Renewable Fuels for Transportation

Dr. G. Amba Prasad Rao
Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology Warangal- 506 004. (A.P.)


Thanks to the inventors of Internal Combustion engine, especially CI engine, that has changed the life style of human beings. Ever since the invention of IC Engine, in particular CI engine, multitude of improvements has taken place with regards to the engine design technology. Two centuries of unprecedented industrialization driven mainly by the fossil fuels have changed the face of this planet. Serious smog problem of early 1960s in Los angles has diverted the minds of technologists to reduce pollutants responsible for smog episode. Added to this, early 1970s had witnessed the oil embargo and since then the researchers started working seriously on search for substitute fuels to replace petroleum derived fuels to keep the automotive industry alive. Pollution and accelerating energy consumption have already affected equlibria of earth’s landmasses, oceans and atmosphere, particularly important is the loss of biodiversity. Countries like ours and in general countries that have less reserves of petroleum crude are losing their hard earned revenue in importing petro- products to sustain their vehicle population. To keep the vehicles moving, adapting to the latest engine technology and to curb vehicular pollution problems, the petroleum fuels are undergoing extensive refining process to improve ignition quality and make sulfur free petroleum fuels. Researchers have established the feasibility of using a variety of alternative fuels such as alcohol fuels, natural gas, hydrogen, and a host of vegetable oils. In the present workshop, an overview of renewable fuels that can be substituted for petro-derived fuels has been presented.


Fuels are those substances which, when heated, undergo chemical reaction with an oxidizer (typically oxygen in air) to liberate heat. Commercially important fuels contain carbon, hydrogen, and their compounds, which provide the heating value. Fuels may be classified as liquid, gaseous or solid. Liquid fuels haven meeting the demands in transportation and heavy-duty, power sectors and are primarily derived from crude oil. Thus they are predominantly petroleum derived fuels (fossil) .To be practical sources of energy; fuels should be abundant and relatively inexpensive. The extent of global fossil fuel reserves is subject to debate. The fuels most commonly used in internal combustion engines-IC Engines(gasoline or petrol, and diesel fuels) are blends of many different hydrocarbon compounds obtained by refining petroleum or crude oil; typically about 86 percent carbon and 14 percent hydrogen by weight, though diesel fuels contain up to about 1 percent sulfur. Combustion is such a commonly observed phenomenon that it hardly seems necessary to define the term. From a scientific view point, combustion stems from chemical reaction kinetics. Reactions which take place very rapidly with large conversion of chemical energy to sensible energy (thermal energy). Typical combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels are carbon dioxide, water vapor and traces of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen. Large-scale exploitation of petroleum derived fuels by energy hungry nations for meeting the requirements for various reasons have exponentially increased the obnoxious emissions (Combustion generated pollution). Combustion emissions must satisfy governmentally imposed emission standards (Euro norms, EPA norms and Bharat Stage norms etc.) for selected compounds in the products, such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. Emissions standards are set at levels to try to keep the ambient air clean enough to protect human health and the natural environment. Low emissions can be achieved by a combination of fuel selection and preparation, combustion system design, and treatment of the products of combustion.


There are challenging engineering trade-offs between low emissions, high efficiency, and low cost. Recently, global warming has become a widespread concern. Inter governmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) recommendations have also strongly established that human activities are responsible for alarming levels in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The described that carbon dioxide levels, in the global atmosphere are increasing, and carbon dioxide emissions from combustion are a major contributor to the greenhouse effect, whereby long-wave radiation from the surface of the earth is trapped by the atmosphere. The relationship between CO2 emissions and average global temperature rise is not clear at this time. However, it is well established that the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is increasing at an accelerating rate. Prior to the industrial revolution the CO2 content of the atmosphere was fairly stable at 280 parts per million (ppm), based o measurements of air bubbles trapped in glacial ice corings. By 1900 the CO2 level had reached 300ppm. Accurate, direct measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were begun by Charles Keeling at the Mauna Loa Observatory in 1958 the CO2 concentration was 315ppm; by 1980, 337ppm; and by 1996, 362 ppm. Because the world population is expected to nearly double to around 10 billion people during the next several decades, the potential for future growth in CO2 emissions cannot be ignored. The worldwide pressure for growth in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is tremendous, as evidenced, for example, by the fact that one-third of the people in the world still do not have any electricity. A reduction in CO2 emissions can be achieved by improvement in the overall efficiency of combustion systems, by using renewable fuels, and by replacing fossil fuels with other sources of energy such as solar photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, hydro, or nuclear power. Researchers have established the use of both liquid and gaseous alternative fuels for use in CI and CI engines viz; Alcohols (Methanol and Ethanol), Natural gas, Hydrogen, Biofuels (especially biodiesel).

Alternative Fuels-An overview:


and Japan have led the development of alternative fuels because they have become dependent on oil imports to satisfy their transportation vehicle fuel needs. it soon became clear that alternative fuels had inherent environmental advantages as well. IC vehicles using gasoline. the current situation regarding fuels for transportation vehicles resembles the time in the early 1900s when vehicle buyers could choose among internal-combustion. home-grown fuel whose production would benefit agriculture. Through experimentation with alternative fuels. From the demise of steam and the electric vehicles. and ease of use that steam and electric vehicles could not match. During this period. The wide availability of inexpensive gasoline as a by product of kerosene refining (for lighting purposes) was surely a large factor in the subsequent success of the IC engine in transportation vehicles. Both steam and electric vehicles had characteristics much desired by consumers at the time such as low noise and good drivability.even Henry Ford envisioned many of today’s concerns about fuel availability and the environment by investigating the use of ethanol as a renewable.. Each alternative fuel has some characteristic that gives it an environmental advantage over petroleum fuels. drawbacks such as lengthy start-up time and complexity of operation (steam vehicles) and short driving range (electrics) conspired to limit their appeal. there were great debates about which fuels best. diesel fuel have enjoyed virtually complete dominance of the market. or electric vehicles. The original impetus for development of alternative fuels to gasoline and diesel fuel was the realization that the oil-producing nations that held the majority of the world’s reserves had the power to dictate the price and availability of what had become a truly international commodity. In many ways. On going development over time has resulted in very durable and reliable vehicles that are safe and less damaging to the environment than ever before. Most are less damaging to the environment if spilled. and in general the emissions from 5 . range. However.S. steam. several European countries. The U. With the advent of the electric starter IC Engine vehicles achieved a combination of economy.The term “alternative fuel” has been used to describe any fuel suggested for use in transportation vehicles other than gasoline or diesel fuel (conventional or fossil fuels).

