J •..

Eri Banno t)jJJikJl Yutaka Ohno *JJm Yoko Sakane t)jm.~ Chikako Shinagawa .flrJII~~

The Japan T1ll1es

Eri Banno tR!l!}71dJl!

Yutaka Ohno *J¥:m Yoko Sakane tR.ftUI-1- Chikako Shinagawa .?nJll1ti-1-

The Japan Tunes

Copyright© 1999 by Eri Bonne, Yutaka Ohno, Yoko Sa kane, and Chikako Shinagawa

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

First edition: May 1999

32nd printing: November 2004

Editorial assistance: guild

Illustrations: Noriko Udagawa and Reiko Maruyama Cover art and Editorial design: Nakayama Design Office

Gin-a Nakayama, Mc"um; So+ch. and Masalaka Muramalsu

Published by The Japan Times, Ltd.

5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023, Japan Phone: 03-3453-2013

http://bookclub. [o panti m es.co. i p /

ISB N4-7890-0963-7

Printed in Japan

$~~;:t$~.A,_0):::-;:{IDEJ~t=Yr51 f) ~ ~~~H;: < IJjg~1IeJij t., $1:.0)&:JJt ~;g%~ ~:*l! ~'Y:~tl ~ *m:ffiH= h t(:G ajz~J {t ~h -r{'F]J)Z l1 L tc; _2fs::;: ~ ;: 0)): :3 iJ'ID-c'/:±:WJZ-9 6;1 TK 44* IJ tv) '5 ffifrs9~~l * lte:iJ)~ J(:O)tpv) iJ~' i5 IJ I.I:*.!!0) v:ft (,:: Jfl:-:5' < .: t iJ{-C ~ t: t ~ C l'v::. * To ;: O)~tf~:: J:: ? l ~

*fJtr~jcpx L t: 0) ~;:t ~ < 0) 15 k or) jo /.I:. ~':f-C-9 0 *~~:: tBMi VL i5 't: I) ~ :; 't' J'{ /' Y' 1 1.,,;( tBAAgB 0) ~;=r -=fBA ~ A.- t'L ?;:t *~Etl:tgi5 v2:. t.J IJ t L t: 0 t te: ~ lH' U~O)W~R~b?-r<~~?kKaft~~~~~_2fs:.~~ffll@~~<h t.:. MJ:ffiJ}OOffg*-=;'W$±JjUf~O) jP]1~~ ~~±, ~}tHt&O) 1 '7 A 1'- m~ 0) EB~~ W~®! ~ ~ ~llm~j]ij -C' ,:"-&Jit 1J p t: t: 1,. ) t: *J [I ~ a. T' -1 ~ Iv" 4'-1 -c'fL t: T? {t s: t~¥J L l' < t: ~ ? te:7t1:.1JVLiL,t;::. >S j37L~ $lJ:(i t -90 .f L -r" fiW:~:::;$: fJWnxOJ tB:Rt9.L';Js f) ~ JJf{iJrfJ l' <L as? t.:. Mf-§:9i-[;§gg*~O)tg~!t ~;:®~to) ~ ~ ~ L t: v -, t ,f(!i, (, -, ;1 -90


Producing the materials for this textbook involved a long process of surveying students' needs, writing up the results, making detailed revisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to the reactions and comments of students who used a trial version of this text. It has taken more than four years to complete this proi ect. Our labor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on our original plan to produce the ideal textbook-one that will enable students to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively games and helpful illustrations.

'oN e have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of this textbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publications Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through the publishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kvoko Tokashiki who helped in the production of Lesson 11 and following, to our colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai Gaidai University who attempted the trial version and made invaluable suggestions, to Kaori Taiima for her illustrations in the trial version, to Judy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guidance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also like to express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai Gaidai University for providing us with the opportunity to write this book.

15 < Li

(d: l/(/)(~/Preface""'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''3

*~(~-:Jl, ###BOT_TEXT###quot;"C/lntrod uction·································8

ia:fu uJ;

Japanese Writing System .. ·············· .. ···············18

Greetings 6
New Friends 10
Shopping 30
Making a Date 54
The First Date 72
A Trip to Okinawa 96
A Day in Robert's Life 114
Family Picture 132
Barbecue 150
Kabuki 170
Winter Vacation Plans 190
After the Vacation 210
Feeling III 226 ~6~~,. ... tf.- D J'\- r ~ /v(j)- B

Lit; (;::5

Hiragana 252
Katakana 257
Daily Life 262
Mary's Weekend 266
Travel 270
My Favorite Restaurant 276
Mary's Letter 282
Japanese Office Workers 287
Sue's Diary 292
The Folktale Kasajizo 298
Looking for Friends 304
T anabata Festival 310 ~9~ ........... A '- ~ Ivo) B g~

I:::." 'i":

iJ'lu *:::>
~ < t~1v 1 Japanese-Eng lish 316
~ < t~1-v 2 English-Japanese :3.29
~ Numbers 342
mm~ Conjugation Chart 344
tJ'? 0:1;5 (tJ;5 H)]~&El;$:~:g Vflu ~ .l ~j:fJ]6l)l B*§j§~$J{AO)t-: It) O)~tt-c-.t 0 1# I :§ . m n;gO) 2 fffL ~23~-C'f)]~&8*~0)$~ 1r{~T t. * To *¥~~j: <8 t J: IJ ~ ~~~~t±~j\.~ B*fiEi~3S:t~ L J:: -) c. L l v) ~ A <8" ~:fJ*B~ v[ B *~tr;)m 1~ "C' ~ * To :x:: 1* 0) m EJfl?d:" t' f;:): 3H1t "C'i/= v ~ l .1) ~

0) -C'" ~~~iJ:i 2i5 ~ ;fill1t:b i» ~ 2':. t ~ mrm c. L -c v) * To

HillK:& B;$:fiEi ~j'lu ~ JI k;l:*,t:j§r~tt t L -c ~ B ;$:g:SO) [9&§~ (!ir' < • §39 • ~ttl, . if <) ~{$ ~;;fL" *;g-g-s~q8;$:~0)§g1J~~6bll,~ < ;: t ~§t~t LlV)*9"o lE1rt!H[:X::~fF~ 2':. c.iJO;-C ~ l <8 b1E~ ~ b! ~ iJ~ -::if-: 'J, ffrE~~ -C' (,j: J) J "C t fi,~ lfl;/J' 2':. c. L iJ:. ~ It iJ" v) t P -5 ;: t ir~;/J' 1,) J:: -5 ~[, ~-~0)~1~0) E!~ t T.r(~ rlEnt~ J r ¥m~ ~ J r~~'l ~ J iJr/ <: -7 /' A J:: < r'BJ ilt] t? n ~ J:: -) v[ jlIjc~ t. l J) iJ * To

T ~ A " fj:X ~ < I f',;-a2i • yj~~J 1~cl7-~ § *ffiiJ I:§*J iJ~ tSt#~~ n lit> * 9" 0 .L'JT, }IWi ~~[~51Elj'j t. * '90

A .... ~~!. X~*~

I ~~lr . ;;t1:t~J C"kt, ~;$:8f.Jq;;t1!~¥lF-. ~~~~~ t, id:iJ'" 6, 1~J59':' t J 1M < 2':. t J ~,[ -:J P -C$>J§l L * To r ~§§ . xi*~;lffiJ cr):&~*fj:.L'JTO)-ffI3:5}iJ' ~mnX 2' n l v) * To


1~~i5J fj:" B*~[*t.:W~±t -t-O)3:)\."*1m~9='{.\«::~~L, $~~iJ:{B1N~$-C'if.£~L -'C -5 iJ" ~ j; c':{ g: id:t~jj) iJ~ 6}Jx J -c v ~ * '9 0 ~§§x 1riffi L l, $~~ (;:): r ~ p -::J t=; J ts c' 1:13: li) t.:g~q-'f' iJ t I) v:::ffl!kn, ~~JIio)9='l"xt;;th~'c'O)J: -5 v[":=:d~iJ~'JlV) < iJ~, cO)J: -5 id:lt[S)JiJi!§~~nt.: IJ 9~iJ'>id:c'1r¥~':' tiJ;"'C~ g:9a r~~3J~[fj:~ -t-O)~*C"~~*JTLv)$~JJi§P ir~~ < -a- *- n -C""~ ~ t: 6l)" fi~oyfJ] 6b ~:::#~~iJ)'':' n1r§JLu t 1FR5 v:::WfE Lv' t W C ~ iJ~ <8 l_,~1., g: -1± ;'Vo .:. h 6 0):rJ1 § (;;I:~~ ~iffi L -C5E:ifiJ)'!£g 6 n ~ (!) C",fJ] 6l) ~j:l€fE L < l 'b .1) * I) IC.'~ Lid: v) J: -) vZ:: L l < t!. i!: v J 0

* r.. I ~§5J kl:~UjLO) CD ~;:~1f~ ;h:r v) * To #~1l§"~;: (,j: -= 0) CD ~ Jmv' -C, 9£-:g-~1 / r ;t, - s- :3 /.t: c' h:: :3K 1:: "::Ht t;t iJ<: ~ -, < D :iN: L -c ~ -:5 W ~ 1:: T ~ c_ t ~ iW Ci) * T 0


