APPC Manufacturing systems.

NIFT, Navi Mumbai, Presentation by Ranjan Kumar Saha, Associate Professor for classroom discussion

Productive system types
• Process-Focused systems– The nature of the demand on the productive system results in intermittent demand for the system’s facilities, and each component flows from one process to the next intermittently. Thus, the process-focused system with intermittent demand on process types must be flexible as required by the custom product, and each generic department and it’s facilities are used intermittently as needed by the custom orders.

Productive system types
• Process-Focused systems– for e.g. in a machine shop we might expect to find milling machine departments, lathe departments, drill departments and so on. The flow of the items being processed in such productive system is dictated by individual product requirements, so the routes through the system are variable.

Productive system types
• Product-Focused systems: The nature of the demand on the productive system that produces high volume, standardized products results in continuous use of the facilities. Processing is adapted completely to the product. Individual processes are physically arranged in the sequence required, and the entire system is integrated for a single purpose. Thus continuous system have a product focus.

Types of Production Systems 1) Intermittent Production system(For custom order manufacturing) a) Project Production b) Jobbing Production c) Batch Production(can be production for stock) 2) Continuous system. b) Process production. .(Production for stock)a)Mass Production.

Highly skilled operators are reqd.Intermittent System • These are those where the prod’n facilities are flexible enough to handle a wide variety of products and sizes. Workloads are generally unbalanced. Most products are produced in small qty’s. for efficient use of machines and equipments. 4. In-process inventory is large. Flexible to suit prod’n varieties. 2. 1. 5. Machines and equipments are laid out by process. . 3. 6.

Demand can be discontinuous .Features of Intermittent system 1. All operational stages may not be balanced. 3. 5. Needs high inventory. 6. Items are manufactured according to order. Storage is necessary at each stage of production process. 7. Can adjust to new situation and specification. . Elaborate sequencing and scheduling is required. 4. 2.

Types of Intermittent Systems • A) Project production: Project production is characterized by complex sets of activities that must be performed in a particular order within the given period and within the estimated expenditure. production of ships. e. buildings. Where output of a project is a product. locomotive and aircraft. . construction of roads.g. such products are generally characterized by immobility during transformation. Operations of such products are carried out in fixed position assembly type of layout.

E)High cost overruns.Project production system • • • • • • Characteristics of project production: A)Definite beginning and definite end. B)Non-uniform requirement or resources. C) Involvement of different agencies. D)Fixed position Layout. .

special purpose machine tool manufacturers. general repair shops. tailoring shops manufacturing madeto-measure suite of clothes.g.e.Job production • Job production/Jobbing production : . .Job or ‘make complete’ is the Production charactersed by the manufacturing of one or few numbers of a single product designed and manufactured strictly to customer’s specifications. within the given period and within the price fixed prior to the contract.

C) Discontinuous flow of materials E) Disproportionate manufacturing cycle time. G)high skilled labour. .• • • • • • • Characteristics of job/jobbing production: A) In this system the goods are produced to definite customer’s orders. F)General purpose machines and process layout. B)small production runs. There is no assurance of continuous demand for specific items.

etc.Batch production • Batch production is characterised by the manufacture of a limited mumber of a product( but many such quantities of different products) produced at regular intervals and stocked in warehouses as finished goods(or finished parts) awaiting sales (or withdrawal for assembly). chemicals. paints. manufactures of readymade garments. • E. .g. Process industry such as pharmaceuticals.

Batch production • Characteristics of Batch production: • • • • • • • a) short production runs. G) Need to have production planning and control. H) Limited function of production planning and control. C) General purpose machines and process type of layout. . F) Flexibility of production schedules. B) skilled labour in specific trade. D) large work in progress.

After setting master production schedule.Continuous system • In this the items are produced for the stocks and not for specific orders. sales forecast is made to estimate likely demand of product and master schedule is prepared to adjust the sales forecast according to past orders and level of inventory. Before planning mfg to stock. detailed planning is carried on. .

In short. .• In continuous manufacturing systems each production run manufactures in large lot sizes and the production process is carried on in a definite sequence of operations in a predetermined order. FIFO priority rules are followed in the system. here inputoutput characteristics are standardized allowing for standardization of operations and their sequence.

2. Work must conform to quality standard. All operation stages in the process must be balanced. 4. Material should be per specifications and delivered on time.Features of continuous system 1. The product must be standardized . . Inspection must be in line with production. 5. 3. 6. There must be continuity of demand.

