svstem.
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2.1 Purpose of the HVAC System

A supermarket lVA( svstem has two main íunctions:
• 1o control the temperature in the main and peripheral zones so that customers and
staíí are comíortable
• 1o control the humiditv in the main area oí the supermarket

1emperature and humiditv in the vaiv area ot a .vpervar/et are controlled bv diííerent means
in diííerent supermarkets:
• A big Air landler Unit AlU,
• One or more standard rooí-top units R1U,
• A Dual Path unit DPU,

1emperature and humiditv in the peripberat .ove. ot a .vpervar/et is controlled in diííerent
wavs:
• One or more standard rooí-top units with supplv conduits íor the diííerent zones:
or
• A VAV rooí-top unit and VAV boxes íor the peripheral zones

1he rooí-top unit will be used to describe how the lVA( svstem works:
lIGURL 2.1 Appendix
Roof-Top Unit
RAT
OAF MAT
OAD
FAN DX
HR HT
Roof
Air outlet of
a
supermarket
Outdoor air
inlet
Legend
SPT : Space Temperature OAT: Outdoor Air Temperature OAF: Outdoor Air Filter HT : Heating Tiers(?)
RAT: Return Air Te mperature SPH: Space Humidity FAN: Fan OAD : Outdoor Air Damper
MAT: Te mpérature mélange OAH: Humidité extérieure DX: Cooling stages(?)
SAT: Supply Air Temperature FNS: Fan Status HR: Heat Reclaim
SAT
SPT
SPH
Indoor sensors
FNS
Supermarket
air return
OAH
OAT
Outdoor sensors
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2.2 Mechanical Components of Roof-Top Units
2.2.1 The table below describes the mechanical components for a roof-top unit and their
functions:

Components Legend Number/ // /Unit Functions
Outdoor Air Damper


OAD

1

This damper lets fresh air enter the unit in order to
improve the air quality in the supermarket. This
damper is open during the day and closed at night.

Mechanical Air Filter


OAF

1

This filter traps dust from the outdoor air and
return air of the supermarket. A pressure
differential detector installed the filter terminals
detects whether the filter must be replaced.


Fan

FAN


1

The fan circulates air through the air treatment
units: cooling unit, heat reclaim unit and the
heating coil.


Cooling Unit


DX

1 to 6

The cooling unit (refrigeration system evaporator)
has one or more stages depending on the cooling
load.

Heat Reclaim Unit


HR

1 to 3

The heat reclaim unit recovers the heat from the
refrigeration system. Instead of the condenser
releasing heat to the outside, this heat is recovered
in the heat reclaim unit to heat the supermarket.

Heating Unit


HT

1 to 6

The heating unit has one or more stages depending
on the heating load. The heating unit can be gas or
electric.


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2.3 Electronic Components (Sensors) of Roof-Top Units
2.3.1 The table below describes the electronic components for a roof-top unit and their
functions:

Components Legend Number/ // /Unit Functions
Outside Air
Temperature Sensor OAT 1
This sensor is used to measure the outdoor air
temperature.
Outside Air Humidity
Sensor
OAH 1
This sensor is used to measure the humidity of the
outdoor air.

Space Air Temperature
Sensor SPT 1
This sensor is used to measure the temperature of the
indoor air.

Space Air Humidity
Sensor
SPH 1
This sensor is used to measure the humidity of the
indoor air.

Return Air
Temperature Sensor RAT 1
This sensor is used to measure the return air
temperature originating from the supermarket.

Mixed Air Temperature
Sensor MAT 1
This sensor is used to measure the mixed air
temperature (return air and outdoor air).

Supply Air Temperature
Sensor
SAT 1
This sensor is used to measure the temperature of the
supply air at the unit outlet. This air is sent to the
supermarket by the conduits.

Differential Pressure
Sensor
OAF 1
This sensor is used to measure the differential pressure
to the mechanical filter terminals. It determines
whether the filter must be replaced.

Fan Status
FNS 1
This digital sensor is used to measure the air flow. It is
used to show the fan is working.


2.4 Heating Cycle

Beíore acti·ating the heating cvcles oí the R1U. the controller must ·eriív that:
• 1he ían is working bv checking the air ílow sensor in the R1U:
• 1he alarms conditions are cleared. i.e. smoke detector. íire detector. etc..
are not acti·e.

Ií the abo·e conditions are met. then the controller compares the temperature
measured bv the room temperature sensor against the setpoint deíined in the R1U
svstem:
• Ií the measured temperature is lower than the heating setpoint. then the
controller acti·ates the heat reclaim stage the heat reclaim unit is part oí
the R1U. but it is connected to the reírigeration svstem oí the store. It is
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considered as a íree heating stage`,. Ií the diííerence between the zone
temperature and the setpoint is still high. and ií it is impossible to reach the
setpoint ·alue with the heat reclaim stage onlv. then the controller will
graduallv acti·ate one or more heating stages electrical or gas, until the
setpoint is reached:
• Ií the measured temperature is greater than the heating setpoint. then the
controller will graduallv shutdown the electrical or gas, heating stages until
the setpoint is reached. Ií the room temperature is still too high. the
controller will shutdown the heat reclaim unit.


2.5 Dehumidification Cycle

1he humiditv in the main area oí a supermarket is a major concern. Ií the
humiditv in the building is not controlled eííicientlv. írost will build up on the
reírigerated íood displav cases` e·aporators. thus resulting in an increase oí the
írequencv oí the deírost cvcles. 1his leads to disastrous eííects:
• Increase oí energv consumption:
• Deterioration oí íood qualitv in the reírigerated cases.

Beíore the dehumidiíier cvcle is acti·ated. the controller must ·eriív that:
• 1he ían is on bv checking the air ílow sensor in the R1U:
• All alarms conditions are cleared. i.e. excessi·elv low temperature in the
cooling coil. íire detector. etc.. are not acti·e.

Ií the abo·e conditions are met. then the controller compares the humiditv
measured bv the room temperature sensor against the setpoint deíined in the R1U
svstem:
• Ií the measured humiditv is higher than the humiditv setpoint. then the
controller acti·ates the íirst stage oí cooling. Ií the diííerence between the
measured humiditv and the setpoint is still high. and ií it is impossible to
reach the setpoint ·alue with the íirst stage oí cooling onlv. then the
controller will graduallv acti·ate one or more cooling stages until the
setpoint is reached. During this cvcle. the water contained in the air will
condense at the contact oí the cooling coils and will be recuperated in a
drain pan
2
:
• Ií the measured humiditv is lower than the humiditv setpoint. then the
controller will graduallv shutdown the cooling stages until the setpoint is
reached.

2
1he dehumidiíication cvcle cools the air in the main area oí the supermarket and could cause discomíort to
customers. 1hereíore. as soon as the measured temperature goes below the temperature setpoint. the
controller acti·ates the heat reclaim stage to compensate. Other heating stages can be acti·ated as well. as
described in section Lrror! Reference source not found. Lrror! Reference source not found.. on page
Lrror! Bookmark not defined.. 1he dehumidiíication cvcle and the heating cvcle are independent írom one
to the other.
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2.6 Air-Conditioning Cycle

1he peripheral zones oí a supermarket oííices. rest areas. bathrooms. etc., could
be. írom time to time. air conditioned íor the emplovees comíort.

Beíore the cooling cvcle is acti·ated. the controller must ·eriív that:
• 1he ían is on bv checking the air ílow sensor in the R1U:
• All alarms conditions are cleared. i.e. excessi·elv low temperature in the
cooling coil. íire detector. etc.. are not acti·e.

Ií the abo·e conditions are met. then the controller compares the temperature
measured bv the room temperature sensor against the setpoint deíined in the R1U
svstem:
• Ií the measured temperature is greater than the cooling setpoint. then the
controller acti·ates the íirst stage oí cooling. Ií the diííerence between the
measured temperature and the setpoint is still high. and ií it is impossible
to reach the setpoint ·alue with the íirst stage oí cooling onlv. then the
controller will graduallv acti·ate one or more cooling stages until the
setpoint is reached:
• Ií the measured temperature is lower than the cooling setpoint. then the
controller will graduallv shutdown the cooling stages until the setpoint is
reached.
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3.1 Description of a Lighting Control System

ligure (.1 illustrates the main components oí a supermarket lighting svstem.

Zone 1
Circuit
#1
Circuit
#2
Circuit
#3
Lighting Controller
Power Distribution
System
Circuit
#4
Circuit
#5
Circuit
#6
Zone 2
Zone 3
Electric
Connection
Light Fixture
Iigure C.J ÷ Lighting System of a Supermarket

In a supermarket. the lighting svstem is made up oí light íixtures organized into lighting
zones. All lighting circuits are connected to a lighting controller. 1he íollowing sections
pro·ide more detail about the lighting zones and lighting svstem components oí a
supermarket.

