The Seven Wonders

of the Ancient World

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World


power. Today.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Although most people know that a list exists of the Seven World Wonders. mythology. for it was destroyed with the Alexandria Library. some of which barely survived to the Middle Ages. archaeological evidence reveals some of the mysteries that surrounded the history of the Wonders for centuries. only few can name them. Greek historians wrote about the greatest monuments at the time. The first reference to the idea is found in History of Herodotus as long ago as the 5th century BC. Chief Librarian of the Alexandria Mouseion. they reflect the ability of humans to change the surrounding landscape by building massive yet beautiful structures. Others did not even co-exist. For their builders. Callimachus of Cyrene (305 BC–240 BC). art. The list comprised the seven most impressive monuments of the Ancient World. Decades later. For us. and Johann Fischer von Erlach's History of Architecture. [3] . and science. The final list of the Seven Wonders was compiled during the Middle Ages. Among the oldest references to the canonical list are the engravings by the Dutch artist Maerten van Heemskerck (1498–1574). the Seven Wonders were a celebration of religion. All we know about the collection is its title. The list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World was originally compiled around the second century BC. one of which stood the test of time to this very day. wrote "A Collection of Wonders around the World".

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World [4] .

size. a necropolis of ancient Memphis.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Great Pyramid of Giza It is the one and only Wonder which does not require a description by early historians and poets. It is the Great Pyramid of Giza. Later. and today part of Greater Cairo. is on top of the list of Wonders. Early pyramids. The tradition of pyramid building started in Ancient Egypt as a sophistication of the idea of a mastaba or "platform" covering the royal tomb. such as the Step Pyramid of King [5] . It is the oldest. not all three Great Pyramids. Location: At the city of Giza. History: Contrary to the common belief. several stacked mastabas were used. The monument was built by the Egyptian pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty around the year 2560 BC to serve as a tomb when he dies. only the Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops). and shape. Egypt. yet it is the only surviving of the Seven Ancient Wonders. It is the one and only Wonder that does not need speculations concerning its appearance.

the cathedrals of Florence and Milan.75 m (481 ft) high. Although it is not known how the blocks were put in place. in the touristic region of the Giza Plateau. Over the years. and west. together with the other pyramids and the Sphinx. It may also serve him as a means of transportation in his afterlife journey according to Ancient Egyptian beliefs. Throughout their history. It ranked as the tallest structure on Earth for more than 43 centuries. is the pyramid's entrance. the Great pyramid was 145. When Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798. This ramp. south. The structure consists of approximately 2 million blocks of stone.1%. it lost 10 m (30 ft) off its top. and Westminster and St Paul's in London combined. and blocks of stone were transported and placed. Each side is carefully oriented with one of the cardinal points of the compass. only to be surpassed in height in the nineteenth century AD. Description: When it was built. Also in the area is the museum housing the mysterious Sun Boat. The sloping angle of its sides is 54 degrees 54 minutes. (Soldiers! From the top of these Pyramids. The site was first prepared. east.3 m (1 ft) thick wall around France. his pride was expressed through his famous quote: "Soldats! Du haute de ces Pyramides. A second theory suggests that the blocks were placed using long levers with a short angled foot. The horizontal cross section of the pyramid is square at any level. The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20 year period. and [6] . galleries. eased the displacement of the blocks which were pushed (or pulled) into place. 0. A number of corridors. The boat is believed to have been used to carry the body of Khufu in his last journey on earth before being buried inside the pyramid. illustrate this connection. north.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Zoser (Djoser) at Saqqara by the famous Egyptian architect. An outer casing (which disappeared over the years) was then used to smooth the surface. It was covered with a casing of stones to smooth its surface (some of the casing can still be seen near the top of Khefre's pyramid). The area covered by the Great pyramid can accommodate St Peter's in Rome. 40 centuries are looking at us) Today. They were referred to as "The Granaries of Joseph" and "The Mountains of Pharaoh". It has been suggested that there are enough blocks in the three pyramids to build a 3 m (10 ft) high. One theory involves the construction of a straight or spiral ramp that was raised as the construction proceeded. The maximum error between side lengths is astonishingly less than 0. coated with mud and water. On the north face. Imhotep. the Great Pyramid is enclosed. each weighing more than two tons. 40 sičcles nous contemplent". only discovered in 1954 near the south side of the pyramid. with each side measuring 229 m (751 ft) in length. the pyramids of Giza have stimulated human imagination. that is. several theories have been proposed.

