Nicole Holliday Sign language notebook

Imagine you're at a party and a friend comes up to you with a person you haven't met before. You say, "Hi! Nice to meet you." The person smiles at you and makes a series of gestures that look like this:

The person has just said "Nice to meet you" in American Sign Language (ASL), the language used by members of the Deaf community in the United States and Canada. Today you will learn about the Deaf community and how ASL is one of the most important parts of Deaf culture. You will also learn about some of the historical figures who brought about tremendous change within the community and explore the similarities and differences between the Deaf and hearing communities. Objectives • • • • Define Deaf culture Define Deaf community Identify key cultural norms in the Deaf community Identify unique characteristics of the Deaf culture

Key Words The following Key Words will be defined as we go through this lesson. Write down each word or term in a notebook, leaving several lines between them so you can add definitions later. • • • • • "Big D" deaf/ "Little d" deaf American Sign Language (ASL) Deaf community Deaf culture Helen Keller

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• Deaf Community

As you read about Deaf culture, write down the definitions for the Key Words list in your notebook. There are no definite figures for how many Americans are deaf or hard of hearing, but the number is certainly in the tens of millions. This includes people who were born deaf or with limited ability to hear and people who have lost their hearing over time. But not all people who are deaf are members of the Deaf community, and not all members of the Deaf community have difficulty hearing.
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• Big D/Little d

Throughout this course you will notice that sometimes the word "deaf" appears with a capital D. A person who cannot hear is deaf with a small "d." If that person's primary language is American Sign Language, has attended schools and universities for the deaf, and shares the values, beliefs, and traditions of similar people, that person will generally consider himself or herself to be Deaf with a capital D. This group is the heart of the Deaf community. This community can also include families, friends, teachers, and interpreters—even if these people are able to hear—to the extent they use ASL, share in the beliefs of the group, and are accepted by other members of the Deaf community. For example, a deaf couple may have a hearing child who grows up fluent in ASL. The child would be considered part of the Deaf community, while a person who is deaf but never learned ASL or is not fluent in it may not be part of the community.* It is very important to understand that the Deaf community does not view their deafness as a disability or a problem that needs to be fixed. For this reason most object to the term "hearing impaired." In fact, most say they prefer to remain deaf. They work in all fields and most are bilingual, able to communicate in both ASL and English. (As you'll discover in this course, ASL is not "English with hand movements" but a completely separate language with its own grammar and syntax.) There are many famous members of the Deaf community, including actress Marlee Matlin, who won on Academy Award for Best Actress in 1987, and Heather Whitestone, who was crowned Miss America in 1994. *For the purposes of this lesson The Deaf community refers primarily to the American Deaf community. There are Deaf communities around the world that use sign languages other than ASL
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Throughout this course you will notice that sometimes the word "deaf" appears with a capital D. A person who cannot hear is deaf with a small "d." If that person's primary language is American Sign Language, has attended schools and universities for the deaf, and shares the values, beliefs, and traditions of similar people, that person will generally consider himself or herself to be Deaf with a capital D. This group is the heart of the Deaf community. This community can also include families, friends, teachers, and interpreters—even if these people are able to hear— to the extent they use ASL, share in the beliefs of the group, and are accepted by other members of the Deaf community. For example, a deaf couple may have a hearing child who grows up fluent in ASL. The child would be considered part of the Deaf community, while a person who is deaf but never learned ASL or is not fluent in it may not be part of the community.* It is very important to understand that the Deaf community does not view their deafness as a disability or a problem that needs to be fixed. For this reason most object to the term "hearing impaired." In fact, most say they prefer to remain deaf. They work in all fields and most are bilingual, able to communicate in both ASL and English. (As you'll discover in this course, ASL is not "English with hand movements" but a completely separate language with its own grammar and syntax.) There are many famous members of the Deaf community, including actress Marlee Matlin, who won on Academy Award for Best Actress in 1987, and Heather Whitestone, who was crowned Miss America in 1994. *For the purposes of this lesson The Deaf community refers primarily to the American Deaf community. There are Deaf communities around the world that use sign languages other than ASL
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Deaf Culture
There are many different cultures around the world. People with shared experiences, beliefs, traditions, and behaviors come together and from that a culture is formed. A shared language is the way a culture is celebrated and passed on. Over the centuries the American Deaf community has developed its own unique culture based on American Sign Language. The arts have flourished in the Deaf community with Deaf theater, Deaf poetry readings, and Deaf comedy. Storytelling in ASL is a highly valued part of Deaf culture. Most people acquire their culture through their families. This is often not true of Deaf culture. That's because deaf children usually don't have deaf parents. Instead, the Deaf community comes together to pass on its traditions from one generation to the next. This usually begins at residential schools for the deaf (where students live on campus). Here deaf children can communicate easily with one another through ASL, learn to take pride in their many abilities, participate in sports and the arts, and see Deaf role models on a daily basis. Many go on to universities like Gallaudet, the only liberal art university in the country designed specifically for the deaf and hard of hearing. A very high percentage of Deaf people marry other Deaf people. Part of Deaf culture is what happens when Deaf people meet. When hearing people meet for the first time, they might exchange names and little else. When Deaf people meet they share a lot of personal information: which schools they went to, which organizations they belong to, and the