but not as a duel by itself. The Alcohol Fuels Methanol and ethanol are the alcohols considered to be potential transportation alternative fuels. The alcohols (methanol and ethanol) natural gas (compressed and liquefied) LP Gas and vegetable oils and hydrogen are all covered in their entirety. This results in reduced amounts ozone being produced with the benefit of improved air quality.alternative fuels are less reactive. None of the alcohols higher than methanol and ethanol have been seriously considered as alternative fuels for use unmixed with other fuels in engines. Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) has been used as a gasoline and co-solvent when mixing methanol with gasoline. New issues such as public awareness and training of vehicle maintenance personnel have arisen as the use of alternative fuel vehicles spreads. dimethyl ether (DME. Technical feasibility is no longer questioned. The initial work on alternative fuels focused on which one was best from the view point of technical feasibility production capability and cost. Recently. The alternative fuels suggested are those which are considered the most likely candidates for use in IC Engine and future energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. In the starting there was less concern about energy security but later on developed countries felt it necessary and swung back to the energy security value of alternative fuels. made using methanol) has been proposed for use as a diesel engine alternative fuel because of its favorable emissions characteristics relative using diesel fuel. and the focus now has shifted more toward which alternative fuels can be produced at competitive cost. As emission control technology combined with cleaner petroleum fuels such as reformulated gasoline and “clean diesel” has resulted in emission levels low enough to significantly depreciate the emission benefits of alternative fuels. Methanol and ethanol make good candidates for alternative fuels in that they are liquids and have several physical and combustion properties similar to gasoline and 6 .

a significant drawback to methanol and ethanol relative to gasoline is that they lower energy density. fewer Btus per gallon.2 diesel fuel. Both methanol and ethanol have much higher octane ratings than typical gasolinewhich allows alcohol engines to have much higher compression ratios. they do not produce any soot or particulates and they can be tuned to also produce very low levels of oxides of nitrogen. in high performance engines in grand prix racing 7 . It takes nearly two gallons of methanol and one-half gallons of ethanol to equal one gallon of gasoline. pure ethanol compared to gasoline and No. The mass of emissions using methanol and ethanol is not significantly different than from petroleum fuels. Table-1 lists the properties of pure methanol.. However. increasing thermal efficiency. These properties are similar so that the same basic engine and fuel system technologies can be used for methanol and ethanol as for gasoline and diesel fuel. Methanol Consideration of methanol as motor fuel did not emerge until it became a common industrial chemical. A significant advantage of alcohol fuels is that when are combusted in diesel engines. producing smaller amounts of ozone. Methanol and ethanol have inherent advantages relative to conventional gasoline and diesel fuel in that their emissions are less reactive in the atmosphere. Clever implementation of ignition aids and use of fuel additives in the 1970s and 1980s proved that it was possible use methanol and ethanol as diesel engine alternative fuels.e. i.diesel fuel. the harmful component of smog. Methanol and ethanol were long considered good SI engine alternative fuels. Methanol and ethanol have the disadvantage in that they produce formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as combustion by products in large quantity than the toxic compounds from the petroleum fuels that they replace. It was used as an automotive fuel during the 1930s to replace or supplement gasoline supplies.

it burns with a flame that is not visible in direct sunlight. Methanol was once referred to as “wood alcohol” because it originally was made from the destructive distillation of wood. all aimed at increasing the overall thermal efficiency. Major disadvantages of methanol are: initial higher cost than that of gasoline. There are many variations of the basic steam reforming process.Air quality has become the near-term catalyst for alternative fuel vehicle expansion.vehicles in the 1930s. any sulfur present in natural gas is first removed. familiar liquid fuel that can readily be produced using well-proven technology. and need for education of users and handlers on toxicity safety. Next. but in the long-term the countries will have to rely on alternative sources of energy as petroleum reserves diminish. serious research attention started in the late 1960s based on emissions advantages and was greatly expanded when energy security problems developed in the 1970s(Oil embargo). Production: Methanol is a colorless liquid that is common chemical used in industry as solvent and directly in manufacturing processes. low concentrations of methanol were found to be a good nonmetallic substitute. impact of reduce energy density on driving range or larger fuel tank.Larger methanol 8 . The currently preferred process for producing methanol is steam reformation of natural gas. the natural gas is reacted with steam in the presence of a catalyst under high heat and pressure to form carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Steam reformation of natural gas has a thermal efficiency of about 56-62%. is an octane blending agent with more favorable characteristics than methanol to produce blends with gasoline for use in existing gasoline vehicle models. For general use. while advanced processes can have as high as 68%. In this process. The technology for large-scale production of methanol was developed by Badische Anilin und Fabrik(BASF) in Germany in 1924. MTBE is made by reacting methanol with iso-butylene. Methanol’s major advantages in vehicular use are that it is a convenient. With the US government-mandated phase – out of lead as a gasoline octane additive. These elements are then put through the methanol production catalyst to make methanol.

methanol synthesis.CO-shift conversion for H2 . In addition. no particulates are formed. Because it is less photochemically reactive than gasoline. The physical and chemical properties of methanol can be used advantageously in engines to produce low emissions. Other methods: (i) Methanol from lignite or coal: Pulverized lignite or coal is fed to steam/oxygen-blown gasifiers (partial combustion) to produce synthesis gas consisting of CO and H2 H2O + C CO +H2 (ii) → CO + H2 → CH3OH Methanol from Municipal Solid waste: The wastes are first shredded and then passed under a magnet to remove ferrous materials. and methanol purification are accomplished in a manner similar to that of lignite feed. unlike diesel fuel. Methanol exposure studies have shown that methanol does not cause harm in the quantities that would accumulate in the body from exposure fro refueling vapors or from unburned methanol in vehicle exhaust. The iron free wastes are then gasified with oxygen. its evaporative emissions contribute less to smog formation. and because it contains oxygen. CO and CO2 ratio adjustment. and use fall 9 . The size of a large (worldscale) methanol plant is in the range of 2000-2500 metric tons per day. Evaporative emissions of methanol during transport. peak combustion temperatures can be reduced with correspondingly low emissions of oxides nitrogen (NOX).production plants are more efficient than smaller ones. because of methanol’s high latent heat of vaporization. This fact makes methanol a very attractive diesel engine fuel because. Methanol burns without a visible flame. which is a safety concern. it facilitates leaner combustion resulting in lower CO emission. storage. but which also demonstrates that methanol does not produce soot or smoke when combusted. The product synthesis gas is cleaned by water scrubbing and other means to remove any particulates. entrained oils. dispensing. H2S and CO2.