and is only about 1 cm smaller in dimensions than the chamber entrance. The King's sarcophagus is made of red granite.. like many smaller pyramids in the region. 2.. The overwhelming scientific and historic evidence still supports the conclusion that. It might have been introduced as the structure was progressing. only accessible through the Great Gallery and an ascending corridor.. and Menkaure could start their mystic journey to the afterlife. a card won't fit between them... [7] . Astronomic observatories..The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World escape shafts either lead to the King's burial chamber.. New theories concerning the origin and purpose of the Pyramids of Giza have been proposed. The King's chamber is located at the heart of the pyramid. Tombs where Khufu.3 m (4 ft) thick... Geometric structures constructed by a long-gone civilization. The sarcophagus is oriented in accordance with the compass directions. Even extraterrestrial-related theories have been proposed with little evidence in support... the Great Pyramids were built by the great Ancient Egyptian civilization off the West bank of the Nile as tombs for their magnificent Kings.. or were intended to serve other functions. as are the interior walls of the King's Chamber. Khefre. Places of cult worship.4 m (8 feet) high and 1. Most impressive is the sharp-edged stone over the doorway which is over 3 m (10 ft) long. All of the interior stones fit so well.

[8] .. It is said that the Gardens were built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his wife or concubine who had been "brought up in Media and had a passion for mountain surroundings".. Exotic animals.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Hanging Gardens of Babylon Fruits and flowers. His son. It was not until the reign of Naboplashar (625–605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian dynasty that the Mesopotamian civilization reached its ultimate glory. This is the picture of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon in most people's minds... about 50 km south of Baghdad. Waterfalls. Iraq.. Nebuchadnezzar II (604–562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens.. It may be surprising to know that they might have never existed except in Greek poets and historians imagination! Location: On the east bank of the River Euphrates... Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC). Gardens hanging from the palace terraces. History: The Babylonian kingdom flourished under the rule of the famous King.

they were impressed. Here are some excerpts from their accounts: "The Garden is quadrangular. About the Tower of Babel and the ziggurats. And it was the imagination of poets and ancient historians that blended all these elements together to produce one of the World Wonders.. A group of archaeologists surveyed the area of the southern palace and reconstructed the Vaulted Building as the Hanging Gardens. and the walls are found. So others argue that the site is too [9] . When they later returned to their rugged homeland.. their irrigation system. The ascent of the uppermost terrace-roofs is made by a stairway. although descriptions of his palace.. Modern historians argue that when Alexander's soldiers reached the fertile land of Mesopotamia and saw Babylon. Babylonian records stay silent on the matter.. and their true appearance. These waters irrigate the whole garden saturating the roots of plants and keeping the whole area moist..." "The Hanging Garden has plants cultivated above ground level. and the roots of the trees are embedded in an upper terrace rather than in the earth.. Archaeologists are still struggling to gather enough evidence before reaching the final conclusions about the location of the Gardens. It consists of arched vaults which are located on checkered cube-like foundations. the Greek historian Strabo had stated that the gardens were situated by the River Euphrates. Other findings include the Vaulted Building with thick walls and an irrigation well near the southern palace. Streams of water emerging from elevated sources flow down sloping channels. It wasn't until the twentieth century that some of the mysteries surrounding the Hanging Gardens were revealed. This is a work of art of royal luxury and its most striking feature is that the labor of cultivation is suspended above the heads of the spectators". More recent archaeological excavations at the ancient city of Babylon in Iraq uncovered the foundation of the palace. Description: Detailed descriptions of the Gardens come from ancient Greek sources. and each side is four plethra long.. The whole mass is supported on stone columns. Hence the grass is permanently green and the leaves of trees grow firmly attached to supple branches. the city of Babylon. Tablets from the time of Nebuchadnezzar do not have a single reference to the Hanging Gardens.. including the writings of Strabo and Philo of Byzantium. they had stories to tell about the amazing gardens and palm trees at Mesopotamia.. Even the historians who give detailed descriptions of the Hanging Gardens never saw them. About the palace of Nebuchadnezzar..The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World While the most descriptive accounts of the Gardens come from Greek historians such as Berossus and Diodorus Siculus. However.

. They reconstructed the site of the palace and located the Gardens in the area stretching from the River to the Palace. On the river banks.. [10] . recently discovered massive walls 25 m thick may have been stepped to form terraces. the ones described in Greek references.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World far from the Euphrates to support the theory since the Vaulted Building is several hundreds of meters away.