shrugging our shoulders. communicating in sign language was often forbidden because educators felt students need to learn to speak English and only English. What is ASL? . In what became known as the "Deaf President Now" campaign. Deaf culture burst into the headlines in 1988. In the end. Gallaudet University has always had a hearing president. giving something a thumbs up or a thumbs down. Where hearing people might leave one another with a quick "See ya. students demanded not only that the Board appoint a Deaf president but that the Board be changed to require it to have a majority of Deaf members. Objectives • • • • Define ASL Identify elements of signed language Track dates and events in the introduction of sign language education to America Name key contributors to deaf education in America Key Words The following Key Words will be defined as we go through this lesson. ASL became the accepted way for the Deaf to communicate. But signing is as natural to deaf children as talking is to hearing children. "The Deaf can do anything except hear. King Jordan the first Deaf president of Gallaudet. or Japanese—with rules for how signs are put together to form sentences. When the Board of Trustees announced the appointment of another new president who could hear. Make sure to pay close attention to the specific events and people who introduced sign language to America." Deaf people may spend an hour or more hugging and talking about when they'll meet again. The Deaf community has overcome many challenges. leaving several lines between them so you can add definitions later. In this lesson you'll learn more about the beginnings of ASL and some of the early contributors to deaf education. • • • American Sign Language (ASL) Gallaudet University • Top of Form Read the following information." Top of Form People who are not able to communicate verbally have been finding other ways to communicate for longer than anyone can remember. Spanish. American Sign Language takes the ability to express oneself through hand movements. we all use gestures and facial expressions that are almost universally understood: smiles.names of friends and family members who are Deaf. Deaf students took over the campus. In fact. In the early days of Deaf education. Deaf people also joke about the amount of time it takes them to say goodbye. frowns. In Jordan's words. Six days later the Board agreed to name I. Write down each word or term in a notebook. Up until that time. gestures and expressions and turns it into a complete language—just like English. The protest captured national media attention.

000 of those people are using it as their primary means of communication. Abbe Roche Ambroise Sicard. plus the signs that were already being used by deaf people in America evolved into what is now known as American Sign Language or ASL. ASL is not just waving your hands in the air. which had been founded in 1771.• • • • • • • • • • One of the most common forms of communication for deaf people in North America is known as American Sign Language. In 1960. It is a unique language with its own rules for grammar and usage. the first American school for the deaf. Gallaudet took an interest in teaching the girl and succeeded at teaching her a few words. eyes. He approached a number of program directors in England. Jean Massieu and Laurent Clerc. literally from A (Austria) to Z (Zimbabwe). In 1815 Gallaudet headed for Europe in search of methods for teaching the deaf. According to a recent study. Dr. There are dozens of distinct sign languages that have been developed in different parts of the world. Mason Cogswell. ASL History In the early 1800s. The units of American Sign Language (ASL) are made up of exact movements. glance in a certain direction. shapes of the hand. and body posture. the signs used at that school. Although it has been around since the 19th century. This does not mean. however. The Paris school. was established in the city of Hartford. helping to establish ASL an official language.) Over time. and at least 500. a hearing minister and a graduate of Yale University. you are adding or changing meaning in ASL. (At one time the word "dumb" referred to a person who was not able to speak. William Stokoe published Sign Language Structure: An Outline of the Visual Communication Systems of the American Deaf. but none of them was willing to share their techniques. the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons. ASL is a “visual-gestural” language. This term is no longer used. If you furrow your eyebrows. Gallaudet persuaded Clerc to return with him to the United States and on April 15. head. that it is the only form of sign language used globally. The girl's father. was using French Sign Language in combination with a set of methodically developed signs. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. Connecticut. They were in England giving demonstrations on how to teach the deaf by using sign language. . who were also teachers at the school in Paris. puff your cheeks. which showed the complexity of structure and completeness of ASL. as well as the movements of arms. Sicard was there with two of his deaf pupils. or any number of other inflections. A "visualgestural" language carries just as much information as an oral/aural (mouth/ear) language. Fortunately while in England Gallaudet met up with the director of a Paris school for the deaf. A definition for American Sign Language also appeared for the first time in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in 1960. ASL is currently the third most commonly used language in the United States behind English and Spanish. face. ASL has only been recognized as a language since the early 1960s. That means it is a language that is expressed through the hands and face and is perceived through the eyes. Experts estimate that over 2 million people in the United States use ASL on a daily basis. tilt your head. encouraged Gallaudet to become involved with the establishment of a school for the deaf. 1817. Much of the vocabulary of ASL can be traced back to French Sign Language roots. twist your body a certain way. met and became friends with a young deaf girl named Alice.

