2/20/01 D1
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Modeling Turbulent Flows
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
u Unsteady, aperiodic motion in which all three velocity components
fluctuate Õ mixing matter, momentum, and energy.
u Decompose velocity into mean and fluctuating parts:
U
i
(t) ≡ U
i
+ u
i
(t)
u Similar fluctuations for pressure, temperature, and species
concentration values.
What is Turbulence?
Time
U
i
(t)
U
i
u
i
(t)
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Why Model Turbulence?
u Direct numerical simulation of governing equations is only possible for
simple low-Re flows.
u Instead, we solve Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)
equations:
where (Reynolds stresses)
u Time-averaged statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuations are modeled
using functions containing empirical constants and information about
the mean flow.
u Large Eddy Simulation numerically resolves large eddies and models
small eddies.
w/o body forces)
j i ij
u u R ρ − ·
j
ij
j j
i
i k
i
k
x
R
x x
U
x
p
x
U
U

+
∂ ∂

+

− ·

2
µ ρ
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Is the Flow Turbulent?
External Flows
Internal Flows
Natural Convection
5
10 5× ≥
x
Re along a surface
around an obstacle
where
µ
ρUL
Re
L
≡ where
Other factors such as free-stream
turbulence, surface conditions, and
disturbances may cause earlier
transition to turbulent flow.
L = x, D, D
h
, etc.
,300 2 ≥
h
D
Re
10 8
10 10 − ≥ Ra
µα
ρ β
3
TL g
Ra

20,000 ≥
D
Re
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
How Complex is the Flow?
u Extra strain rates
l Streamline curvature
l Lateral divergence
l Acceleration or deceleration
l Swirl
l Recirculation (or separation)
l Secondary flow
u 3D perturbations
u Transpiration (blowing/suction)
u Free-stream turbulence
u Interacting shear layers
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Turbulence Model
&
Near-Wall Treatment
Flow
Physics
Accuracy
Required
Computational
Resources
Turnaround
Time
Constraints
Computational
Grid
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Zero-Equation Models
One-Equation Models
Spalart-Allmaras
Two-Equation Models
Standard k-ε
RNG k-ε
Realizable k-ε
Reynolds-Stress Model
Large-Eddy Simulation
Direct Numerical Simulation
Turbulence Modeling Approaches
Include
More
Physics
Increase
Computational
Cost
Per Iteration
Available
in FLUENT 5
RANS-based
models
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
u RANS equations require closure for Reynolds stresses.
u Turbulent viscosity is indirectly solved for from single transport
equation of modified viscosity for One-Equation model.
u For Two-Equation models, turbulent viscosity correlated with turbulent
kinetic energy (TKE) and the dissipation rate of TKE.
u Transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are
solved so that turbulent viscosity can be computed for RANS equations.
Reynolds Stress Terms in RANS-based Models
Turbulent
Kinetic Energy:
Dissipation Rate of
Turbulent Kinetic Energy:
ε
ρ µ
µ
2
k
C
t
≡ Turbulent Viscosity:
Boussinesq Hypothesis:
(isotropic viscosity)

,
`

.
|

+

+ − · − ·
i
j
j
i
t ij j i ij
x
U
x
U
k u u R µ δ ρ ρ
3
2
2 /
i i
u u k ≡

,
`

.
|

+

i
j
j
i
j
i
x
u
x
u
x
u
ν ε
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
u Turbulent viscosity is determined from:
u is determined from the modified viscosity transport equation:
u The additional variables are functions of the modified turbulent
One Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras
( )
2 1
2
2
~
1
~ ~ ~
~
1
~
~
~
d
f c
x
c
x x
S c
Dt
D
w w
j
b
j j
b
ν
ρ
ν
ρ
ν
ν ρ µ
σ
ν ρ
ν
ρ
ν

]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

+
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹

+

+ ·
( )
( )
]
]
]

+
·
3
1
3
3
/
~
/
~
~
ν
ν ν
ν ν
ν ρ µ
c
t
ν
~
Generation Diffusion Destruction
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
One-Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras
u Designed specifically for aerospace applications involving wall-
bounded flows.
l turbomachinery
u Can use coarse or fine mesh at wall
l Designed to be used with fine mesh as a “low-Re” model, i.e., throughout
the viscous-affected region.
l Sufficiently robust for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes.
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two Equation Model: Standard k-ε Model
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Dissipation Rate
ε ε ε
σ σ
2 1 ,
, , C C
k
are empirical constants
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
Convection
Generation Diffusion
Destruction
{
ρε σ µ µ ρ −
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

+

,
`

.
|

+

·

4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1
i
k t
i i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i
i
x
k
x x
U
x
U
x
U
x
k
U ) (
Destruction Convection
Generation Diffusion
43 42 1 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 1
4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 1
43 42 1

,
`

.
|

¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

+

,
`

.
|

+

,
`

.
|
·

k
C
x x x
U
x
U
x
U
k
C
x
U
i
t
i i
j
j
i
i
j
t
i
i
2
2 1
) (
ε
ρ
ε
σ µ µ
ε ε
ρ
ε ε ε
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two Equation Model: Standard k-ε Model
u “Baseline model” (Two-equation)
l Most widely used model in industry
l Strength and weaknesses well documented
u Semi-empirical
l k equation derived by subtracting the instantaneous mechanical energy
equation from its time-averaged value
l ε equation formed from physical reasoning
u Valid only for fully turbulent flows
u Reasonable accuracy for wide range of turbulent flows
l industrial flows
l heat transfer
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two Equation Model: Realizable k-ε
u Distinctions from Standard k-ε model:
l Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity
where is now variable
n (A
0
, A
s
, and U* are functions of velocity gradients)
n Ensures positivity of normal stresses;
n Ensures Schwarz’s inequality;
l New transport equation for dissipation rate, ε:
ε
ρ µ
µ
2
k
C
t

ε
µ
k U
A A
C
s o
*
1
+
·
0 u
2
i

2
j
2
i
2
j i
u u ) u u ( ≤
b
j
t
j
G c
k
c
k
c S c
x x Dt
D
ε ε
ε
ε
νε
ε
ρ ε ρ
ε
σ
µ
µ
ε
ρ
3 1
2
2 1
+
+
− +
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+

·
Generation Diffusion Destruction Buoyancy
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
u Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as Standard k-ε
u Superior performance for flows involving:
l planar and round jets
l rotation, recirculation
l strong streamline curvature
Two Equation Model: Realizable k-ε
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two Equation Model: RNG k-ε
Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Dissipation Rate
Convection Diffusion
Dissipation
{ {
ρε µ α µ ρ −

,
`

.
|

+ ·

4 4 3 4 4 2 1
43 42 1
i
k
i
t
i
i
x
k
x
S
x
k
U
eff
2
Generation

,
`

.
|

+

≡ ≡
j
i
i
j
ij ij ij
x
U
x
U
S S S S
2
1
, 2
where
are derived using RNG theory
ε ε ε
α α
2 1 ,
, , C C
k
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
related to mean strain
& turbulence quantities
Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction
{
R
k
C
x x
S
k
C
x
U
i i
t
i
i

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

+
,
`

.
|
·

43 42 1 4 4 3 4 4 2 1
4 43 4 42 1 43 42 1
2
2 eff
2
1
ε
ρ
ε
µ α µ
ε ε
ρ
ε ε ε
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two Equation Model: RNG k-ε
u k-ε equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical
technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous Navier-
Stokes equations.
u Similar in form to the standard k-ε equations but includes:
l additional term in ε equation that improves analysis of rapidly strained flows
l the effect of swirl on turbulence
l analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number
l differential formula for effective viscosity
u Improved predictions for:
l high streamline curvature and strain rate
l transitional flows
l wall heat and mass transfer
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Reynolds Stress Model
k
ijk
ij ij ij
k
j i
k
x
J
P
x
u u
U

+ − Φ + ·

ε ρ
Generation
k
i
k j
k
j
k i ij
x
U
u u
x
U
u u P

+

,
`

.
|

+

′ − ≡ Φ
i
j
j
i
ij
x
u
x
u
p
k
j
k
i
ij
x
u
x
u

≡ µ ε 2
Pressure-Strain
Redistribution
Dissipation
Turbulent
Diffusion
(modeled)
(related to ε)
(modeled)
(computed)
(equations written for steady, incompressible flow w/o body forces)
Reynolds Stress
Transport Eqns.
Pressure/velocity
fluctuations
Turbulent
transport
) (
j ik i jk k j i ijk
u u p u u u J δ δ + ′ + ·
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Reynolds Stress Model
u RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by
solving additional transport equations for the Reynolds stresses.
l Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the
momentum equations with a fluctuating property
l Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation
l Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided
u Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled.
u RSM has high potential for accurately predicting complex flows.
l Accounts for streamline curvature, swirl, rotation and high strain rates
n Cyclone flows, swirling combustor flows
n Rotating flow passages, secondary flows
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Large Eddy Simulation
u Large eddies:
l Mainly responsible for transport of momentum, energy, and other scalars,
directly affecting the mean fields.
l Anisotropic, subjected to history effects, and flow-dependent, i.e., strongly
dependent on flow configuration, boundary conditions, and flow parameters.
u Small eddies:
l Tend to be more isotropic and less flow-dependent
l More likely to be easier to model than large eddies.
u LES directly computes (resolves) large eddies and models only small
eddies (Subgrid-Scale Modeling).
u Large computational effort
l Number of grid points, N
LES

2
Re
τ
u
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models
Model Strengths Weaknesses
Spalart-
Allmaras
Economical (1-eq.); good track record
for mildly complex B.L. type of flows
Not very widely tested yet; lack of
submodels (e.g. combustion,
buoyancy)
STD k-ε
Robust, economical, reasonably
accurate; long accumulated
performance data
Mediocre results for complex flows
strong streamline curvature, swirl
and rotation
RNG k-ε
Good for moderately complex
behavior like jet impingement,
separating flows, swirling flows, and
secondary flows
Subjected to limitations due to
isotropic eddy viscosity
assumption
Realizable
k-ε
Offers largely the same benefits as
RNG; resolves round-jet anomaly
Subjected to limitations due to
isotropic eddy viscosity
assumption
Reynolds
Stress
Model
Physically most complete model
(history, transport, and anisotropy of
turbulent stresses are all accounted
for)
Requires more cpu effort (2-3x);
tightly coupled momentum and
turbulence equations
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Near-Wall Treatments
u Most k-ε and RSM turbulence
models will not predict correct
near-wall behavior if integrated
down to the wall.
u Special near-wall treatment is
required.
l Standard wall functions
l Nonequilibrium wall functions
l Two-layer zonal model
Boundary layer structure
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TRN-99-003
Standard Wall Functions
ρ τ
µ
/
2 / 1 4 / 1
w
P P
k C U
U ≡

( )
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
>
]
]
]