C.2 ÷ Lighting Zones

1he outdoor and indoor areas oí a supermarket are di·ided into lighting zones. A zone
can be delimited bv an en·ironment or phvsical area or e·en bv a logical group decorati·e
lighting,. A lighting zone can be manuallv or automaticallv controlled.

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1he table below describes the diííerent zones that are íound in a supermarket. (ertain
zones can be subdi·ided into sub-zones last column,. thus pro·iding management and
svstem setting ílexibilitv.

Location Lighting Zone Sub-Zone
Outdoor Parking lot \es
Signs
1raííic lanes
Unloading zone

Indoor Sales area \es: aisles. entrancewav. cashier area
Reírigerated cases \es: Based on diííerent products
Decorati·e lighting \es: Based on product groups
Ser·ice area \es: Based on peripheral ser·ices
Lmergencv lighting
Oííice area \es
Mechanical room
Storage area
1able C.2 ÷ Lighting Zones of a Supermarket

A compromise must be made between the size oí a lighting zone and the cost oí a lighting
svstem. Small lighting zones are more expensi·e equipment and installation costs,. but
oííer more ílexibilitv and greater potential íor reducing svstem operating costs.

C.3 ÷ Components of the Lighting System

1he main component oí a lighting svstem is tbe tigbt ti·tvre. A light íixture is a lighting unit
made up oí a light source and parts íor distributing light. phvsicallv supporting the light
source and electricallv connecting the light source. A light íixture is made up oí the
íollowing parts:

• Light source: Produces the light
• Socket tube: lolds the light source in the housing and electricallv connects the light
source
• Ballast: De·ice to operate a íluorescent light or high intensitv discharge lID, light.
It pro·ides starting ·oltage while stabilizing the current during operation. 1here are
two tvpes oí oííloads: magnetic ballasts and electronic ballasts
• Reflector: Reílects the light
• Lens: Made oí a transparent material and used to con·erge the light
• Housing: Mechanical support that holds together all parts oí the light íixture

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C.3.J ÷ Lights

Diííerent tvpes oí lights are a·ailable. each ha·ing their own speciíic characteristics. 1he
íollowing characteristics are used íor describing a light:

Meav íite: A measurement used to compare the a·erage liíe oí a light
source. It is expressed in hours.

ítticievcy: A measurement used to compare the relationship between
the light ílux issued and energv consumed. It is expressed
in lumens per watt.

Cotor ívae·: A scale that measures the color produced on an object bv a
reíerence light source. 1his scale is measured in
percentage. A low color index means the color oí objects
is not natural.

1i.vat Covtort Probabitity: Visual comíort probabilitv speciíies the percentage oí
people who are comíortable with the lighting in a gi·en
space. A comíort probabilitv oí at least ¯0° is
recommended íor inside commercial en·ironments.

Supermarkets use three tvpes oí light sources: incandescent. íluorescent and lID. 1able
(.3.1 describes the main characteristics oí each oí these tvpes oí light sources.




1ypes Sub-1ypes Characteristics
Standard
• Low eííiciencv: 6 to 24 lumens
• Short liíe: ¯50 -2500 hours
• Applications: General

Incandescent
1ungsten-lalogen
• More eííicient than standard light sources
• Longer liíe than standard light sources
• Light beam is more concentrated or íocused
Less degradation in eííiciencv per time unit than the
incandescent light sources
• Light more natural than standard light sources
• Applications: Displav. strong lighting

Iluorescent
• ligh eííiciencv
• Good lighting distribution and diííusion
• Long liíe
• Applications: (ommonlv used commerciallv

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1ypes Sub-1ypes Characteristics
Mercurv ·apor
• 1he least eííecti·e oí all lID lights
• Ouick degradation in eííiciencv
• Verv weak color index
• Long liíe: 24.000- hours
• Blue-green light
• Applications: Landscaping lighting

lalide lights
• \ide range oí wattage ratings: 32 -2000 watts
• Lííiciencv: 50 to 115 lumens per watt
• Good color index
• Liíe:
• Low power: ¯.500 hours
• ligh power: 15.000 - 20.000 hours
• Applications :
• Indoor: Arena. stadium. auditorium. etc.
• Outdoor: Parking

ligh-pressure
sodium
• More eííicient than halide lights
• Low color index
• Gold colored light
• Applications: Industrial and outdoors

High intensity
discharge
(HID) light
Low-pressure
sodium
• Best eííiciencv oí all lID light sources
• Low color index
• Monochrome color
• Applications:
• Outdoor: Securitv and street lighting
• Indoor: \hen color is not important


In general. these three tvpes oí light sources are used in supermarkets:

• Incandescent lights are used in speciíic zones. such as cases íor meat and bread. to
create warm colors
• lalogen lights are limited to decorati·e lighting
• lluorescent lights are especiallv used íor general lighting: sales areas. oííices.
passagewavs. 1hev are also used íor speciíic applications: íreezer cases. íruits and
·egetables cases.
• lID lights are used íor large suríaces: sales areas. parking areas. unloading areas.
etc.

1he tvpe and number oí light íixtures in a supermarket are selected at the corporate le·el
and the selection criteria are based on architectural appearance and marketing to showcase
products in order to increase sales. In practice. sa·ing energv is not a prioritv.

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3.2 Configuring Lighting Controls

A tvpical lighting control includes a lighting controller. which controls lighting based on a
tvpical strategv. 1he inputs recei·e signals írom the occupation sensors and those oí
photocell sensors to detect davlight. 1he controller acti·ates low-·oltage relavs. which are
used to acti·ate the electric load. Relavs can be directlv connected to the light íixtures or
e·en connected to the lighting contact switches. 1he contact switches are used to acti·ate
major lighting loads. 1he panel breaker isolates the control circuits oí the lighting circuits
in order to protect against o·erloads and electric surges.

1here are two tvpes oí lighting svstem coníigurations. which are chosen based on the
lighting zones:
• Lighting control svstem with relavs and contactors
• Lighting control svstem with low-·oltage relavs

ligures (.4.1 and (.4.2 illustrate each coníiguration based on the small lighting svstem
comprising six lighting circuits di·ided between three zones.

Zone 1
Circuit
#1
Circuit
#2
Circuit
#3
Zone 2
Zone 3
Circuit
#4
Circuit
#5
Circuit
#6
Breaker
Panel
Wiring
Contactors Relay Panel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LightingController
Sensors
Photocell
Occupancy
Switch
ligure (.4.1 - Lighting (ontrol svstem \ith Relavs and (ontactors

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In the lighting control svstem with and relavs and contactors . each zone is deíined bv
connecting all circuits oí a zone to a contactor switch. Lach contactor is controlled bv a
relav. 1he ad·antage oí this coníiguration is the reduction oí the number oí outlets in the
lighting controller and the number oí relavs. lowe·er. this tvpe oí control svstem is not
ílexible since each zone is determined based on the connection oí the electrical lighting
circuits. Moreo·er. this tvpe oí coníiguration requires more cabling.

In the lighting control svstem with low-·oltage relavs ligure (.4.2,. each circuit is
connected to a low-·oltage relav. which is connected to the outlet oí the lighting controller.
Lighting zones are deíined logicallv in the lighting controller bv acti·ating the relavs
associated with a gi·en zone. 1his coníiguration oííers íar more ílexibilitv since each zone
can be easilv redeíined and requires less cabling than the lighting control svstem with relavs
and contactors. lowe·er. the large number oí relavs required increases installation costs.

Circuit
#1
Circuit
#2
Circuit
#3
Circuit
#4
Circuit
#5
Circuit
#6
Breaker
Panel Wiring Relay Panel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Lighting Controller
Sensors
Photocell
Occupancy
Switch
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
ligure (.4.2 - Lighting (ontrol Svstem \ith Low-Voltage Relavs

1he control svstem mav be a combination oí both coníigurations. with some oí the circuits
ha·ing a íixed connection to the contactors and the other circuits being indi·iduallv
connected to the low-·oltage relavs. 1his allows more ílexibilitv than the contact switch
with relav coníiguration and reduces the number oí relavs required.

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1he lighting control svstems in a building mav be centralized or distributed or a
combination oí the two. ligure (.4.3 illustrates the two architectures.

Centralized Control
System
Zone
1
Zone
3
Zone
2
Power Distribution
Supermarket Main Area
Controller 1
Zone
1
Zone
3
Zone
2
Controller 2 Controller 3
LonWorks Network
ligure (.4.3 - (entralized (ontrol Svstem Versus Distributed (ontrol Svstem

In a centralized control svstem. the central controller controls se·eral lighting zones. It recei·es
signals írom the sensors. analvzes data and acti·ates the relavs to control all the zones in the building.
1he central controller is normallv located in the electrical distribution room. 1his approach controls
all zones. but requires a large controller. Moreo·er. all electric lighting circuits are connected to the
central controller in the electrical distribution room.
In a distributed control svstem. the control svstem is subdi·ided into se·eral local
controllers installed near each lighting zone oí the supermarket. 1he sensors are directlv
connected to the local controller instead oí a central controller. Lach local controller is
independent and connected to the network. 1his approach in·ol·es smaller controllers and
requires less cabling. 1he reliabilitv oí this approach depends on the solidness oí the
network.