5. 50. A. 2. there was a large community of deaf people there. an island off the southeastern coast of Massachusetts. Fact 1. Using the ten statements below. Inflection in ASL comes mainly from how fast users move their hands. 3. J. 2. 3. B. There are five fact statements and five fiction statements. Beginning in the late 1600s. separate what is fact (true) from what is fiction (false) by putting the corresponding letter in the correct column. ASL was created on Martha's Vineyard. 4. Many of the signs used in French Sign Language were adopted by ASL. American Sign Language is the third most commonly used language in the United States. E. I. 5. A definition of American Sign Language first appeared in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary in 1960. One example took place in Martha's Vineyard. G. Answer Key: Fiction 1. D. Directors of English programs for the deaf were eager to help Hopkins. Austria and Zimbabwe have their own sign languages. F. 4. and almost all of the townsfolk knew how to sign whether or not they were deaf! • • Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form • • Bottom of Form • Here's a chance to review your knowledge of ASL.000 people use ASL as their primary means of communication in the United States.It is important to note that sign language was being used in America before Gallaudet and Clerc set up the school. H. C. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was inspired to teach deaf children by his friendship with Alice Cogswell. . A visual-gestural language means one that is expressed through the mouth and interpreted through the ears.

Objectives • • Describe conventions used to transcribe ASL Use transcription conventions to translate written text into ASL sentences Key Words • • • basic sentence structure conventions sentence markers Top of Form Throughout the course the following sentence markers will be used to indicate different types of sentences. it will indicate the formation of a question. Specific behaviors are used to identify the topic in the sentence. Example: COFFEE BLACK SHE LIKE (She likes black coffee.) 2. but for this course it is important to use a system that demonstrates ASL in written English. Example: GRANDFATHER HAVE CHAIR (Does grandfather have a chair?) 3.) . it will indicate the formation of a negative sentence. When the marker _________n___________ is placed over a sentence. J Top of Form American Sign Language is not a written language. C 2. F 4. as well as to identify features of a sentence. H 5. B 3. (I don’t remember the girl. G 5.Fact 1. In this lesson we will introduce a system of symbols and writing that will be used throughout the course to help you understand how ASL is formed. When the marker _______q________ is placed over a sentence. 1. D 3. E 4. it will indicate the sentence topic is intensified with a topic marker. Example: I REMEMBER GIRL NOT I. When the marker _______t________ is placed over a sentence. A 2. I Fiction 1.

Top of Form The following conventions. Specific behaviors are used with the signs to identify the sentence as a “wh” question. Example: GIRL 2. Example: DON’T-MIND 3. This type of question is called a wh question and will use signs such as WHO. Example: SHE HAVE YOUR BOOK? YES. WHY. The marker ______y_________ represents an affirmative (yes) response to a yes/no question. Example: G-E-O-R-G-E . HOW. A word written in all capital letters represents a single sign in American Sign Language. WHAT. WHEN. The marker ________whq_______ will be used to indicate the sentence is a specific type of question.4. Two or more words written in capital letters and joined by hyphens also represent a single American Sign Language sign. HAVE SHE We will discuss these markers in more detail as we encounter them in the lessons. will be used in this course: 1. WHERE. and WHAT-FOR. WHICH. Example: YOUR CAR WHERE? (Where is your car?) 5. Capital letters joined together by hyphens represent a fingerspelled word. or rules.