+
<
·

) ( ln
1
Pr
) ( Pr
* *
* *
T t
T
y y P Ey
y y y
T
κ
µ
ρ
µ P P
y k C
y
2 / 1 4 / 1

q
k C c T T
T
P p P w
′ ′

&
2 / 1 4 / 1
) (
*
µ
ρ
Mean Velocity
Temperature
where
where
and P is a function of the fluid
and turbulent Prandtl numbers.
thermal sublayer thickness
( )
∗ ∗
· Ey U ln
1
κ
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TRN-99-003
Nonequilibrium Wall Functions
u Log-law is sensitized to pressure gradient for
flows and separation.
u Relaxed local equilibrium assumptions for
TKE in wall-neighboring cells.
u Thermal law-of-wall unchanged

,
`

.
|
·
µ
ρ
κ
ρ τ
µ µ
y
k C
E
k C
U
w
2 / 1 4 / 1 2 / 1 4 / 1
ln
1
/
~
]
]
]

+

+

,
`

.
|
− ·
∗ ∗
µ ρκ ρκ
y
k
y y
y
y
k
y
dx
dp
U U
v v
v
v
2
2 / 1 2 / 1
ln
2
1
~
where
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Two-Layer Zonal Model
u Used for low-Re flows or
flows with complex near-wall
phenomena.
u Zones distinguished by a wall-
distance-based turbulent
Reynolds number
u High-Re k-ε models are used in the turbulent core region.
u Only k equation is solved in the viscosity-affected region.
u ε is computed from the correlation for length scale.
u Zoning is dynamic and solution adaptive.
µ
ρ y k
Re
y

200 >
y
Re
200 <
y
Re
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Comparison of Near Wall Treatments
Strengths Weaknesses
Standard wall
Functions
Robust, economical,
reasonably accurate
Empirically based on simple
high-Re flows; poor for low-Re
effects, massive transpiration,
∇p, strong body forces, highly
3D flows
Nonequilibrium
wall functions
Accounts for ∇p effects,
allows nonequilibrium:
-separation
-reattachment
-impingement
Poor for low-Re effects, massive
transpiration, severe ∇p, strong
body forces, highly 3D flows
Two-layer zonal
model
Does not rely on law-of-the-
wall, good for complex
flows, especially applicable
to low-Re flows
Requires finer mesh resolution
and therefore larger cpu and
memory resources
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Computational Grid Guidelines
Wall Function
Approach
Two-Layer Zonal
Model Approach
l First grid point in log-law region
l At least ten points in the BL.
l Better to use stretched quad/hex
cells for economy.
l First grid point at y
+
≈ 1.
l At least ten grid points within
buffer & sublayers.
l Better to use stretched quad/hex
cells for economy.
500 50 ≤ ≤
+
y
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TRN-99-003
Estimating Placement of First Grid Point
u Estimate the skin friction coefficient based on correlations either
approximate or empirical:
l Flat Plate-
l Pipe Flow-
u Compute the friction velocity:
u Back out required distance from wall:
l Wall functions • Two-layer model
u Use post-processing to confirm near-wall mesh resolution
2 . 0
Re 0359 . 0 2 /

L f
c
2 . 0
Re 039 . 0 2 /

D f
c
2 / /
f e w
c U u · ≡ ρ τ
τ
y
1
= 50ν/u
τ
y
1
= ν/ u
τ
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Setting Boundary Conditions
u Characterize turbulence at inlets & outlets (potential backflow)
l k-ε models require k and ε
l Reynolds stress model requires R
ij
and ε
u Several options allow input using more familiar parameters
l Turbulence intensity and length scale
n length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy.
n For boundary layer flows: l ≈ 0.4δ
99
n For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l ≈ opening size
l Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter
n Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows
l Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio
n For external flows:
u Input of k and ε explicitly allowed (non-uniform profiles possible).
10 / 1 < <
µ µ
t
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
GUI for Turbulence Models
Define Õ Models Õ Viscous...
Turbulence Model options
Near Wall Treatments
Inviscid, Laminar, or Turbulent
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Example: Channel Flow with Conjugate Heat
Transfer
cold air
V = 50 fpm
T = 0 °F
constant temperature wall T = 100 °F
insulation
1 ft
1 ft
10 ft
P
Predict the temperature at point P in the solid insulation
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Turbulence Modeling Approach
u Check if turbulent Õ Re
D
h
= 5,980
u Developing turbulent flow at relatively low Reynolds number and
BLs on walls will give pressure gradient Õ use RNG k-ε with
nonequilibrium wall functions.
u Develop strategy for the grid
l Simple geometry Õ quadrilateral cells
l Expect large gradients in normal direction to horizontal walls Õ fine
mesh near walls with first cell in log-law region.
l Vary streamwise grid spacing so that BL growth is captured.
l Use solution-based grid adaption to further resolve temperature
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Velocity
contours
Temperature
contours
BLs on upper & lower surfaces accelerate the core flow
Prediction of Momentum & Thermal
Boundary Layers
Important that thermal BL was accurately resolved as well
P
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TRN-99-003
Example: Flow Around a Cylinder
wall
wall
1 ft
2 ft
2 ft
air
V = 4 fps
Compute drag coefficient of the cylinder
5 ft 14.5 ft
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
u Check if turbulent Õ Re
D
= 24,600
u Flow over an object, unsteady vortex shedding is expected,
difficult to predict separation on downstream side, and close
proximity of side walls may influence flow around cylinder
Õ use RNG k-ε with 2-layer zonal model.
u Develop strategy for the grid
l Simple geometry & BLs Õ quadrilateral cells.
l Large gradients near surface of cylinder & 2-layer model
Õ fine mesh near surface & first cell at y
+
= 1.
Turbulence Modeling Approach
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TRN-99-003
Grid for Flow Over a Cylinder
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Prediction of Turbulent Vortex Shedding
Contours of effective viscosity µ
eff
= µ + µ
t
C
D
= 0.53 Strouhal Number = 0.297
U
D
St
τ
≡ where
Fluent Software Training
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Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines
u Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgement of:
l Flow physics
l Computer resources available
l Project requirements
n Accuracy
n Turnaround time
l Turbulence models & near-wall treatments that are available
u Begin with standard k-ε and change to RNG or Realizable k-ε if
needed.
u Use RSM for highly swirling flows.
u Use wall functions unless low-Re flow and/or complex near-wall
physics are present.
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Solver Settings
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Outline
u Using the Solver
l Setting Solver Parameters
l Convergence
n Definition
n Monitoring
n Stability
n Accelerating Convergence
l Accuracy
n Grid Independence
u Appendix: Background
l Finite Volume Method
l Explicit vs. Implicit
l Segregated vs. Coupled
l Transient Solutions
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Modify solution
parameters or grid
No
Yes
No
Set the solution parameters
Initialize the solution
Enable the solution monitors of interest
Calculate a solution
Check for convergence
Check for accuracy
Stop
Yes
Solution Procedure Overview
u Solution Parameters
l Choosing the Solver
l Discretization Schemes
u Initialization
u Convergence
l Monitoring Convergence
l Stability
n Setting Under-relaxation
n Setting Courant number
l Accelerating Convergence
u Accuracy
l Grid Independence
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Choosing a Solver
u Choices are Coupled-Implicit, Coupled-Explicit, or Segregated (implicit)
u The Coupled solvers are recommended if a strong inter-dependence exists
between density, energy, momentum, and/or species.
l e.g., high speed compressible flow or finite-rate reaction modeled flows.
l In general, the Coupled-Implicit solver is recommended over the coupled-explicit
solver.
n Time required: Implicit solver runs roughly twice as fast.
n Memory required: Implicit solver requires roughly twice as much memory as coupled-
explicit or segregated-implicit solvers! (Performance varies.)
l The Coupled-Explicit solver should only be used for unsteady flows when the
characteristic time scale of problem is on same order as that of the acoustics.
n e.g., tracking transient shock wave
u The Segregated (implicit) solver is preferred in all other cases.
l Lower memory requirements than coupled-implicit solver.
l Segregated approach provides flexibility in solution procedure.
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Discretization (Interpolation Methods)
u Field variables (stored at cell centers) must be interpolated to the faces of
the control volumes in the FVM:
u FLUENT offers a number of interpolation schemes:
l First-Order Upwind Scheme
n easiest to converge, only first order accurate.
l Power Law Scheme
n more accurate than first-order for flows when Re
cell
< 5 (typ. low Re flows).
l Second-Order Upwind Scheme
n uses larger ‘stencil’ for 2nd order accuracy, essential with tri/tet mesh or
when flow is not aligned with grid; slower convergence
n applies to quad/hex mesh, useful for rotating/swirling flows, 3rd order
accurate on uniform mesh.
V S A A V V
t
f
faces
f f f
faces
f f f
t t t
∆ + ∇ Γ · + ∆

∑ ∑ ⊥
∆ +
φ
φ φ ρ
ρφ ρφ
,
) (
) ( ) (
Fluent Software Training
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Interpolation Methods for Pressure
u Additional interpolation options are available for calculating face pressure when
using the segregated solver.
u FLUENT interpolation schemes for Face Pressure:
l Standard
n default scheme; reduced accuracy for flows exhibiting large surface-normal pressure
l Linear
n useful only when other options result in convergence difficulties or unphysical
behavior.
l Second-Order
n use for compressible flows or when PRESTO! cannot be applied.
l Body Force Weighted
n use when body forces are large, e.g., high Ra natural convection or highly swirling
flows.
l PRESTO!
n applies to quad/hex cells; use on highly swirling flows, flows involving porous
media, or strongly curved domains.
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Pressure-Velocity Coupling
u Pressure-Velocity Coupling refers to the way mass continuity is
accounted for when using the segregated solver.
u Three methods available:
l SIMPLE
n default scheme, robust
l SIMPLEC
n Allows faster convergence for simple problems (e.g., laminar flows with
no physical models employed).
l PISO
n useful for unsteady flow problems or for meshes containing cells with
higher than average skew.
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Initialization
u Iterative procedure requires that all solution variables be initialized
before calculating a solution.
Solve Õ Initialize Õ Initialize...
l Realistic ‘guesses’ improves solution stability and accelerates convergence.
l In some cases, correct initial guess is required:
n Example: high temperature region to initiate chemical reaction.
u “Patch” values for individual
variables in certain regions.
Solve Õ Initialize Õ Patch...
l Free jet flows
(patch high velocity for jet)
l Combustion problems
(patch high temperature
for ignition)
Fluent Software Training
TRN-99-003
Convergence Preliminaries: Residuals
u Transport equation for φ can be presented in simple form:
l Coefficients a
p
, a
nb
typically depend upon the solution.
l Coefficients updated each iteration.
u At the start of each iteration, the above equality will not hold.
l The imbalance is called the residual, R
p
, where:
l R
p
should become negligible as iterations increase.
l The residuals that you monitor are summed over all cells:
n By default, the monitored residuals are scaled.
n You can also normalize the residuals.
u Residuals monitored for the coupled solver are based on the rms value of
the time rate of change of the conserved variable.
l Only for coupled equations; additional scalar equations use segregated
definition.
p
nb
nb nb p p
b a a · +