ethanol is produced from grapes that are of insufficient quality for wine production. has implemented this idea and is the only country around the world to have done so to date. Included in the cost is the amount of petroleum used to produce the crop and then prepare it for fermentation. Henry Ford was an early proponent of using ethanol as a fuel because of its good combustion properties and because of its potential “self-sufficiency”. In U. it can be produced by the agriculture sector which would satisfy their needs and sell the excess to others. the preferred feed-stock is corn.e. Ethanol for use as a fuel is produced in almost all countries exclusively using fermentation technology. Ethanol Ethanol has long been considered a good spark-ignition engine fuel. In France. About 1. sugar cane is the preferred feedstock for ethanol production because of favorable growing climate. and engines were run on ethanol very early in engine development. in fact. Agriculture wastes such as cheese whey are also considered good feed stocks for ethanol production (Starches are saccharified to sugars. Ethanol is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates by the Gay Lussac relation C6 H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH + 2CO2 What govern the choice of feedstock are cost and the capability for large-scale production. which are then fermented.5liters of alcohol per tons of cane processed in a sugar factory. The petroleum used to produce ethanol reduces the petroleum displacement value of ethanol as an alternative fuel. In Brazil. Brazil. though other grains and crops such as potatoes and sugar-beets can be used.5kg of sugar yields a liter of ethanol. Molasses contain a large percentage of sugar. but increase with the use of gasoline/methanol blends.. There are three primary ways that ethanol can be used as a transportation fuel: 10 .S. i. The normal yield of ethanol is about 8.about mid way between gasoline and diesel fuel. 30% or higher.

the engine-out emissions of HC and NOX were lower than for gasoline. Because this additional oxygen is being added through the fuel. but when blended in small amounts with gasoline. however. with the result being lower CO emissions and typically slightly higher NOX emissions. Ford tested E85 in their 1996 model Taurus flexible fuel vehicle and found essentially no difference in tailpipe emissions compared to using the standard emissions testing gasoline (Indolene). but ethanol’s lower exhaust gas temperatures were believed to decrease catalyst efficiency slightly so that the tailpipe emissions were the same.E85 produces acetaldehyde instead of formaldehyde when methanol or M85 is combusted. as a blend with gasoline. it causes the resulting blend to have a disproportionate increase in vapor pressure. the engine fuel and emission systems are ‘fooled” into operating leaner than designed. For this reason. The oxygen in the fuel contributes to combustion much the same as adding additional air. there is interest in using fuels such as ETBE as reformulated gasoline components because ETBE has a small blending vapor pressure (28kPa) which will reduce the vapor pressure of the resulting blend when added to gasoline. In this test.i) ii) iii) fuels. with 15% or more of gasoline known as “E85”. Ethanol can also be used directly in diesel engines specially configured for alcohol Vehicle Emission Characteristics: Ethanol by itself has a very low vapor pressure. The primary emission advantage of using ethanol blends is that CO emissions are reduced through the “blend – leaning” effect that is caused by the oxygen content of the ethanol. An advantage of acetaldehyde over formaldehyde is that it is less reactive in the atmosphere which contributes less to ground-level ozone formation. The emission characteristics of E85 vehicles are not as well documented as for M85 vehicles. 11 . typically 10% and commonly known as “gasohol” as a component of reformulated gasoline both directly and / or transformed into a compound such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether(ETBE) used directly as a fuel.

They concluded that for E10-D and E15-D blends. There is no reason to believe that E85 vehicles should not last as long as gasoline vehicles Long-term tests of M85 vehicles have been very successful and have shown a similar engine wear to the same engines using gasoline. Petroleum fuels have an advantage here in that producers have some latitude to vary the properties of the final product. and vehicles using ethanol blends after many years of gasoline use may experience fuel filter plugging because the ethanol acts as a solvent for gasoline deposits. (2005) to find an optimum blend for the chosen engine and conditions. The effects of different ethanol-diesel blended fuels on the performance and emissions of diesel engine have been investigated experimentally by De-gang Li et al. This should hold true for E85 vehicles as well. NOX emissions have decreased where as total hydrocarbon emissions have increased. CO.. There is no such option for some fuels such as natural gas which predominantly methane.When ethanol is used as a blending component in gasoline there are typically few discernable differences in vehicle driveability or performance to the driver of current technology vehicles. The characteristics are illustrated in the following figures 12 . They observed that brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency have increased with the increase in ethanol content in the blends. Methanol and ethanol are also single-constituent fuels. and ideally would be 100% methane. but it is possible to vary their properties advantageously through the addition of gasoline or other additives. Fuel specifications represent an attempt to mold and limit fuel properties to facilitate use in vehicles and limit the hazards presented in storing and handling fuels. Some older vehicles have experienced hot-start problems because of increased volatility.

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either through a mixing valve located in the intake manifold. with global warming potential approximately 10 times that of CO2. so that Natural gas engines cam operate at a compression ratio of 11:1.It is primarily composed of about 90 to 95% methane (CH4). The storage pressure is about 20 times that of propane. Natural gas does not require mixture enrichment for cold starting. so that it has about 1/3 of the volumetric energy density of gasoline. The combustion of methane is different from that of liquid hydrocarbon combustion since only carbon –hydrogen bonds are involved. so its CO2 emissions are about 22-25% lower than gasoline. Natural gas has an octane number (RON) of about 127. or direct injection into the cylinder. Natural gas is pressurized to 22MPa in vehicular storage tanks. With intake manifold mixing or port fuel injection. with small traces of additional compounds such as 0-4% nitrogen. and 12% propane. 4% ethane. Like propane. so the combustion process is more likely to be more complete. Recent research and development work has included development of bifuel vehicles that can operate either with natural gas and gasoline or diesel fuel. port fuel injection at about 750kPa. Natural gas fuelled vehicles (NGV) have been in use since the 1950s. One advantage of a bifuel operation is that the operation range of a vehicle is extended in comparison with a dedicated natural gas vehicle. and no carbon-carbon bonds. and conversion kits are available for both spark and compression ignition engines.Natural Gas Natural gas is a naturally occurring fuel found in oil fields (one of the world’s most abundant fossil fuel). Natural gas is stored in a compressed(CNG) state at room temperatures and also in a liquid (LNG) form at -160OC. producing less non-methane 17 . greater than gasoline fueled engines. the engines volumetric efficiency and power is reduced due to the displacement of about 10% of the intake air by the natural gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas. and the loss of evaporative charge cooling. Methane has a lower carbon to hydrogen ratio relative to gasoline. natural gas is delivered to the engine through pressure regulator. reducing the cold start HC and CO emissions.