1his architecture has the íollowing ad·antages:
• Ií a controller is deíecti·e. onlv one zone will be aííected.
• Ií a change has to be made. onlv one oí the controllers will be changed.

lowe·er. using this approach. the lighting schedules íor each zone must be redistributed
to each controller.
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3.3 Lighting Control Strategy in the Supermarket

1he lighting control strategv is based on two priorities: operations and sales. 1his means that the
objecti·es are:
• 1o maintain the appropriate operating conditions: emplovee saíetv. product qualitv
• 1o pro·ide lighting that showcases products in order to increase sales

llexibilitv is an important component íor the íollowing reasons:
• A supermarket`s opening and closing hours mav ·arv. and stores are open íor
increasinglv longer periods oí time. 1his impacts a supermarket`s acti·ities: thev are
more spread out throughout the dav. Lighting must be adjusted based on
occupation hours and the tvpe oí acti·itv e.g. occupation bv customers during the
dav ·ersus occupation bv support staíí at night,.
• Supermarkets are becoming larger and larger and are oííering more and more
ser·ices through independent retailers. 1his impacts the lighting svstem bv creating
new zones that must be controlled independentlv.

In general. the time switching control strategv is highlv used in supermarkets since it is less
costlv to implement. 1o obtain gradual or partial lighting control. the lighting circuits are
grouped alternati·elv so that a percentage oí the lighting íixtures generallv 50°, is turned
oíí while another is on. 1his strategv is known as the 50´50 strategv ligure (.5.1,. It
balances the time the lights are on and íacilitates maintenance while pro·iding adequate
lighting

Zone 1
Zone 2
Supermarket
Main Area
Refrigerated
Cases
ligure (.5.1: 50´50 Lighting Strategv
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1able (.5.1 shows the diííerent lighting control techniques: automatic or manual control.

Control 1ype Control 1echnique Description and Considerations
1ime switching Light íixtures are switched to On´Oíí state based on the
programmed schedule. In this control technique. diííerent tvpes oí
timers are used:
• Mechanical timer
• Llectronic timer
• Programmable soítware timer
1his tvpe oí control must include a manual control with time-out to
o·erride the schedule or lighting timer. Aíter the time-out period.
the lighting svstem must automaticallv go back to time switching
mode.

´vpervar/et .ppticatiov.: Llectronic or mechanical timers are used in
the zones with set schedules. Programmable soítware timers are
used in occupation zones with ·ariable schedules.

Automatic
1ime Switching ´
modulation based on
ambient lighting
Light íixtures are switched or modulated in intensitv based on the
ambient lighting le·els when there is davlight.
A photocell sensor is used to con·ert ·isible ravs:
• Into a digital electronic signal to switch one or more controller
lighting relavs circuit,.
• Into an analog electronic signal to modulate the lighting
controller`s analog outlet. 1his modulates the lighting intensitv
based on the le·el oí ambient light.

1he electric photocell sensors used íor outdoor applications
normallv íace north in the northern hemisphere to ensure constant
illumination on the sensor. 1his eliminates anv contribution írom
the sun.
In general. outdoor photocell sensors must not be used íor indoor
applications because oí the low sensiti·itv and their limited
adjustment le·el.

´vpervar/et .ppticatiov.: 1he switching mode is used íor outdoor
applications. Modulation mode is used íor indoor applications
when there are skvlights.

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Control 1ype Control 1echnique Description and Considerations
Occupation´motion
sensor
Occupation and motion sensors are digital de·ices that switch the
light íixtures depending on whether people are in a gi·en phvsical
space or not.
1he light íixtures are acti·ated when a person enters and remains in
a room. 1he light íixtures are turned oíí aíter a programmable time
when the person has leít the room. Occupation mav be detected bv
an audio signal. ultrasound. inírared or optical means.
´vpervar/et .ppticatiov.: In general. limited to spaces with a limited
occupation rate oííice. mechanical room. electrical distribution
room. storage room, or e·en outside business hours.
Manual lorced (ontrol with 1ime-
out
1he íorced control with time-out acti·ates lighting írom a local
switch. 1he lighting turns oíí aíter a programmable time is
reached.
´vpervar/et .ppticatiov.: lor the spaces or occupation rates is limited
or occupied outside oí business hours.
1able (.5.1 - Lighting (ontrol 1echniques

A lighting control strategv is the application oí one or more control techniques. lor
example. in the oííice areas in a supermarket. a soítware timer can be used during opening
hours and a íorced control with time-out outside oí opening hours. 1able (.5.2 presents
the lighting control strategies and their diííerent control de·ices íor the diííerent lighting
zones oí a supermarket.

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Lighting Zone

Control Strategy Control Devices
Parking and Signs
• 1ime switching on a schedule in
conjunction with switching based on
ambient lighting.
• Light íixtures acti·ated in the dark.
on all night and oíí at davlight.
1imers. programmable lighting
schedules and photocell sensors
1raffic Lanes and
Unloading Area
• 1ime switching along with switching
based on ambient lighting.
• Light íixtures acti·ated in the dark
and on all night íor securitv
1imers. programmable lighting
schedules and photocell sensors
Peripheral Area
Services and Sales
Area: Aisles,
Lntranceway and
Cashier Area
• 1ime switching
• Light íixtures are on during the
business areas and turned oíí 50´50
in unoccupied mode.
Programmable lighting schedules
Sales Area With
Lnergy Optimization
• 1ime switching along with
modulation based on ambient
lighting.
• Light íixtures turned oíí outside oí
opening hours and intensitv
modulated based on ambient lighting
based on opening hours.
Programmable lighting schedules
and photocell sensors
Refrigerated and
Ireezer Cases
• 1ime switching
• Acti·ated during business hours and
se·eral hours outside oí business
hours so that cases can be íilled.
1urned oíí the rest oí the time.
Programmable lighting
schedules
Decorative Lighting
• 1ime switching
• Acti·ated during business hours.
turned oíí during unoccupied periods
Programmable lighting
schedules
Office, Mechanical
Room, Storage Room
• 1ime switching along with
occupation detection and íorced
control with time-out
• Acti·ated during business hours and
acti·ated bv the occupation sensor or
manuallv íorced command
Programmable lighting schedule.
occupation detector. switch with
time-out
Lmergency lighting
• (ontrolled bv a separate control
svstem connected to an emergencv
generator.

1able (.5.2 - (ontrol Strategv íor Lighting Zones oí a Supermarket
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Revision History

REV Description Revised by Date
1.0 Creation and formatting of the document, based on 71-GEN-0010
(French version)
Rossion 12-sep-03
1.1 Document Revision and corrections JMT, JG,
CBC
18-sep-03
2.0 Document Release JG 29-sep-03

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M T A llia n c e S u b -S y s te m s O t he r S y s te m s M o n it o r in g S y stem E nergy M ana ge m e nt S yste m In te r fa c e H u m a i n s. end-of-defrosting cycle sensor • saving sensor information in the MT Alliance and drawing graphs based on this information • generating local alarms when the temperature exceeds the limits and acknowledges them • sending alarms to the Alarm Center The main functions of the refrigeration sub-system are: • maintaining case temperatures so as to protect products • defrosting cases according to a preprogrammed schedule The main functions of the HVAC sub-system are: • maintaining a comfortable temperature in the occupied zones during occupancy mode • lowering the temperature while in inocuppancy mode • maintaining adequate humidity in the main area of the supermarket in order to reduce the frequency of defrosting in the refrigerated cases The main functions of the lighting sub-system are: • maintaining adequate light intensity (clients & employees) in the various zones • lowering or turning off lights according to a programmed schedule The main functions of the energy management sub-system are: • reducing energy consumption of the sub-systems by means of effective control strategies • controlling electrical loads (load shedding) during periods of high energy consumption Refrigeration HVAC Lighting Energy Management .M a c h i n e s R e fr ig e r a tio n S y stem L ig h tin g S y s te m H V A C S y s te m 9: ) Sub-Systems Monitoring Description The main functions of the monitoring sub-system are: • monitoring the different types of sensors: case temperature. .