φ φ
p
nb
nb nb p p p
b a a R − + ·

φ φ
| |

·
cells
p
R R
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Convergence
u At convergence:
l All discrete conservation equations (momentum, energy, etc.) are
obeyed in all cells to a specified tolerance.
l Solution no longer changes with more iterations.
l Overall mass, momentum, energy, and scalar balances are obtained.
u Monitoring convergence with residuals:
l Generally, a decrease in residuals by 3 orders of magnitude indicates at
least qualitative convergence.
n Major flow features established.
l Scaled energy residual must decrease to 10
-6
for segregated solver.
l Scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10
-5
to achieve species
balance.
u Monitoring quantitative convergence:
l Monitor other variables for changes.
l Ensure that property conservation is satisfied.
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Convergence Monitors: Residuals
u Residual plots show when the residual values have reached the
specified tolerance.
Solve Õ Monitors Õ Residual...
All equations converged.
10
-3
10
-6
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Convergence Monitors: Forces/Surfaces
u In addition to residuals, you can also monitor:
l Lift, drag, or moment
Solve Õ Monitors Õ Force...
l Variables or functions (e.g., surface integrals)
at a boundary or any defined surface:
Solve Õ Monitors Õ Surface...
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Checking for Property Conservation
u In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories, you should
also check for overall heat and mass balances.
l Net imbalance should be less than 0.1% of net flux through domain.
Report Õ Fluxes...
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Decreasing the Convergence Tolerance
u If your monitors indicate that the solution is converged, but the
solution is still changing or has a large mass/heat imbalance:
l Reduce Convergence Criterion
or disable Check Convergence.
l Then calculate until solution
converges to the new tolerance.
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Convergence Difficulties
u Numerical instabilities can arise with an ill-posed problem, poor
quality mesh, and/or inappropriate solver settings.
l Exhibited as increasing (diverging) or “stuck” residuals.
l Diverging residuals imply increasing imbalance in conservation equations.
l Unconverged results can be misleading!
u Troubleshooting:
l Ensure problem is well posed.
l Compute an initial solution with
a first-order discretization scheme.
l Decrease under-relaxation for
equations having convergence
trouble (segregated).
l Reduce Courant number (coupled).
l Re-mesh or refine grid with high
aspect ratio or highly skewed cells.
Continuity equation convergence
trouble affects convergence of
all equations.
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Modifying Under-relaxation Factors
u Under-relaxation factor, α, is
included to stabilize the iterative
process for the segregated solver.
u Use default under-relaxation factors
to start a calculation.
Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution...
u Decreasing under-relaxation for
momentum often aids convergence.
l Default settings are aggressive but
suitable for wide range of problems.
l ‘Appropriate’ settings best learned
from experience.
p old p p
φ α φ φ ∆ + ·
,
u For coupled solvers, under-relaxation factors for equations outside coupled
set are modified as in segregated solver.
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Modifying the Courant Number
u Courant number defines a ‘time
l A transient term is included in the
coupled solver even for steady state
problems.
u For coupled-explicit solver:
l Stability constraints impose a
maximum limit on Courant number.
n Cannot be greater than 2.
s Default value is 1.
n Reduce Courant number when
having difficulty converging.
u
x
t

· ∆
) CFL (
u For coupled-implicit solver:
l Courant number is not limited by stability constraints.
n Default is set to 5.
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Accelerating Convergence
u Convergence can be accelerated by:
l Supplying good initial conditions
n Starting from a previous solution.
l Increasing under-relaxation factors or Courant number
n Excessively high values can lead to instabilities.
n Recommend saving case and data files before continuing iterations.
l Controlling multigrid solver settings.
n Default settings define robust Multigrid solver and typically do not need
to be changed.
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Starting from a Previous Solution
u Previous solution can be used as an initial condition when changes are
l Once initialized, additional iterations uses current data set as starting point.
Actual Problem Initial Condition
flow with heat transfer isothermal solution
natural convection lower Ra solution
combustion cold flow solution
turbulent flow Euler solution
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Multigrid
u The Multigrid solver accelerates convergence by using solution on
coarse mesh as starting point for solution on finer mesh.
l Influence of boundaries and far-away points are more easily transmitted to
interior of coarse mesh than on fine mesh.
l Coarse mesh defined from original mesh.
n Multiple coarse mesh ‘levels’ can be created.
s AMG- ‘coarse mesh’ emulated algebraically.
s FAS- ‘cell coalescing’ defines new grid.
– a coupled-explicit solver option
n Final solution is for original mesh.
l Multigrid operates automatically in the background.
u Accelerates convergence for problems with:
l Large number of cells
l Large cell aspect ratios, e.g., ∆x/∆y > 20
l Large differences in thermal conductivity
fine (original) mesh
coarse mesh
‘solution
transfer’
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Accuracy
u A converged solution is not necessarily an accurate one.
l Solve using 2nd order discretization.
l Ensure that solution is grid-independent.
n Use adaption to modify grid.
u If flow features do not seem reasonable:
l Reconsider physical models and boundary conditions.
l Examine grid and re-mesh.
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Mesh Quality and Solution Accuracy
u Numerical errors are associated with calculation of cell gradients and
cell face interpolations.
u These errors can be contained:
l Use higher order discretization schemes.
l Attempt to align grid with flow.
l Refine the mesh.
n Sufficient mesh density is necessary to resolve salient features of flow.
s Interpolation errors decrease with decreasing cell size.
n Minimize variations in cell size.
s Truncation error is minimized in a uniform mesh.
s Fluent provides capability to adapt mesh based on cell size variation.
n Minimize cell skewness and aspect ratio.
s In general, avoid aspect ratios higher than 5:1.
s Optimal quad/hex cells have bounded angles of 90 degrees
s Optimal tri/tet cells are equilateral.
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Determining Grid Independence
u When solution no longer changes with further grid refinement, you
have a “grid-independent” solution.
u Procedure:
l Obtain new grid:
s Save original mesh before adapting.
– If you know where large gradients are expected, concentrate the
original grid in that region, e.g., boundary layer.
– Data from original grid is automatically interpolated to finer grid.
n file → reread-grid and File → Interpolate...
s Import new mesh and initialize with old solution.
l Continue calculation to convergence.
l Compare results obtained w/different grids.
l Repeat adaption/calculation procedure if necessary.
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u Transient solutions are possible with both segregated and coupled solvers.
l Solver iterates to convergence at each time level, then advances automatically.
l Solution Initialization provides initial condition, must be realistic.
u For segregated solver:
l Time step size, ∆t, is input in Iterate panel.
n ∆t should be small enough to resolve
time dependent features and to ensure
convergence within 20 iterations.
n May need to start solution with small ∆t.
l Number of time steps, N, is also required.
n N*∆t = total simulated time.
l Use TUI command ‘it #’ to iterate without advancing time step.
u For Coupled Solver, Courant number defines in practice:
l global time step size for coupled explicit solver.
l pseudo-time step size for coupled implicit solver.
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Summary
u Solution procedure for the segregated and coupled solvers is the same:
l Calculate until you get a converged solution.
l Obtain second-order solution (recommended).
l Refine grid and recalculate until grid-independent solution is obtained.
u All solvers provide tools for judging and improving convergence and
ensuring stability.
u All solvers provide tools for checking and improving accuracy.
u Solution accuracy will depend on the appropriateness of the physical
models that you choose and the boundary conditions that you specify.
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Appendix
u Background
l Finite Volume Method
l Explicit vs. Implicit
l Segregated vs. Coupled
l Transient Solutions
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Background: Finite Volume Method - 1
u FLUENT solvers are based on the finite volume method.
l Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes or cells.
u General transport equation for mass, momentum, energy, etc. is
applied to each cell and discretized. For cell p,
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

+ ⋅ ∇ Γ · ⋅ +

dV S d d dV
t
A A V
φ
φ ρφ ρφ A A V
Eqn.
continuity 1
x-mom. u
y-mom. v
energy h
φ
Fluid region of pipe flow
discretized into finite set of
control volumes (mesh).
control
volume
u All equations are solved to render flow field.
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Background: Finite Volume Method - 2
u Each transport equation is discretized into algebraic form. For cell p,
face f
cell p
u Discretized equations require information at cell centers and faces.
l Field data (material properties, velocities, etc.) are stored at cell centers.
l Face values can be expressed in terms of local and adjacent cell values.
l Discretization accuracy depends upon ‘stencil’ size.
u The discretized equation can be expressed simply as:
l Equation is written out for every control volume in domain resulting in an
equation set.
p
nb
nb nb p p
b a a · +

φ φ
V S A A V V
t
f
faces
f f f
faces
f f f
t
p
t t
p
∆ + ∇ Γ · + ∆

∑ ∑ ⊥
∆ +
φ
φ φ ρ
ρφ ρφ
,
) (
) ( ) (
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TRN-99-003
u Equation sets are solved iteratively.
l Coefficients a
p
and a
nb
are typically functions
of solution variables (nonlinear and coupled).
l Coefficients are written to use values of solution variables from previous
iteration.
n Linearization: removing coefficients’ dependencies on φ.
n De-coupling: removing coefficients’ dependencies on other solution
variables.
l Coefficients are updated with each iteration.
n For a given iteration, coefficients are constant.
s φ
p
can either be solved explicitly or implicitly.
Background: Linearization
p
nb
nb nb p p
b a a · +

φ φ
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nb
:
l Explicit linearization - unknown value in each cell computed from relations
that include only existing values (φ
nb
assumed known from previous
iteration).
n φ
p
solved explicitly using Runge-Kutta scheme.
l Implicit linearization - φ
p
and φ
nb
are assumed unknown and are solved
using linear equation techniques.
n Equations that are implicitly linearized tend to have less restrictive stability
requirements.
n The equation set is solved simultaneously using a second iterative loop (e.g.,
point Gauss-Seidel).
Background: Explicit vs. Implicit
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Background: Coupled vs. Segregated
u Segregated Solver
l If the only unknowns in a given equation are assumed to be for a single
variable, then the equation set can be solved without regard for the
solution of other variables.
n coefficients a
p
and a
nb
are scalars.
u Coupled Solver
l If more than one variable is unknown in each equation, and each
variable is defined by its own transport equation, then the equation set is
coupled together.
n coefficients a
p
and a
nb
are N
eq
x N
eq
matrices
n φ is a vector of the dependent variables, {p, u, v, w, T, Y}
T
p
nb
nb nb p p
b a a · +

φ φ
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Background: Segregated Solver
u In the segregated solver, each equation is
solved separately.
u The continuity equation takes the form
of a pressure correction equation as part
of SIMPLE algorithm.
u Under-relaxation factors are included in
the discretized equations.
l Included to improve stability of iterative
process.
l Under-relaxation factor, α, in effect,
limits change in variable from one
iteration to next:
Update properties.
Solve momentum equations (u, v, w velocity).
Solve pressure-correction (continuity) equation.
Update pressure, face mass flow rate.
Solve energy, species, turbulence, and other
scalar equations.
Converged?
Stop
No
Yes
p old p p
φ α φ φ ∆ + ·
,
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Background: Coupled Solver
u Continuity, momentum, energy, and
species are solved simultaneously in the
coupled solver.
u Equations are modified to resolve
compressible and incompressible flow.
u Transient term is always included.
l Steady-state solution is formed as time
increases and transients tend to zero.
u For steady-state problem, ‘time step’ is
defined by Courant number.
l Stability issues limit maximum time step
size for explicit solver but not for
implicit solver.
Solve continuity, momentum, energy,
and species equations simultaneously.
Stop
No Yes
Solve turbulence and other scalar equations.
Update properties.
Converged?
u
x
t