However. since the autoignition temperature of methane is 540OC. The natural gas fueled engines are operated lean with an equivalence ratio as low as 0. 18 . The resulting lower incylinder temperatures reduce the NOX levels. such as formaldehyde. and ships.5.3 to 1.. A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG–air charge. Natural gas can replace diesel fuel in heavy duty engines with the addition of a spark ignition system. compared to 260OC for diesel fuel.7. This fueling strategy is attractive for heavy duty diesel applications. such as flow coefficient. increasing the HC and CO emissions. buses. The CNG was injected into the intake manifold via a gas injector on purpose designed for this application.hydrocarbons. Natural gas has a lower adiabatic flame temperature (~2240K) than gasoline (~2310K). since diesel engines are unthrottled. Operation under lean conditions will also lower the peak combustion temperatures. compressors and generators. The particulate emissions of natural gas are very low relative to diesel fuel. The combustion process of methane can produce more complex molecules. Optimal thermal efficiency occurs at lean conditions at equivalence ratios of 1. such as trucks. the lean combustion conditions degrade the combustion process.the total HC emission levels can be higher than gasoline engines due to unburned methane. Carlucci et al. A number of heavy duty diesel engine manufacturers are also producing a dedicated natural gas heavy duty engines. Experimental Investigations: Natural gas can also be used in compression ignition engines if diesel fuel is used as a pilot fuel. and will meet ULEV emission standards with the addition of a catalyst. Heavy duty natural gas engines are designed to meet LEV emission standards without the use of an exhaust catalyst. a pollutant. locomotives.(2007carried out experimental investigation and combustion analysis of a direct injection dual-fuel diesel–natural gas engine. and produce less engine-out NOX. so that the NOX emissions are decreased. These engines are also operated with a lean combustion mixture. due to its higher product water content. The main performance of the gas injector. The lower combustion temperatures lower the NO formation rate. at low loads.

The ignition delay was reduced through advanced injection timing but tended to incur a slight increase in fuel consumption. It is the lightest fuel possible. The injection was first advanced by 5. operating in dual-fuel mode. The engine performance was smooth on this timing especially at low loading conditions. Hydrogen Hydrogen is the only alternative fuel that does not contain any carbon or oxygen.51 and given injection timing of 35. has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load and speed.02. Longer delays will lead to unacceptable rates of pressure rise with the result of diesel knock. as a consequence. The CO and CO2 emissions were reduced through advanced injection timing. This work examines the effect of advanced injection timing on the emission characteristics of dual-fuel engine. the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure. on the engine performance.instantaneous mass flow rate. The engine. 2007 experimentally investigated the effect of advanced injection timing on emission characteristics of diesel engine running on natural gas . together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection. with a molecular weight of only 2. Nwafor.51. Hydrogen has many characteristics that make it the “ultimate” alternative fuel to fossil fuels. For all the tested operating conditions. have been characterized by testing the injector in a constant-volume optical vessel. The engine performance was erratic on this timing. The engine has standard injection timing of 301 BTDC. The injection was then advanced by 3. with slow burning rates. Even as liquid. were analyzed on the combustion development and. delay time between electrical signal and opening of the injector. Hydrogen can be combusted directly in IC Engines or 19 . The test results showed that alternative fuels exhibit longer ignition delay. in terms of specific emission levels and fuel consumption.51 BTDC. The CNG jet structure has also been characterized by means of shadowgraphy technique. hydrogen is only about one-tenth the weight per liter of gasoline (but has about onequarter the energy).

and hydrogen flames are invisible and smokeless. Research is underway to develop novel. and nontoxic. Liquefied hydrogen (LH2) is a cryogenic liquid. water vapor is again the major emission. the storage containers for LH2 must have the best insulation available. biomass and water... and gasification of coal which also produces CO2. the only emission is water vapor. electrolysis of water. or stored in metal hydrides (which absorb hydrogen when cool and release it when heated) or carbon can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity with high efficiency (30-50% over the typical load range). Hydrogen is colorless. A major concern about hydrogen vehicles will be operating range. nonpolluting means of hydrogen production such as from algae that makes use of sunlight or other biological methods. coal.g. The major drawback to using hydrogen as a fuel is the storage medium. At present the largest user of hydrogen fuel is the aerospace community for rocket fuel. Therefore.its boiling point is -253OC. the use of hydrogen as a transportation vehicle fuel would result in few or no emissions that would contribute to ozone formation. Hydrogen (H2) can be produced from many different feed-stocks including natural gas. Compared to all other fuels. When hydrogen is oxidized in fuel cells. and CO2. Electrolysis route is desirable from air quality standpoint only if the electricity is made from sources that do not use fossil fuels such as hydropower or nuclear energy. The production processes include steam reforming of natural gas. hydrogen has lowest energy storage density. The global warming potential of hydrogen is insignificant in comparison to hydrocarbon based fuels since combustion of hydrogen produces no carbon-based compounds such as HC. Even if hydrogen is released (e. CO. The cold temperatures of LH2 require storage tanks made from stainless steel. Storage 20 . though some oxides of nitrogen may be formed if combustion temperatures are high enough depending on the calibration of the fuel system and configuration of the engine. Thus. odorless. fuel spills or vehicle maintenance) it rises quickly (being lighter than air) and does not cause any reactions in the atmosphere. When hydrogen is combusted in IC Engines. presently the most economical method. Hydrogen can be stored as compressed gas at pressures similar to CNG. liquefied.