I~-~J ~;:~j:, .z-O)glOJ r:§;~f5J t r*l~J ~;:tI::\L< ~*jfLIt)~~iJs'itCi)LcV!J *To 'C_O) 9=''1:.\ r ~~!J ~;:tfjL < ~it~iH;: ~j: * ElJiJ~''f>j~t-e C5 I) it '9 0 ~ 1 ~5IU:::~ 2 ~T~j:1m~g}jtl";:~Mi~ mff; 0" m 3 ~iJ' r? vi Ifbfi§]55U v;:WiF L L j;) I) * 9" 0'1 tc ; ;g* (I;: ~j:~fi!i!!O)~gH~~x!fr1< L t: r ~ < p/vJ iJ->&3 D * 90

1~~JO)tpo)§~fJ:.z-o){'&o)~T·'8 < 1)~0t1::\L~ *9iJ~~, #~1f~j:mEl:::9L-r-:)'1t.:t~ J: -:5 ~: 0 t: t;:}>5 iJIl_,j It) -C' L J: -:5 0 $ 3 ~iJ~ G" m-}tHI*T':~nt ~ i$~v: tJ:9«- -e1~'¥~1H§a L -eC5 lJ iTiJ{, -=0)1~*1ijt.:t~&;,~~j:j;) IJ *-1:±-/vo

i;t:;B, c_ 0) T:!f A r T'kt~O) 7:7 -c / r (rnO) ~'f~) ~~ G'-C v) *- -1i-/vo B ~~O) 7:7 -t / r t;:l:tfuf~~-,?{@lA~ (i!t{--\rEl' D) a: ~ c') iJ:ii*, 0],,' _tJ::, ~,~Hf~~{t:~~~O)~~iit: c' v~ J: ~ 5t{r; t i1Hitt"9 0 T'9iJ' ~" 7:7 -t / r- ~;: ~;j: &3 * I) f$*Ijf v:: ~ i? f" sco: 1 / r- ;t, - s- :3 /1;t c' <b ?iCi)" T'~ ~t2'(':J CD O)HF~1Jffi2:9~ J: -:5 ,,:I[A1Ht"C < t!.2 v-,

, )(;~

xr:tmEJl~j:, iJ)~IJ~L<!fIt)"[J.s1:J*90)T'" Jp,~L"[It)~A'8?§:~"LJ_lMT'2<i9o * tz • ~~T'¥!v T'~') ~ $~~~j: Jj G ix' t.:: ti)::sZ:$g£SJ:J ~gy1:1v T'iJ:. ~~*v;:~/v -C' < t: 21;'0

1&0) I**~ J T'Jf;z IJ J.s ~:f G n "[1;) ~ Jj § tj: 9«- L rxfl;;J 0) g:rt"m~ L "[ j;) lJ £ 9 0 **~ ~j:

L 1;t v\iJlmEJl:b:)&;,~i;tx$-\=,~g;$;vL --::J 1;) L ~j:" l)taU 0)~1&O) r£uJ[ J - l- J ~~ Ili£IB~ £ t Ci) L



r~*1§l J ti" :fr~~J~ § v~ rkj L "[ ~**~~:b, G ;;C;)iHi~ A.. t tJt~1§'i¥J~;: jlfjG7U L L &3 IJ" ~~~ir> -= n ~ 0) *~~ ~ 11~;j:~: -= lJ' L "[1,,::, < z t VL J:: -:l "[ " 'mo:! t;t < B *~ir>~ f~ "c ~ Q J: -5 t: jlfjcl'! 0

-eji) IJ ~90

~.:t 16->-".) v::~1D G n~ J:: -) 1;t£~*i~ vi CD h:~1f~ n -e:;B IJ" ED O)E[Jh~'''.) J.,) "[P * To CD fnim~ t ~1if2 tL "C v) it TiJ' G" ~~=r3~j::frEi L"§~9 ~ c_ t h:iPJ~~T--9 0

£~" 1.~JO).~~~litti)0).~J#~1J~90 =tL~~~O)$B~§~mhftb~ td*~~ r s:~tiJ ~;;C;ffl L l 53U 0)S:~6~1'F 6**~lJ' c'" .z- O)~O)$~ O){±_t ~:f C: i;k ~ *Jli!~T'9 0


~0)~.~~~~~c-e~~A~~~"[~0*9o C_0)~3A~~"ml~O)rC~~·t LJ 0) J: -:5 r,:.z-O)W,!:O) l- t" 'J:1 v.:::I*I:iILt-:~JJ!~" 1§glO~O) I~RT'J 0) J:: -5 t,;:t$}[Ii] C:_" c l'~f~b

B ... ~(}j.~~1ri

r~1:?7-ii>~ ti~{J -C'kt, B::t~§gO)Jt,*~$=tf~ )(~~~ivt~' I) ~v) t: I) "9.Q 2::. t ~z: J:: ~ L" ~:l'L~~ ht~<h~~~Li"9a.l~~V6~~"m2~~h~h~~~~Lk.~m3~~~~ ¥~*~~~ LiT 0 ffi 3 ~J~~(l)~WIH;~t, j;__.CF 0) J: -) tj>lWm-C'9o


1~*1kv= !j:~ -'(- O)frl-C'$v~*JT,:±:Ill*iJ)'t~I/m ~ tL LV) *"9 0 ;fr~~~"1150)1l:::f:~~U i T7J:{~ -J~J=§t;z~O)vC:I'i#!fIJ-':bitb{,O)T,> mB:YLf~J1t;tLv:' < J: '5 vZ: Lc < t:!_''2 v)o tl:::f:1k(i J;) T 0) J: '5 ~= fJ' '? l v) * To

q:;~~o)Jm LA~~



: a *" (-:::.*,;:.-.-) Japan
* ;j;/ *' C*'/) book
tt: E *~ (-:::. *' / '::l) Japanese ~*~h, (S\.:>~ 'b t ~Iv)
Mr.lMs. Yamamoto
(boo~; basis) I(~)- J T.* *- ~.*m=~ ~~.


@t@vc:5F~nt-:?~*~~~O);mh1JL\ U'i?iJ)~L'~iJ,tLt-:'8o)l,j: iWII~JUj-J" --:Ji I) B:zIs: &li~I*O)~th-C"To n~:h-t-C'~7J~tLtc<bO)~j: ii3mhJ~ ~i 1)1§f00tj=t[B~0)§£~~J,rl!tH-V"L,fc': '8 0)-C"9 0 ~11~th- <b 1:riJEh- '8 .. l'ji~0) tj=tl"~;b ;ht~ iF.¥ .. ~ hi5t1t;'9 ~ J:;fflit:b~' tb I)i '90 etc': t :Z kf, r~J c:\r)-)1~*(,j: r7:r~J tIDthiTlJ{ .. i~~J C:V)-)~~O)l*rt"'j: i7j"yJ c:~th-i To) J(-O)J: -J i,;dJR~B;;;ri;tfmh:ntJ 2::.0).gr5:5tv=*gc.~nlV)*9"o

iJ' t3, ?:~'f¥0) tj=t vC: vi §7 < 0) WE h 15 ~ t=if '? cit) {, t 0) 'b tb I) * 9" lJ{.. 1l*~ v:': ~J:.. flH& 1-//'( /t> (,:.: J-, ~ ;b i.» lm h h'>'$ vi i? n -Cv ' it "90

J;_):$'~O) <b 0) kt~~ t L-c* ~:ft~ t 0) l\ J[:z ~ < c t 7J' * V:..:it -tt Iva

-t-JI.;fno)~J1;*tj:-. r; ~ '7 f "/ ;7 O)lmh-~ ~ ~O)CP v:':~mrrg y- l- tJ)ib IJ it "9 0) l"-. T.:} ~l~ O)r~f£Z v:': ff;- ~ ntc:~:nl& 1:' jli;tiJ) 6 1PJf!l '8 *'~ L-c < to! ~ 1;)0


nflv ~ I = v~ ~j:, 19f¥0)~~, ~i"LM*x: t Ps~I~ ":J to) -c O)1?iFn,,, -c L -cw <irJ1F~ir"!l&--ttl1t9