Example: TREE ++ (translates to the plural trees) 5. If the word for a sign is followed by the symbol ++ . i) I HAPPY I. (I am happy.4. Classifiers are specific handshapes that take on a particular meaning within the context of what the speaker is saying. 5.) The following form may also be used: HAPPY I. (I am happy. ii) HAPPY I. It is big. such as a table surface. I am short. 1. I am tall. 2. He is thin. Top of Form It is common for ASL sentences to repeat the subject pronoun at the end of the sentence. . 4. iii) I HAPPY. (I am happy. 3. Try to transcribe the the following sentences. then that sign is repeated. Example: The symbol CL:BB means to bring the two "B" hands together. She is hungry. Example: I HAPPY I. It is used as a symbol for things that are flat. The symbol CL: indicates a classifier sign.) Try to construct ASL sentences from the following English sentences using all of the basic structures outlined above: Example: 1) I am happy.) I HAPPY.

Write down each of the Key Words in a notebook. called “parameters. 8. This lesson explores the American Manual Alphabet used in American Sign Language. Each sign is produced by combining specific elements.6. body postures. She is sleepy.” The basic building blocks of most signs are the handshapes that form the letters of the alphabet. Make sure you understand the various symbols and their meanings. • • • • fingerspelling handshapes location movement . They are surprised. I am angry. He is Deaf. make sure to go back and look at the rules and conventions for transcribing ASL. He is hurt. leaving a few lines in-between for the definitions. sentences are formed differently in ASL than they are in English. Top of Form As you have learned in this lesson. and movement. To review for your assessment. 9. Objectives • • • Identify elements of signed language Name the four parameters of signed language Fingerspell the alphabet Key Words The following Key Words will be defined as we go through this lesson. 265732 Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Signs are produced using a combination of handshapes. 10. 7. You have seen some ways that we can write sentences to help you determine how they should be signed.

5. Why? 2. face. Handshapes are used along with orientation. There are many more handshapes that are not used in the AMA. there are about 150. or differences in the way the palm faces. That means that ASL users communicate with handshapes and with body movements. and head as well as body posture. Use your own words to define fingerspelling.• orientation Top of Form Now do the following: 1. and location (and are sometimes combined with non-manual markers such as facial expressions) to produce a meaningful sign. 3. Think about which letters you find the most challenging. The units of American Sign Language (ASL) are composed of specific movements. these include hand shapes and the movements of arms. ASL Handshapes American Sign Language uses the American Manual Alphabet (AMA) for fingerspelling. eyes. The AMA contains 22 handshapes (orientation differences. allow the formation of 26 letters). movement. in total. 4. Top of Form Communication in sign relies on the eyes instead of the ears to understand what is being said. Using the fingerspelling tool. A handshape is the actual shape of the hand used to produce a signed word. Some common handshapes are: . letters are combined with pronunciation to produce a meaningful spoken word. In English. spell your first and last name.

basic and easy to make in ASL.These handshapes are considered to be the most natural. They are used more frequently in ASL. Some handshapes are more difficult to make and are therefore used less frequently. Those handshapes are: .

Some of the handshapes seen in signs are those used to form letters of the alphabet. Here are two others: the handshape for the letter "L." the "F" handshape .

3) Location refers to where the sign is located on the body. 4) Movement refers to how the sign is made. the chest. Some signs are made by moving the hand (or hands) from left to right. down. This could be the head. up and down. the arm. toward you. or toward the person to whom you are signing. or in a circular motion. or at the hip.Top of Form ASL Parameters Each ASL sign has four general characteristics or parameters: 1) Handshape refers to the shape the hand makes and the position of the fingers. Practice making the handshapes below that form the letters of the alphabet. Try a few times until you can do it without looking at the screen. 2) Orientation means which way your palm faces: up. Some signs begin at one point on the body or in space and end at another point. Top of Form . These characteristics are the building blocks of signed words. in front of the body.