and adiabatic flame temperature is about 100OC higher than gasoline and methane. Hydrogen can also be combusted very lean. and the only sure solution known at present is to use direct cylinder injection of hydrogen. which gives it an efficiency advantage over gasoline engines that must rely on stoichiometric mixtures and catalytic control of the exhaust gases for emissions control. where backfires through the intake system occur randomly with great force due to hydrogen’s fast flame speed( ~ 3m/s. experimentally investigated on a Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine at Different Compression Ratios. and particulate matter were measured and reported. about 10 times that of methane and gasoline. The effect of blending on NOx. CO. The rate of heat release and speed 21 . Hydrogen has the widest flammability range of all fuels-from 4 to 75 volume percent in air. which is an additional safety concern. Hydrogen also tends to diffuse more readily than natural gas.containers for LH2 are even more expensive than for LNG because the insulation requirements are more severe. Flash back is believed to be caused by pre-ignition. Hydrogen also burns without a visible flame in direct sunlight. This wide flammability range has significant implications for hydrogen safety. For these reasons. The investigation was carried out on a computer interfaced single cylinder variable compression ratio.. The engine tests performed to date have used compression ratios typical of those used for gasoline engines. compression ignition engine to optimize the performance characteristics and to find the useful higher compression ratio (UHCR) with hydrogen-diesel dual fuel mode. Masood et al. so hydrogen engines should not have a disadvantage in terms of basic engine thermal efficiency. Experimental Investigations: Recently. so leaks of hydrogen will tend to diffuse rapidly within a space and will be in the flammability range for a long time in comparison to other fuels. HC. octane rating of hydrogen is not as important as designing an engine that will avoid flashback. 2007. It has been discovered that spark-ignition IC Engines using hydrogen are prone to a phenomenon called “flash back”. Experimentations were conducted on five different compression ratios and the performance characteristics were calculated.

the effect of increase in temperature of air-hydrogen mixture on NOx were studied and found that there was a sharp increase in the NOx value as the inlet temperature was increased from 65 to 85°C. variable compression ratios. The experiments were conducted on a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine under constant speed. and combustion characteristics of the engine. emissions. The objective was to determine in detail the performance. 22 . The amount of primary fuel. i.. and variable load conditions. diesel admitted was varied and hydrogen was substituted at each load.of combustion with increase in compression ratio with simultaneous increase in hydrogen substitution were measured. Intake temperature of air was increased and for three different temperatures.e.

vegetable oils. photovoltaic (PV) or wind. biomass is stored solar energy. Biofuels offer multitude of benefits to the world: 23 . but recent public interest in bioenergy has been directed more towards liquid fuels and electricity rather than heat. Biomass can produce biogas.Biofuels-Jatropha: the new crude oil? In recent times. such as alcohol. is growing. Another property of biomass is its versatility. the share of fuels of bio-origin. electricity or heat. Of the alternative fuels. synthetic fuels. Biomass is a renewable energy source with very specific properties. biogas. and is CO2 neutral when it burns. Compared to other renewable technologies such as solar thermal. biomass. biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils holds good promises as an eco-friendly alternative to diesel fuel. in a sense. etc. biomass has few problems with energy storage. liquid fuels.

Both these plants may be grown on a massive scale on agricultural/degraded/waste lands. e. it contains oxygen molecule in its structure and thus require lesser external oxygen for their complete combustion and also the biofuels are almost sulfur free fuels. Biofuels are good option for agricultural dominated economic countries. the use dates back to 1917 when the great inventor of Diesel engine Sir Rudolph Diesel demonstrated his engine with peanut oil at the French exposition. some species of plants yielding non-edible oils. Depending upon the climate and soil conditions. soya bean. 24 . jatropha. soya bean oil in the US. Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel at present and Brazil is the forerunner in its use. but due to the rapid decline in crude oil reserves. Besides.• • • • • • Sustainability Reduction of green house gas emissions Regional development Rural employment Social structure and agriculture Security of supply As far as significant feature of biofuel chemistry is concerned. Biofuels have started becoming important part of transportation fuels in many countries. For example. sunflower.g. rapeseed and sunflower oils in Europe. It is not now new to use vegetable oils in engines. as alternative fuels for diesel engines dates back almost nine decades. also called seed oils or energy plant oils. Triglycerides as diesel fuels: Vegetable oils are produced from plant seeds. The use of vegetable oils. palm oil in South-east Asia (mainly Malaysia and Indonesia) and coconut oil in the Philippines are being considered. such as palm. and olive oil. different countries are looking for different types of vegetable oils as substitutes for diesel fuels. it is again being promoted in many countries. so that the chief resource may be available to produce biodiesel on ‘farm scale’. peanut. karanji and pongamia may play a significant role in providing resources.

research should be focused on the development and commercialization of vegetable oil as a fuel from non-edible category. karanji. soybean palm oil are few among the edible type while linseed oil. which is about 20 times more higher than that of diesel fuel. also known as triglycerides comprise of 98% triglycerides and small amounts of mono. honge oil and Jatropha Curcas oil are examples for the non-edible type. 25 . The volumetric heating values are in the range of 39–40 MJ/kg. peanut. It is a drought-resistant perennial plant living up to 50 years and growing in all soils except vertisols. As there is already a great demand for edible type. The flash point of vegetable oils is very high (above 200OC). It is popularly known as physic nut in some parts of the world. The plants can also sustain without water for some days. The cetane numbers are in the range of 32–40. The fatty acids vary in their carbon chain length and in the number of double bonds. Triglycerides are esters of three molecules of fatty acids and one of glycerol and contain substantial amounts of oxygen in their structure.Chemical composition: Vegetable oils. The high viscosity of these oils is due to their large molecular mass in the range of 600– 900.8kg per meter hedge per year. neem oil. Chemical structure of common fatty acids-Vegetable oils: Host of vegetable oils can be grouped into two categories as edible type and nonedible type. Non-edible Jatropha Curcas oil is being chosen by the countries as a fuel for investigation. ground nut. rapeseed (canola). It is a plant of Latin American origin which is now widespread throughout arid and semiarid tropical regions of the world. The production of seeds is about 0. cottonseed. Jatropha Curcas seeds contain about 32 to 35% non-edible oil. Properties of vegetable oils as fuel: The fuel properties of vegetable oils as listed in Table 3 [2.3] indicate that the kinematics viscosity of vegetable oils varies in the range of 30–40 cSt at 38 OC. The presence of chemically bound oxygen in vegetable oils lowers their heating values by about 10%. though light sandy soils are preferred. as compared to diesel fuels (about 45 MJ/kg). Sunflower.and di-glycerides.

and the high flash point attributes to lower volatility characteristics. leading to heavy smoke emission. which is similar in characteristics to diesel.3 44.1 fatty acids contribute 20. The injection. The inefficient mixing of oil with air contributes to incomplete combustion. 26 .8 1. but this leads to a number of problems related to the type and grade of oil and local climatic conditions.0 Utilization of vegetable oils as fuels: Use of vegetable oils as diesel fuel It has been found that these neat vegetable oils can be used as diesel fuels in conventional diesel engines. atomization and combustion characteristics of vegetable oils in diesel engines are significantly different from those of diesel. if the vegetable oils are chemically modified to biodiesel.1% and 79. coupled with the reactivity of unsaturated vegetable oils. do not allow the engine to operate trouble free for longer period of time. The high viscosity of vegetable oils interferes with the injection process and leads to poor fuel atomization. Fatty acid Stearic acid Oleic acid Other acids Composition 7. These problems can be solved.9% of the oil Palmitic acid 12. These disadvantages.By analyzing the Jatropha oil using Gas-Liquid chromatography it is found that the saturated and unsaturated respectively.8 Linoleic acid 34.