It was not just a temple. [11] .The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Temple of Artemis at Epheseus Is it simply a temple? How could it take its place among other unique structures such as the Pyramid. History: Although the foundation of the temple dates back to the seventh century BC. Location: The ancient city of Ephesus near the modern town of Selcuk. it was sponsored by the Lydian king Croesus and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. the Hanging Gardens.. the structure that earned a spot in the list of Wonders was built around 550 BC.. and the Colossus of Rhodes? For the people who actually visited it. It was built in honor of the Greek goddess of hunting and wild nature. Polycleitus. or temple D. That was the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus.. about 50 km south of Izmir (Smyrna) in Turkey. It was decorated with bronze statues sculpted by the most skilled artists of their time: Pheidias. the answer was simple. It was the most beautiful structure on earth.. Referred to as the great marble temple.

There were 127 columns in total. and Phradmon. The temple housed many works of art. Strangely enough. For years. The temple served as both a marketplace and a religious institution. tourists.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Kresilas. bracelets. And when Alexander the Great conquered Asia Minor. and only in the late nineteenth century has the site been excavated. Marble steps surrounding the building platform led to the high terrace which was approximately 80 m (260 ft) by 130 m (430 ft) in plan. When St Paul visited Ephesus to preach Christianity in the first century AD. von Erlach depicted the [12] . artifacts from as far as Persia and India. earrings. including four ancient bronze statues of Amazons sculpted by the finest artists at the time. and was decorated with paintings. the building was made of marble. he was confronted by the Artemis' cult who had no plans to abandon their goddess. but there is no reason not to believe so. The digging revealed the temple's foundation and the road to the now swampy site. and kings who paid homage to the goddess by sharing their profits with her.. but only a few columns have been re-erected. By the fourth century AD. F. The Roman historian Plutarch later wrote that the goddess was "too busy taking care of the birth of Alexander to send help to her threatened temple".. with a decorated façade overlooking a spacious courtyard. the Ephesians vowed to rebuild. Unlike other sanctuaries. artisans. Recent archeological excavations at the site revealed gifts from pilgrims including statuettes of Artemis made of gold and ivory. The final chapter came when in AD 401 the Temple of Artemis was torn down by St John Chrysostom. a man named Herostratus burned the temple to ground in an attempt to immortalize his name. Description: The foundation of the temple was rectangular in form.. the sanctuary was visited by merchants. And when the temple was again destroyed by the Goths in AD 262. He did indeed. and necklaces. Alexander the Great was born the same night. the temple was restored and is labeled "temple E" by archeologists. On the night of 21 July 356 BC. similar to most temples at the time. except for the central cella or house of the goddess.. he helped rebuild the destroyed temple. Ephesus was later deserted. Many reconstructions such as that by H. The columns were 20 m (60 ft) high with Ionic capitals and carved circular sides. Attempts were recently made to rebuilt the temple. the temple was adorned with golden pillars and silver statuettes. The early detailed descriptions of the temple helped archeologists reconstruct the building. Over the next two decades. however. When St Paul visited the city. aligned orthogonally over the whole platform area. There is no evidence that a statue of the goddess herself was placed at the center of the sanctuary. most Ephesians had converted to Christianity and the temple lost its religious glamor.

More accurate reconstructions may give us an idea about the general layout of the temple.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World façade with a four-column porch which never existed. its true beauty lies in the architectural and artistic details which will forever remain unknown. [13] . However.

[14] . on the west coast of modern Greece. Under the growing power of ancient Greece. and athletes came from Asia Minor. The Athenian sculptor Pheidias was assigned for the "sacred" task. for the Olympic games are believed to have started that year. History: The ancient Greek calendar starts in 776 BC. and modifications were needed. At the time of the games. Location: At the ancient town of Olympia. The solution: A majestic statue. and Sicily to celebrate the Olympics and to worship their king of gods: Zeus. reminiscent of Michelangelo's paintings at the Sistine Chapel.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Statue of Zeus at Olympia This is the statue of the god in whose honor the Ancient Olympic games were held. The magnificent temple of Zeus was designed by the architect Libon and was built around 450 BC. It was located on the land that gave its very name to the Olympics. the simple Doric-style temple seemed too mundane. wars stopped. about 150 km west of Athens. Egypt. Syria.