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M onitoring Sub-S ystem for Refrigerated Cases SN 25 1 8 SN 26 SN 27 SN 28 SN 29 SN 30 SN xx SN 63 Sensors TRM R TC ALR Refrigeration Sub-S ystem C ND SPC CM P 1 CM P 2 CM P 3 (R ack A) CKT 1 CK T 2 CKT 3 ATS Leg end TRM : Network Term inat ion ALR: A larm Co ntr oller RTC : Real T ime C loc k SN : Sensor N ode CN D: Co nde nser Con tro ller SP C: Suctio n P ressure Contr oller CMP: C om pressor Co ntr o ller CK T: C ircu it C ontr oller ATS : A nti-Sw eat Co ntr o ller SCH : Sched uler DP U: Dua l P ath Control RTU : R oof.)& ( * & /& & 0 Distributed Control System for a Supermarket Total 64 no des 5 00 metres User Inte rfa ce Re mo te communication PC A ny whe re . .top Un it C ont ro ller VA V: VA V Bo x Control PTC: Photoce ll Sens or LCU: L ig ht Co ntr o l U nit DIM : D im mer Contro l Central al arm system 5 Circuits F TT Netwo rk HVAC Sub-S ystem DPU RTU VA V VA V 1 VA V 2 VA V 3 H SCH Lighting Sub-S ystem E SCH PTC LCU 1 LC U 2 LCU 3 D IM 9: ) " • • • ! ? C ! !! " % !! ! % C !! & ' 5 0 ! & C !! 2.1 Personal Computer !! & " % 5 • * • 3 • • ' ' ' & C ' " ! !! ' !! ' ' ! " ! !! " % $ 0 " % " % ? C # ! $' ' % !! !! & ' ' !% ! . e tc. Page r.

# !! $ ' 3% 6' 9 7 # & C ' 5 '# 7 ' !# !! $ ! % & " & C ! & C !! $ 6 ! 8 & & ! '% !! & ! 7 ! C % . : !! ' 6 7 & C • 3 • 3 • 3 * !! " % • • ) !! ! ( # " & " % " & " !! $ ' " & & " & & C !! !! & C ' ' ' & !! =* 6 !! 7 " & 6 !! !! ! "! % & =* & !! & '5 " & ' 0 ! '% 7 & " $ & & C ! # .: !! * " > !% % # " % " % !! ' ! " % # !! # & " % =* ! !!% $ # !! " ! & " % # " % ! 2.2 LonWorks Communications Network ? C9 6 !! ! % & ' ' " ! ' ! & C # 0 ? C & C !! !! ' .

refrigerant leak detector. Real Time Clock RTC Real Time Clock Normally. the information is sent to the computer and alarm controllers: • The computer displays the alarm in the alarm banner • The alarm controller sends the alarm to the Alarm Center Alarm Controller ALR Alarm Controller .2. etc. the real-time clock takes over the computer and takes over this function. Different types of sensors can be connected to each input: Temperature sensor for refrigerated cases. the computer’s clock synchronizes with the clock in each controller on the network by regularly sending the time over the network. temperature sensors for the end of defrosting. When a sensor node generates an alarm.1 Description and Role of Controllers in the Different MT Alliance System Sub-Systems MT Alliance Monitoring Sub-System " "! & ! ! " Controllers/Node Sensor Node * $ !! ! 3% % 3 Modules MT 500 !! ' 3 " 3% C 6' 9 ! # 7 Functions & !! ' !! ' Legend SN The sensor node is used to monitor eight (8) sensors and generate an alarm if the signal from a sensor exceeds the low or high limit programmed in the node.3 2.3. When the computer crashes.

Compressor Controller CMP Compressor Ctrl In the refrigeration control system. the compressor controller checks the compressor securities (oil pressure. All refrigerated cases on a circuit are defrosted simultaneously according to a preprogrammed schedule. compressor temperature. The refrigeration circuit controller controls the refrigeration and defrosting cycle of the refrigerated cases connected to a circuit. If conditions are normal. The controller carries out this function by comparing the pressure/temperature measured in the suction manifold to a programmed set point. the compressor controller generates an alarm and stops the compressor from starting. The condenser controller can control up to twelve (12) fans with a MT 512 module. there is one compressor controller for each mechanical compressor. Circuit Controller CKT Circuit Ctrl Anti-Sweat Controller ATS AntiSweat Ctrl . Suction Pressure Controller SPC MT 504 The purpose of the suction pressure controller is to control the pressure of the refrigerant in the suction manifold. The controller carries out this function by comparing the pressure/temperature measured in the condenser at a programmed set point and starts one or more fans based on the difference of these two values.). the compressor controller starts the compressor. the anti-sweat controller prevents: • The formation of sweat on the case glass • The door to stick in the door frame. The circuit controller carries out this operation by controlling the opening and closing of the refrigeration and defrosting valves of a circuit based on a programmed defrosting schedule.2. In a glass refrigerated case. Each compressor controller receives its start or stop command from the suction pressure controller to maintain the refrigerant temperature in the suction manifold. After receiving a start command. etc. this allows accumulated heat to be evacuated from the refrigeration circuit. A refrigeration system can have up to forty (40) circuits. This also causes the gaseous refrigerant to liquefy. and the controller starts one or more compressors based on the difference of these two values.2 Refrigeration Sub-System " "! &! ! $ ! % " * ! 3% % 3 !! !! C 6' 9 75 ' ' " % !! # ' Controllers/Node / Condenser Controller Legend CND Modules MT 504 MT 508 MT 512 Functions The condenser controller is used to maintain the condenser temperature at a temperature higher than the outside temperature. The suction pressure controller can control up to ten (10) compressors.3. The anti-sweat controller carries out this function by measuring the humidity in the store by comparing it to a set point and. When the condenser temperature is higher than the outside temperature. the glass and door frame of the case are heated up accordingly. based on difference between these two values. If one of the security devices sends an abnormal condition signal. the heat accumulated in the gaseous refrigerant from the refrigerated cases is released into in the ambient air.

The scheduler enables the creation of occupied and unoccupied schedules for increasing and decreasing the temperature of a supermarket based on the opening and closing schedule of a supermarket.. A VAV roof-top unit can power several VAV boxes. i. The VAV roof-top controller controls the air temperature and volume in the main conduit of the unit.3. In addition. The type of modules used depends on the number of cooling and heating stages of the Dual Path unit. HVAC Scheduler H SCH Scheduler $ . As well. The type of modules used depends on the number of cooling and heating stages connected to the unit.2. schedules can also be created to control the temperatures in different zones based on the occupied and unoccupied periods. The type of modules used depends on the number of cooling and heating stages of the roof-top unit. • controls temperature • controls humidity As well. The Dual Path controller: • controls the temperature of a supermarket • Effectively controls humidity (typically 40% to 45%) in the main area of a supermarket. which provides air volume at the input of the VAV box. it lowers the temperature during unoccupied periods.3 Heating/Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Sub-System " "! &! ! $ ! " * ! 3% % 3 !! !! C 6' 9 2 75 * " % # ' !! % ' Controllers/Node / Roof-Top Controller Scheduler Legend RTU Modules MT 504 MT 508 MT 512 Functions The standard roof-top unit controller controls the main area of a supermarket. The VAV box controls the temperature of the surrounding areas by varying its dampers. A scheduler can control several Dual Path or roof-top units. through the occupation scheduler. through the occupation scheduler. Dual Path Controller DPU MT 508 MT 512 The Dual Path Unit is a high energy efficiency air processing unit. it lowers the temperature during unoccupied periods. VAV Box VAV VAV Ctrl The VAV box is powered by a VAV roof-top unit.e. Therefore. VAV Roof -Top Controller RTU/VA V MT 504 MT 508 MT 512 A VAV roof-top unit and the VAV boxes are used in conjunction to control the temperature of the areas surrounding a supermarket. The VAV roof-top unit provides constant air pressure at the input of each surrounding area. the box controls the quantity of air entering the surrounding area and activates electric heating at the end line if required.

If the light intensity measured by the photocell sensor is higher than the programmed set point. the schedules can also be created to individually control the lighting in different zones based on occupied and unoccupied periods. Each relay is connected to one or more illuminating lights.Photocell Sensor Light Scheduler L SCH Scheduler .2. Photocell Sensor PTC Douglas . The photocell sensor signal is sent to the lighting controllers throughout the communications network. The scheduler creates the lighting schedules in order to control the lighting based on the opening and closing hours of the supermarket. the controller overrides the lighting schedule and cancels the lighting in one or more zones of the supermarket. The lighting controller of a supermarket includes the following: • an eight-switch input module. Lighting configuration software groups together 16 relays of the lighting panel per zone.4 Lighting Sub-System " "! & ! ! ! " * ! 3% % 3 !' !! C 6' 9 ' " % ' 75 !! # !! % ' Controllers/Node / Lighting Controller Legend LCU Modules Gentec: . It controls the lighting intensity of the lights of a zone based on the light intensity measured by the photocell sensor located in the zone.Input Board .Output Board . A schedule can control one or more zones.Panel Relay Functions The indoor and outdoor lighting system of a supermarket is: • subdivided in the lighting zones • each zone includes one or more illuminating lights • each lighting zone is controlled by a lighting schedule originating from the lighting scheduler.3. Several schedules can be created on a single scheduler. Lighting Intensity Controller DIM DimLight The lighting intensity controller is used with the Lighting controller and photocell sensor. Each switch can be used to override the lighting schedule of a zone in order to manually control it a 16-output power module that powers the 16 relays of the • lighting panel • 16-relay panel. As well. The lighting controller controls the indoor and outdoor lighting zones of a supermarket based on: • a schedule programmed in a lighting scheduler or even • the combination of a schedule and outdoor photocell. The photocell sensor is used to measure the light intensity outside a supermarket or within a zone of the supermarket.