for use in compression– ignition engines. such as vegetable oil or animal fats. Fuel properties of biodiesel The properties of biodiesel (Methyl esters of any vegetable oil)and diesel fuels. used frying oil. The engine modifications included: • • • • • • • • • • Dual-fuel mode operation Employing high fuel injection pressures Heated fuel lines Supercharging IDI engine concept Hot combustion chamber concept – LHR engine. This is due to the fact that the conversion of triglycerides into methyl or ethyl esters through the transesterification process reduces the molecular weight to one-third. as given in Table. Preparation of biodiesel from sunflower oil. etc. and therefore.1 show many similarities. biodiesel is rated as a strong candidate as an alternative to diesel. reduces the viscosity by about one-eighth. karanji (pongamia) oil.Researchers have handled the associated problems either suiting the engine to fuel or processing the fuel to suit an engine. and 27 . Biodiesel is compatible with conventional diesel and both can be blended in any proportion. obtained from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol/ethanol. as a source of triglycerides has been reported. Biodiesel has been reported as a possible substitute or extender for conventional diesel and is comprised of fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters. where as the fuel modifications covered Blending with low viscous fuels Pyrolysis/cracking Micro-emulsification Transesterification Use of methyl or ethyl esters of vegetable oils-Biodiesel Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock. jatropha oil. respectively.

-COCH3 + HO CH2  HO CH  28 . It has also been reported that the use of tertiary fatty amines and amides can be effective in enhancing the ignition quality of the biodiesel without having any negative effect on its cold flow properties. Further. One method simply uses a catalyst and the other is without a catalyst.. It is preferred to have ethanol.. In general. biodiesel has low volumetric heating values (about 12%). starting problems persist in cold conditions.increases the volatility marginally. Chemistry of transesterification reaction: O  ----COCH2 O    -----COCH O   -----COCH2 (Tri acyl-glycerol or vegetable oil) (Methanol ) ( Methyl ester) (biodiesel) HO CH2 (Glycerol) + 3 CH3OH O  → 3. Japan and some western European countries. Process of biodiesel production Simple transesterification reaction Transesterification of vegetable oils with simple alcohol has long been the preferred method for producing biodiesel. as it is a bio-origin fuel. However. thereby enhancing the combustion process in an engine. there are two methods of transesterification.. Biodiesel contains 10–11% oxygen (w/w). a high cetane number and a high flash point. The cloud points and flash points of biodiesel are 15–25OC higher than those of diesel. The former method has a long history of development and the biodiesel produced by this method is now available in North America.

for convenience. The glycerin. and of monoglycerides to glycerol. The energetics has indicated that about 50 kW of electricity per ton of biodiesel is required. B-20 blend is 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel). yielding one methyl ester molecule per mole of glyceride at each step. The process requires mixing of vegetable oil with a mixture prepared by dissolving KOH catalyst in methanol and heating at 70OC with stirring for 1 h. is removed by distillation. Optimum reaction conditions for the maximum yield of methyl esters have been reported to be 0. is referred to as BXX. being heavier. KOH.5 h. 29 . Glycerol phase separation does not occur when <67% of the theoretical amount of methanol is used. The blend. The mixture is allowed to settle under gravity. The glycerin is separated and the esters are washed with water for catalyst recovery.8% (based on weight of oil) potassium hydroxide catalyst and 100% excess methanol at room temperature for 2. etc. which can be processed in two stages. The biodiesel layer is finally dried using silica gel and it is now ready for blending with diesel in various proportions for engine operation. followed by the conversion of diglycerides to monoglycerides. where XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in percentage in the blend (i. however.The overall transesterification reaction is given by three consecutive and reversible. Glycerin of 90–95% purity is obtained in the first stage and of 98% purity in the second stage. The excess methanol. During methanolysis. Traces of methanol. two distinct phases are present as the solubility of the oil in methanol is low and the reaction mixture needs vigorous stirring. of which 60–70% is consumed for the production of glycerin. settles down in the bottom layer and the upper layer constitutes the biodiesel (esters). free fatty acids (FFAs).e. the first step is the conversion of triglycerides to diglycerides. chlorophyll. go into the glycerin phase.

However. Therefore. the reaction is conducted close to the boiling point of methanol (60–70OC) at atmospheric pressure for a given time. ! Ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil. ! Catalyst. where simultaneous esterification and transesterification take place with maximum yield obtained at temperatures ranging from 60 to 80OC at a molar ratio of 6:1. degummed and deacidified oil is used as feedstock. ! Purity of reactants. 30 .Process variables: The most important variables that influence the transesterification reaction are: ! Reaction temperature. Reaction temperature: The literature has revealed that the rate of reaction is strongly influenced by the reaction temperature. ! Mixing intensity. Such mild reaction conditions require the removal of free fatty acids from the oil by refining or preesterification. Pretreatment is not required if the reaction is carried out under high pressure (9000 kPa) and high temperature (240OC).

although KOH and NaOH can also be used. The effect of mixing on the kinetics of the transesterification process forms the basis for process scale-up and design.Ratio of alcohol to oil Another important variable is the molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil. the transesterification reaction requires 3 mol of alcohol per mole of triglyceride to give 3 mol of fatty esters and 1 mol of glycerol. as the catalyst needs to be removed from the reaction mixture after completion of the reaction. In order to shift the reaction to the right. mixing becomes insignificant. The mixing effect has been found to play a significant role in the slow rate of the reaction. it is necessary to either use excess alcohol or remove one of the products from the reaction mixture. Sodium alkoxides are the most efficient catalysts. The free fatty acids in the crude oils have been found to interfere with the catalyst. This 31 .5–1% (w/w) has been found to yield 94–99% conversion to vegetable oil esters. Transmethylation occurs in the presence of both alkaline and acidic catalysts. The reaction rate was found to be highest when 100% excess methanol was used. and further increase in catalyst concentration does not affect the conversion but adds to extra cost. Mixing intensity It has been observed that during the transesterification reaction. A concentration in the range of 0. Purity of reactants Impurities in the oil affect the conversion level considerably. It is reported that about 65–84% conversion into esters using crude vegetable oils has been obtained as compared to 94–97% yields refined oil under the same reaction conditions . The second option is usually preferred for the reaction to proceed to completion. As phase separation ceases. A molar ratio of 6:1 is normally used in industrial processes to obtain methyl ester yields higher than 98% (w/w) . Catalysts Alkali metal alkoxides are found to be more effective transesterification catalysts compared to acidic catalysts. the reactants initially form a two-phase liquid system. As they are less corrosive to industrial equipment. As indicated earlier. alkaline catalysts are preferred in industrial processes.