the foundation of the buildings. He has shown Zeus seated. After the Olympic games were banned in AD 391 by the emperor Theodosius I as Pagan practices. Olympia was further struck by earthquakes. His sandals are made of gold. he had developed a technique to build enormous gold and ivory statues. so that we have the impression that if Zeus moved to stand up he would unroof the temple. There. However. not criticized. There. Strabo wrote: ".The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World For the years that followed.. The base of the statue was about 6. It is this size impression that made the statue so wonderful. but with the head almost touching the ceiling. although the temple itself is very large. It is the idea that the king of gods is capable of unroofing the temple if he stood up that fascinated poets and historians alike. In his left hand. the statue had been transported by wealthy Greeks to a palace in Constantinople. Artemis. the Roman emperor Caligula attempted to transport the statue to Rome. Description: Pheidias began working on the statue around 440 BC. he sculpted and carved the different pieces of the statue before they were assembled in the temple. his attempt failed when the scaffolding built by Caligula's workmen collapsed.. except that the sculptor is to be commended. The height of the statue itself was 13 m (40 ft). Pheidias' workshop in Olympia still exists. The throne is [15] . landslides and floods. Greek gods and mythical figures also adorned the scene: Apollo.. as is his robe. and the temple was damaged by fire in the fifth century AD. His garments are carved with animals and with lilies. and Niobe's children. Today nothing remains at the site of the old temple except rocks and debris. Years earlier.0 meter (3 ft) high. and is coincidentally – or may be not – identical in size and orientation to the temple of Zeus. The legs of the throne were decorated with sphinxes and winged figures of Victory. he holds a sceptre inlaid with every kind of metal. and fallen columns. The Greek Pausanias wrote: On his head is a sculpted wreath of olive sprays. Earlier. In the first century AD. the temple attracted visitors and worshippers from all over the world. with an eagle perched on the sceptre. In his right hand he holds a figure of Victory made from ivory and gold. the sculptor is criticized for not having appreciated the correct proportions. equivalent to a modern 4-story building." Strabo was right.5 m (20 ft) wide and 1. it barely fitted in the temple. it survived until it was destroyed by a severe fire in AD 462. the temple of Zeus was ordered closed. The statue was so high that visitors described the throne more than Zeus body and features. When the statue was completed. In the second century BC repairs were skillfully made to the aging statue. This was done by erecting a wooden frame on which sheets of metal and ivory were placed to provide the outer covering.

[16] .The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World decorated with gold. survived to the present day. Early reconstructions such as the one by von Erlach are now believed to be rather inaccurate. however. and ivory. the most notable of these gifts was a woollen curtain "adorned with Assyrian woven patterns and Pheonician dye" which was dedicated by the Syrian king Antiochus IV. For us. we can only wonder about the true appearance of the statue – the greatest work in Greek sculpture. including a large prototype at Cyrene (Libya). Copies of the statue were made. ebony. precious stones. The statue was occasionally decorated with gifts from kings and rulers. None of them.

History: When the Persians expanded their ancient kingdom to include Mesopotamia. the king could not control his vast empire without the help of local governors or rulers – the Satraps. in south-west Turkey. Halicarnassus) on the Aegean Sea. k. Like many other provinces. we are now visiting the burial place of an ancient king. Geographically. And it was the beauty of the tomb rather than its size that fascinated its visitors for years. Northern India.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus Similar to the Great Pyramid. it is closer to the Temple of Artemis. Location: In the city of Bodrum (f.. a.. and Asia Minor. Egypt. the kingdom of Caria in the western part of Asia Minor (Turkey) was so far from the Persian capital that it was practically autonomous. Yet the Mausoleum is different – so different from the Pyramid that it earned its reputation – and a spot within the list – for other reasons. Syria. From 377 to 353 BC. king [17] .