titles of movies and books . names of places 3. Fingerspelling is used to specifically identify nouns. and 5 letter words Recognize fingerspelled words Fingerspell proper nouns Key Words The following Key Words will be defined as we go through this lesson. • • • American Manual Alphabet fingerspelling handshape Top of Form Use the chart of the letters of the American Manual Alphabet to help you to remember how to represent letters of the English alphabet: Fingerspelling is used to form words. Write down each of the key words in a notebook. such as B-O-Y or G-I-R-L. 4. first.Fingerspelling is the use of separate handshapes to represent letters of the alphabet. fingerspelling is used to represent unique nouns: 1. leaving a few lines in-between for the definitions. last and middle names 2. A word can be spelled out. Objectives • • • Fingerspell 3. such as names and places. Most of the time. by using separate letters. In this lesson you will learn and practice the American Manual Alphabet to represent words from spoken English.

with elbows bent. This means that stringing the letters together. Hold your hand up. or bounce your hand. Keep your elbow down. palm facing forward (away from your body).S for breakfast instead of eggs. 2. or if you do not know the sign for a word.G . This is a subtle movement. such as during introductions when you are spelling both a first and last name. it will help you to quickly improve your fingerspelling. Fingerspelling is like your handwriting. spell the following words: OAT ZOO BOG MAP DOG CAT EMU LAZY WAG BOX TOY APE FIN CUP HEN Top of Form Now try fingerspelling the following: Your first name Your last name The street where you live The city you live in The name of your pet Sometimes you will have to spell more than one word at a time. is important for the other person to understand. 3. Fingerspelled words are spelled as a whole. Being clear is important for being understood. but DO NOT fingerspell an entire sentence.4. Fingerspelling words as individual letters would be the same as telling someone you had E . used to clarify when one sign has more than one meaning Fingerspelling can also be used to represent words that have no sign. Please observe the following rules for fingerspelling: 1. not as individual letters. Try it! Using the letters of the manual alphabet. This will become easier with practice. certain foods 5.G . 4. technical words 6. Try fingerspelling the following names: (YOUR NAME) S-T-E-VE H-U-N-T A-L-E-X H-O-A-G . Too much fingerspelling can be hard to understand. Make sure your handshapes are correct. Do not jerk. Your hand should either remain in place or move slightly from the middle in the way text would be written in the air. going from one directly into the next. close to your side. A slight pause is used to separate one word from the other.

you can make a quick repetition of the letter by moving your hand to the right. Simply shake your head and begin spelling the entire word again. Try these words: P-A-R-T W-A-I-L G-O-O-N P-L-U-M B-I-K-E And these words: Y-O-U-T-H C-U-R-V-E N-U-R-S-E P-E-A-C-E T-W-I-L-L Y-A-C-H-T K-A-Y-A-K F-E-N-C-E R-O-A-M-S M-O-V-I-E T-U-T-O-R Q-U-I-E-T H-A-R-D-Y A-C-T-O-R D-I-M-L-Y B-R-I-N-E J-A-Z-Z-Y A-B-O-U-T F-O-L-K T-A-C-O T-H-E-Y A-R-A-B C-U-B-S W-E-L-T S-L-A-M M-A-R-E D-I-R-T T-E-N-T S-O-U-R B-L-U-E Q-U-A-D W-A-N-T P-O-L-L S-P-E-D M-A-R-T C-O-L-D R-E-A-L Z-O-O-M . Practice fingerspelling until you feel more comfortable.B-O-B S-M-I-T-H A-L J-O-N-E-S R-O-D S-T-O-N-E T-I-N-A R-O-S-E-N I-V-A-N W-A-L-L J-E-F-F R-E-E-D E-R-I-C-A B-R-O-W-N C-H-R-I-S V-E-L-E-Z P-E-R-R-Y B-E-L-L R-Y-A-N G-R-E-E-N L-I-S-A H-A-N-D-Y M-A-R-I-E K-I-N-G Some words have double letters. Try fingerspelling these words that contain double letters: R-A-B-B-I-T S-O-C-C-E-R O-F-F-E-R G-I-G-G-L-E Y-E-L-L-O-W S-U-M-M-E-R P-E-N-N-Y A-P-P-L-E H-U-R-R-Y M-E-S-S-Y K-I-T-T-E-N D-I-Z-Z-Y If you make a mistake while fingerspelling. When fingerspelling double letters. don’t worry.