~') ;t '9 a [if O)mr1?fi,j:" i:i:¥ ~ 5]'-m L -CC'- ~ ~ ffl3 o~ t» 6 ~f ~ ~~~ T ~ Fn51~iP,~1_t;* i» ~ ~~~ -trfF~ Fn'~7;t c", ~ ~ 2C * ~7f3:c\;o)*J~n~l ~@ c -c~*(,~'tltn -c to~ < .: t -:r §{~ t l_, llt:>:t '90 ID'lJ'fJTt*X vi" J;Ji <" ;m L h---?'9v:l ~ 0) ~ cp;c" (~mpX; l_, -c p * '9 a -c h * -cv~ i4}~t· )(1t~~J -C~/vtcY::1t~~~:go)~lJ~iT;'M~ t ~ n -c j3 D" *fTtB~MHi-cO):jIfM't, $?oRi'm~ L -c v' * '9 0 Ni~ 0)j&1'& vZ: ~i" W < **~ t L -c {"fOX l- 1:>:; )' iJ:it~7f, ~ h -c P * To

r v-flv ~ II j ~~ ~j:, ~"EfJW*)( t iAJ~ ~~ ":iv ~ l 0) ffifFn5... -c L l ~ < tJl[~ iJ:>~--tt l ;p I) i '90 &'''L~It*y::~;:!:, -¥*K ... :rm~~L .:1>y-t:1, )1::E~C', ~ *~"*id:'5tmYO)B*~i'1&D_t~:flV):i'9o -c o).*~R#Iv~$~~Y::1t .... *0)~~~M~t~h-C.B0 .... -tr~5~tR,.~~.~ Grid:' t'iJ:i~ L -c V. ~ * '9 0 ¥fTtB$~ t *xC'-0):ti!iliH~~~1~~ ~ h lit, * '9 0 f*~O)~i{tv~ ~i, f'Fx r c 'y )' iJ:>m~ ~ h l v:> * To

c ... ~*

m I § . m ll:§-t h.f'nO)~*v~ i ~ < ~.:\fvJ ~if{Fm L * L te; -":) ~j:fD5€ ~ < v~1v -C'" :fr

~*O)$fffi*-,?:1 '7 1-, v~m~~ n -c l_,) ~1¥~~ 15. +tfJIoo[v~~~ L * L tc; $~v;:{t~ ht-:Wzfvj:, -f O)1ii~l-ihJ{~A ~ nt..:~*O):m:%~7f, L l v)*3 0 ~rD ~ < It, Iv l"~j:, ~~o)~~iJ~'IDt~o) 7 Jv 77 /'( '/ r- J[WHnij~~ n "C v~ * '90


:$:X ~;:!: ~*S"J h:" 1~ffR~ X. C f) l"1J(_ ~c L- l v) * '9 0 rJ*~~c ~i" ~*S"J ~~ ~ m 1~r:¥~ ~'~:fiE pi Lt-:7'J{-.. ~}fHI*~~~*h lv:.~¥J-'¥(>b-.. tJn&O)#~=tl~~~j:#!l€~l"215~ J:"5 id:'to)l,j:, V ~ iJ~'7S*~2h: L-l if0 0 i 30

it:., i ~~li . x1t*ffiiJ 0)1-;- ~$1§1T ~ .: t tJ "6J~~~ J: '5 ~~-.. r ~~li . Xi;!*.ffiiJ ---e~J:1~*h: t;:!:

T/'( l b 0 iJ{~iJ:>:J1R -:) -c 2t> I] * '90

ic t: L ... r $;:~li· x1t*ffiiJ ~~O) f1t9 Vl ~ --:J J t m 1 ~~, .$ 2 ~-J!Hj:-.. $~-tfO)jjJ_g~tt7~ L E! ~ ,~:<g:~~H~ 3 ~ t: to-.. U' IS iJ~'7;t • :iJ 7':iJ T*~C; t L--.. a -?*~1#f;2 L * L t: 0 .: 0) 0 -?* 1#§c t;t 215 < '* T tl fffi.Et'JB"J TJ'tJ 0) ~'9 i» LS" ~fJJ iJ~ IS wiP) 3 ~" id:' It:. J: '5 ~~ {,'~Ht -r < t! ~ v:, 0 V LS iJ:>(t ti i1m,ij-f! ~mJ O)~ 1 fJll"-.. iJ 7':h T ~;:l:~ 2 ~--e-.. .f n:e'n~3"~ L-1'9 0 "

id:'.B" rt"Lh-W ~~;!lUl'-tj:" i~*~~ 3 ~_r).~~~~~ L LV) ~ * '9iJ:>-.. $1&o)~~iJ)~h~ J:: '5" Irt~ 0) 1~*"~ ('i,,~ 0 iJ~' ~iJ{:J1R -:) l2t> f) i --tt Ivo

*)(O)B*~t;t, ~~t!vc'iJ{ I~H4~1*J O)~W"'CtJ3_ih-r1t>iTo qJf4ww~;t~3~::x:* 1r.::iJi:Vj~1*-C'TiJ' t?" '!t~~~j: S 5tir'-m: < )(*O).:c y';( .. ';l_: -96 c: t iJ~-c' 2; * To t.:_ t!:.'~" ~~~ ~.: EIJ,IllU ~ tLk B *~)(-C' ~j:" 2: * i!:';t tJ"~i*~ % 6 c: t iJ> &) f) iTa X¥h: J: J -c ~j:" ~1*~.:

J: J -rtp~ f)m;iJI~t", f) *- To ~~.:, /1.\ftht.:= -:J O)*,,~iJ~~-:j'iJ~ t) v.:J: --:J -r --:J~': -:J ~iJ~ ~ t~~ iJi j) 6 0) -C', 1_±~iJS'&'.<~>t"-9o

i§U : ~f4~1* BjJ!W3ft =i'Y':J?1* ¥~~Jt*
~ ~ c! ~
'- -,
~ ~ ~ -5(
..... '--
~ ~ 0 t)
:.. ~ - -,
~ b 0
~ '7 ""'?'
\.- <- L- '---
~ ~ ~ V Introduction

I Aim and purpose

GENKI: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese is a textbook for beginners in the study of the Japanese language. Students can complete the elementary-level study of Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text, which is divided into two volumes. The book is designed mainly for use in unix ersity and college courses, but it is also effective for high school students and adults who are beginning to learn Japanese either at school or on their own. Hopefully, students will have at least a basic knowledge of English, because grammar explanations are given in English.

GENKI: An Integrated COU1'se in Elementary Japanese is a comprehensive approach to developing the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Much emphasis has been placed on balancing accuracy, fluency, and complexity so that students using the material would not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner, nor fluently yet employing only simple grammatical structures.

n Structure of the textbook

This textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar, Reading and Writing, and the Appendix. A detailed explanation of each part foll 0 \iVS.

A.,. Dialogue and Grammar

The Dialogue and Grammar section aims at improving students' speaking and listening abilities by learning basic grammar and increasing vocabulary. The Dialogue and Grammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components:


The dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan, their friends, and their families, presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their daily lives. By practicing natural expressions and aizuchi (responses that make conversations go smoothly), students are able to understand how sentences are connected and how some phrases are shortened in daily conversation. Because the Dialogue section of each lesson covers a lot of new grammar and vocabulary, students may feel it is too difficult

to understand at first. Don't be overly concerned, however, because the grammar and vocabulary will gradually take root with practice.

Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. Students are encouraged to practice regularly by. listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation.


The Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogue and Practice sections of each lesson. Words that appear in the Dialogue are marked with an asterisk ( * ). Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2, and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. In addition, all words presented in the text are also found in the Index at the end of each volume.

Words found in the Vocabulary section of each lesson appear frequently in subsequent lessons, thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. After Lesson 2, commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (J ovo Kanji) are also listed, but students are not required to memorize them.

This textbook does not indicate a word's accents. The accent of a Japanese word varies considerably, depending on the region, the speaker's age (including the generation gap between speakers), the word's paradigmatic form, and its connection with other words. Therefore, don't be overly concerned about the accent, but try to imitate as closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD.


Grammar explanations are detailed, so that students can easily study them on their own. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before each class.

This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows.

Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in the Practice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammar section .

• Practice

This section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson, providing students with both basic practice and application. By answering the questions sequentially. students can naturally build up their Jananese-Ianzuaze ability. The exercises with only one answer are marked with 8l and recorded on the 'CD, allowing students the opportunity to practice on their own.

The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises. which incorporate aspects of the lesson as a whole. For example, some questions combine various topics covered in the lesson, and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what was learned in the Dialogue section.

Introduction .....


Finally, some lessons include additional or supplementary information. This includes expressions related to the topic of the lesson, as in "Time and age" in Lesson 1, or expressions suitable at certain times or places, as in "At the station" in Lesson 10. Vi ords introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each volume.

Ba.- Reading and Writing

The Reading and "\ riting section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading and writing. Hiragana is introduced in Lesson 1, followed by katakana in Lesson 2, and kanji in Lesson 3 and following. From Lesson 3, each lesson contains the following components:

.Kanji list

Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list, each with about 15 kanji. This makes it easy to memorize a few each day, rather than be overwhelmed with so many at once.

cp serial number

(1) reading

(?) compounds including the kanji


: ·8 * (-=- It :;:..-) .J apan
* ;j;/ * City) book
t~ 8 *~ (-=- * ~ ::i) .r apanese ~*~!v (-'Pi~c~Jv)
Mr./Ms. Yamamoto
(book: basis) (gl- I :t *" *" (3) meaning

(7) stroke order (6) total strokes

Among the readings shown in (4) and (5), hiragana indicates the kun'vomi, or Japanese readings for a kanji, while katakana indicates the on 'yomi, or Chinese reading. Both kun 'vomi and on 'yomi are sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. For example, the ordinary pronunciation of ~ is "gaku," which becomes "gaik)" when the kanji is used in the word g=;jX. Such derivative readings are also included in ·(4) and (5).