The beauty of the Mausoleum is not only in the structure itself. with base dimensions of about 40 m (120 ft) by 30 m (100 ft). The Mausoleum was completed around 350 BC. For 16 centuries. and one year after Artemisia's. The total height of the Mausoleum was 45 m (140 ft). and 6 m (20 ft) for the chariot statue at the top. each responsible for one side. three years after Maussollos death. 7 m (22 ft) for the pyramid. This is broken down into 20 m (60 ft) for the stepped podium. and the construction might have started during the king's lifetime. When they decided to fortify it in 1494. These include fragment of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. The burial chamber and the sarcophagus of white alabaster decorated with gold were located on the podium and surrounded by Ionic columns. but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof. Description: The structure was rectangular in plan. Some of the sculptures survived and are today on display at the British Museum in London. Scopas. archeological excavations have been undertaken at the Mausoleum site. The colonnade supported a pyramid roof which was in turn decorated with statues. Overlying the foundation was a stepped podium which sides were decorated with statues. only the foundation remains of the once magnificent Wonder. Today. The statues were carved by four Greek sculptors: Bryaxis. Since the nineteenth century. [18] . and Timotheus. almost every block of the Mausoleum had been disassembled and used for construction. These were tens of life-size as well as under and over life-size free-standing statues of people. Leochares. the Mausoleum holds a special place in histroy as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece. In the early fifteenth century.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Mausollos of Caria reigned and moved his capital to Halicarnassus. they used the stones of the Mausoleum. and other animals. At the site of the Mausoleum itself. These excavations together with detailed descriptions by ancient historians give us a fairly good idea about the shape and appearance of the Mausoleum. By 1522. Nothing is exciting about Maussollos life except the construction of his tomb. the Mausoleum remained in good condition until an earthquake caused some damage to the roof and colonnade. and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted within the walls of the structure. A statue of a chariot pulled by four horses adorned the top of the tomb. the Knights of St John of Malta invaded the region and built a massive crusader castle. the massive castle still stands in Bodrum. horses. lions. Because the statues were of people and animals. 12 m (38 ft) for the colonnade. The project was conceived by his wife and sister Artemisia.

.. a building for a King whose name is celebrated in all large tombs today – mausoleums.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World A modern reconstruction of the shorter side of the Mausoleum illustrates the lavish nature of the art and architecture of the building. [19] .

"But even lying on the ground. Rhodes. In 408 BC. Yet the colossus earned a place in the famous list of Wonders. besieged Rhodes in an [20] . Location: At the entrance of the harbor of the Mediterranean island of Rhodes in Greece. The Colossus of Rhodes was not only a gigantic statue. the Antigonids of Macedonia who were also rivals of the Ptolemies. On the small island of Rhodes were three of these: Ialysos. ancient Greece was comprised of city-states which had limited power beyond their boundary. In 305 BC.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Colossus of Rhodes From its building to its destruction lies a time span of merely 56 years. The city thrived commercially and had strong economic ties with their main ally. with a unified capital. Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. Kamiros. and Lindos. the cities united to form one territory. said Pliny the Elder. History: Throughout most of its history. It was rather a symbol of unity of the people who inhabited that beautiful Mediterranean island – Rhodes. it is a marvel".

until a strong earthquake hit Rhodes about 226 BC. Although it disappeared from existence. the statue laid broken in ruins. Given the height of the statue and the width of the harbor mouth. In AD 654. The base was made of white marble. For almost a millennium. Recent studies suggest that it was erected either on the eastern promontory of the Mandraki harbor. or even further inland. It has long been believed that the Colossus stood in front of the Mandraki harbor. and the feet and ankle of the statue were first fixed.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World attempt to break the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance. They could never penetrate the city. It is said that the fragments had to be transported to Syria on the backs of 900 camels. [21] . and the Colossus was broken at its weakest point – the knee. the fallen Colossus would have blocked the harbor entrance. straddling its entrance. modern reconstructions with the statue standing upright are more accurate than older drawings. his workers cast the outer bronze skin parts. The construction of the Colossus took 12 years and was finished in 282 BC. When the colossus was finished. wrote Pliny. the Arabs invaded Rhodes. an oracle was consulted and forbade the re-erection. The structure was gradually erected as the bronze form was fortified with an iron and stone framework. For years. the statue stood at the harbor entrance. When a peace agreement was reached in 304 BC. one of many in the city of Rhodes. the Antagonids lifted the siege. Anyway. To build the statue. The Rhodians received an immediate offer from Ptolemy III Eurgetes of Egypt to cover all restoration costs for the toppled monument. the Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect an enormous statue of their sun god. "few people can make their arms meet round the thumb". it did never straddle the harbor entrance. Description: Let us first clear a misconception about the appearance of the Colossus. They disassembled the remains of the broken Colossus and sold them to a Jew from Syria. Although we do not know the true shape and appearance of the Colossus. Moreover. The project was commissioned by the Rhodian sculptor Chares of Lindos. To celebrate their unity. Helios. To reach the higher parts. Ptolemy's offer was declined. leaving a wealth of military equipment behind. And when it fell. the ancient World Wonder inspired modern artists such as French sculptor Auguste Bartholdi best known by his famous work: The Statue of Liberty. an earth ramp was built around the statue and was later removed. this picture is rather impossible than improbable. it stood about 33 m (110 ft) high. However. The city was badly damaged.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World [22] .