In this lesson. However. there are some unique cultural norms for the Deaf community. Learn the following signs so that you will be able to greet someone appropriately using ASL. and good-byes Key Words • • • • culture greeting introduction name sign Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form The following greetings should be familiar to you. Objectives • • Use ASL to greet others and introduce yourself Follow the cultural rules associated with greetings.Can you think of other 3. name signs. you will learn how to use greetings appropriately. These are used everyday in the hearing world. and also how to be respectful of the norms established by the Deaf community. 4 and 5 letter words to spell? Try them! Top of Form Greetings in the Deaf culture are similar to greetings that hearing people use. Good Morning .

or nickname. then the second image). Name Signs . This is the way that all hearing users of ASL communicate their name. sign the first image. you will fingerspell your name. This is called a name sign.How Are You? Nice to meet you (this is done sequentially. Top of Form Your Name Usually when you are telling a person your name. There is a shortcut. Practice these signs until you are comfortable using them without looking at the screen. that can be given to a person by a member of the Deaf community.

a description of someone's hairstyle. they carry on the tradition. complete the following activity. Departures Get-togethers are a very important part of Deaf culture. a mole on the cheek. Giving of name signs was a tradition started by Deaf people and. blushing cheeks. we must respect and follow the rules. large eyes. it's a sign of friendship and acceptance. This lesson looks at codes of social behavior in the culturally Deaf community and presents some of the unique customs observed as Deaf people interact. or personality trait. e. the opportunity to see and communicate with others in their own language is something to look forward to and enjoy to the utmost. etc. HOW-ARE-YOU? 3. and to be accepted in a group. Deaf people take a long time to say good-bye. For that reason. Objectives • • • Define etiquette Describe social rules and behaviors observed during interaction in the Deaf community Identify key vocabulary Key Words . Hugging is a standard for saying both hello and goodbye to people you know. Because most Deaf people live and work surrounded by the hearing world. GOOD-MORNING 2. These name signs typically have no hidden meaning and are subject to individual judgment. There are two types of name signs: Arbitrary – a name sign using the first letter of the person's name in a location and movement typically governed by linguistic rules. Name signs are given to non-Deaf people almost as a rite of passage. Using the information that you learned in this lesson. If you've been chatting with a group of Deaf people and they want to give you a hug when you depart. Different groups have different rules. hearing people should not invent their own name signs. NICE-TO-MEET-YOU Practice this until you feel comfortable with signing. therefore. Rules of social behavior—etiquette—tell how to behave in our society and within our cultural groups. Descriptive – a name sign derived from distinctive physical features.. Name signs should be given only by a Deaf person.g. Sign the following greetings: 1.Name signs are given in the Deaf community to identify individuals without having to always fingerspell the person's name.

Where you are studying ASL 5. It's also OK to flash the overhead lights one time. • Waving or briefly tapping the arm or shoulder are accepted ways to get the attention of a deaf person. and not shy at all. there are appropriate codes of conduct. is very different in many ways from etiquette in the hearing world. especially to get a group's attention. There is a specific set of social norms within the Deaf community that are somewhat different from those in the general society. expressive. but may with hearing persons. hard of hearing. Deaf people you meet for the first time will be interested to know about your connection to the Deaf community. there is a heavy visual emphasis for communicating with Deaf people. American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual mode of communication. • • • Bottom of Form Top of Form • • Signed Introductions • • In the Deaf community. Why you are learning the language Naturally. Rules of etiquette tell us what behavior is polite and what behavior is rude. speak expressively. For example: • Deaf people do not generally use their voices with Deaf friends. Your first and last name 2. leaving a few lines in-between for the definitions. or hearing 3. Deaf etiquette. Many members of the Deaf community may not use speech at all. • Staring is acceptable among the Deaf because it is necessary for effective communication. • Communication and Signing Environments • . It can be described as direct. One should maintain eye contact. The following offers some tips for good Deaf etiquette that will help you behave appropriately in your signing environment. Among hearing people. however. When introducing yourself. • • • • communication etiquette signing environments social behavior • Top of Form • Deaf Etiquette • Etiquette is defined as a code of conduct for acceptable social behavior. The code of acceptable social behavior in Deaf culture. Etiquette describes the rules by which we interact with one another. Who is teaching you about Deaf language and culture 4. People who use ASL gain most of their information through their eyes and by closely observing what is happening around them. and—if necessary—use a pen and paper to communicate. you should be able to share/sign the following: 1. staring is often considered rude. just as in any cultural community. Write down each of the Key Words in a notebook. Whether you are Deaf.The following Key Words will be defined as we go through this lesson.