These problems are not faced in the supercritical methanol method of transesterification. Further.problem can be solved if the reaction is carried out under high temperature and pressure conditions. the process is relatively time consuming and it needs separation of the catalyst and saponified impurities from the biodiesel. trouble free and environment friendly. the reaction was found to be complete in a very short time within 2–4 min. glycerol and methyl esters are obtained as the principal products. Performance of conventional diesel engines with Biodiesel Conventional Compression Ignition engines can be operated with biodiesel without major modifications. In comparison to diesel.e. since no catalyst is used. but B-20 has been found to be the most appropriate blend. Further studies have revealed that biodiesel blends lead to a reduction in smoke opacity. 32 . It is reported that if an engine is operated on biodiesel for a long time. The first problem is due to the phase separation of the vegetable oil/methanol mixture. Supercritical methanol transesterification The simple transesterification process discussed above is confronted with two problems. i. but cause slightly increase in nitrous oxide emissions .09 MPa. the injection timing may be required to be readjusted for achieving better thermal efficiency. carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The result of transesterification of rapeseed oil in the supercritical methanol method has indicated that at temperature of 239OC and pressure of 8. Various blends of biodiesel with diesel have been tried. This is perhaps due to the fact that the tendency of two-phase formation of vegetable oil/methanol mixture is not encountered and a single phase is found due to decrease in the dielectric constant of methanol in the supercritical state. the higher cetane number of biodiesel results in shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration and hence results in low particulate emissions and minimum carbon deposits on injector nozzles. which may be dealt with by vigorous stirring. As a result. and emission of particulates. unburnt hydrocarbons. the purification on biodiesel is much easier. It is noteworthy that all the blends have a higher thermal efficiency than diesel and so give improved performance.

Further. It is a fact that the cost of diesel will increase in future owing to the increase in its demand and limited supply. Economic feasibility of biodiesel India has rich and abundant resources of edible and non-edible oilseeds. biodiesel is considered ‘carbon neutral’ because all the carbon dioxide released during consumption had been sequestered from the atmosphere for the growth of vegetable oil crops. The economic feasibility of biodiesel depends on the price of crude petroleum and the cost of transporting diesel over long distances to remote areas. The reduction in NOX has been reported by incorporating EGR technique. Studies have shown that the combustion of 1litre of diesel fuel leads to the emission of about 2. 2005.. Methyl esters produced from such oils cannot compete economically with diesel fuels unless they are granted protection from tax levies.6 kg of CO2 against 1 kg ofCO2/kg of biodiesel. At present the cost of biodiesel could be higher. Under such conditions. Non- 33 . the production of which can be stepped up manifolds if the government provides incentives to farmers for production of biodiesel. the strict regulations on the aromatic and sulfur contents of diesel fuels will make diesel costlier. the cost can be reduced if we consider non-edible oils. The NOX emissions are reported to be in the range between ± 10% as compared to diesel depending on engine’s combustion characteristics. so the use of biodiesel may directly displace this amount ofCO2 when used in engines.Environmental considerations: In view of environmental considerations. there is a need to explore alternate feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. The combustion of biodiesel has been reported to emit lesser pollutants compared to diesel. An economic analysis for the production of biodiesel using different types of edible and non-edible oils was reported by Barnwal et al. as the removal of aromatics from distillate fractions needs costly processing equipment and continuous high operational cost as large amounts. used frying oils and acid oils instead of edible oils. Currently. the production of methyl or ethyl esters from edible oils is much more expensive than that of diesel fuels due to the relatively high costs of vegetable oils (about four times the cost of diesel in India).

etc. are easily available in many parts of the world including India. pongamia. and are very cheap compared to edible oils. babassu. Amba Prasad et al. mahua. 34 .. With the mushrooming of fast food centers and restaurants in India. it is expected that considerable amounts of used frying oil will be discarded which can be diverted for biodiesel production. 2003 did experimental investigations on a conventional DI and IDI type diesel engines with untreated Jatropha oil and its methyl esters under following conditions: Direct Injection Engine • • • • • Effect of Injection Pressure on the use of Untreated Jatropha oil Effect of Injection Pressure and Supercharge Pressure on the use of untreated Jatropha oil Use of Methyl esters of Jatropha oil(Biodiesel)-NA condition Use of Biodiesel-SC condition LHR concept Indirect Injection Engine • • Effect of Injection Pressure on the use of Untreated Jatropha oil Use of Methyl esters of Jatropha oil(Biodiesel)-NA condition. karanji.edible oils from sources such as neem. and thus may help reduce the cost of water treatment in the sewerage system and assisting in the recycling of resources. jatropha.

3 0.IP 240 bar Baseline 0.2 0.2 bar(g) SC SC Fig.4 Fig.3 bar(g) SC 0.29 0.5 bsfc.2.37 0.7 UJ0. Variation of bsfc with bmep under NA condition NA 0.33 0.27 0. 1.4 bar(g) 0.25 160 180 200 220 240 Injection Pressure.39 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 bmep.IP 180 bar UJO.31 0.0.IP 210 bar UJO. Variation of bsfc with IP under full load condition 35 .6 0.35 bsfc.

80 70 60 Smoke density. bar 4 5 6 UJO RIP Baseline UJO SC 0.5. HSU 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 BMEP.2 bar(g) UJO SC 0. Variation of smoke density with bmep 8 Baseline 7 6 bsec.3 bar(g) UJO SC 0.kW/kW 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 bmep. Variation of bsec with bmep for three fuels at RIP 36 .4 bar(g) Fig.3. bar 4 5 6 UJO Biodiesel Fig.

3 0.6 0. Variation of smoke density with bmep 4 6 Fig.2 0.% Baseline Conventional Coated 90 80 70 60 50 0 1 2 3 bmep.2 bar(g) Smoke density.5 0. Variation of volumetric efficiency with bmep 37 .bar 4 5 6 Conventional Coated Fig.7 0.40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 Biodiesel NA Biodiesel SC 0.8. Variation of bsfc with bmep 100 Volumetric efficiency. HSU 2 bmep.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig.6.4 0.