· ∆
) CFL (
CFL = Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy-number
where u = appropriate velocity scale
∆x = grid spacing
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Background: Segregated/Transient
u Transient solutions are possible with both segregated and coupled solvers.
l 1st- and 2nd-order time implicit discretizations (Euler) available for coupled
and segregated solvers.
n Procedure: Iterate to convergence at each time level, then advance in time.
l 2nd order time-explicit discretization also available for coupled-explicit solver.
u For segregated solver:
l Time step size, ∆t, is input in Iterate panel.
n ∆t should be small enough to resolve
time dependent features.
l Number of time steps, N, is also required.
n N*∆t equals total simulated time.
l Generally, use ∆t small enough to ensure
convergence within 20 iterations.
l Note: Use TUI command ‘it #’ to iterate
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Background: Coupled/Transient
l If implicit scheme is selected, two transient terms are included in discretization.
n Physical-time transient
s Physical-time derivative term is discretized implicitly (1st or 2nd order).
s Time step size, ∆t, defined as with segregated solver.
n Pseudo-time transient
s At each physical-time level, a pseudo-time transient is driven to zero through a
series of inner iterations (dual time stepping).
s Pseudo-time derivative term is discretized:
– explicitly in coupled-explicit solver.
– implicitly in coupled-implicit solver.
s Courant number defines pseudo-time step size, ∆τ.
l For explicit time stepping, physical-time derivative is
discretized explicitly.
n Option only available with coupled-explicit solver
n Physical-time step size is defined by Courant number.
s Same time step size is used throughout domain (global time stepping).
Fluent Software Training
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Heat Transfer and Thermal Boundary
Conditions
Discrete Ordinates
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Outline
u Introduction
u Thermal Boundary Conditions
u Fluid Properties
u Conjugate Heat Transfer
u Natural Convection
u Periodic Heat Transfer
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TRN-99-003
Introduction
u Energy transport equation is solved, subject to a wide range of thermal
boundary conditions.
l Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows.
l Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows.
n Always included in coupled solver.
n Can be disabled in segregated solver.
l Energy source due to viscous heating:
n Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow.
s Important when shear stress in fluid is large (e.g., lubrication) and/or in
high-velocity, compressible flows.
n Often negligible
s not included by default for segregated solver
s always included for coupled solver.
l In solid regions, simple conduction equation solved.
n Convective term can also be included for moving solids.
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User Inputs for Heat Transfer
1. Activate calculation of heat transfer.
l Select the Enable Energy option in the Energy panel.
Define Õ Models Õ Energy...
l Enabling a temperature dependent density model, reacting flow model, or a
radiation model will toggle Enable Energy on without visiting this panel.
2. Enable appropriate options:
l Viscous Heating in Viscous Model panel
l Diffusion Energy Source option in the Species Model panel
3. Define thermal boundary conditions.
Define Õ Boundary Conditions...
4. Define material properties for heat transfer.
Define Õ Materials...
l Heat capacity and thermal conductivity must be defined.
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Solution Process for Heat Transfer
u Many simple heat transfer problems can be successfully solved using
default solution parameters.
u However, you may accelerate convergence and/or improve the stability
of the solution process by changing the options below:
l Under-relaxation of energy equation.
Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution...
l Disabling species diffusion term.
Define Õ Models Õ Species...
l Compute isothermal flow first, then add calculation of energy equation.
Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution...
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TRN-99-003
Theoretical Basis of Wall Heat Transfer
u For laminar flows, fluid side heat transfer is approximated as:
n = local coordinate normal to wall
u For turbulent flows:
l Law of the wall is extended to treat wall heat flux.
n The wall-function approach implicitly accounts for viscous sublayer.
l The near-wall treatment is extended to account for viscous dissipation
which occurs in the boundary layer of high-speed flows.
′′ · ≈ q k
T
n
k
T
n
wall

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TRN-99-003
Thermal Boundary Conditions at Flow Inlets
and Exits
u At flow inlets, must supply
fluid temperature.
u At flow exits, fluid
temperature extrapolated
from upstream value.
u At pressure outlets, where
flow reversal may occur,
“backflow” temperature is
required.
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Thermal Conditions for Fluids and Solids
u Can specify an energy source
using Source Terms option.
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TRN-99-003
Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls
u Use any of following thermal
conditions at walls:
l Specified heat flux
l Specified temperature
l Convective heat transfer
and external convective heat
transfer
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TRN-99-003
u Fluid properties such as heat capacity, conductivity, and viscosity can
be defined as:
l Constant
l Temperature-dependent
l Composition-dependent
l Computed by kinetic theory
l Computed by user-defined functions
u Density can be computed by ideal gas law.
u Alternately, density can be treated as:
l Constant (with optional Boussinesq modeling)
l Temperature-dependent
l Composition-dependent
l User Defined Function
Fluid Properties
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Conjugate Heat Transfer
u Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids, coupled with
convective heat transfer in fluid.
u Coupled Boundary Condition:
l available to wall zone that
separates two cell zones.
Grid
Temperature contours
Velocity vectors
Example: Cooling flow over fuel rods
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Natural Convection - Introduction
u Natural convection occurs
when heat is added to fluid
and fluid density varies
with temperature.
u Flow is induced by force of
gravity acting on density
variation.
u When gravity term is
and body force term is written
as:
g
x
p
g
x
p
o
) (
'
ρ ρ ρ − +

− ⇒ +

where gx p p
o
ρ − ·
'
• This format avoids potential roundoff error
when gravitational body force term is included.
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Natural Convection - Boussinesq Model
u Makes simplifying assumption that density is uniform.
l Except for body force term in momentum equation, which is replaced by:
l Valid when density variations are small (i.e., small variations in T).
u Provides faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than
by using fluid density as function of temperature.
l Constant density assumptions reduces non-linearity.
l Use when density variations are small.
l Cannot be used with species calculations or reacting flows.
u Natural convection problems inside closed domains:
l For steady-state solver, Boussinesq model must be used.
n Constant density, ρ
o
, allows mass in volume to be defined.
l For unsteady solver, Boussinesq model or Ideal gas law can be used.
n Initial conditions define mass in volume.
( ) ( ) ρ ρ ρ β − · − −
0 0 0
g T T g
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User Inputs for Natural Convection
1. Set gravitational acceleration.
Define Õ Operating Conditions...
2. Define density model.
l If using Boussinesq model:
n Select boussinesq as the Density method
and assign constant value, ρ
o
.
Define Õ Materials...
n Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient, β.
n Set Operating Temperature, T
o
.
l If using temperature dependent model,
(e.g., ideal gas or polynomial):
n Specify Operating Density or,
n Allow Fluent to calculate ρ
o
from a cell
average (default, every iteration).
3. Set boundary conditions.
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u Radiation intensity transport equations (RTE) are solved.
l Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries links energy equation with RTE.
u Radiation intensity is directionally and spatially dependent.
l Intensity along any direction can be reduced by:
n Local absorption
n Out-scattering (scattering away from the direction)
l Intensity along any direction can be augmented by:
n Local emission
n In-scattering (scattering into the direction)
u Four radiation models are provided in FLUENT:
l Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM)
l Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM)
l Rosseland Model (limited applicability)
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Discrete Ordinates Model
u The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite
solid angles:
l Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.
l Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization.
l Accounts for scattering, semi-transparent media, specular surfaces.
l Banded-gray option for wavelength-dependent transmission.
u Limitations:
l Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive.
( ) ' ) ' ( ) ' , (
4
) , (
4
0
4
2
Ω ⋅ Φ + · + +

d s s s r I
T
an s r I a
x
I
s
s
i
i s
π
π
σ
π
σ
σ
absorption
emission scattering
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TRN-99-003
u Main assumption: radiation leaving surface element in a specific range of
solid angles can be approximated by a single ray.
u Uses ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray:
l Relatively simple model.
l Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays.
l Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.
u Limitations:
l Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
l Effect of scattering not included.
l Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive.
π
σ
α α
4
T
I
ds
dI
+ − ·
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TRN-99-003
P-1 Model
u Main assumption: radiation intensity can be decomposed into series of
spherical harmonics.
l Only first term in this (rapidly converging) series used in P-1 model.
l Effects of particles, droplets, and soot can be included.
l Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand.
l Includes effect of scattering.
l Works reasonably well for combustion applications where optical
thickness is large.
l Easily applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates.
u Limitations:
l Assumes all surfaces are diffuse.
l May result in loss of accuracy, depending on complexity of geometry, if
optical thickness is small.
l Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks.
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TRN-99-003
u For certain problems, one radiation model may be more
appropriate in general.
l Computational effort: P-1 gives reasonable accuracy with
less effort.
l Accuracy: DTRM and DOM more accurate.
l Optical thickness: DTRM/DOM for optically thin media
(optical thickness << 1); P-1 better for optically thick media.
l Scattering: P-1 and DOM account for scattering.
l Particulate effects: P-1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas
and particulates.
l Localized heat sources: DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/
ordinates is more appropriate.
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TRN-99-003
Periodic Heat Transfer (1)
u Also known as streamwise-periodic or fully-developed flow.
u Used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated, e.g.,
l Compact heat exchangers
l Flow across tube banks
u Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in streamwise direction.
Outflow at one periodic boundary
is inflow at the other
inflow
outflow
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Periodic Heat Transfer (2)
u Temperature (and pressure) vary in streamwise direction.
u Scaled temperature (and periodic pressure) is same at periodic
boundaries.
u For fixed wall temperature problems, scaled temperature defined as:
T
b
= suitably defined bulk temperature
u Can also model flows with specified wall heat flux.
θ ·

T T
T T
wall
b wall
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TRN-99-003
Periodic Heat Transfer (3)
u Periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints:
l Either constant temperature or fixed flux bounds.
l Conducting regions cannot straddle periodic plane.
l Properties cannot be functions of temperature.
l Radiative heat transfer cannot be modeled.
l Viscous heating only available with heat flux wall boundaries.
Contours of Scaled Temperature
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Summary
u Heat transfer modeling is available in all Fluent solvers.
u After activating heat transfer, you must provide:
l Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries
l Fluid properties for energy equation
u Available heat transfer modeling options include:
l Species diffusion heat source
l Combustion heat source
l Conjugate heat transfer
l Natural convection
l Periodic heat transfer

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

What is Turbulence?
u u

Unsteady, aperiodic motion in which all three velocity components fluctuate Õ mixing matter, momentum, and energy. Decompose velocity into mean and fluctuating parts: Ui(t) ≡ U i + ui(t)
ui(t) U i (t) Ui

Time
u

Similar fluctuations for pressure, temperature, and species concentration values.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Why Model Turbulence?
u

u

Direct numerical simulation of governing equations is only possible for simple low-Re flows. Instead, we solve Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations: ∂R (steady, incompressible flow ∂ 2U i ∂p ∂U i + ij w/o body forces) +µ =− ρU k ∂x j ∂x j ∂x j ∂xi ∂xk where

Rij = − ρ uiu j

(Reynolds stresses)

u

u

Time-averaged statistics of turbulent velocity fluctuations are modeled using functions containing empirical constants and information about the mean flow. Large Eddy Simulation numerically resolves large eddies and models small eddies.