Although some kanji have many readings, only those readings that are useful at an elementary level are included.

Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. The others are for reference, so students don't need to memorize them. A practice sheet for each kanji is provided in the Reading and 'Writing section of the Workbook. Students should practice

writing the kanji repeatedly, according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in the textbook.


GENKI 1 "Consists of kanji practice, readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the readings, and writing practice. Kanji practice includes various types of questions, such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or make new words by combining kanji. By tackling these problems, students will realize the goal of practice-to become more proficient in their use of kanji. Basically, the readings are short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. They are easy to understand if the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in the Dialogue and Grammar section. When readings include new words, a corresponding word list is provided. Finally, composition topics are given for writing practice.

GENKI II contains readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the readings, and writing practice. The readings employ various styles of Japanese, ranging from letters and fables to essays and advertisements. With a knowledge of the previously learned vocabulary, grammar, and kanji, the readings are easy to understand but grow longer and more difficult in later lessons. Vi! ord lists are provided for newly introduced vocabulary. Finally, composition topics are introduced.


Volumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. The Japanese-English Index, in hiragana order, lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. The number next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced. In the English-Japanese Index, English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alphabetical order.

Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conjugations as well as sound inflections of the expressions related to numbers.

m Orthography and font

The basic text is written in kanji and hiragana. Kanji is used for the most commonly used characters, those that appear in the official list of J oyo Kanji. Hiragana is used instead, however, when the J OYO Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginning students of Japanese.

Introduction ....

So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section, the pronunciation of every kanji is indicated in hiragana, However, to lessen the burden on the students and allow them to study on their own, Greetings and Lessons 1 and 2 are represented in hiragana and kaiakana, as well as by romanized forms. It is best not to rely too much on the romanizations, but use them only as a learning aid. Students study hiragana and kaiakana in Lessons 1 and 2, respectively, of the Reading and Writing section.

Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Writing section, where pronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in hiraaana, in order to promote the students' increasing acquisition of kanji.

The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly in the Textbook font, which resembles handwriting and serves as a good model for students. Students will encounter a variety of fonts used for Japanese materials, however, and should be aware that the shape of some characters differ considerably, depending on the font used. Note especially that with some characters, we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a single stroke.

Example: Textbook font Mincho font Gothic font Handwriting
~ ~ ~ --\:
- -;
~ ~ ~ 0<
"- '--
0 ~ ~ t)
), ~ - '>
~ b 0
""'> '7 ~
"- (,_ <-- "--
~ ~ ~ V (

Japanese Writing System



There are three kinds of characters In Japanese: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. All three

characters can be seen in a single sentence.


T v t:~ _~ Jt _#_ t_ 0

katakana l<anii lJ/r_!'!K?J:!1.P:.

I watch television.

Hiragana and katakana, like the alphabet, represent sounds. As you can see in the above example, hiragana has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings, function words, and native Japanese words not covered by kanji. Katakana, \ hich has rather straight lines, is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. For example, the Japanese v. ord for "television" is written in katakana as j" t> c (terebi). Kanji, or Chinese characters represent not just sounds but also meanings. Mostly, kanji are used for nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives.

CDH ir a 9 a n a

1. Basic Hiragana Syllables

There are forty-six basic hiragana syllables, which are listed below. Once you memorize this chart, you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds .

~ " \ .... .... -j:J
J Il
a t u e 0
iJ' ~ < tt --.
ka ki ku ke ko
~ L -t -tt of
sa *shi sUo se so
f::. 1; ':J l t
ta "chi "tsu te to
1J.> t: rb tl 0)
na 11.1, nu ue no
'1 U - .. t1
,,), .A",
ha hi fu he ho
I j I r "There is another writing system called romaii (Roman letters) which is used for station names, Sif,'11S, and so on.

i l-;. t; ~ t
rna mt rnu me mo
~ I V;b 1:
ya ! JIU yo
~ ~) I .; n "6
ra rt ru re ro
~ ~
wa *'*'0
I Iv • I
n The romanization is given for general pronunciation reference.

Japanese Writing System ...

"The syllables L, 1;, and -::J are romanized as shi, chi, and tsu, respectively, which is closer to the English pronunciation.

**.:r is also pronounced as "wo."

2. Hiragana with Diacritical Marks

You can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. With a pair of short diagonal strokes ("), the unvoiced consonants k, s, t, and h become voiced consonants g, Z, d . and b, respectively. The consonant h changes to p with the addition of a small circle C).

-/;{ ~' <" '1' ~"
\...: '-
ga gi gu ge go
~"'" L: f -tf' ;P'
za JZ ZZl ze zo
t3. * -/;' * ........ (_" t"

da JZ ZZl de do
(i rl "" ~ tf'
ba bi bu be bo ti








* t;;' Ui) and -? (zu) are pronounced the same as t: Ui) and f (ZU), respectively, and have limited use.

3. Transcribing Contracted Sounds

Small {', t1l, and 1 follow after letters in the second column (z-vowel hiragana, except \ \) and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. The contracted sound represents a single syllable.

I ~~ ~vp :5J:
kya kyu kyo
I, L~ Lvp LJ:
sha shu sho
t~ tvp 1;J:
cha chu cho
I:~ I: vp t: J:
nya nyu nyo
ij~ V'vp UJ:
hya hyu hyo
l-J.~ lJ.vp 7;.J::
my a myu myo
f) ~ f) vp f) J:
rya rvu rvo 5'~ ~' .::sr~
.._ vp '- ,J:
gya gjlU gyo
t~ tv.b L:,J:
ja JU JO 7_/~ 71 v.b 7._}' l
bya byu byo
7.J~ Uvp 7Yl
pya pyu pyo 4. Transcribinz Double Consonants

There is another small letter "J, which is used when transcribing double consonants such as tt and pp.

Examples: h' -:J t: katta (won) cf. h't::. kata (shoulder)
~ -:J h' sakka (writer)
tj: -:J rj' haJ2Qa (leaf)
.:.,._" L zasshi (magazine)
'- -:J Note that double consonant n's, as in sannen (3 years), are written with Iv + a hiragana with an initial n sound (iJ.:, ~:, o, P, or 0).

~ Iv 'iJ: \.. \ annas

Examples: ::. Iv;f;j./V sannen (3 years)


5. Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciation

A Long Vowels

When the same vowel is placed one right after the other, the pronunciation of the vowel

Japanese Writing System ..

becomes about twice as long as the single vowel. Be sure to hold the sound long enough, because the length of the vowel can change one word to another.


~~;f J? :: Iv obaasan (grandmother) ef. t-; (1' ~ ,z, obasan (aunt)

\~1v orusan (grandfather) cf. ~L::1v oiisan (uncle)
31 L SUU7Z (number) aa

ee The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an ~ \ to an e-vowel hiragana. There are a few words, however, in which x.. is used instead of ~ \

.:Z. \, \ 1;" eega (movie)

~ b.:Z. ~ Iv oneesan (big sister)

00 The long 00 sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an -J to an 0-' owel hiraaana. There are, however, words in which the long vowel is transcribed wi th an f;, for historical reasons.

hooritsu (law)

too (ten)

B. Pronunciation of A..,.

A..,. "n" is treated like a full syllable, in terms of length. Its pronunciation varies, however, depending on the sound that follows it. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of the different sound values of A..,.. Therefore, you do not need to worry too much about its

• • 2


C. Vowels to Be Dropped

The vowels i and u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants ik; s, t, p , and h), or at the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants.

Example: 3 ~ '"'C'T s(u)kides(u) (I like it.)

20ne variety of the .z, pronunciation merits discussing here. \~ hen it is followed by a vowel or at the end of an utterance, Iv indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. (Nasalized vowels are shown here with a tilde above vowel letters. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as "bon," or the English interjection "uh-uh," as in "no.")

tL/.,_, ji) ~, reai (romance)

,·1 Iv hi] (book)

Followed by n, t, d, s, and s sounds, .z, is pronounced as "n."

b Iv ~ onna (woman)

Followed by 11'1, p , and b sounds, Iv is pronounced as "rn."

:> Iv 11 sampo (stroll)

Followed by k and g sounds, Iv is pronounced as "ng" as in "song."

11vi.l'> manga (comics)

D. Accent in the Japanese Language

Japanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or low pitch. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronounced longer and louder, in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal length and stress. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly, depending on the region of the country.

Examples: Ji:>::

Ij:~x.. t:. i;'

Related Interests


    _(L ..


    ____ ma __ e na

    ___ s«, ta 1

    (morning) (name) (high)


    7 1 7 x. ;f
    a t u e 0
    :!J .:t '7 7 :1
    ka ki ku ke ko
    1j- y A .-e y
    sa *shi su se so
    7 T ''/ T ~
    ta "chi "tsu te to
    -t - ~ ;t" /
    na nt nu ne no
    /\ t: 7 -A.... *
    ha hi fu he ho
    -:( .... b. ;J. -T:
    ma nzz mu me 'ln0
    -v ::L :3
    ya yu yo
    - I) Iv V a
    ra rt ru re ro
    7 =;
    wa a
    n "The syllables Y, T, and 'Yare romanized as shi, chi, and tsu, respectively, to give a closer English pronunciation.