Also. Doubling the movement (brushing your fingertips across your palm twice) means "excuse me. Deaf people sometimes communicate with hearing people through interpreters. The same holds true in settings for visualbased communication. as this can be distracting and actually make you more difficult to understand.g. The general sign for "excuse" is made by extending your left hand. Brush your right bent-hand fingertips across the left palm starting with the pinky on your right hand. palm up. Deaf people will be receptive and helpful to you as you learn to sign. Imagine how boring it would be to have a conversation with someone who speaks only in a monotone voice. press one of the group member's back or shoulder gently to let them know you need space to pass through. . Keep the other knuckles straight. as this can show facial expression (your face is probably more expressive than you realize when you’re speaking). it can be useful to speak as you sign. The same holds true when signing. In group conversations. you should try to go around or between these groups. you can expect your communication to be slower than a native speaker.Think about how difficult it is for hearing people to communicate when there are loud noises and constant auditory interruptions. and will usually understand what you are trying to say. Position yourself close to the interpreter so that the Deaf person can see you both at the same time." "EXCUSE-ME" • Top of Form Customs and Courtesies of Conversation Generally. even with your grammar and vocabulary errors. and you will probably make your share of mistakes. standing in a hallway or stairwell). This includes having a well-lit space. If you need to get through. Facial expression is extremely important when signing as this is critical in conveying nuance and emotion. Here are a few things to remember when communicating through an interpreter: • • Look and speak directly to the Deaf person (it is important to maintain eye contact). and it help a Deaf person with lip-reading skills or limited hearing. It is acceptable Deaf etiquette to walk through the conversation of two signers in conversation if they are blocking your way. (e. It is important to have a comfortable setting for signing. removing visual obstructions (tables and vases in the middle of a room).. Deaf people expect this as well. Bend the large knuckles of the right hand slightly. and having backgrounds that are non-distracting (gaudy or busy walls). You should not tap someone's shoulder or stand waiting for acknowledgement unless you actually need someone to move out of the way. Just as with anyone learning a new language. though. It is considered polite to sign "excuse me" and give a slight head bow as you go through. You should not shout or over-exaggerate your mouth-movement.

Do not say things to the interpreter that you don’t want repeated to the Deaf person (that includes whispering to or trying to have side conversations with the interpreter). make eye contact with the person with whom you’d like to communicate along with a gesture. your facial expressions are a back up. D: All of the above are considered normal behavior. b) talk to the interpreter and ignore the Deaf person. 2. To interrupt. 3. c) It is not important to use facial expression. Which of the following is not considered normal behavior when signing? a) maintaining eye contact b) speaking expressively c) using pen and paper if necessary d) All of the above are considered normal behavior. they will likely misinterpret your intention (they may think you’re just “listening in” on their conversation) and continue signing. C: look at and talk to the Deaf person 4. Why is it important to use facial expression when signing? a) In case your hand signs make no sense. then stand by until that person turns to you.• • • Speak clearly and at a normal rate. proper hand signs are the only important thing in conversation. If you stand by waiting to be acknowledged by the people in conversation. Top of Form Deaf Etiquette Review 1. . you should a) be prepared to sign things such as why you are learning the language. B: Facial expression provides nuance and emotion to your conversation. b) Facial expression provides nuance and emotion to your conversation. you should a) talk very loudly so the interpreter can hear you. c) look at and talk to the Deaf person. Do not stop speaking to watch the interpreter or wait for him to begin signing Interrupting a Signed Conversation It is okay to interrupt a signed conversation if you need to. If there is a Deaf person with an interpreter. When you meet a Deaf person (who signs) for the first time.

c) appropriate only in emergencies. c) speak very.000 Explain the unique number patterns for numbers 1–10. 100– 900. addresses. and palm orientations. 20. This lesson will begin to explore number signs. Flashing overhead lights once to attract a person's attention is considered a) normal. in the same way letters of the alphabet are formed. as well as for identification. 21–99. and do math. Making sure that your signs are clear is important to making sure that you are being correctly understood. b) rude. Key Words • • handshapes number construction The production of numbers in American Sign Language is much like fingerspelling. tell dates and times. They are used to count. Objectives • • Sign numbers 0–1. 5. In order to accomplish this. movements. A: normal Bottom of Form NUMBERS 1-1000 Top of Form Numbers are an important part of everyday life. very slowly and exaggerate your words. and 1.000 The following key words will be defined as you go through this lesson. leaving a few lines in-between for the definitions. Numbers in ASL are produced using specific handshapes. and telephone numbers. 11–15. A: be prepared to sign things such as why you are learning the language. the same rules apply that applied to fingerspelling: .b) pretend you don't know any signs. Write down each of the key words in a notebook. 16–19.