Location: On the ancient island of Pharos. it was the mysterious mirror that fascinated them most. The mirror which reflection could be seen more than 50 km (35 miles) off-shore. it meant even more: it was the tallest building on Earth. History: Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great. his commander Ptolemy Soter assumed power in Egypt. Off of the city's coast lies a small island: Pharos. is a variation of Pharaoh's Island. For sailors. The island was connected to the [23] . only one had a practical use in addition to its architectural elegance: The Lighthouse of Alexandria. He had witnessed the founding of Alexandria. now a promontory within the city of Alexandria in Egypt.. it ensured a safe return to the Great Harbor. And for scientists. and established his capital there.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World The Lighthouse of Alexandria Of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. legend says. For architects.. Its name.

during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphus. Ancient accounts such as those by Strabo and Pliny the Elder give us a brief description of the "tower" and the magnificent white marble cover. the Lighthouse of Alexandria (occasionally referred to as the Pharos Lighthouse) was used to mark the harbor. When the mirror was brought down mistakenly. Abou-Haggag Al-Andaloussi visited the Lighthouse.9 m (183. 55. but detailed calculations for the structure and its accessories were carried out at the Alexandria Library/Mouseion. When the Arabs conquered Egypt. but was completed after his death. just as famous monuments are depicted on currency today. He documented a wealth of information and an gave accurate description of the structure which helped modern archeologists reconstruct the monument. savior) and his wife Berenice. Description: Of the six vanished Wonders.4 ft) high with a cylindrical [24] . decided to fortify Alexandria's defense. The project was conceived and initiated by Ptolemy Soter around 290 BC. Therefore we have adequately accurate knowledge of its location and appearance. In AD 956. They tell us how the mysterious mirror could reflect the light tens of kilometers away. It was even shown on Roman coins. was the architect. an earthquake shook Alexandria. using fire at night and reflecting sun rays during the day. The final chapter in the history of the Lighthouse came in AD 1480 when the Egyptian Mamelouk Sultan. He built a medieval fort on the same spot where the Lighthouse once stood. In 1166. an Arab traveler. For centuries. The monument was dedicated to the Savior Gods: Ptolemy Soter (lit. Legend says the mirror was also used to detect and burn enemy ships before they could reach the shore. and caused little damage to the Lighthouse. Qaitbay. they did not restore it back into place. It was later in 1303 and in 1323 that two stronger earthquakes left a significant impression on the structure. they admired Alexandria and its wealth. But the new rulers moved their capital to Cairo since they had no ties to the Mediterranean. a contemporary of Euclid. The Lighthouse continues to be mentioned in their writings and travelers accounts. the Lighthouse of Alexandria was the last to disappear. using the fallen stone and marble.The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World mainland by means of a dike – the Heptastadion – which gave the city a double harbor. And because of dangerous sailing conditions and flat coastline in the region. It was composed of three stages: The lowest square. When the famous Arab traveler Ibn Battuta visited Alexandria in 1349. the construction of a lighthouse was necessary. he could not enter the ruinous monument or even climb to its doorway. Sostratus.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World core. Although the Lighthouse of Alexandria did not survive to the present day. the mirror reflected sunlight during the day while fire was used during the night. the monument has been used as a model for many prototypes along the Mediterranean. a statue of Poseidon adorned the summit of the building.0 ft) high. At the top stage.1 ft). equivalent to a 40story modern building. as far away as Spain. the middle octagonal with a side length of 18. it left its influence in various respects. From an architectural standpoint. [25] . and the third circular 7.30 m (60. The total height of the building including the foundation base was about 117 m (384 ft).45 m (90..30 m (24. And from a linguistic standpoint..0 ft) and a height of 27. it gave its name – Pharos – to all the lighthouses in the world. The internal core was used as a shaft to lift the fuel needed for the fire. In ancient times. Just look up the dictionary for the French. or Spanish word for lighthouse. Italian.

The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ecHo® [26] .