    Japanese Writing System ...

    I if ~ 7" I 7' I ::J'
    ga gz gll ge go
    -if :/ ::J: {! 'J"
    za Jl Zll ze 20
    Y" *f * 'j I -<' F
    da ;z zu I de do
    /{ c" 7" i .r-( I ~
    ba bi bu be bo
    I pa




    I =t-"V ~.:L ~3
    kya kyu «so
    S/- Y.:L Y3 I
    sha shu sho
    7-f T::L 73
    cha chu cho
    -=-f '::'.:L =-3
    nya nyu nyo I
    t.y C.:L t 3 I
    hva hyu hyo
    " f " I "
    " " ..:z.. " :3
    ...... ...... ....
    mva 1JlJit myo
    I) f I) .2. I) 3
    rya rvtc 1')10 • T Ui) and ,'/ (zu) are pronounced the arne as;) (ji) and ;;{ (ZU), respectively, and have limited use,


    ~'f :¥::L ;f :3
    gya gyu gyo
    y-v- Y.:L :/3
    )a JU JO l::'-v- C'_:L. 1::'3
    bJa bvu byo
    COf to _:L. t.°3
    pya PJ1U pya The pronunciation of katakana and its combinations are the same as those of hirauana, except for the following point _

    (1) The long vowels are written with ~.

    Examples: 7J~ haa (car)
    7,..:1-- sukii (ski)
    7-,.-';J suutsu (suit)
    j---t- keeki (cake)
    ;f-Iv boaru (ball) 'When you write vertically, the - mark needs to be written vertically also.


    *' 1


    (2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds

    that originally did not exist in Japanese.
    Examples: 71 F###BOT_TEXT###quot;[J 71 -:,.- haroioiin (Halloween)
    7.:r. / rJ.:r.1 haiuiee (highway)
    7;;t ~ _::f, -7 Jv 7 ;;t - 5' - mineranaoootaa (mineral water)
    ~.:r. ~.:r. 1) - sherii (sherry)
    :/.:r. :/.:r.-L'A [eemusu (J ames)
    f".:r. f" .r, ''J -7 chekku (check)
    7, 7 T ''J ~ 3':"- tasshon (fashion)
    71 71 1) CO :,.- iiripin (Philippine)
    7.:r.. 7l7.:r.. kate (cafe)
    7;t 7J 1) 7:t II.--=- 7 karitorunia (California)
    71 /~-7 1 - paatii (party)
    7· 1 T'1 A:J disuko (disco)
    -,' T'::J_ -7 dvuuku (Duke)
    ;::L (3) The sound "v" is sometimes written with ri. For example, the word "Venus" IS sometimes written as \::'-7 A or l~i1 --r A.

    f)'l \ ;j)

    Greetings ----------~----- 6

    c:!r"~':) cf5t:bvL\c:=I)~t) New Friends ------10 X ~i Y -"('9

    Question Sentences

    noun. (J) noun,

    ®lJiJ'lv • C: l.J Time/Age --------------.-------------------------------- .. -----------·----29

    tJ'\L\=I)O'.> Shopping ------------;-H)

    ::n, -tn J;n c'n

    'C. (J) / 7c 0) / to (J) / c' 0) + noun finO) noun

    z z -t;: Cb -t:: e:

    noun ~

    noun C ~ J; IJ i -it Iv ~b./------J:

    In the Classroom-----------------------------------------------------53

    c,!:~*~) T-~O)!?~ Making a Date --------54·

    Verb Conjugation

    Verb Types and the "Present Tense" Particles

    Time Reference

    -... i -it Iv iJ-:.

    Word Order Frequency Adverbs The Topic Particle ~j:

    ( ~ 4 ~ ) ~tY)~Q)7-J-.. The First Date ~-------72 X fJ'i cis tJ * 9" / \, ~ * 9"

    Describing Where Things Are

    Past Tense

    t: < t: Iv


    l1't L fJ~A-



    ®'fllii Locations -- - -- --------- - - - --------- - - -------- - ------ ----- - - --- - ------ - --- ---------------- -94

    l.\ 5

    @B • ill· ~ . .$ Days/Weeks/Months/Years---------------------------95

    o L'I'? -::>", tel_,

    ( M 5 ~ ) !!!n A Trip to Okinawa ---------96


    f[f~ (iJ:)/~ £?\,l(~)


    Degree Expressions

    '"'-' * L J.: -) / ----- * L J: -) iT" Counting

    @jjHJ!~"'C' At the Post Office--------··--------·------------------··------·--------112


    t®~~JM"'C' At a Photo Shop--------------·-··----------·------·-·-------------------113

    Ui'ufv -

    Related Interests


      ( ~ 6 ~::J DJ~-J-..c!IuQ)~I~ A Day in Robert's Life 114


      ----'L < ti i5 \tl

      --._, l t \,) \t) l:''9/-------C ~j: \t":J vf * -tt Iv

      Describing Two Activities ------Jp.£?

      ----- i G J: -) t»

      t®@~fijJ</~;tQ Directions·----------·----·-----------------------·-----------·--------l:~O .

      #5 i'£ SG

      c ~ 1 ~:) '~(J)!! Family Picture ----------132 '"'-'lit) 6

      ~ir~ft it)--r9"

      iJ'7j. 1j:·M

      Te-forms for Joining Sentences verb stem + t;: ff <


      Counting People

      ®1*Cl)gB~ Parts of the Body----------------------------------------_·----------148

      tJ'Stc:_ ,,, ,,,Iv

      ®~~ Family---------·_·_--·_------------------_·--------------_ .. ----------------._--- - 149

      tJ, ~<

      c ~ 8 ~==- ) /\-"'*.2- Barbecue ---------150 Short Forms

      Uses of Short Forms '"'-' ~ I; Y-C' < tt ~ V"'l

      verb O)ii~tff ~ --roT



      ff.[ -/J. and ff.[ ~

      t~c t,t't:

      ( ~ ~) fJ\i5\:tf; Kabuki ------------170

      Past Tense Short Forms

      Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives * tt~-c v) * -tt Iv

      ---iJ· G

      ®~ Colors-- ------------ ... ------------------------------------------------- --------------------------189


      ( ;g 1 0 ~) ~f*bo)~~ Winter Vacation Plans ------190

      - - ,3,1;lJ'P-g J: "Lcl


      adi ective/ noun + 0) '"'-' ~ ~ ~) tt

      adjective + ~.:5

      C_. ;: -JJ~ ~: / to ;: h: ~




      At the Station-------------------------------------·_----------------------·--208

      ~ 11 ~

      i*~o)asc:: After the Vacation --------210 f.>"9

      ..--..-t.: "It"::,

      ~t.: IJ <r: ~ T Q "-'.:: t ir:: &9 ~

      noun A ~ noun B

      ®B*~§0)?5A C' In the Japanese Class--------------------·---------····-225

      I;:: l3'lv ;::

      iJ 12 ~

      J;i 3n Feeling III ------~-------226 UJ:? 5

      -----T~· ~

      ----- ~l :3 i.J~ p "It ~ "C. '9


      --IJ' < ~ ~ v:~ ~) * -G:- l-v

      --- "C. G J: :3

      ®tilicm~ Health and Iliness··----------···· .. ---- .. ·-------· .. ---------· .. 246

      l;tlv2: S U'.tS'i'!;

      C ~ J.mJ - t-- ) Expression Notes

      ~. ___;;.U.::_doS::_cI:f:_;_;fv'-- __ ~.

      CD:B~j:J:-.5/J)I);Q,t_5 i;:J:-.5t:-G t'ln!;-l.tlv l,.'\,1;Z \,1?lG?L.<p###BOT_TEXT###quot;/

      ~ ) ? l ~ * T / t:::.te. I.; '0 *- / JJ ti';Z IJ TJ: ~ V'. S

      CVmO) /,;:l::t.)j;z .:Z -t- oJ -r'9ip Pronunciation of ~j: Numbers Giving one's

      telephone number -l.t lv-l.t\,~ i;: Iv Referring to the person you are talking to

      Japanese names 17

      @(~~) < t.3. ~ p (~~)t);b.h''''l- i T (~~) c' -j "C' On the pronuncia-

      tion of number words Big numbers -----~--------;39

      @T'f < / * 0 t:) J: ? C

      (,' <

      ® X 0) flu .:Z ? / to ? =~rBjc¥ 'b L iJ L -------------32

      ~ t.. {: l: 1J~AA.;h_,

      ®'l't L ")/I~~' -'Pip Ct:-) -------------~------104·


      CD:i!¥ < / i/-! ~ ., c" -.5 'b

      13;_: 15.:(-

      ®~~ ----~----------------------141 0-if

      ®~T0 160

      @!f wI c ~ 1'fi: 0) fJ! iJ{ to I) i Tn>······ 193

      .: {"", ;::';::' rH.

