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1 I 2 II i ii 11 XI 12 XII xi xii 21 XXI 22 XXII xxi xxii 31 XXXI 32 XXXII xxxi xxxii 41 XLI 42 XLII Xli Xlii

3 III iii 4 IV iv 5 V v

13 XIII xiii 14 XIV xiv 15 XV xv

23 XXIII xxiii 24 XXIV xxiv 25 XXV xxv

33 XXXIII xxxiii 34 XXXIV xxxiv 35 XXXV xxxv

43 XLIII Xliii 44 XLIV Xliv 45 XLV Xlv

6 VI vi

16 XVI xvi

26 XXVI xxvi

36 XXXVI xxxvi

46 XLVI Xlvi

7 VII vii 17 XVII xvii 27 XXVII xxvii 37 XXXVII xxxvii 47 XLVII Xlvii 8 VIII viii 18 XVIII xviii 28 XXVIII xxviii 38 XXXVIII xxxviii 48 XLVIII Xlviii 9 IX ix 10 X x 19 XIX xix 20 XX xx 29 XXIX xxix 30 XXX xxx 39 XXXIX xxxix 40 XL Xl 49 XLIX Xlix 50 L L

Appendix 4.1

i g m 7: i s Ro Num ls .A i .2 A i .

It s ows t at t y ave different t inking. number develo ed by refers to all t e ountries way and form t e numbers like we use now. T e creation of t e symbol zero ( ) was actually a great contribution to t e develo ment of numbers.9. G . From t is. Egy t. try to write t e number .5. an instrument in social life as well as uman recreational activities. all numbers can be represented by using some or any of t e ten digits: .7. T us. lo of ou t y s g t t s of its ow . li b s o ou t y m t m t t its w ition. Wit t e symbol ( ). t e develo er of number now is easy for us to understand and to remember. l i g so logi lly tio lly. . mat ematics can be defined as a way of t inking. Are t eir ways of writing t is easier or more difficult? T e develo ed of number t at roduce now is number easy for t e businessman to calculate and write is rofit. t e businessman mig t suffer w en e want to calculate is rofit . O ly o l w o t i to y out om l uti s ffi i tly s t i s um mi ow to t i k o to s lo b g f om B. . o to t m t of wit goo m t m ti l skills ff ti ly. India and iddl East ad In at d t i own numb syst ms. Rom n. Bes ides.6. Refer to t e number t at we use now. . using various ancient civilisation systems.2.E. . et we t ink if we still use t e ancient numbers wit out its develo ed. . most of our digit is refer to t e Arabic Hindu. In s ort. T en. ina.o lusio A m ti bl m ti m ti y. y . an art and unique language. T e creation of symbol for zero ( ) is based on t e develo ment from t e Arabic ± Hindu system of number. study of patterns and relations ips.8.

Usually a certain symbol could not be repeated more than three times. its value is obtained by subtraction from the symbol of its bigger value. . and were probably changed gradually. Indeed. . for . such as numbering appendices in books. and on watches and clocks.HISTORY OF NU BER IN RO E T e Roman system of number ad been used in European ontinent for almost 2 years. 2. T e Romans used symbols for number . For numbers bigger t an . t ey are still in use today for certain purposes. the symbol for 5. If a certain symbols were situated by the right side to other symbols which was the same or less value. please refer to appendix 3. could have its origins in a representation of a hand held flat with the fingers together. If certain symbols are repeated. Thus. its value would be obtained by addition. and (5 ) from chi ( . to and . and mille ( ). could be a double V. 5. and X. . 5 . it use symbols to represent 5 . One theory is that it may have been based on the number 5. also written as ). number cannot be written as but must use For other examples. ( ) from phi ( ). Three of the other symbols could have come from Greek letters not needed in the early Roman alphabet: ( ) from theta ( ). 3. under the influence of the initials of the number words centum ( ). For example. If certain symbol is situated by the left side of another symbol which is bigger. and There were a few rules to write Roman number:. 5 and . then its value was obtained by addition with the value of these symbols. V. denoting dates in the credits of films and television programmes.

hinese inverted this decimal system as early 75 B. Pronunciation for the characters uses the standard Romanization scheme in hina called "pinyin". the hinese have several other systems of numerals. which are highly decorated versions of the common numerals used on documents to prevent fraud. and the "official" numerals. Since 955 it has been government policy to introduce Arabic numerals. the hinese first started to use vertical line (|) to represent and hyphen (²) to represent 5. including the "common" numerals (hsiaohsieh). Apart from the rod system. are quite simple. . subtraction. . It used for simple operations of addition. However.2 In general terms. and . the hinese system of numbers was a decimal system by way of adding the products of each group of digit with base . multiplication and division by using bamboo chips as calculation instruments. Refer to appendix . more than a thousand years earlier before the Arabic. in ancient times. derived from the wooden sticks used on counting boards. y y y ommon use Official use Business propose Refer to the appendix . In addition to the character shown above for zero. They used these bamboo chips to arrange numerals to 9 in various forms. a simple circle is also used.HISTORY OF NU BER IN HINA The system of numbers in hina is usually written in three ways . The number at the end of the pinyin indicates the tone.Hindu Numerals System was introduced to the west. The rod or stick numerals.

e. In the case of percents. It is easy to change a "one" into a "two" in regular characters. you only need "ten one" and not "one ten one". this is impossible. but only once for two or more consecutive zeroes. One -hundred is "one hundred". Twenty is "Two ten".g. To prevent fraud when writing checks and other cases where fraud is possible. So two-thirds would be "three fen1zhi1 two". but with the formal complex characters. . and three are just one. The characters for one. hinese uses the denominator followed by the two characters (fen1 zhi1. One hundred and eleven is "one hundred one ten one". hinese also uses a series of more complex characters for the numbers. To express fractions and percents. you need to say "zero". followed by the numerator. When a zero occurs in the number (except at the end). So one-thousand and one would be "one thousand zero one". just say hundred and not "one hundred". respectively.Eleven in hinese is "ten one". One hundred and one is "one hundred zero one". twenty-one is "two ten one" (2* + ). but when used in a larger number (such as ). "parts of"). The decimal point is expressed with the character (dian3). Regular hinese characters for numbers use relatively few strokes. Notice that for eleven alone. and so on up to 99. When used in percents. you would say "hundred fen1zhi1 amounts". and so on. Twelve is "ten two". two. you must add the extra "one". where zero stands in for the hundreds and tens places. An exception to this is for zeroes. the way to say 63% is "hundred fen1zhi1 six ten three". two and three parallel horizontal strokes.

r Asma Ahmad Shariff.Prof. 1991) A History of -Struik.. Teaching Elementary School earning Approach . athematics Semester 1 athematics :An Active . New York: over .arl B.(199 )Islamic Science and Engineering (Edinburgh University Press. athematics. irk J. ollege atriculation anaf.S. erch (1981). (Wiley. U.. Second Edition athematics. A oncise History of Publications.Harold H. (1987).REFEREN E . Fadzilah Abd. onald R. r. . University of Illinois at Urbana ± hampaign . r Ibrahim ohamed.A. (2 6).

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