None Four (4) digital inputs: Each input is optically isolated (0-15V) Eight (8) type-C relays: SPDT. Protected by fuses on the module Digital Inputs Digital Outputs Four (4) type-C relays: SPDT. 0-10 V. 2A. 4-20 mA. !% ! C !% ! ! .0 for the See Section 4. Protected by fuses on the module + . Low-pass filter on Thermistor.0 - 3. 10 K 0-5 V. 2A. 4-20 mA.0 for the different MT 508 applications. 2A. Thermistor. ! ' ' ! . Low-pass each input. 250 VAC. Low-pass filter on 10 K Thermistor. 0-10 V. filter on each input.0 for the different MT 504 applications MT-508 MT-512 See Section 4. ! ' ! !% $! " % $ $ % " "! & ! & M T 5 0 0 F a m ily I n p u t-O u tp u t C o n f ig u r a tio n M T 500 A n a lo g In p u ts D ig ita l In p u ts D ig ita l O u tp u ts A n a lo g O u tp u ts 8 M T 504 8 M T 508 8 4 M T 512 8 8 12 4 8 4 4 4 . 0-10 V. 250 VAC.1 + # & MT 500 Family Input-Output Configuration .2 – Table of MT Alliance Controller using the 500 Family MT 500 Family Specifications Applications Universal Inputs MT-504 See Section 4. 4-20 mA. Eight (8) universal inputs Eight (8) universal inputs Eight (8) universal inputs (analog or digital): (analog or digital): (analog or digital): 0-5 V.2 3. 10 K 0-5 V.$ * 3. different MT 512 applications. Protected by fuses on the module Eight (8) digital inputs: Each input is optically isolated (0-15V) Twelve (12) type-C relays: SPDT. 250 VAC. each input.

0” x 1.0 - . CSA approved MT-512 Four (4) configurable analog outputs: 0-20 mA. 010V. 2-10V.5” 312 mm x 102 mm x 38 mm Mounted on wall or on snaptrack 24 VAC transformer 12 VA with center tap -40 to 75° (-40 to 168° C F) 5% to 95% R. CSA approved MT-508 Four (4) configurable analog outputs: 0-20 mA.0” x 1.25” x 4. 0-10V. Protected by a limiting current limiter (max 20 mA ) 16.H. UL.5” 204 mm x 102 mm x 38 mm Mounted on wall or on snaptrack 24 VAC transformer 12 VA with center tap -40 to 75° (-40 to 168° C F) 5% to 95% R.H. 0-5V. UL.5” 416 mm x 102 mm x 38 mm Mounted on wall or on snaptrack 24 VAC transformer 12 VA with center tap -40 to 75° (-40 to 168° C F) 5% to 95% R. . UL.0” x 1. 010V. CSA approved Dimensions Set-up Power Environment Certification . 2-10V.MT 500 Family Specifications Analog Outputs MT-504 Four (4) configurable analog outputs: 0-20 mA. Protected by a current limiter (max 20 mA ) 8.375” x 4. Protected by a limiting current limiter (max 20 mA ) 12. 2-10V.H.0” x 4. 0-5V. 0-5V.

/ & & " "! & ! !! ' ! # !! " " % % (* & !! ) . ! : " # ! Sub-Systems & Controllers Monitoring Sub-System Sensor Node Refrigeration Sub-System Suction Pressure Controller Condenser Controller Sub-Cooling Controller Secondary Cooling System Evaporative Condenser Controller HVAC Sub-System Standard Roof-topController VAV Roof-top Controller Dual Path Controller (1 Coil) Dual Path Controller (2 Coils) Lighting Sub-System Lighting Intensity Controller Other Application Controllers Mechanical Room Controller X6T2P Applications Controller X4P4T Applications Controller MT 500 MT 504 MT 508 MT 512 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X " ! .

7# - .1 4.MT 512: DO1 Fan 1 … DO12 Fan 12 Outputs Analog: Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies Air . Differential (floating Head): OAT & COP OAT & DLT etc. !! '' & ' ! MN O ! ' " # ! 0 " E ? C " 6 ' ! & C6 ' ! ! ' 7 .MT 508: DO1 Fan 1 … DO8 Fan 8 . Operating Set Point: Pressure/Temperature depending on the sensors chosen Conversion Table: Pressure/Temperature conversion (depending on the type of refrigerant) Control Strategy: Single: DP. DLT. of Fans: Control Point: Set Point: Note: Evaporative condenser controller (MT 508) A specific plug-in is used for configuring and adjusting the set points and monitoring the evaporative condenser. Sequential Control Type Primary Fan: Fixed speed. variable speed.1.Unsplit Discharge Press Auto Reset . MT 508 or MT 512) Inputs Alarm Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Digital: . etc. 12 fans Selection from sensors on physical and logical inputs.Split Minimum On Time Analog: UI1 *Discharge Pressure (DP) 1 UI2 *Condenser Inlet Press (CIP) UI3 *Condenser Outlet Press (COP) UI4 *Drop Leg Temp (DLT) UI5 *Outdoor Air Temp (OAT) UI6 * Liq Header Press (LHP) IU7 * Liq Header Temp (LHP) UI8 Inverter Fault IIVF) Digital: None AO1 Variable Speed Condenser Type: Drive (VFD) Condenser Config.Split Temperature Set Point . PID. cycling Split Mode Control Strategy and Configuration Configuration: Split on outdoor temperature Split on Heat Reclaim 1 Split on Heat Reclaim 2 Split on Heat Reclaim 1 & 2 Split on Out Temp and Heat Reclaim .1 Refrigeration System Controllers Condenser Controller (MT 504.4.Unsplit Discharge Press Set Point . Evaporative (See Note) One or two rows Max.MT504: DO1 Fan 1 … … DO4 Fan 4 . COP.: No.

This strategy is used to save energy. Suction Pressure Control Strategy The suction pressure controller controls the pressure in the suction manifold.Suction Pressure Controller (MT 504) Analog: Inputs Alarm Yes Yes Yes Outputs Analog: OA1 Compressor Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies Three suction pressure controllers can be installed on the refrigeration rack to control three suction groups.20 Psig (Kpa) + 20 Psig (Kpa) Suction Pressure Shift Strategy: Pressure Offset: Offset Time: 0 – 20 Psig (Kpa) Programmable (0–60 Minutes) . of Sensors: Control Strategy: Sampling Period: Pressure Step: Min. etc. . The pressure is controlled by activating one or more compressors based on the difference between the suction pressure and suction pressure set point. of Defrosting Circuits: No. DO4 Heat Reclaim 2 Configuration Settings: No. Pressure Delta: Circuit selection Max. Med. Type of Refrigerant: Control Point: Control Set Point: Control Type: R22. six sensors Min. Max. Pressure Delta: Max. A suction pressure controller (SPC) can control up to ten compressor controllers. Suction Pressure (U2) Pressure/Temperature PID UI1 *Discharge Pressure (DP) UI2 Suction Pressure (SP) UI3 Liquid Header Press (LHP) UI4 *Heat Reclaim1 (HR1) UI5 *Heat Reclaim 2 (HR2) UI6 *Phase Lost (PLM) UI7 Refrig Leak Sensor (RLS) UI8 *Suction Pressure Shift (ECE) Yes Yes Digital: Logical Network Variables (SNVT) * Main Defrost Valve Logical connection to Circuit controller * Split Valve Logical connection to Condenser controller Floating Suction Pressure Reset Strategy DO1 Heat Reclaim 1 Compares the coldest temperature in the refrigerated cases DO2 Split Valve with the temperature case set point and automatically readjust DO3 Main Defrost the suction pressure. 0–60 minutes 0–3 Psig (Kpa) .

None Digital .Low Pressure Switch .Compressor Type: .Option Unloader : .Variable Speed Compressor: . An optional module controls the Unloaders. Speed: . The pressure is controlled by activating one or more compressors depending on the difference between the suction pressure and the suction pressure set point. Yes Yes Digital: Compressor Cmd Unloader 1 Unloader 2 Note: Optional electronic module is needed for the unloaders control . Compressor Controller Configuration Settings . Screw hp Yes 0–100% 0–100% Yes 1–2 25% or 33% Analog: .2 Compressor Controller Inputs Alarm Outputs Analog: .Number of Unloaders: .Max. Scrool.Safety Line .1.None Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies Compressor controllers are controlled by the Suction pressure controller.4. Speed: .Min.Proof of Running Note: Connector on the front of the controller.Compressor Capacity: .Capacity of Each Unloader: Recip.