      @~;l:: in negative sentences t!. t::l' h:



      ~~ kt ------217

      G r e e t

      I n 9 5

      U:tml L-Co i: -] :e l';L(o

      }; Ij l -] 0

      h LLt -] ,:' ~" \ \ l To ':lvf:t,(;L

      .; Iv IJ Iv L;tQ ~J:77J:Go

      h -###BOT_TEXT###quot; T h ~ ~ I, '0 J) ~ IJ{ t '7 0

      J) ~ f.;Jt t -] ,:"~"Vll To

      T hi -1±;;""


      \ \ ~ "( G ~ L ~ v '0

      t: t::_' I, \ i 0

      }; n';z ry fJ: ~ 'v'" \ \t:.t::'· ~ l-fo

      t:± l: /i) l L-C

      t" '1 Jf-" J:;S L < 0

      Ohayoo. Good morning.

      Ohayoo gozaimasu. Good morning. (polite)

      Konnichiwa. Good afternoon.

      Konbanwa. Good evening.

      Sayoonara. Good-bye.

      Oyasuminasai. Good night.

      Arigatoo. Thank you.

      Arigatoo gozaimasu. Thank you. (polite)


      Excuse me.; I'm sorry.

      lie. Ittekimasu. Itterasshai.

      No_; Not at all.

      I'll go and come back. Please go and come back.

      I'm home.

      Welcome home.

      Thank you for the meal. (before eating)

      Thank you for the meal. (after eating)

      How do you do?

      Nice to meet you.

      Tadaima. Okaerinasai. Itadakimasu.


      Hajlrnernashite. Doozo yoroshiku.

      ~J~/-i'- Expression NotesCD


      ¢3lctJ:5fa5 !?t.i'C? III> Ohavoo is used between friends and family members, while ohavoo gozaimasu is used between less intimate acquaintances, similarly with arigatoo and arigatoo gosairnasu, The rule of thumb is: if you are on a first-name basis with someone, go for the shorter versions. If you would address someone as Mr. or Ms., use the longer versions. To give a concrete example, the social expectation is such that students are to use the longer variants when they speak with a professor.

      c!d::5td:6111> There are several good-bye expressions in Japanese, the choice among which depends on the degree of separation. Savoonara indicates that the speaker does not expect to see the person spoken to before she "turns a page in her life"; not until a new day arrives, or until fate brings the two together again, or until they meet again in the other world.

      L "i~;.O~ i. tc; jaa, mata.

      (between friends, expecting to see each other again fairly soon)

      G'"J;hJ./l G *-"90 Shitsureeshimasu.

      (taking leave from a professor's office, for example)

      V'?L~*-To (leaving home)


      9d7*ttlvlll> Sumimasen means (1) "Excuse me," to get another person's attention, (2) "I'm sorry," to apologize for the trouble you have caused, or (3) "Thank yOU," to show appreciation for what someone has done for you.

      l.\L.\x", lie is primarily "No," a negative reply to a question. In the dialogue, it is used to express the English phrase "Don't mention it," or "You're welcome," with which vou point out that one is not required to feel obliged for what you have done for them.

      l. ###BOT_TEXT###quot;:) C': 6 -:> u f.J LVI.. \? L ~ * 9ft: ~ l. \ */ct51J';t tJ ts. c! l. \ ... Iitekimasu and itterasshai is a common exchange used at home when a family member leaves. The person who leaves says ittekimasu, which literally means "I will go and come back." And the family members respond with itterasshai, which means "Please go and come back."

      Tadaima and okaeri are used when a person comes home. The person who arrives home says tadaima (I am home right now) to the family members, and they respond with okaerinasai (v'. elcome home).








      Act out the following situations with your classmates.

      1. You meet) our host farnil; for the first time. Greet them.

      2. It is one o'clock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. Yamada.

      3. You come to class in the morning. Greet your teacher. Greet your friends.

      4. On a crowded train, you stepped 011 someone's foot.

      5. You dropped your book. Someone picked it up for you.

      6. It is eight o'clock at night. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience


      7. You are watching TV with your host family. It is time to go to sleep.

      8. You are leaving home.

      9. You have come back horne.

      10. You are going to start eating.

      11. You have finished eating.




      o g u e

      Mary, an international student who just arrived in Japan, talks to a Japanese student.

      tlJ ~;_:. 0 ~ ~

      1 ;J. 7 I) -: --.t h;!-tt- ko \, \ 1 7J:,z_, t · .. C'--.th'o



      Ima nanji desu ka.

      Takeshi [uuniji han desu.

      t/) s. r} \ ~

      3 ;J."7 I) -: ~ 0 hCc_ -) .: -y ~ \ 1 --.t 0




      4 t:. tj L :



      t::_ tt L ~O),
      Takeshi Ana,
      i/) ,6 ~ e,
      2 ;J 7 1) - • it. it. 0
      Mearii Ee. ry ~ -7 h" < -Jt\-{"Th'o

      ryuugakusee desu ka, b ~ 'F -:.:

      J 1) '/T t: I. \ h{ < O)IJ{ < -tt I. \ --COT 0

      Arizona daigaku no

      gakusee desu.

      3 t: tt L Takeshi

      Sao desu ka.

      Senmon wa

      nan desu ka.

      t/) ;) I) t \

      4 ;J J 1) - • Mearii

      Nihongo desu.

      Ima ninensee desu.

      Mary: Excuse me. What time is it now? Takeshi: It's half past twelve.

      Mary: Thank you.

      Takeshi: You're welcome.


      Takeshi: Urn ... are you an international student? Mary: Yes. I am a student at the University of Arizona. Takeshi: I see. What is your major?

      Mary: Japanese. I am a sophomore now.

      v 0

      * ;b (7) * \- \ .i

      x_ I, \ .:

      * x_ x_

      * h>' < -ttl, \

      -1:t Iv -It I, 'I * -ttlvtlv * f -] "C'T * t::_'\- \h" <

      -elvh r t t::_'f:> ~~x_

      * ~1v/lJ.t: * t:lflv

      >" ~tllv-ltl,\

      I.:f Iv ::""-)

      * ry fP-)h"<-1:t\ ht::. L

      f;_ Iv

      c a





      gakusee · .. go


      gogo gozen

      · .. sai

      · .. san

      · .. ji

      · .. jin

      sen see

      senmon 500 desu daigaku denwa tomodachi

      namae nan/nani Nihon

      · .. nensee

      hai han




      um ...


      English (language)

      yes student

      language ex. t: (ilv ::.." (nihon· go) Japanese language

      high school



      ... years old Mr.!Ms ....

      o'clock ex. I, ###BOT_TEXT###quot;t L (ichiji) one o'clock

      people ex. t: (flv L Iv Cnihonjitz) Japanese people

      teacher; Professor . . .


      That's right.

      college; university




      what Japan

      ... year student ex. \, \ i; tllv-tt \, \ Cichinensee) first-year student


      half ex.~: t l;;t Iv (nijihan) half past two

      ban goo number

      ryuugakusee international student

      watashi I

      * Words that appear in the dialogue


      Countr es

      7 ~ 1) fJ

      1J .d1) f} .¢'

      -1 .::f 1) A

      ~~~. 'l T

      ;f-A ~ '7 I) 7

      B }:; 1" >.;: ~ 'J j)

      h~ Iv::. <


      --r i "- '"C. !...

      ~ I1l 1 _:" <

      Maiors h'h" <

      7:;7 t"tlv.2 I1l 1

      ~ L: ~


      ::. < ~ I.\h'lvttI.\ ::J:/'C..:L-Y-


      t Iv ~ \, \h{ <




      ~)~ Iv iJ.;' <


      Occupat ons

      L .: c

      I., L ("


      Related Interests


        ::'1 _: 1-lt\

        L I1l ~),


        Related Interests

          \iJ< < 1,.v-lt\ t:3.'

          Related Interests

            \h< < -t,t

            Related Interests


              """ Iv .: L

              Family hiJ' cb ~ Iv hc-J:-Iv h;fcl;t~1v }; t: \, \ ~ Iv \,\ t --) t };t-jt

              Amerika lgirisu Oosutoraria

              Kankoku Sueeden Chuugoku

              kagaku ajiakenkyuu keezai kokusaikankee konpyuutaa jinruigaku


              bijinesu bungaku rekishi


              ish a

              kaishain kookoosee shufu daigakuinsee daigakusee bengoshi

              okaasan otoosan

              oneesan oniisan imooto



              Britain Australia Korea Sweden China


              Asian studies

              economics international relations computer anthropology





              job; work; occupation doctor

              office worker

              high school student housewife

              graduate student college student lawyer



              older sister older brother younger sister younger brother








              _ xl~y"t:~

              "It is 12:30." "1 am a student." "My major is the Japanese language." These sentences will all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu.

              -<:90 It is ...

              L l -) t: L !j: A., l"T 0 (It) is half past twelve.

              Juuniji han desu.

              -h>.' < -1t \, \ -e-t 0

              Gakusee desu.

              (I) ant a student.

              ~:: t i Iv .: l" T 0

              Nihongo desu.

              (M» major) is the Japanese language.

              Note that none of these sentences has a "subject," like the "it," "I," and "my major" found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common in Japanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is clear to the listener what or 'who they are referring to.

              What are we to do, then, v vhen it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicit what we are talking about, we can say:

              is the Japanese language.