and disturbances may cause earlier transition to turbulent flow. surface conditions. Other factors such as free-stream turbulence.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Is the Flow Turbulent? External Flows where Rex ≥ 5×10 5 ReD ≥ 20. D. Dh. etc. Natural Convection Ra ≥ 108 −1010 where gβ∆TL3ρ Ra ≡ µα D4 © Fluent Inc.300 Re L ≡ along a surface around an obstacle ρUL µ L = x.000 Internal Flows ReDh ≥ 2. 2/20/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 How Complex is the Flow? u Extra strain rates l l l l l l Streamline curvature Lateral divergence Acceleration or deceleration Swirl Recirculation (or separation) Secondary flow u u u u 3D perturbations Transpiration (blowing/suction) Free-stream turbulence Interacting shear layers D5 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Choices to be Made Flow Physics Computational Resources Turbulence Model & Near-Wall Treatment Computational Grid Accuracy Required Turnaround Time Constraints D6 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Turbulence Modeling Approaches Zero-Equation Models One-Equation Models Spalart-Allmaras Include More Physics RANS-based models Two-Equation Models Standard k-ε RNG k-ε Realizable k-ε Reynolds-Stress Model Large-Eddy Simulation Direct Numerical Simulation Available in FLUENT 5 Increase Computational Cost Per Iteration D7 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

turbulent viscosity correlated with turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and the dissipation rate of TKE. For Two-Equation models. Turbulent Viscosity: k2 µt ≡ ρCµ ε u Transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate are solved so that turbulent viscosity can be computed for RANS equations.  ∂U ∂U  2 Rij = −ρui u j = −ρ kδij + µt  i + j  Boussinesq Hypothesis:   ∂x 3 (isotropic viscosity)  j ∂xi  u u Turbulent viscosity is indirectly solved for from single transport equation of modified viscosity for One-Equation model. 2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Reynolds Stress Terms in RANS-based Models u RANS equations require closure for Reynolds stresses. Turbulent Kinetic Energy: k ≡ uiui / 2 ∂ui  ∂ui ∂u j  Dissipation Rate of ε ≡ν  +  Turbulent Kinetic Energy: ∂x j  ∂x j ∂xi    D8 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 One Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras u Turbulent viscosity is determined from: ~  (ν /ν )3  ~ µ t = ρν  ~ 3 (ν /ν ) + cν 13    u ~ ν is determined from the modified viscosity transport equation:  ∂  ~ ~ ~ 2  ~ Dν ~~ 1   ~ ) ∂ν  + ρc  ∂ν   − ρc f ν  ρ = ρcb1S ν +  ( µ + ρ ν b2  w1 w Dt σ ν  ∂x j  ~ ∂x j  ∂x j   d2       Generation Diffusion Destruction u The additional variables are functions of the modified turbulent viscosity and velocity gradients. D9 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

u Can use coarse or fine mesh at wall l l D10 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 One-Equation Model: Spalart-Allmaras u Designed specifically for aerospace applications involving wallbounded flows.e. throughout the viscous-affected region. 2/20/01 . i.. l l Boundary layers with adverse pressure gradients turbomachinery Designed to be used with fine mesh as a “low-Re” model. Sufficiently robust for relatively crude simulations on coarse meshes.

σ ε . C1ε .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: Standard k-ε Model Turbulent Kinetic Energy  ∂U j ∂U i  ∂U j ∂k ∂  ∂k    Ui ( µt σ k ) ρ = µt + +   − ρε  ∂x ∂xi ∂x j  ∂xi ∂xi  ∂xi  { i 1 2 3 1 44 444 4 4 4 4 4 2  3 144 244 3 Destruction Convection Generation Diffusion Dissipation Rate ε2  ∂  ∂ε  ∂ε  ε   ∂U j ∂U i  ∂U j     ρU i = C1ε   µt  +  ∂x + ∂x ( µt σ ε ) ∂x  − C2ε ρ  k  ∂x j ∂x  k   ∂xi i i  i 1 2 3 14444 2444 4 144 2444 1 24  4 4i 4 3 4 3 4 43 Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction σ k . incompressible flow w/o body forces) D11 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 . C2ε are empirical constants (equations written for steady.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: Standard k-ε Model u “Baseline model” (Two-equation) l l Most widely used model in industry Strength and weaknesses well documented k equation derived by subtracting the instantaneous mechanical energy equation from its time-averaged value ε equation formed from physical reasoning u Semi-empirical l l u u Valid only for fully turbulent flows Reasonable accuracy for wide range of turbulent flows l l industrial flows heat transfer D12 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

and U* are functions of velocity gradients) where Cµ = 1 is now variable Ensures positivity of normal stresses. A s. ε: Dε ∂ ρ = Dt ∂x j  µ µ + t  σε   Diffusion  ∂ε  ε2 ε  + ρc1Sε − ρc2 + c1ε c3ε Gb  ∂x  k k + νε  j  Generation D13 Destruction Buoyancy © Fluent Inc. u 2 ≥ 0 i Ensures Schwarz’s inequality. ( u i u j ) 2 ≤ u 2 u 2 i j l New transport equation for dissipation rate. 2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: Realizable k-ε u Distinctions from Standard k-ε model: l Alternative formulation for turbulent viscosity k2 µt ≡ ρC µ ε n n n U *k Ao + A s ε (A0.

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: Realizable k-ε u u Shares the same turbulent kinetic energy equation as Standard k-ε Superior performance for flows involving: l l l l planar and round jets boundary layers under strong adverse pressure gradients. recirculation strong streamline curvature D14 © Fluent Inc. separation rotation.

incompressible flow w/o body forces) D15 © Fluent Inc.C2ε are derived using RNG theory (equations written for steady. Sij ≡  +   ∂x ∂x  2 i j  where Dissipation Rate ε2  ∂ε ∂  ∂ε  ε  2 α ε µ eff  − C2 ε ρ   − R ρU i = C1ε   µ t S +  k  {  ∂xi 14243 ∂xi  ∂xi  k 4 4 123 4 4 4 3 144 44  1 24  Additional term 2 3 Convection Generation Diffusion Destruction related to mean strain & turbulence quantities αk.αε .C1ε . 2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: RNG k-ε Turbulent Kinetic Energy ∂k ∂  ∂k  2 α µ  − ρε = µt S + ρU i { ∂x  k eff ∂x  { ∂x  2 1 2 3 Generation 1i44 44i  Dissipation 4 4i 3 Convection Diffusion 1  ∂Uj ∂Ui  S ≡ 2SijSij .

Similar in form to the standard k-ε equations but includes: l l l l additional term in ε equation that improves analysis of rapidly strained flows the effect of swirl on turbulence analytical formula for turbulent Prandtl number differential formula for effective viscosity high streamline curvature and strain rate transitional flows wall heat and mass transfer u Improved predictions for: l l l D16 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two Equation Model: RNG k-ε u u k-ε equations are derived from the application of a rigorous statistical technique (Renormalization Group Method) to the instantaneous NavierStokes equations. 2/20/01 .

2/20/01 . ∂xk ∂xk Generation Pressure-Strain Redistribution Dissipation Turbulent Diffusion Pij ≡ uiuk ∂U j ∂xk + u juk ∂Ui ∂xk (computed)  ∂ui ∂u j   Φ ij ≡ − p′ +  ∂x   j ∂xi  (modeled) (related to ε) (modeled) ε ij ∂ui ∂u j ≡ 2µ ∂xk ∂xk J ijk = ui u j uk + p ′(δ jk ui + δ ik u j ) Turbulent transport Pressure/velocity fluctuations D17 (equations written for steady.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Reynolds Stress Model ∂ui u j ∂J ijk Reynolds Stress ρU k = Pij + Φ ij − ε ij + Transport Eqns. incompressible flow w/o body forces) © Fluent Inc.

rotation and high strain rates n n Cyclone flows. 2/20/01 . RSM has high potential for accurately predicting complex flows.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Reynolds Stress Model u RSM closes the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by solving additional transport equations for the Reynolds stresses. swirl. l Accounts for streamline curvature. secondary flows D18 © Fluent Inc. l l l Transport equations derived by Reynolds averaging the product of the momentum equations with a fluctuating property Closure also requires one equation for turbulent dissipation Isotropic eddy viscosity assumption is avoided u u Resulting equations contain terms that need to be modeled. swirling combustor flows Rotating flow passages.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Large Eddy Simulation u Large eddies: l l Mainly responsible for transport of momentum. and other scalars. boundary conditions. and flow parameters. Tend to be more isotropic and less flow-dependent More likely to be easier to model than large eddies. strongly dependent on flow configuration. u Small eddies: l l u u LES directly computes (resolves) large eddies and models only small eddies (Subgrid-Scale Modeling). N LES ∝ Re2τ u Unsteady calculation D19 © Fluent Inc. i. Anisotropic.. energy. subjected to history effects.e. and flow-dependent. Large computational effort l l Number of grid points. directly affecting the mean fields. 2/20/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models Model SpalartAllmaras STD k. buoyancy) Mediocre results for complex flows involving severe pressure gradients.ε RNG k-ε Realizable k-ε Reynolds Stress Model Strengths Economical (1-eq.L. lack of submodels (e. swirling flows. combustion. good track record for mildly complex B. 2/20/01 . resolves round-jet anomaly Physically most complete model (history. type of flows Robust. separating flows. tightly coupled momentum and turbulence equations © Fluent Inc. and secondary flows Offers largely the same benefits as RNG.g. long accumulated performance data Good for moderately complex behavior like jet impingement. and anisotropy of turbulent stresses are all accounted for) D20 Weaknesses Not very widely tested yet. swirl and rotation Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy viscosity assumption Subjected to limitations due to isotropic eddy viscosity assumption Requires more cpu effort (2-3x).). transport. strong streamline curvature. reasonably accurate. economical.

2/20/01 . Special near-wall treatment is required.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Near-Wall Treatments u u Most k-ε and RSM turbulence models will not predict correct near-wall behavior if integrated down to the wall. l l l Standard wall functions Nonequilibrium wall functions Two-layer zonal model Boundary layer structure D21 © Fluent Inc.

2/20/01 . D22 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Standard Wall Functions Mean Velocity U ∗ = 1 ln(Ey∗ ) κ Temperature where U∗ ≡ UP C1/ 4k 1/ 2 µ P τw / ρ y∗ ≡ ρ C 1/ 4k 1/ 2 yP µ P µ  Pr y ∗  T∗ =   1  Prt  ln Ey ∗ + P   κ   ( ) * ( y * < yT ) * ( y * > yT ) thermal sublayer thickness (Tw − TP ) ρ c pC 1/ 4k 1/ 2 µ P where T * ≡ & q′′ and P is a function of the fluid and turbulent Prandtl numbers.

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Nonequilibrium Wall Functions u u u Log-law is sensitized to pressure gradient for better prediction of adverse pressure gradient flows and separation. Thermal law-of-wall unchanged ~ 1/ 4 1/ 2 U Cµ k  ρ C1/ 4 k1/ 2 y  µ  = 1 ln  E   κ  τw / ρ µ  2 yv  ~ dp  yv  y  y − yv where U = U − 1 +   ∗ 1/ 2 ln  y  + ∗ 1/ 2 2 dx  ρκ k µ  v  ρκ k D23 © Fluent Inc. Relaxed local equilibrium assumptions for TKE in wall-neighboring cells.