Pulse 1–8 Max Programmable Programmable Kilo Btu Analog or Digital Max. Refr Valve 4 .Electronic EEPR Control Point: Refrigerated case temperature Control Set Point: Desired case temperature Dead Band Set Point: Prevents cycling Defrosting Cycle Control: Defrosting Type: Defrost Strategy: No. Refr Valve 5 Logical Network Variables (SNVT) * Case Temperature * Defrost Termination * Defrost Termination Switch * Door Ajar . On Temp. Refrigeration Cycle Control: Mode: . of Sensors: Defrosting Strategy: Pump Down Cycle: Pump Down Time Drain Cycle: Drain Time: Programmable Programmable Hot Gas. Valve on/off control . Refr Valve 1 . Defr Valve 3 . Digital: On state Analog: . six sensors Analog: Min. Defr Valve 2 .None Digital . Refr Valve 2 . Defr Valve 5 .None Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies The Circuit controller controls five refrigeration circuits. Thus.Refrig. Med. 40 refrigeration circuits can be controlled in the rack. Electric On Time. Up to eight (8) circuit controllers can be used on one rack.1. Refr Valve 3 . Max. Defrostings/Day: Defrost Time: Min. Defr Valve 4 .3 Refrigeration Circuit Controller Inputs Alarm Outputs Analog . Defr Valve 1 . Defrost Time: Circuit Load: End of Defrosting Sensor: No.4.Mechanical EEPR . Off Cycle.

Autonomous refrigeration system .Mechanical 1 & 2 Sub-Cooling System .Modulating Receiver Outlet Valve Digital Output: .SPR/CTRL Valve Control Control Point: Condenser Saturated Temp (Cop 2 Cot) – Drop Leg Temp Set Point: Desired sub-cooling Control Type: PID Analog Output: -Modulating SPR/CTRL valve .A mechanical 2 sub-cooling system The mechanical cooling systems can control two stages.4 Sub-Cooling System Controller Inputs Alarm Yes Yes Yes Outputs Analog AO1 SPR/CTRL Valve AO2 Receiver Out Valve AO3 Mech Subcooler 1 Valve AO4 Mech Subcooler 2 Valve Digital DO1 Drain Valve DO2 SPR/CTRL Valve DO3 Subcooler 1 Stage 1 DO4 Subcooler 1 Stage 2 DO5 Subcooler 2 Stage 1 DO6 Subcooler 2 Stage 2 DO7 Receiver Out Valve Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies The sub-cooler controller can control different sub-cooling systems: .A mechanical 1 sub-cooling system .1.Condenser Sub-Cooling System: .Selenoid SPR/CTRL valve .Dedicated refrigeration circuit Control Point: Mech Subcooler Temp In Absolute temperature of liquid Control Set Point: Type: PID Analog Output: Modulating valve of the mechanical subcooling system Digital Outputs: Stage 1 of mechanical sub-cooling system Stage 2 of mechanical sub-cooling system Configuration: .Logical connection to the suction pressure controller: * Suction Pressure Control Point: Suction pressure Suction pressure that determines whether at Set Point: least one compressor is working Control Type: On/Off control Digital Output: Drain Valve .4.Logical connections to the condenser controller: * Condenser Saturated Temp * Drop Leg Temp * Outdoor Temp . Each sub-cooling sub-system (condenser. mechanical) can be configured to work autonomously or in mixed mode (condenser & mechanical).A condenser sub-cooling system . .Receiver Outlet Valve .Drain Valve Control: Analog UI1 * Mech Subcooler Temp In (LQT in) UI2 * Mech Subcooler 1 Temp Out (LQTOut 1) UI3 * Mech Subcooler 2 Temp Out(LQTOut2) Digital . Mixed mode is very useful in hot climates.None Logical Network Variables (SNVT) . The mechanical sub-cooling system can be configured as an autonomous refrigeration system or dedicated refrigeration circuit.

1 HVAC Controller Roof-Top Unit Controller (MT 504. heat reclaim and heating stages . Off.Humidification: Modulating control Control Point Space Humidity/Saturation point Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point. Auto .Auxiliary Heating Control: Control Type: Modulating/Stage (6 Maximum) Control Point: Indoor temperature Set Point: Heating temperature set point in occupied or unoccupied mode .4.) Control Point Humidity/Saturation point Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.Humidity Control .Outdoor air inlet and bypass damper Analog: UI1 *Space Air Temp (SPT) UI2 Return Air Temp (RAT) UI3 Mixed Air Temp (MAT) UI4 Supply Air Temp (SAT) UI5.Dehumidification: Stage control (6 cooling stages max.Bypass Damper Control: Control Type: Modulating Control Point: Static pressure in conduit Set Point: Desired static pressure .Occupy Mode Open at %.Modulating (Free cooling) Control Point: Outdoor temperature (Free cooling) .Heating Control Via Heat Reclaim: Control Type: Modulating/Stage (3 Maximum) Control Point: Indoor temperature Set Point Desired indoor temperature . Auto.Modes: Off. .Cooling.2 4.Outdoor Air Inlet Damper Control: Control: On/Off Modes: .*Outdoor Air Temp (OAT) UI6 *Space Air Humidity (SPH) UI7 Static Diff Pressure (SDP) UI8 *Outdoor Air Humidity(AOH) Digital: DI1 Fan Status (FNS) DI2 Occupancy Timer (OCC) DI3 Air Filters (OAF) DI4 Safety Line Switch (SLS) Yes Yes Yes $ .Air-Conditioning Control: Control Type: Modulating/ Stage (6 Maximum) Control Point: Indoor temperature Set Point: Cooling temperature set point in occupied/unocupied mode .Auxiliary modulating heating and heat reaclaim .Auto: Humidification/Dehumidification Dead Band: Humidity & Dehumid dead band Set Point: Humidity or saturation point shifted by the dead band Load Shedding Control: With a load shedding request (Logical network variable). MT 508 or MT 512) Inputs Alarm Yes Yes Yes Yes Outputs MT 504: 4 digital outputs 4 analog outputs MT 508: 8 digital outputs 4 analog outputs MT 512: Yes Yes 12 digital outputs 4 analog outputs Digital and analog outputs can be configured. Dehumid.Unoccupy Mode Close at %) .2.Fan Motor Control: Modes: On. The maximum limits set for the outputs are: Analog output: Modulating heating Modulating cooling Modulating Heat Reclaim Outdoor air inlet damper Bypass damper Digital output: 1 fan motor 6 cooling stages 6 heating stages 3 Heat Reclaim stages Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategies . Occupy/On Unoccupy/Auto . .Fan motor . Humidification. The following elements can be load shedded: . .

Humidification : Modulating control Control Point: Humidity/Saturation point in the return air Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.2.Supply temp. MT 508 or MT 512) Alarm Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Outputs MT 504: 4 digital outputs 4 analog outputs MT 508: 8 digital outputs 4 analog outputs MT 512: 12 digital outputs 4 analog outputs Digital and analog outputs can be configured. Off.Bypass damper .Supply Air Temperature Control: . Humid.Unoccupy Mode Closed at % .Fan Motor Control: Modes: On. The maximum limits set on the outputs are: Analog: Control Configuration and Strategy Control Configuration and Strategy .) Control Point Humidity/Saturation point in the return air Set Point: Humidity/Saturation point.Outdoor air inlet damper control: Control: On/Off Modes: .Set Point Depends on mode: . .Occupy Mode Open at %.Dehumidification: Stage control (6 cooling Stages max.Supply temp.Control Point: Supply air temperature . Dehumid.Auto: Humidification/Dehumidification Dead Band: Humidity & Dehumid dead band Set Point: Humidity or saturation point shifted by the dead band Analog: Inputs UI1 Return Air Temp (RAT) UI2 Mixed Air Temp (MAT) UI3 Supply Air Temp (SAT) UI4 Return Air Pressure (RAP) UI5 Return Air Humidity (RAH) UI6 Mixed Air Filter (MAF) UI7 *Outdoor Air Temp (OAT) UI8 Supply Air Pressure (SAP) Digital: DI1 Fan Status (FNS) DI2 Occupancy Timer (OCC) Yes Yes Bypass damper Outdoor air damper Modulating heating Modulating cooling .Fan motor . readjust by outside temperature . .Supply temp.Mode: . .Supply Air Pressure Control: Bypass damper or Fan speed control Modulating humidifier .Modes: .VAV box request 6 heating stages .Modulating Out : Bypass damper or Fan speed control Digital: .Auxiliary modulating heat reclaim and heating .. heat reclaim and heating stages .Modulating (free cooling) Control Point: Outdoor temperature (free cooling) .Set Point: Desired supply air pressure .2 VAV Roof-Top Unit Controller (MT 504.4. readjust by VAV box request Load Shedding Control: With a load shedding request (Network variable). Occupy/On Unoccupy/Auto . Auto .Control Type: Modulating or stages .Cooling.Humidity Control: Modes: Off.Outside Temp.Outdoor air intake damper . the following items can be load shedded: . 1 fan motor .Control Point: Supply air pressure Modulating fan . Auto.Return Temp 6 cooling stages . readjust by return temperature .