              Where stands for the thing that is talked about, or the "topic," which is later in


              the sentence identified as nihongo. For example,

              (1YIy) major is the Japanese language.

              Senmon wa

              nihongo desu.

              Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu to identify a person or a thing X as item Y.

              X Id: Y C90 X is Y. As for X, it is Y.

              1" -j :. t,

              b t: L U:. A - . ~ L. "C" To I am Sue Kim.

              Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu.

              Wr. Yamashita is a teacher.

              Yamashita san wa

              sensee desu.

              f/) .::-) 'l t, 'I ,h -n f} ';'

              ~ J I) -:: Ivtj: 7':/ I) t; t Iv-Ci""o

              Mary is an American.

              Mearii san wa

              amerikajin desu.

              Wa is a member of the class of words called "particles." So is the word no, which we will turn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the phrases relate to the rest of the sentence.

              Note also that nouns like gakusee and sensee in the above examples stand alone, unlike their English translations "student" and "teacher," which are preceded by "a." In Japanese, there is no item that corresponds to "a," nor is there any item that corresponds to the plural" -s" at the end of a noun. 'Without background situations, a sentence like gakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations; it may mean "V\Te are/you are/they are students," as well as "I am/you are/she is a student."

              o Question Sentences

              It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add ka at the end of a statement.

              ~ rp -) IJ~' < -tt I,. \ "{" To

              Ryuugakusee desu,

              (J am) an international student.

              ry I-P -) IJ~' < -li"1,.

              Related Interests


                Ryuugakusee desu ka.

                (Are you) an international student?

                The above sentence, Ryuugakusee desu ka, is a "yes/no" Question. Question sentences may also contain a "question word" like nan2 (what). In this lesson, we learn how to ask, and answer, questions using the following question words: nanji (what time), nansai (how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note carefully that the order of words in a sentence may be quite different from what you find in your language.

                -tt Iv t /; Ij 7J: h, ··C"'tIJ·o

                Senmon wa nan desu ka.

                What is your major?

                (-tt Iv t Iv tj) :Z. \ \ ='"{-'T a

                (Senmon wa) eego desu.

                (JYly major) is English.

                1 It is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence in Japanese.

                2The Japanese question word for "what" has two pronunciations: nan and nani. Nan is used immediately before desu or before a "counter" like ji (o'clock). The other form, nani, is used before a particle. Nani is also used in the combination naniiin (person of what nationality).

                I.\j Jj:h"C-'eTh~o

                Ima nanji desu ka.

                What time is it now?

                (1.:) < t--c'1'o

                (lma) kuji desu.

                It is nine o'clock.

                .;;<, .t} I) L,

                / 7 1) - ~ tC ,j Jj: k~ I. '''(''1'0'0

                Mearii san wa

                nansai desu ka.

                L rp -] ~ rp -] ::: I. \-{"To

                Juukyuusai desu.

                I'm nineteen years old.

                How old are you, Mary?

                Nannensee desu ka.

                What year are you in college?

                I'm a sophomore.

                "("!vb iJk .: -] U: ~ h" -'("1"0'0

                Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka.

                What is your telephone number?

                I 860)7343-{"1' D

                !chi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu.

                It is 186-7343.

                No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku no gakusee means "(a) student at Tozai University." The second noun gakusee provides the main idea" (being a student) and the first one Toozai daigaku makes it more specific (not a high school, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts like the possessive ("x's") in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how it connects two nouns in the following examples.

                t: tt L ::: h" 0) "C' !v b Lf Iv :::' -]
                Takeshi san no denwa bangoo
                t::.'1. \-I;{ < 0) -It k-lt I. \
                daigaku no sensee
                ,: ti tC ="0) 0{ < *1.\
                nihongo no gakusee
                ~: tikO) t-3.'1. \-h{ <
                nihon no daigaku Takeshi's phone number

                a college professor

                a student of the Japanese language

                d' college in Japan

                Observe that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged in the same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems to be more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, with any further description placed before it.

                3Here is what we mean by the "main idea." In the phrase Takeshi san no denuia bangoo (Takeshi's phone number), the noun denuia bangoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something is Takeshi's phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeshi san is not the main idea, because Takeshi's phone number is not Takeshi.

                A phrase of the form "noun. no noun," acts more or less like one big noun. You can put it wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example:



                main idea

                further restriction

                Takeshi san no

                okaasan wa

                kookoo no

                sensee desu.

                Takeshi's mother is a high school teacher.

                ~J~./ - '"' Ex pre s s ion Not e s (ij'\

                D-J:51j'1u \.IJ

                aso)" Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what you are going to say next. You may be worried about interrupting something someone is currently doing, or sounding rude and impolite for asking personal questions, for example.

                [;;it,. V;t;t.,. Both hoi and ee mean "yes" in response to ves-no questions. Compared to hai, ee is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal situations, un is used.

                Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one's name, meaning "Here," as follows. (Ee cannot be replaced in this case.)

                -t J.j. 1""

                Teacher: ;z., ~ A ~ Iv ?

                Surnisu san?

                Afr. Smith?

                Student: ktl"o Hai


                t5c"'9iJ'-'" Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what was just said. "Is that so?" or "I see."

                Pronunciation of [1.,. The particle ~j: is pronounced "wa," not" ha." It should be written with !j:. All other instances of "wa" are written with :D.

                ht.: CO) "'Clvh ~;flv~" -:J ~j: 37-8667'"(:'90

                Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san nana no hachi roku roku nan a desu.

                1y telephone number is 37-8667.

                There are a few exceptions, such as konnichiuia (good afternoon) and konbanwa (good evening). They are usually written with ;::_ Iv ~= t. tj: and ;::_ Iv 1,JIv tt.

                Numbers ... Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Refer to the table at the end of this book for a general picture .

                . l,f ;s

                o .J:£o and n),.,,> are both commonly used.

                1 ),.,'>"10, but pronounced as ),.,'>? in P")£fv (one minute) and ~l,? 2- Vl (one-year old).

                2 h: all the time. When you are reading out each digit separately, as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with a long vowel, as ~.:: v'>.

                3 ~ Iv all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as in ~Iv£!v, instead of ~!v.h,Iv.

                4 J: Iv is the most basic, but fourth-year student is J: blv-1tv,> and four o'clock is J: C. In some combinations that we will later learn, it is read as L, (as in CiJf--:::>, April). The part that follows this number may change shape too, as in J: 1v~1v.

                5 ;:::- all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced

                with a long vowel, as t':'I.

                6 ~ < , but pronounced as ~ '? in ~ ").£ Iv.

                7 iJ: iJ: is the most basic, but seven o'clock is C t L.

                8 tj: t, but usually pronounced as ~j: '? in ~j: '? ",~Iv and tj: '? ~ Vl. 9 ;!;!~ -:J is the most basic, but nine o'clock is < G.

                10 t: 1-:);1 -:J, but pronounced as c: 19J '? in C:!<P '? .h~1v and G l\)l '? ~ v).

                Giving one's telephone number" The particle no is usually placed in between the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, the number 012-345-6789 is zero ichi ni, san yon go no, roku nana hachi kvuu .

                ttlvttL \ .. The word sensee is usually reserved for describing somebody else's occupation. Watashi wa sensee desu makes sense, but may sound slightly arrogant, because the word sensee actually means an "honorable master." If you (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you want to be really modest, you can use the word kvooshi instead.

                t!"1v" San is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a given name and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in

                particular as kun), rather than as san. Professors and doctors are usually referred to with the title sensee. San and other title words are never used in reference to oneself.

                Referring to the person you are talking to ... The word for "YOU," anata, is not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title like san and sensee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a sentence like "Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?" should be:

                r1 ~ t ~ ~ ~ T ~

                )\- t-~!U~i A T/ .:r.-T/t;!V-C·9iJ~o Haato san wa 5ueed_:n!in desu ka.

                f;l: ,;:; c;

                instead of )\- r- .~ lv,

                Haato san,

                j :i .i_ -:' A..

                J9 ~ t: ti A"/ _I. - T y t; Iv -C'TiJ'o anata wa sueedenjin desu ka,

                Japanese names j- "\i\ hen Japanese give their name, they say their family name first and given name last. Usually, they don't have middle names. When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. Here are some typical Japanese names.