ε is computed from the correlation for length scale. D24 © Fluent Inc. Only k equation is solved in the viscosity-affected region. Zoning is dynamic and solution adaptive.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Two-Layer Zonal Model u u Used for low-Re flows or flows with complex near-wall phenomena. Zones distinguished by a walldistance-based turbulent Reynolds number Rey > 200 Rey < 200 Re y ≡ u u u u ρ ky µ High-Re k-ε models are used in the turbulent core region. 2/20/01 .

especially applicable memory resources to low-Re flows D25 © Fluent Inc. highly 3D flows Nonequilibrium Accounts for ∇p effects. poor for low-Re effects.Re effects. economical. reasonably accurate Weaknesses Empirically based on simple high-Re flows. good for complex and therefore larger cpu and model flows. allows nonequilibrium: wall functions -separation -reattachment -impingement Two-layer zonal Does not rely on law-of-the.Requires finer mesh resolution wall. massive transpiration.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Comparison of Near Wall Treatments Strengths Standard wall Functions Robust. highly 3D flows Poor for low. strong body forces. strong body forces. 2/20/01 . ∇p. massive transpiration. severe ∇p.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Computational Grid Guidelines
Wall Function Approach Two-Layer Zonal Model Approach

l

First grid point in log-law region

l l

50 ≤ y + ≤ 500
l l

First grid point at y+ ≈ 1. At least ten grid points within buffer & sublayers. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy.

At least ten points in the BL. Better to use stretched quad/hex cells for economy.
D26
l

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Estimating Placement of First Grid Point
u

Estimate the skin friction coefficient based on correlations either approximate or empirical:
l

Flat PlatePipe Flow-

c f / 2 ≈ 0.0359 ReL c f / 2 ≈ 0.039 Re D

−0.2

l

−0.2

u

Compute the friction velocity:

uτ ≡ τ w / ρ = U e c f / 2

u

Back out required distance from wall:
l

Wall functions y1 = 50ν/uτ

Two-layer model y1 = ν/ uτ

u

Use post-processing to confirm near-wall mesh resolution

D27

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Setting Boundary Conditions
u

Characterize turbulence at inlets & outlets (potential backflow)
l l

k-ε models require k and ε Reynolds stress model requires Rij and ε Turbulence intensity and length scale
n n n

u

Several options allow input using more familiar parameters
l

length scale is related to size of large eddies that contain most of energy. For boundary layer flows: l ≈ 0.4δ99 For flows downstream of grids /perforated plates: l ≈ opening size Ideally suited for duct and pipe flows For external flows:
1<

l

Turbulence intensity and hydraulic diameter
n

l

Turbulence intensity and turbulent viscosity ratio
n

µ /µ
t

< 10

u

Input of k and ε explicitly allowed (non-uniform profiles possible).

. or Turbulent Turbulence Model options Near Wall Treatments Additional Turbulence options D29 © Fluent Inc. Inviscid..Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 GUI for Turbulence Models Define Õ Models Õ Viscous. Laminar. 2/20/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Example: Channel Flow with Conjugate Heat Transfer adiabatic wall cold air V = 50 fpm T = 0 °F insulation constant temperature wall T = 100 °F 10 ft 1 ft P 1 ft Predict the temperature at point P in the solid insulation D30 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

D31 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 . Develop strategy for the grid l l l l Simple geometry Õ quadrilateral cells Expect large gradients in normal direction to horizontal walls Õ fine mesh near walls with first cell in log-law region. Use solution-based grid adaption to further resolve temperature gradients.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Turbulence Modeling Approach u u u Check if turbulent Õ ReD = 5.980 h Developing turbulent flow at relatively low Reynolds number and BLs on walls will give pressure gradient Õ use RNG k-ε with nonequilibrium wall functions. Vary streamwise grid spacing so that BL growth is captured.

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Prediction of Momentum & Thermal Boundary Layers Velocity contours BLs on upper & lower surfaces accelerate the core flow Temperature contours Important that thermal BL was accurately resolved as well P D32 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Example: Flow Around a Cylinder wall 2 ft air V = 4 fps 1 ft 2 ft wall 5 ft 14.5 ft Compute drag coefficient of the cylinder D33 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

and close proximity of side walls may influence flow around cylinder Õ use RNG k-ε with 2-layer zonal model.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Turbulence Modeling Approach u Check if turbulent Õ ReD = 24. D34 © Fluent Inc. Develop strategy for the grid l l u u Simple geometry & BLs Õ quadrilateral cells.600 Flow over an object. unsteady vortex shedding is expected. Large gradients near surface of cylinder & 2-layer model Õ fine mesh near surface & first cell at y+ = 1. 2/20/01 . difficult to predict separation on downstream side.

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Grid for Flow Over a Cylinder D35 © Fluent Inc.

297 D where St ≡ τU D36 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Prediction of Turbulent Vortex Shedding Contours of effective viscosity µ eff = µ + µt CD = 0.53 Strouhal Number = 0. 2/20/01 .

Use wall functions unless low-Re flow and/or complex near-wall physics are present. Use RSM for highly swirling flows.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Summary: Turbulence Modeling Guidelines u Successful turbulence modeling requires engineering judgement of: l l l Flow physics Computer resources available Project requirements n n Accuracy Turnaround time l Turbulence models & near-wall treatments that are available u u u Begin with standard k-ε and change to RNG or Realizable k-ε if needed. 2/20/01 . D37 © Fluent Inc.

2/23/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Solver Settings E1 © Fluent Inc.

Implicit Segregated vs.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Outline u Using the Solver l l Setting Solver Parameters Convergence n n n n Definition Monitoring Stability Accelerating Convergence Grid Independence Adaption l Accuracy n n u Appendix: Background l l l l Finite Volume Method Explicit vs. 2/23/01 . Coupled Transient Solutions E2 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Solution Procedure Overview u Solution Parameters l l Set the solution parameters Choosing the Solver Discretization Schemes Initialize the solution u u Initialization Convergence l l Enable the solution monitors of interest Monitoring Convergence Stability n n Calculate a solution Setting Under-relaxation Setting Courant number Yes Modify solution parameters or grid Check for convergence No Check for accuracy Yes Stop No l Accelerating Convergence Grid Independence Adaption u Accuracy l l E3 © Fluent Inc. 2/23/01 .

.g. and/or species. high speed compressible flow or finite-rate reaction modeled flows.g. Segregated approach provides flexibility in solution procedure. Memory required: Implicit solver requires roughly twice as much memory as coupledexplicit or segregated-implicit solvers! (Performance varies.) l The Coupled-Explicit solver should only be used for unsteady flows when the characteristic time scale of problem is on same order as that of the acoustics. l l Lower memory requirements than coupled-implicit solver. Coupled-Explicit. tracking transient shock wave u The Segregated (implicit) solver is preferred in all other cases. the Coupled-Implicit solver is recommended over the coupled-explicit solver. 2/23/01 . or Segregated (implicit) The Coupled solvers are recommended if a strong inter-dependence exists between density. E4 © Fluent Inc. In general.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Choosing a Solver u u Choices are Coupled-Implicit. energy. l l e.. n n Time required: Implicit solver runs roughly twice as fast. n e. momentum.

low Re flows). 2/23/01 l Power Law Scheme n l Second-Order Upwind Scheme n l Quadratic Upwind Interpolation (QUICK) n .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Discretization (Interpolation Methods) u Field variables (stored at cell centers) must be interpolated to the faces of the control volumes in the FVM: ( ρφ )t + ∆t − ( ρφ )t ∆V + ∑ ρ f φ f V f Af = ∆t faces faces ∑ Γ (∇φ ) f ⊥. f Af + Sφ ∆V u FLUENT offers a number of interpolation schemes: l First-Order Upwind Scheme n easiest to converge. slower convergence applies to quad/hex mesh. essential with tri/tet mesh or when flow is not aligned with grid. 3rd order accurate on uniform mesh. useful for rotating/swirling flows. uses larger ‘stencil’ for 2nd order accuracy. E5 © Fluent Inc. only first order accurate. more accurate than first-order for flows when Recell< 5 (typ.

Linear n useful only when other options result in convergence difficulties or unphysical behavior. FLUENT interpolation schemes for Face Pressure: l l l l l Standard n default scheme. e.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Interpolation Methods for Pressure u u Additional interpolation options are available for calculating face pressure when using the segregated solver. E6 © Fluent Inc. reduced accuracy for flows exhibiting large surface-normal pressure gradients near boundaries. Second-Order n use for compressible flows or when PRESTO! cannot be applied..g. Body Force Weighted n use when body forces are large. use on highly swirling flows. PRESTO! n applies to quad/hex cells. flows involving porous media. or strongly curved domains. 2/23/01 . high Ra natural convection or highly swirling flows.

Three methods available: l SIMPLE n default scheme. 2/23/01 . robust Allows faster convergence for simple problems (e.g. useful for unsteady flow problems or for meshes containing cells with higher than average skew. laminar flows with no physical models employed).Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Pressure-Velocity Coupling u u Pressure-Velocity Coupling refers to the way mass continuity is accounted for when using the segregated solver.. l SIMPLEC n l PISO n E7 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Initialization
u

Iterative procedure requires that all solution variables be initialized before calculating a solution. Solve Õ Initialize Õ Initialize...
l l

Realistic ‘guesses’ improves solution stability and accelerates convergence. In some cases, correct initial guess is required:
n

Example: high temperature region to initiate chemical reaction.

u

“Patch” values for individual variables in certain regions. Solve Õ Initialize Õ Patch...
l

l

Free jet flows (patch high velocity for jet) Combustion problems (patch high temperature for ignition)

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Convergence Preliminaries: Residuals
u

Transport equation for φ can be presented in simple form: a pφ p + ∑ anbφ nb = bp
nb

l l

Coefficients ap, anb typically depend upon the solution. Coefficients updated each iteration. The imbalance is called the residual, Rp, where: R p = a pφ p + ∑ anbφ nb − bp
nb

u

At the start of each iteration, the above equality will not hold.
l

l l

Rp should become negligible as iterations increase. The residuals that you monitor are summed over all cells: R = ∑ | R p |
n n

By default, the monitored residuals are scaled. You can also normalize the residuals.

cells

u

Residuals monitored for the coupled solver are based on the rms value of the time rate of change of the conserved variable.
l

Only for coupled equations; additional scalar equations use segregated definition.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003

Convergence
u

At convergence:
l

l l

All discrete conservation equations (momentum, energy, etc.) are obeyed in all cells to a specified tolerance. Solution no longer changes with more iterations. Overall mass, momentum, energy, and scalar balances are obtained. Generally, a decrease in residuals by 3 orders of magnitude indicates at least qualitative convergence.
n

u

Monitoring convergence with residuals:
l

Major flow features established.

l l

Scaled energy residual must decrease to 10-6 for segregated solver. Scaled species residual may need to decrease to 10-5 to achieve species balance. Monitor other variables for changes. Ensure that property conservation is satisfied.

u

Monitoring quantitative convergence:
l l

. All equations converged. Solve Õ Monitors Õ Residual.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Convergence Monitors: Residuals u Residual plots show when the residual values have reached the specified tolerance. 10-3 10-6 E11 © Fluent Inc.. 2/23/01 .