Types of continuous system • Mass production (Mass & flow Prod.) • Process production .

g. assembly shops of automobiles. • Flow production e.etc.g. electric fans. • Mass production E. plastic goods. . television sets. radios. refrigerators.Mass & Flow production • Mass as well as flow production are characterized by the manufacturer of a several number of a standard product produced and stocked in the warehouses as finished goods awaiting for sales.

• • • • • • A)continuous flow of material B)special purpose machines and product type layout. D)Easy supervision E)limited work in progress F)Less flexibility in production schedule.Mass & Flow production • Characteristics of Mass & Flow production. C)low skilled labour. .

refineries.coke. The flexibility of such product is almost zero as only one type of product can be produced in such plants.Process production • Process production is characterised by the manufacture of a single product produced and stocked in the warehouses awaiting sales. • Typical E.steel. of such plants are sugar. .cement.etc.g.

Process production • Characteristics of process production: • • • • • A)Special purpose machines with built-in controls. B)Highly mechanized material handling. D) negligible work in progress E) limited production planning and control function. . C)low skilled labour.

Batch.Classification of Production System • Production systems can be classified as Job Shop. Mass and Continuous Production systems. .

Manufacturing systems in Apparel Industry • • • • • • • • • Make through system Conventional bundle system Clump system Progressive bundle system Flexible flow system Straight lien system Synchro flow system UPS Modular .


Conventional bundle system • Sewing MC arranged in lines • Central storage / dispatch area • Worker 1 collects bundle from distributor. sew. back to distributor • Distributor passes the bundle to worker 2 .

Conventional bundle system .

The Clump system • Variation of conventional bundle system • Operators collects a clump rather than bundle .

Controller checks quality • Excessive material handling • Difficult to control inventory • WIP cannot be monitored • Work place engineering is difficult • High WIP • Large storage required . & Dis adv.Conventional bundle adv. Copes with frequent style changes • Less impact of absenteeism as distributors can control the amount of work received & dispatched • Easy to operate & easy to supervise • Uniform level of quality. • Flexible.

Progressive bundle system • Sewing operations laid out in sequence • Each operator receives bundle. tie and pass to operator no 2 • Need storage as rack/bin/table for storing WIP . work. untie.

Progressive bundle system .

as it require arrangement of workstations. • High handling costs for bundle handling & transportation • High WIP . of operator for each operation .Progressive bundle system adv & dis adv • High productivity • High level of labor utilization • A Uniformly high standard of work can be achieved • Training time and costs can be reduced • Semi skilled labor can be used • Individual performance can be monitored and incentives offered • M/C investment cost is high • Not adaptable for short run production & frequent style changes. so it involves high capital commitment and can block the cash flow of the factory • High management skill require to arrange the work flow and decide the no.

Flexible Flow system • • • • Similar to progressive Workers work at engineered work place Work supplied thru rack @ side Flow is flexible .

Flexible Flow system .

Straight line system • Manufacturing process broken down into several operations which take the same time to complete • Groups of operators • Handle only individual garments • Work passed by tray • Conveyor belt for distribution can be used and its speed will be set to suit the cycle time .

Straight line system .

Straight line system .

e.Synchro flow system • Similar to straight line • Garment parts of same size & color are processed separately • I. they flow in synchronize manner .

Synchro flow system adv & dis adv • Fast throughput time • Low work in progress • Less material handling time • Does not require a great deal of technical supervision • Absenteeism can causes problems. . • MC break down & worker absenteeism may disrupt work flow • High std of work measurement necessary and high pre production skills needed. as the system is based on workers working within a time limit.

UPS • • • • • • • • • Unit production system Computer controlled prod line Overhead conveyor system to move individual units All parts of a single garment are carried by means of hanging carrier No need to remove parts from carrier Automated material handling Electronic data collected Payroll & inventory data Immediate tracking of styles .



as high preparation works are needed for plant layout and line balancing . • A central place needed for quality control • Suitable for large orders for a particular style.UPS Advantage • Very flexible and complied with work measurement • Little WIP • Fast throughput time can be achieved because of the lower WIP in the system. • Less handling time • High quality of garments. Dis Advantage • Investment cost of this system is high. • Low WIP and over head transport system leads to better space utilization.

Modular Manufacturing • Groups operators into teams / modules • Team works on one / few garment at a time instead of bundles • Operators sit/stand • Rotate workstations • Self inspect .

Modular Manufacturing .

Modular Manufacturing .