/ 7/5 *') 4 * !5 3 ' 6 ( 7 * != 5 : Analog 3 = 5 > 3 1 '* ) ')4 /$ % * + .% ' ! ! ' + . ) -% / $ */ 0 '/ 1 2 *') * $ . $ *') 4 * !5 3 ' 6 ( 8 7 Digital * != 5 : P % 9 3 = 5 & 8 ! ' ' 8 ' ' ) 0 &1 $ / 00 *% ) + .3 Inputs Analog: Dual Path (MT 508) Controller Alarm Yes Outputs MT 504: Control Configuration and Strategy ) + .2.+ ') * + ' % UI1*Space Air Temp (SPT) UI2 Return Air Temp (RAT) UI3 DX Coil Temp (DXT) UI4 Supply Air Temp (SAT) UI5 *Outdoor Air Temp (OAT) UI6 *Space Air Humidity (SPH) UI7 Liquid Saturated Temp(LST) UI8 *DX Coil Diff Press (DXDP) Digital: DI1 Fan Status (FNS) DI2 Occupancy Timer (OCC) DI3 Return Air Filter (RAF) DI4 Outside Air Filter (OAF) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 / )) ) + . )$ *% ) + .% * !5 ! ' * != 5 : ! ' ' 3 = 5 2 ' @ 3 1 8 ) *' ) + . * ' + *') 4 5 > # # > # > %> # @ ) % @ MT 508: 3 5 0 &# ' # ' @ 2 2 > P @ ) # / ' ! * Q > ! ' 3 / 561 ) ')4 + *+.4. *') 4 " * !5 3 ' 6 ( 8 7 ' * != 5 : ( ! 3 = 5 * ! ' # @ 5 3 1 ' 1 .! ' E 6 & C$ " 7# ! !! & ' " ! 5 9 * ! ' ! ' ! ' ' > ! . ) R R R ' ! > R R R ! ' ' %* ! ' R R R ? > R R R ' ! ! ' 3 ).$ ) + . .? *') 4 ! . G " "! % ' MT 512: 5 > .

. .Day/Night Set Point: . ) -% / $ */ 0 '/ 1 2 *') * $ .Control Point: .1 Lighting Controllers Relay Lighting Controller Alarm Outputs Control Configuration and Strategy Inputs Logical Network Variables (SNVT) Analog: *Lux Level Sensor Digital: . the relays for a group may be assigned to one of the two sub-groups to equalize the light operation time of the sub-groups.Override Control: Override command from a switch. The period of time is programmable. .Logical function AND between photocell sensor and schedule .3 4.Control: .Day/Night Time: Specifies day/night status On/Off Intensity sensor (Lux) Value of day/night set point Prevents cycling Programmable Analog: . .3. which temporarily activates a lighting group.None . . relay lighting controller can control six lighting zones. The activation time is programmable.Light Operation Time Equalization Control for a Group Alternates between the sub-groups of a lighting group in order to equalize the light operation time .Day/Night Control . If the light operation time equalization option is activated. Therefore.Control of Groups 1–6: .Control: An external load shedding command (Levels 1–4) Load shed a specific group.Set Point Dead Band: . each relay belongs to a group of load shedding levels 1-4. . 3 For each group.Configuration: A load shedding level from 1 to 4 can be assigned to each lighting relay.load Shedding Control: .4.Motion Detector Control The motion detector can override the lighting schedule for a given period of time.+ ') * + ' % -Digital: l6 pulsed relays By configuring the 16 lighting relays in six different groups.Logical function OR between photocell sensor and schedule .Groups 1 to 6: (Zone) * Occupancy Sensor * Group Override Switch * Occupancy Schedule ) + .Lighting Control Logic : . .Schedule Only .Configuration of groups of relays 1 to 6 .Used to assign a relay to a group.

Low Set Point: For the Low Dimlight command DO3 Relay out 3 .Configures the lighting groups (zones) . Maximum. The Dimlight controller Ctrl)–– can control two zones. which: .DO4 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes AO1 Dim Control 1 The Dimlight controller takes into account the day’s AO2 Dim Control 2 lighting when controlling the lighting intensity of the main area of a supermarket.Med Set Point: For the Med.Lighting Set Point Zone Control with DimLight Control Point: Analog photocell sensors Digital (Light Level Sensor 1-3) Strategy: Minimum. ) -% / $ */ 0 '/ 1 2 *') * $ .Load Shedding Control: A Load Shedding command (logical network variable) in % used by Dimlight to reduce the lighting intensity to a given value .Controls lighting schedules .4. These commands come from the Light Scheduler Controller. Dimlight command DO4 Relay out 4 .2 the Relay Command 1-4 commands .Carries out overrides of lighting schedules . * Zone 1 Remote Override * Zone 2 Remote Override Note: Overrride commands have higher priority than the lighting schedule * Relay Command 1 * Relay Command 2 * Relay Command 3 * Relay Command 4 Note: Commands that individually activate the relays on outputs DO1.Override Commands: Mode: Local/Remote Value: Intensity can be programmed Time: Time can be programmed . The Dimlight controller uses the relay lighting controller.3. Med and High) of the Dimlight lighting.2 DimLight Controller (MT 504) Inputs Alarm Outputs Analog: Control Configuration and Strategy Analog Zone 1: ) + .+ ') * + ' % UI1 Light Level Sensor 1 UI2 Light Level Sensor 2 UI3 Light Level Sensor 3 UI4 Local Override Switch Zone 2: UI5 Light Level Sensor 1 UI6 Light Level Sensor 2 UI7 Light Level Sensor 3 UI8 Local Override Switch Network Logical Variables (SNVT) * DimLight 1 Command * DimLight 2 Command Note: Commands that can control intensity (Low.High Set Point: For the High Dimlight command The commands are from the Scheduler Controller Note: Reserve Control Type PID relays activated by Analog Output: Dimmer Control 1. Intensity is controlled by the (For HID Offload modulating the HID lights ballast. Medium DO1 Relay out 1 Set Point: DO2 Relay out 2 .

661 7 ( *0$1 - .

! % ' ! ' !% • ' • & !! % • ! C • ' / ! / % ! .2°C to -31.2°C -31.1 & (& 2 & Purpose of a Supermarket Refrigeration System C • • ' ' ' ! S ! $ ' $ $ Types of Products Vegetables.7°C 35°F and higher 30°F to 32°F 34°F to 36°F 40°F to 45°F -25°F to -15°F -35°F to -25°F /1 2 ( ( 61 Medium temperature Low temperature 1. beer. frozen food % ' & 5 " ! ' % ' ' % ' ! ' " "! & ! ! ' $ ! Temperature (°C) Temperature (°F) ° ° 2°C and higher -1.2°C 4.1°C to 2. .1°C to 0. soft drinks Food preparation room Deep-frozen products Ice cream.4°C to 7. flowers Meat. seafood Dairy products.1°C -37. fruits.7°C to -26.1 1.2 Operation and Type of Refrigerated Cases ' % ! • • : ' " "! % "! % !# ' ' ! % 5 $ & $ ! % E & '! ! !! & ' ' E ! % ' C 5 ! ! 5 .0°C 1.

3 Thermodynamic Principles of Refrigeration ' %! ! 5 !& % : ! ' # ! ! & !! ! 6 ' 7 ' % " & !! & ' % $ .! & ' ! " % • * ! !E • * ! !E $ • ' $ ' $ %! & $ C ! ! ' ! ' " ! ' $ " ! & %5 $ $ !% ' " ! ! ! # ! !E $ Refrigeration System Liquid Coolant Condenser D V V V V V V V V C Gaseous Coolant Other Cases Case #1 Evaporator A Expander Other Cases Heat Reclaim HVAC System Circuit #X Circuit #2 B Heat Exchange Valve Liquid Supply Manifold Defrost Valve Defrost Valve Hot Gas Supply Manifold EPR-Refrig Valve EPR-Refrig Valve EPR-Refrig Valve Defrost Valve Circuit #1 Main Defrost Valve Gaseous Coolant Gaseous Coolant Suction Manifold CMP 1 CMP 2 CMP 3 CMP 4 RACK Discharge Manifold 1.

°* 1 561 / .+ : .°* . Hot gas during the defrosting cycle... during this process. +' 1 ° .7 $ * / .e.7 $ * / . (Principe 1).°9 . i. the gaseous refrigerant at the condenser input is transformed into liquid refrigerant at the condenser output. Circuits 10 to 40 / Rack $ . Condenser 1/Rack The condenser is located on the supermarket roof. ° °9° " "! & ! Components Compressors (CMP) " Numbers 2 to 10/Rack " # 5 Functions The compressors (CMP) are at the heart of a refrigeration system: They help circulate the refrigerant throughout the system. Conduits between the mechanical room and the main area of a supermarket.. the number of refrigerated cases connected to the system. which are used to transport: • • Cold liquid refrigerant during the refrigeration cycle.1.°9 .4 Refrigeration System Components and Functions : ' ' ' !# C + -$ 1 / $ *7+ . They increase the pressure/temperature of the gaseous refrigerant at the condenser inlet.$ *1 ) 1 1+% + '0 / 1 + $7 ' ' C ' ! : ' % C !# C / ) 51 /9 7 0 & $ ' 1 561 / . It transfers to the ambient air the heat absorbed by the refrigerant during its passage in the evaporators of the refrigerated cases.°* -. This heat transfer process is based on the fact that the temperature of the gaseous refrigerant at the condenser input is at a higher temperature than the ambient temperature.$( 1+% + ') $7 '4 ' " @ ! !! & 5 ' ' ' " $# C C "( ' ! !E C ' !!%! ' C "" : ! " C " % !! & ' C C ) ' ' *+ -$ 1 / 1 7 ( (61 7+ . ° °9° .+ : . ') *$) 0 . . ') *$) 0 . The number and power rating of compressors in a refrigeration system depend on the refrigeration system load. +' 1 ° .°*° ° . In addition.