.. or moment Solve Õ Monitors Õ Force. E12 © Fluent Inc. drag.. surface integrals) at a boundary or any defined surface: Solve Õ Monitors Õ Surface.g. Variables or functions (e. 2/23/01 ..Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Convergence Monitors: Forces/Surfaces u In addition to residuals.. you can also monitor: l l Lift.

2/23/01 . you should also check for overall heat and mass balances.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Checking for Property Conservation u In addition to monitoring residual and variable histories. l Net imbalance should be less than 0. E13 © Fluent Inc.. Report Õ Fluxes..1% of net flux through domain.

Then calculate until solution converges to the new tolerance. 2/23/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Decreasing the Convergence Tolerance u If your monitors indicate that the solution is converged. but the solution is still changing or has a large mass/heat imbalance: l l Reduce Convergence Criterion or disable Check Convergence. E14 © Fluent Inc.

l l l Exhibited as increasing (diverging) or “stuck” residuals. Reduce Courant number (coupled). Unconverged results can be misleading! Ensure problem is well posed. poor quality mesh. Decrease under-relaxation for equations having convergence trouble (segregated).Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Convergence Difficulties u Numerical instabilities can arise with an ill-posed problem. l l l © Fluent Inc. Re-mesh or refine grid with high aspect ratio or highly skewed cells. Compute an initial solution with a first-order discretization scheme. Diverging residuals imply increasing imbalance in conservation equations. and/or inappropriate solver settings. E15 u Troubleshooting: l l Continuity equation convergence trouble affects convergence of all equations. 2/23/01 .

‘Appropriate’ settings best learned from experience. u For coupled solvers..old + α∆φ p u Decreasing under-relaxation for momentum often aids convergence. φ p = φ p. Use default under-relaxation factors to start a calculation. 2/23/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Modifying Under-relaxation Factors u u Under-relaxation factor. under-relaxation factors for equations outside coupled set are modified as in segregated solver. l l Default settings are aggressive but suitable for wide range of problems. is included to stabilize the iterative process for the segregated solver.. α. Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution. E16 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Modifying the Courant Number u Courant number defines a ‘time step’ size for steady-state problems. n u For coupled-explicit solver: l n Cannot be greater than 2. Reduce Courant number when having difficulty converging. Stability constraints impose a maximum limit on Courant number. s Default value is 1. n Default is set to 5. u For coupled-implicit solver: l ∆t = (CFL)∆x u Courant number is not limited by stability constraints. l A transient term is included in the coupled solver even for steady state problems. 2/23/01 . E17 © Fluent Inc.

Excessively high values can lead to instabilities. l Increasing under-relaxation factors or Courant number n n l Controlling multigrid solver settings. n E18 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Accelerating Convergence u Convergence can be accelerated by: l Supplying good initial conditions n Starting from a previous solution. Recommend saving case and data files before continuing iterations. 2/23/01 . Default settings define robust Multigrid solver and typically do not need to be changed.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Starting from a Previous Solution u Previous solution can be used as an initial condition when changes are made to problem definition. additional iterations uses current data set as starting point. Actual Problem flow with heat transfer natural convection combustion turbulent flow Initial Condition isothermal solution lower Ra solution cold flow solution Euler solution E19 © Fluent Inc. 2/23/01 . l Once initialized.

∆x/∆y > 20 Large differences in thermal conductivity E20 u Accelerates convergence for problems with: l l l coarse mesh © Fluent Inc. – a coupled-explicit solver option Final solution is for original mesh. Large number of cells Large cell aspect ratios.‘cell coalescing’ defines new grid.. ‘solution transfer’ l Multigrid operates automatically in the background. 2/23/01 . n n Multiple coarse mesh ‘levels’ can be created. e. fine (original) mesh Coarse mesh defined from original mesh. s AMG. l l Influence of boundaries and far-away points are more easily transmitted to interior of coarse mesh than on fine mesh. s FAS.‘coarse mesh’ emulated algebraically.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Multigrid u The Multigrid solver accelerates convergence by using solution on coarse mesh as starting point for solution on finer mesh.g.

Examine grid and re-mesh. n Use adaption to modify grid. u If flow features do not seem reasonable: l l Reconsider physical models and boundary conditions. E21 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Accuracy u A converged solution is not necessarily an accurate one. 2/23/01 . l l Solve using 2nd order discretization. Ensure that solution is grid-independent.

s Truncation error is minimized in a uniform mesh. 2/23/01 . Minimize cell skewness and aspect ratio. Minimize variations in cell size.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Mesh Quality and Solution Accuracy u u Numerical errors are associated with calculation of cell gradients and cell face interpolations. E22 © Fluent Inc. Attempt to align grid with flow. avoid aspect ratios higher than 5:1. s Optimal quad/hex cells have bounded angles of 90 degrees s Optimal tri/tet cells are equilateral. s In general. s Fluent provides capability to adapt mesh based on cell size variation. These errors can be contained: l l l Use higher order discretization schemes. s Interpolation errors decrease with decreasing cell size. Refine the mesh. n n n Sufficient mesh density is necessary to resolve salient features of flow.

Repeat adaption/calculation procedure if necessary. 2/23/01 . Compare results obtained w/different grids. e. concentrate the original grid in that region. Adapt grid. you have a “grid-independent” solution.. s l l l Continue calculation to convergence. Import new mesh and initialize with old solution.g. – If you know where large gradients are expected. – Data from original grid is automatically interpolated to finer grid.. boundary layer. n file → reread-grid and File → Interpolate.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Determining Grid Independence u u When solution no longer changes with further grid refinement. E23 © Fluent Inc.. Procedure: l Obtain new grid: n Adapt s s Save original mesh before adapting.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Unsteady Flow Problems u Transient solutions are possible with both segregated and coupled solvers. Time step size. N*∆t = total simulated time. then advances automatically. global time step size for coupled explicit solver. pseudo-time step size for coupled implicit solver. May need to start solution with small ∆t. N. l l Solver iterates to convergence at each time level. must be realistic. n l Use TUI command ‘it #’ to iterate without advancing time step. l Number of time steps. is input in Iterate panel. E24 © Fluent Inc. Solution Initialization provides initial condition. Courant number defines in practice: l l . n u For segregated solver: l n ∆t should be small enough to resolve time dependent features and to ensure convergence within 20 iterations. 2/23/01 u For Coupled Solver. ∆t. is also required.

Obtain second-order solution (recommended). E25 © Fluent Inc. Refine grid and recalculate until grid-independent solution is obtained. All solvers provide tools for checking and improving accuracy. 2/23/01 . u u u All solvers provide tools for judging and improving convergence and ensuring stability.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Summary u Solution procedure for the segregated and coupled solvers is the same: l l l Calculate until you get a converged solution. Solution accuracy will depend on the appropriateness of the physical models that you choose and the boundary conditions that you specify.

Implicit Segregated vs. Coupled Transient Solutions E26 © Fluent Inc. 2/23/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Appendix u Background l l l l Finite Volume Method Explicit vs.

energy u φ 1 u v h control volume Fluid region of pipe flow discretized into finite set of control volumes (mesh). ∂ ∫ ρφ dV + ∫ ρφ V ⋅ dA = ∫ Γ∇φ ⋅ dA + ∀ Sφ dV ∫ ∂t V A A unsteady convection diffusion generation Eqn. E27 © Fluent Inc. momentum. For cell p. continuity x-mom. All equations are solved to render flow field. y-mom.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Finite Volume Method . u General transport equation for mass. 2/23/01 .1 u FLUENT solvers are based on the finite volume method. energy. etc. l Domain is discretized into a finite set of control volumes or cells. is applied to each cell and discretized.

Discretization accuracy depends upon ‘stencil’ size.2 u Each transport equation is discretized into algebraic form. E28 © Fluent Inc. etc. 2/23/01 . velocities.) are stored at cell centers. ( ρφ p )t + ∆t − ( ρφ p )t ∆t ∆V + faces ∑ ρ f φ f V f Af = faces ∑ Γf (∇φ )⊥. u The discretized equation can be expressed simply as: a pφ p + ∑ anbφ nb = bp nb l Equation is written out for every control volume in domain resulting in an equation set. Face values can be expressed in terms of local and adjacent cell values. f Af + Sφ ∆V face f cell p adjacent cells.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Finite Volume Method . For cell p. l l l Field data (material properties. nb u Discretized equations require information at cell centers and faces.

l Coefficients are updated with each iteration. s φp can either be solved explicitly or implicitly.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Linearization u Equation sets are solved iteratively. n n Linearization: removing coefficients’ dependencies on φ. nb Coefficients are written to use values of solution variables from previous iteration. 2/23/01 . De-coupling: removing coefficients’ dependencies on other solution variables. l l Coefficients ap and anb are typically functions a pφ p + ∑ anbφ nb = bp of solution variables (nonlinear and coupled). n E29 © Fluent Inc. For a given iteration. coefficients are constant.

The equation set is solved simultaneously using a second iterative loop (e. E30 © Fluent Inc. n φp solved explicitly using Runge-Kutta scheme.g. Implicit u Assumptions are made about the knowledge of φnb: l Explicit linearization .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Explicit vs.φp and φnb are assumed unknown and are solved using linear equation techniques. point Gauss-Seidel).unknown value in each cell computed from relations that include only existing values (φnb assumed known from previous iteration). l Implicit linearization .. n n Equations that are implicitly linearized tend to have less restrictive stability requirements. 2/23/01 .

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Coupled vs. w. n coefficients ap and anb are scalars. and each variable is defined by its own transport equation. then the equation set is coupled together. Segregated u Segregated Solver l If the only unknowns in a given equation are assumed to be for a single variable. then the equation set can be solved without regard for the solution of other variables. v. u Coupled Solver l a pφ p + ∑ anbφ nb = bp nb If more than one variable is unknown in each equation. n n coefficients ap and anb are Neq x Neq matrices φ is a vector of the dependent variables. Y}T E31 © Fluent Inc. T. {p. 2/23/01 . u.

old + α∆φ p E32 © Fluent Inc. Under-relaxation factor. v. 2/23/01 . limits change in variable from one iteration to next: φ p = φ p. Solve momentum equations (u. in effect. l Update properties. Solve energy. and other scalar equations. Update pressure.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Segregated Solver u u u In the segregated solver. Under-relaxation factors are included in the discretized equations. The continuity equation takes the form of a pressure correction equation as part of SIMPLE algorithm. α. species. w velocity). each equation is solved separately. turbulence. Solve pressure-correction (continuity) equation. face mass flow rate. Converged? No Yes Stop l Included to improve stability of iterative process.