form a fist and extend your thumb upward. close to your side. away from the body. palm facing forward. This is probably different from the way you are used to showing the number 3 on your fingers. Move your thumb from left to right 2–3 times. 3. Notice the way the number 3 is made with the thumb and first two fingers. with elbows bent. Your hand moves from right to left. 2. Top of Form Numbers 0–10 Look at the images on the right to see the correct handshapes for the numbers 0–10. Numbers 11–15 . After reviewing the images.1. practice signing the numbers 0–10. Keep your elbow down. Do not jerk or bounce your hand. Hold your hand up. Usually numbers 1–5 are signed with the palm facing toward you (palm in). To sign the number 10. 4.

The numbers 11–15 are made with your palm facing toward you and tilted back slightly so that your hand and wrist form an S shape. Sign the numbers by flicking your fingers upwards. 1 1 1 2 1 3 . then practice signing the numbers 11–15. Watch the animations below.

Watch the animations below. 1 6 .1 4 1 5 Numbers 16–20 To form the number 16. Tap your index finger and thumb together 2–3 times . 7. or 19. 18. then practice signing the numbers 16–20. sign the number 6. then twist your palm forward twice. make a fist and then extend your thumb and index finger. 8 or 9 with your palm facing toward you. 17. To form the number 20.

What are the first 3 digits of your phone number? 3. use number signs to answer the following questions: 1. How old do you have to be to vote? .1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 Once you feel comfortable with these numbers. How many people live in your home? 4. How old are you? 2.

2 1 2 2 2 3 2 5 . In France the number 2 is signed with the L shape. You do one right after the other. to sign 25. For example. 23. just like when you're fingerspelling a word. How old do you have to be to drive in your state? Numbers 21–30 The simplest way to sign a two-digit number is to sign the first number and then sign the next number. Watch the animations below to see how they are signed. and 25. 22. sign 2 and then sign 5. Most numbers in the 20s range use the L shape.5.) But there are also specific signs for 21. (In the first unit you learned American Sign Language was originally based on French Sign Language.

27.Numbers 24. and 29 are all made by signing L and then the second number. . 2 4 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 The number 30 is signed by making the signs for 3 and 0. 26. 3 0 Practice signing the numbers 21–30. 28.

(In Roman numerals C means 100.31–99 To sign numbers 31–99. Look at the animation below for number 33. 55. just like when you are fingerspelling a word. you will use the signs for the two digits. Watch closely and try to determine what the numbers are.) you make the sign for that number twice moving your hand slightly to the right. which is the most popular. There is also the bent finger formation. When you are signing a two-digit number that has the same two numbers (33. etc. Top of Form Numbers 100–900 and 1. For example. See how you make the number 1 and then the letter C. You would hold up the first number and follow it with the C formation. if you are signing the number 45. 44. The animation below shows a range of ten numbers.) The same would be true for any of the hundreds.000 Let's take a look at the signs for hundreds and thousands to round out our number knowledge! This is 100. you would sign 4 and then 5. In the animation below you will see 100 using this . this is not the only way to form a number in the hundreds. One thing to remember when you are signing a two-digit number is that you need to sign the numbers smoothly. However. one right after the other.

(The bent hand is similar to the . 500 And finally.000. Sign the number and then touch the tips of your bent right hand to the open palm of your left hand. Take a look at the animations below and see if you can figure out what numbers they are. Both formations are equally acceptable. It also has two steps. 400 B. A C D B A.formation instead. this is the sign for 1.friendly. 700 C. 900 D. it is just that the bent finger formation is a little more user.

If you want to see the sign for a specific number. Click on repeat if you need to see the sign again.sign for M. type the number into the gray box and click on show number . Click on new number and a signed number between 0 and 100 will flash on the screen. Type the number into the gray box and hit Return. Next to Maximum number? click the 100 button. In Roman numerals M stands for 1. Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form • Bottom of Form .) Top of Form Next to How fast? click the slow button.000. When you're feeling comfortable with numbers up to 100 increase the level of difficulty by clicking on the 1000 button or increasing the speed.

Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form .Bottom of Form Bottom of Form Bottom of Form 1.