                Family name Given name
                Men Women
                ~c:"3 V'0L- ~-:JC:
                Satoo Hiroshi Yuuko

                Related Interests

                  )"G 0 -) i:l) <" 1J..
                  Suzuki Ichiroo Megumi
                  t.:h~~:I: L- ~t Iv C <1J..C:
                  Takahashi Kenji Kumiko
                  t.:~h~ ~7~ i;t:l3h
                  Tanaka Yuuki Naomi
                  1,,)(: -) i~U'0 ~J:-)C:
                  Itoo Masahiro Kyooko nlvu~5 p r a c t c e
                  (Dg-5li (Numbers) B
                  .l,f )7-
                  0 t'a/ift\,'
                  zero ree
                  It ,1:; II LrJ:l 7 \i:> 30 ~lvtry7
                  ichi juuichi sanjuu
                  2 ~: 12 t: rJ:l -) t: 40 J:lvtry7
                  ni juuni yonjuu
                  3 ~Iv 13 Lry-)~Iv 50 .: t I'):J -)
                  san juusan gojuu
                  4 llv/L/(J:) 14 t ry -) J: Iv/ t vp 7 L 60 ~<tl1J-)
                  yon shi (yo) juuyon juushi rokujuu
                  5 ~'\ ... 15 t vp -) .: 70 'llj:tl1J-)
                  go juugo nanajuu
                  6 ~ < 16 t~-)~< 80 t;;t i:? t: I1J -)
                  roku juuroku hachijuu
                  7 ~~/Li:? 17 tI1J7'lt:/trp7 Li:? 90 ~~-)rvp-)
                  nana shichi juunana juushichi kyuujuu
                  8 t;;t i:? 18 l'v)J -) U: 1; 100 YJ~<
                  hachi juuhachi hyaku
                  9 ~vp-)/< 19 rrp-)~vp7/tvp-) <
                  kyuu ku juukyuu juuku
                  10 tv)J-) 20 t: t: v)J -)
                  juu nijuu
                  A. Read the following numbers.6D
                  (a) 5 (b) 9 (e) 7 (d) (e) 10
                  (f) 8 (g) 2 (h) 6 (i) 4 (j) 3 B. Read the following numbers. ED

                  (a) 45 (f) 100

                  (b) 83 (g) 38

                  (e) 52 (j) 97

                  (e) 19 (h) 61

                  (d) 76 0) 24

                  C. What are the answers? Bl

                  (a) 5+3 (b) 9+1 (e) 3+4 (d) 6-6 (e) 10+9 (f) 8-7 (g) 40-25

                  CD 1.Jt.l'1v (Time) @
                  Qj ~) (C) (9 C=Q
                  It \i; t: t: L ~lvt J:1: ="t
                  ichiji niji sanji yoji gOji
                  CD C!) Q~) e) e)
                  ;; < t: Li;t Ii i; L < L' L~1t
                  rokuji shichiji hachiji kuji juuji C) Q) (]
                  tvp-J~\i;t L ~ -7 ~: L 1,.###BOT_TEXT### LUIv
                  juuichiji juuniji ichiji han A. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. @

                  Ima nanji desu ka.

                  Ichiji han desu.













                  B. Answer the questions. 61

                  Tookyoo wa

                  ima nanji desu ka.

                  A . ~v-1f'A_, ~ A_, t -("To

                  Gozen sanji desu.

                  1. London 6: 00 PM/-_./' o j « .> 2. StockhOlm.

                  :rr 7:00 P.M. \ -

                  d)~ 4. New Delhi ~ V '1

                  [l-'~"'vf?' D l{ 30 P.M. ru#- Tokyo V~ \./',_ 4---- 3:00A.M.

                  ; V;;.~ a '_...___ 5. Bangkok

                  I rl =W-~c l:OOA.M.

                  U -

                  6. Sydney

                  3. Nairobi \l J 4:00 A.M.

                  9:00 PM.

                  7. New York 1 :00 P.M.

                  8. Rio de Janeiro 3:00PM.

                  (~clvt>(;ffv~'? (Telephone Numbers)

                  A. Read the following people's telephone numbers. ED


                  Example: {'> l L i: 283-9547 ~ t: LJ: i; ~ A_, (J) ~ vp -) .: 1 A_, ~ ~

                  ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana

                  iIJ ?, 'J I'
                  l. ;J 7 I) - 951-0326
                  2. t::.!t L 362-4519
                  ., 1
                  3. A- 691-4236
                  Jj IJ }j ;::
                  4. '0.1,'- r 852-1032
                  Robaato B. Pair Work-Read the dialogue below with your partner. till]

                  Denwa bangoo wa

                  nan desu ka.

                  B : 283-9547 "'("T 0

                  Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu.

                  A . 283-Q547--C'T tlo

                  i hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne.

                  B U: 1,,', .f -) --C'-f 0

                  Hal, 500 desu.

                  C. Group Work-Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone

                  name telephone number
                  ( ) ( )
                  ( ) ( )
                  ( ) ( ) ® r~(~Iv~o) jj###BOT_TEXT###lt; ttL'

                  Translate the following phrases into Japanese using 0) (no). Sl

                  Example: student of the Japanese language ~ ~: ,3: ~ :_" Cl) f,;{ < -tt I" '\

                  nihongo no


                  l. my teacher 2. my telephone number
                  3. my name 4. Takeshi's major
                  5. Mary's friend 6. student of the University of London
                  7. teacher of the Japanese language 8. high school teacher Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues in (a) through (e). Eill

                  1. t~ ~t L ~ ~

                  Takeshi san

                  -;- 1

                  2. A-~~

                  Suu san

                  Robaato san

                  4 . ~ ~ L t: -tt Iv -tt I" '\

                  Yamashita sensee

                  (a) nationality

                  jJ ;, t) \.. Y> J, J) ~ , t) tl) ~ o·

                  Example: ;.< 7 1) - ~ Iv ---C> _;,{ 7 I) - ~ Iv Ii 7;l 1) iJ t Iv --C' To _

                  Mearii san

                  Mearii san wa

                  amerikajin desu.

                  (b) year in school

                  it) ~ 'l 1. , dJ ~ IJ ~ -,

                  Example: ;.< 7 1) - ~ Iv ---c> ;l 7 1) - ~ Iv Li t: b Iv-lt I" '\ "C'''t 0

                  Mearii san

                  Mearii san wa

                  ninensee desu.

                  (c) age

                  ~) n I) \, \ v) J) I} ~ 'I

                  Example: ~ 7" I) - ~ Iv ---+ _;< T 1) - ~ Iv U: L' fP -) ~ fP 7 ~ I, \ "("T 0

                  Mearii san

                  Mearii san wa

                  juukyuu sai desu.

                  (d) school

                  thJ)t)\, !hJ)~l'. },r}i-"-'&,'

                  Example: ;( 7 I) - ~ h" -,l> ;( 7 I) - ~ h" fJ: 7 1) ,/1- t::.'1, \lJ{ < 0

                  Mearii san

                  Mearii san wa

                  Arizona daigaku no

                  lJ{ < -it I, \ "("To

                  gakusee desu.

                  (e) major

                  ;/) t;, I} " If) h ')

                  Related Interests

                    Example: ~ 7 I) - ~ Iv -,l> _;< 7 1) - ~ Iv 0 -it Iv t Iv ti f= (1.1v ::""("To

                    Mearii san

                    Mearii san no

                    sen man wa

                    nihongo desu.

                    Hart, Mary ~ t.' S t: ~t L Kim, Sue Smith, Robert f'l L t:{[ h,-Ih \
                    Kimura Takeshi Yamashita sen see
                    Korean British
                    Nationality American Japanese (~'h-;: < l'h,) ( 1 t' I) A LA_,) Japanese
                    kankokujin igirisujin
                    Year 2nd year 4th year .>:
                    3rd year 4th year _---
                    Age 19 22 20 22 47
                    School U _ of Arizona Tozai Univ. Seoul Univ. U. of London Tozai Univ.
                    history computer business (Japanese
                    Major Japanese (;fLJt L) .: /'" if 'to i i: il U· L' rx -j-
                    (:J /t:'_2~J-) ( 1::' :; * .::z) teacher}
                    rekishi konpyuutaa bijinesu B. Pair Work-Ask and answer questions using the given cues .

                    .iIJ t~ r; \ 1 s. ~.., 'l ~~

                    Example 1: _;< T I) - ::. 1v/7 ;( I) iJ t h"

                    Mearii san


                    &'j. ~ -1 ~ '1J 'l ,'; ..

                    Q _;<7 1) -:: Iv ~j: 7;( 1) 1J L Iv "'C'TlJ'o

                    Mearii san wa

                    amerikajin desu ka.

                    A ;it;:, -C'1,,("To

                    Ee, soo desu.

                    s') ~ f1 _\

                    Example 2: 7- 7 1) - ~ Iv/ ~ Ivblv-tt I" \

                    Mearii san


                    Mearii san wa

                    sannerisee desu ka,

                    A' I,\I,\;Z_~ 1·:blv-ttI,###BOT_TEXT###quot;('To

                    lie, ninensee desu.

                    Mearli san

                    Arizona daigaku no


                    Mearii san


                    Takeshi san


                    Takeshi san

                    Nihon daigaku no


                    Takeshi san


                    T -j -r;.--_:.:.. ""'C+ j...,

                    6. A-~Iv/A7.:L-T'/LIv

                    Suu san


                    -;- -j

                    7. A - ~ Iv (/) -tt Iv t Iv / tt 1" ~" I, \ (economics)

                    Suu san no



                    ~ u ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

                    8 . P F

                    Related Interests

                      - ~ :: Iv (/) -tt Iv t !v / c' :; i<;;Z

                      Robaato san no



                      .; !l J') .c::

                      9. 0/'

                      Related Interests

                        - ~ ~!v/ 1 b!V~\

                        Robaato san


                        J,J !i- i) t:"

                        10. 0 J '

                        Related Interests

                          - ~ ~ Iv / t: t vp -]

                          Related Interests