Solve turbulence and other scalar equations. l Update properties. and species are solved simultaneously in the coupled solver. Equations are modified to resolve compressible and incompressible flow. momentum. momentum. energy. l Stability issues limit maximum time step size for explicit solver but not for implicit solver. Transient term is always included. u For steady-state problem. (CFL)∆x ∆t = where u E33 CFL = Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy-number u = appropriate velocity scale ∆x = grid spacing © Fluent Inc. energy. Solve continuity. 2/23/01 . and species equations simultaneously. Converged? No Yes Stop Steady-state solution is formed as time increases and transients tend to zero. ‘time step’ is defined by Courant number.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Coupled Solver u u u Continuity.

then advance in time. 2/23/01 . is also required. Note: Use TUI command ‘it #’ to iterate further without advancing time step. l 1st. Time step size. l Number of time steps. is input in Iterate panel. n l l Generally. N*∆t equals total simulated time. n u For segregated solver: l ∆t should be small enough to resolve time dependent features. n Procedure: Iterate to convergence at each time level. N. E34 © Fluent Inc.and 2nd-order time implicit discretizations (Euler) available for coupled and segregated solvers. use ∆t small enough to ensure convergence within 20 iterations. l 2nd order time-explicit discretization also available for coupled-explicit solver. ∆t.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Segregated/Transient u Transient solutions are possible with both segregated and coupled solvers.

2/23/01 . l For explicit time stepping. ∆τ. ∆t. Pseudo-time transient s At each physical-time level. s Pseudo-time derivative term is discretized: – explicitly in coupled-explicit solver. s Time step size. defined as with segregated solver.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Background: Coupled/Transient l If implicit scheme is selected. – implicitly in coupled-implicit solver. s Same time step size is used throughout domain (global time stepping). a pseudo-time transient is driven to zero through a series of inner iterations (dual time stepping). n n Physical-time transient s Physical-time derivative term is discretized implicitly (1st or 2nd order). s Courant number defines pseudo-time step size. physical-time derivative is discretized explicitly. n n Option only available with coupled-explicit solver Physical-time step size is defined by Courant number. E35 © Fluent Inc. two transient terms are included in discretization.

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Heat Transfer and Thermal Boundary Conditions Headlamp modeled with Discrete Ordinates Radiation Model F1 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Outline u u u u u u u Introduction Thermal Boundary Conditions Fluid Properties Conjugate Heat Transfer Natural Convection Radiation Periodic Heat Transfer F2 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

Convective term can also be included for moving solids.. simple conduction equation solved. 2/20/01 l Energy source due to viscous heating: n n l In solid regions. Often negligible s not included by default for segregated solver s always included for coupled solver.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Introduction u Energy transport equation is solved. Describes thermal energy created by viscous shear in the flow. lubrication) and/or in high-velocity. F3 © Fluent Inc. s Important when shear stress in fluid is large (e. compressible flows.g. subject to a wide range of thermal boundary conditions. n . n n Always included in coupled solver. l l Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows. Can be disabled in segregated solver. Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows.

Define Õ Models Õ Energy. Define thermal boundary conditions. Define Õ Materials. 4. 2. Define material properties for heat transfer. Viscous Heating in Viscous Model panel Diffusion Energy Source option in the Species Model panel Define Õ Boundary Conditions. l l Select the Enable Energy option in the Energy panel. Activate calculation of heat transfer. Enabling a temperature dependent density model... Enable appropriate options: l l 3. reacting flow model.. 2/20/01 . F4 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 User Inputs for Heat Transfer 1.. or a radiation model will toggle Enable Energy on without visiting this panel. l Heat capacity and thermal conductivity must be defined...

then add calculation of energy equation. Define Õ Models Õ Species. However.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Solution Process for Heat Transfer u u Many simple heat transfer problems can be successfully solved using default solution parameters. Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution. Compute isothermal flow first..... Disabling species diffusion term. Solve Õ Controls Õ Solution.. 2/20/01 .. you may accelerate convergence and/or improve the stability of the solution process by changing the options below: l l l Under-relaxation of energy equation. F5 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Theoretical Basis of Wall Heat Transfer u For laminar flows. fluid side heat transfer is approximated as: q ′′ = k ∂T ∂n ≈k wall ∆T ∆n n = local coordinate normal to wall u For turbulent flows: l Law of the wall is extended to treat wall heat flux. n The wall-function approach implicitly accounts for viscous sublayer. F6 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 . l The near-wall treatment is extended to account for viscous dissipation which occurs in the boundary layer of high-speed flows.

2/20/01 . At flow exits. “backflow” temperature is required. must supply fluid temperature. fluid temperature extrapolated from upstream value. At pressure outlets. F7 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Thermal Boundary Conditions at Flow Inlets and Exits u u u At flow inlets. where flow reversal may occur.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Thermal Conditions for Fluids and Solids u Can specify an energy source using Source Terms option. F8 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 .

2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Thermal Boundary Conditions at Walls u Use any of following thermal conditions at walls: l l l l l Specified heat flux Specified temperature Convective heat transfer External radiation Combined external radiation and external convective heat transfer F9 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Fluid Properties u Fluid properties such as heat capacity. density can be treated as: l l l l Constant (with optional Boussinesq modeling) Temperature-dependent Composition-dependent User Defined Function F10 © Fluent Inc. 2/20/01 . Alternately. conductivity. and viscosity can be defined as: l l l l l Constant Temperature-dependent Composition-dependent Computed by kinetic theory Computed by user-defined functions u u Density can be computed by ideal gas law.

coupled with convective heat transfer in fluid. 2/20/01 .Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Conjugate Heat Transfer u u Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids. Grid Velocity vectors Temperature contours Example: Cooling flow over fuel rods F11 © Fluent Inc. Coupled Boundary Condition: l available to wall zone that separates two cell zones.

F12 © Fluent Inc.Introduction u u u Natural convection occurs when heat is added to fluid and fluid density varies with temperature.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Natural Convection . 2/20/01 p ' = p − ρo gx . When gravity term is included. Flow is induced by force of gravity acting on density variation. pressure gradient and body force term is written as: ∂p ∂p ' − + ρg ⇒ − + ( ρ − ρo ) g ∂x ∂x where • This format avoids potential roundoff error when gravitational body force term is included.

Boussinesq Model u Makes simplifying assumption that density is uniform. F13 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Natural Convection . l Except for body force term in momentum equation. allows mass in volume to be defined. n u Natural convection problems inside closed domains: l Constant density. l l l Constant density assumptions reduces non-linearity. ρo. Boussinesq model or Ideal gas law can be used. For steady-state solver. Use when density variations are small. Initial conditions define mass in volume.. n . Cannot be used with species calculations or reacting flows. small variations in T). 2/20/01 l For unsteady solver.e. u Provides faster convergence for many natural-convection flows than by using fluid density as function of temperature. Boussinesq model must be used. which is replaced by: ( ρ − ρ 0 ) g = − ρ 0 β ( T − T0 ) g l Valid when density variations are small (i.

ideal gas or polynomial): n n Specify Operating Density or. Allow Fluent to calculate ρo from a cell average (default..g. (e. ρo. 2. Define Õ Operating Conditions.. β. Set Operating Temperature. Set boundary conditions. Define density model. 3. l If using temperature dependent model. every iteration). To..Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 User Inputs for Natural Convection 1. Define Õ Materials. F14 © Fluent Inc.. 2/20/01 . Set gravitational acceleration. l If using Boussinesq model: n n n Select boussinesq as the Density method and assign constant value. Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient..

l Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries links energy equation with RTE.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Radiation u Radiation intensity transport equations (RTE) are solved. Intensity along any direction can be reduced by: n n u Radiation intensity is directionally and spatially dependent. 2/20/01 . l Local absorption Out-scattering (scattering away from the direction) Local emission In-scattering (scattering into the direction) l Intensity along any direction can be augmented by: n n u Four radiation models are provided in FLUENT: l l l l Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM) Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) P-1 Radiation Model Rosseland Model (limited applicability) F15 © Fluent Inc.

Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization. 2/20/01 u Limitations: l . s ' )Φ ( s ⋅ s ' )dΩ ' 0 absorption u emission scattering Advantages: l l l l Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization. Banded-gray option for wavelength-dependent transmission. s ) = an + s 4π ∂xi π 4π ∫ I ( r . Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive. semi-transparent media. Accounts for scattering.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Discrete Ordinates Model u The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite solid angles: 4 ∂I s i σ 2 σT + (a + σ s )I (r . F16 © Fluent Inc. specular surfaces.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) u u Main assumption: radiation leaving surface element in a specific range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray. 2/20/01 u Limitations: l l l . Assumes all surfaces are diffuse. Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive. Uses ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray: dI σT 4 = −α I + α ds π u Advantages: l l l Relatively simple model. F17 © Fluent Inc. Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses. Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays. Effect of scattering not included.

and soot can be included. Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand. l l Only first term in this (rapidly converging) series used in P-1 model.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 P-1 Model u Main assumption: radiation intensity can be decomposed into series of spherical harmonics. if optical thickness is small. Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks. 2/20/01 u Advantages: l l l l u Limitations: l l l . Works reasonably well for combustion applications where optical thickness is large. Effects of particles. May result in loss of accuracy. Includes effect of scattering. depending on complexity of geometry. F18 © Fluent Inc. Assumes all surfaces are diffuse. droplets. Easily applied to complicated geometries with curvilinear coordinates.

Optical thickness: DTRM/DOM for optically thin media (optical thickness << 1)...Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Choosing a Radiation Model u For certain problems. P-1 better for optically thick media. Define Õ Models Õ Radiation. Particulate effects: P-1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas and particulates. l l l l l l Computational effort: P-1 gives reasonable accuracy with less effort. one radiation model may be more appropriate in general. Localized heat sources: DTRM/DOM with sufficiently large number of rays/ ordinates is more appropriate. 2/20/01 . Accuracy: DTRM and DOM more accurate. Scattering: P-1 and DOM account for scattering. F19 © Fluent Inc.

inflow outflow Outflow at one periodic boundary is inflow at the other F20 © Fluent Inc.g. 2/20/01 . Used when flow and heat transfer patterns are repeated.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Periodic Heat Transfer (1) u u Also known as streamwise-periodic or fully-developed flow. l l Compact heat exchangers Flow across tube banks u Geometry and boundary conditions repeat in streamwise direction.. e.

F21 © Fluent Inc.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Periodic Heat Transfer (2) u u u Temperature (and pressure) vary in streamwise direction. 2/20/01 . Scaled temperature (and periodic pressure) is same at periodic boundaries. scaled temperature defined as: T − Twall θ= Tb − Twall Tb = suitably defined bulk temperature u Can also model flows with specified wall heat flux. For fixed wall temperature problems.

Viscous heating only available with heat flux wall boundaries.Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Periodic Heat Transfer (3) u Periodic heat transfer is subject to the following constraints: l l l l l Either constant temperature or fixed flux bounds. Radiative heat transfer cannot be modeled. Properties cannot be functions of temperature. 2/20/01 . Conducting regions cannot straddle periodic plane. Contours of Scaled Temperature F22 © Fluent Inc.

Fluent Software Training TRN-99-003 Summary u u Heat transfer modeling is available in all Fluent solvers. you must provide: l l Thermal conditions at walls and flow boundaries Fluid properties for energy equation Species diffusion heat source Combustion heat source Conjugate heat transfer Natural convection Radiation Periodic heat transfer u Available heat transfer modeling options include: l l l l l l F23 © Fluent Inc. After activating heat transfer. 2/20/01 .