The main defrost valve is opened during hot gas defrosting in one of the circuits. The suction manifold is used to supply the compressors with refrigerant. This heats the air circulating in the main conduit of the HVAC system. which lets hot gas circulate in the defrost circuit(s). • The refrigeration valve is closed. The liquid supply manifold is used to supply the refrigerated cases by cooling the liquid in order to lower the temperatures of the refrigerated cases. During the refrigeration cycle. The liquid supply manifold receives the liquid refrigerant from the condenser. • The defrost valve is closed. The EPR valve is used to adjust the refrigerated cases temperature (evaporators) connected to a circuit. the gaseous refrigerant from the refrigerated cases. During a defrosting cycle.Components Defrost Valve Numbers 1/Circuit Functions During the defrosting cycle: • The defrost valve is open and allows hot gas from the hot gas supply manifold flow into the circuit to defrost the refrigerated cases. The discharge manifold is connected to the compressor discharge. The defrosting schedule is programmed so that one or two circuits are defrosted simultaneously depending on the load of each circuit (number of refrigerated cases on the circuit and their temperature). EPR Valve 1/Circuit Main Defrost Valve 1/Rack Hear Reclaim Valve 1/Rack Suction Manifold 1/Rack Discharge Manifold 1/Rack Liquid Supply Manifold 1/Rack Hot Gas Manifold 1/Rack $ . the defrost valve is open and supplies the defrost circuit with hot gas to defrost the refrigerated cases. the suction manifold receives. The compressors compress the gas refrigerant in the discharge manifold at a very high pressure/temperature. the warm gas from the discharge flows through the heat reclaim system located in the main conduit of the HVAC system. Refrigeration Valve 1/Circuit During the refrigeration cycle: • The refrigeration valve is open and lets cold liquid circulate in cases connected to the circuit. When this valve has been activated. This valve is activated following a heating or dehumidifier request from the HVAC control system. The frequency for defrosting a circuit is based on a programmed schedule. The hot gas manifold is fed by the compressor discharge manifold. Opening the valve creates differential pressure. via each circuit.

etc. Secondly. it controls the flow of refrigerant into the case. according to the load demand from the case (products removed and added. Thirdly.5 Refrigeration Cycle ' ' %! %! ' " %! ( ! 7# ! E # " " ' ' ( ' ' # " $ !$ ! & = ' # !E ' !6 3 7" & $ !$ $ !$ $ " 7 ' ' # ' % # # * .Components Evaporator Numbers Functions 1 to 3/case The evaporator is used to cool the refrigerated case.). and most importantly.5 . The fan/evaporator circulates cold air over the products as well as creates an air curtain that separates the products from the warmer ambient air in the supermarket. During this process. the valve controls the superheat to prevent liquid refrigerant at the inlet of the compressors. thus preventing physical damage of the compressors.# @ $ % ! !E ! ! ' ' ' ' ! ' %! # ! @ ! ' "$ ( $ !$ ' $ ' = 5 3 ' 6 = ' $ 3% !E ! & = . Thermostatic Expansion Valve 1 to 3/case Fan–Evaporator 1 to 3/case 1. to provide very cold liquid refrigerant to the evaporator (Principle 1). During the refrigeration cycle. This valve has three functions: Firstly. it lowers pressure (thus temperature) of the liquid refrigerant from the liquid supply manifold. the liquid refrigerant is transformed into gas refrigerant as it absorbs heat.% " " ' $ ! $ !! " % !" $ % ' % ! & ! 6 E % ' $ !$ *5 ? ' ! ' # " ' " 7 : " # # & ' ' $ % ' ' = $ ' = 6 = ' 53 ! ' ' " & ' ' ' 6 & !!# = ' ' ( !E 7 ' !E " ! !E ( " " " % $ # $$ . the cold liquid refrigerant runs through the evaporator that absorbs the heat from the case and cools the refrigerated case.

6 ! Defrosting Cycle ' ! ! $ !E ' %! # ' ' 3 !% ' $ ! $ !$ !% $ $ % ! # ' ! S ' " !E D = ' $ !$ 1.' ( ! $ !$ ' %! !E !! $ !% ' ! 1.7 Heat Reclaim Exchanger ! E !! ' ! ' 3 ' ! 2 ! # 2 ' ! !! ' * % 2 * * % 9 !! & ' !! 3 ! $ !$ # " ' ! ! $ !$ # # ' $ .

1 & ) 34 Purpose of the HVAC System C 2 • • ! " ! ! % C 5 • • • & %5 • • & !! " > "( " & 2 * % & !% !F & C5 F S "' > != 6 =)7 % ! ! $ ! # !! 2 ! ) 6 2)7 6 )7 % ! # C !! " % * % & 5 !F R oof-Top U nit O utd oor senso rs OAT OAH Outd oor air inlet Sup erm arket air retu rn O AD OAF M AT F NS Roof F AN DX Indoor senso rs R AT SP H S PT HR HT SAT Air outlet of a superm arket Legend SPT : S pace Temperature RAT: Return Air Te mperature M AT: Te mpérature mélange SA T: Su pply Air Tem perature O AT: O utdoor Air Temperature SPH : Space H umidity O AH : H umidité extérieure F NS: Fan Status O AF: O utdoor Air Filter H T : H eating Tiers(?) O AD : O utdoor Air Damper FAN: Fan DX: Cooling stages(?) H R: H eat Reclaim 9: ) ( $+ .1 2.

. The heating unit can be gas or electric. heat reclaim unit and the heating coil. Instead of the condenser releasing heat to the outside. A pressure differential detector installed the filter terminals detects whether the filter must be replaced. This damper is open during the day and closed at night.2. Mechanical Air Filter OAF 1 Fan FAN 1 Cooling Unit DX 1 to 6 Heat Reclaim Unit HR 1 to 3 Heating Unit HT 1 to 6 $. The fan circulates air through the air treatment units: cooling unit. this heat is recovered in the heat reclaim unit to heat the supermarket.2. The heating unit has one or more stages depending on the heating load. The cooling unit (refrigeration system evaporator) has one or more stages depending on the cooling load. The heat reclaim unit recovers the heat from the refrigeration system.1 Mechanical Components of Roof-Top Units The table below describes the mechanical components for a roof-top unit and their functions: Components Outdoor Air Damper Legend Number/Unit Functions OAD 1 This damper lets fresh air enter the unit in order to improve the air quality in the supermarket. This filter traps dust from the outdoor air and return air of the supermarket.2 2.

SAT 1 OAF 1 FNS 1 2. This digital sensor is used to measure the air flow. This sensor is used to measure the humidity of the indoor air. This sensor is used to measure the differential pressure to the mechanical filter terminals. OAT OAH SPT SPH RAT MAT 1 1 1 1 1 1 This sensor is used to measure the humidity of the outdoor air. • • $ ! "$ " % % • 5 : !! $ )# " ! ! & ' 6 ' % ' ! # : ' ' %! & C '" % C ' ! $ # ' )# ! & # C !! ) !! # $ % )S 5 # # : $ . This sensor is used to measure the mixed air temperature (return air and outdoor air). This air is sent to the supermarket by the conduits.3 2. This sensor is used to measure the temperature of the supply air at the unit outlet. This sensor is used to measure the return air temperature originating from the supermarket.3. This sensor is used to measure the temperature of the indoor air.2.1 Electronic Components (Sensors) of Roof-Top Units The table below describes the electronic components for a roof-top unit and their functions: Components Outside Air Temperature Sensor Outside Air Humidity Sensor Space Air Temperature Sensor Space Air Humidity Sensor Return Air Temperature Sensor Mixed Air Temperature Sensor Supply Air Temperature Sensor Differential Pressure Sensor Fan Status Legend Number/Unit Functions This sensor is used to measure the outdoor air temperature. It is used to show the fan is working.4 Heating Cycle . It determines whether the filter must be replaced.

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based on 71-GEN-0010 (French version) Document Revision and corrections Document Release Revised by Rossion JMT.Revision History REV 1. CBC JG Date 12-sep-03 18-sep-03 29-sep-03 + .0 1.1 2. JG.0 Description Creation and formatting of the document.