4 0. Comparison of bsfc of DI and IDI engines 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 NOX .2 0 20 40 60 %Full power bmep 80 100 DI SC 0.7 0.6 bsfc.5 0.3 0. Comparison of NOx emissions of DI&IDI Engines under full load operation D IL HR D IB io Bi IB ID D di e se l 38 .0.2 bar(g) IDI NA Fig. kg/kWh 0.ppm l l+ SC l ie se l ID ID ie se l es e es e io di ID es e od i io di IB D Type of engine and fuel Fig. .

Dual benefit of fuel economy and low smoke are achieved by employing supercharging with untreated Jatropha oil operation. The partial or full replacement of diesel with biodiesel will relieve the pressure on existing diesel oil resources as well as conserve a lot of diesel fuel. thereby saving substantial money. Increasing the injection pressure while maintaining the boost pressure constant does not improve the performance of the engine. Transesterification reduces the viscosity by about 88% and density by 4. Gummy deposits on important engine components are reduced with biodiesel operation.Important Conclusions: • Biofuels (Biodiesel) hold great promise as substitutes of diesel in existing diesel engines without any modification. at an injection pressure 20% higher than the recommended injection pressure for diesel-fuel operation. Injector choking and fuel filter clogging are encountered with untreated Jatropha oil. Biodiesel operation reduces the smoke density by about 45% at full load compared to untreated Jatropha oil operation under naturally aspirated condition. Brake Specific Energy Consumption values are lower with biodiesel compared to diesel – fuel operation. Lower smoke levels and higher NOX levels are obtained in DI engine with biodiesel. Supercharged operation of the engine with biodiesel brings the performance very close to diesel fuel operation. and hence there is a need to grow high yielding non-edible oil seed crops on arable and non-arable lands. DI Engine • bsfc as well as smoke levels are lower when untreated Jatropha oil is used in a DI engine.34%. • • • • • • • • • • 39 . Peak pressures obtained with untreated Jatropha oil (little lower) are comparable to that of diesel-fuel operation and low rates of pressures are obtained in spite of low cetane number of Jatropha oil. • Non-edible oils find great promise as biodiesel.

bsfc as well as smoke levels are lower when untreated Jatropha oil is used in IDI engine.• • • • • Higher bsfc and higher smoke levels are observed during 50-100% load range when biodiesel is employed in LHR engine. 50/50 blend of biodiesel and diesel leads to lower bsfc when compared to 100% biodiesel operation under NA condition. IDI Engine • • Owing to its pre-chamber design the IDI engine accommodates untreated Jatropha oil at lower injection pressure compared to DI engine. Smoke density is lower in IDI engine compared to DI engine while operating on untreated Jatropha oil. Exhaust energy recovery increases in LHR approach when engine is run with biodiesel under NA condition. As far as bsfc is concerned. at an injection pressure 10% higher than the recommended injection pressure for diesel-fuel operation. Lower smoke levels and higher NOX levels are obtained in IDI engine with biodiesel. At full load about 8% saving in coolant load is achieved with LHR approach while running on biodiesel. DI engine exhibits superior performance compared to IDI engine. Lube oil temperatures increase in LHR engine under biodiesel operation and necessitate the use of better quality lubricants. • • • • • 40 . Biodiesel operation not only improves the performance but also tremendously reduces the gummy deposits. Untreated Jatropha oil operation leads to deterioration of the fuel injection equipment.

kg/l.10-9 923 21. mhos/cm Latent heat of vaporization. kJ/kg Lower Heating value.5 12.0 6.2 Visible in conditions 88-100 80-90 0 2266 71.7 all Visible in conditions -40-55 all 5 15 17.6 49.8 11 464 Ethanol C2H5OH Gasoline C4-C12 100-105 No.Table-1: Properties of selected Alternative Fuels compared to Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Fuel property Formula Mol. deg C Auto ignition temperature.5 0.2 Diesel fuel C8-C25 200(approx) Natural gas(Metha ne) CH4 16 Hydrogen H2 2.10-7 1178 15.0 14. Composition(wt % Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Density.3 19.4 79 11 11 0.8 2.45 2-4 Invisible in day light 4.6-4.7 0.7 -2197 71.04 37.4 1.0 9.44 Negligible 1.02 Jatro ester C18 t 300 52.37-0.2 Not applicable Visible in all conditions Estimated 120 120 2227 54. wt Flame spread rate. 21OC. mPa-s @20OC Water solubility.00 1.19 100 1.0 6.0 0.4.4 7.1 34.9 0.10-14 349 30-33 -43 257 84-87 13-16 0 0. degC Flammability limits. 1000kJ/l Flash Point.10-12 233 35-37 74 316 75 25 0 -182 162 Not available -0.1 Negligible 1.wt.9 4 75 34.81-0.69-0.water in fuel Vol % Electrical conductivity.88 12-15 0-4 0.2 0.6 89. deg C Boiling point.3 36.6 14. kPa @38OC Specific heat.01 Negligible -510 0 100 0 0.2 13.89 -40 to -1 188-343 <1 1.0013(g) -275 -253 Not available 14.9 108.59 100 4. kJ/kg-K Viscosity.79 -40 27-225 48-103 2.79 -114 78 15.88 <1 3-7 ~40 170 - -188 540 - 7. vol% Lower Higher Stoichiometric air-fuel ratio.009 Negligible -448 8.1 13 423 85.796 -97.35. degC Vapor Pressure.7 88.5 65 32 2.7 4-6 1. m/s Flame visibility Octane Number Research Motor Cetane Number Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K) Stoichiometric CO2 emissions g CO2/MJfuel Methanol CH3OH 32. @15OC Freezing point.9 2.3 Invisible in direct sunlight --2383 0 50 0 - Difficult to see in daylight 108.6 -2151 69 41 .

42 .

Heywood . 6. Barnwal. 1998 Combustion Engineering Mc. 10.76 July .Calcutta.44 no. 2003 supercharging on the performance of a DI diesel engine with vegetable oils Intl. 4. Jrl.B. of Energy Conversion and Management.L..W. 8.28 pp:239-248. Borman.Graw-Hill Publications. Avinash Kumar Agarwal 2007 Biofuels (Alcohols and Biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines Progress in Energy and Combustion Science Vol.. January 20-22 . Ayhan Dermibas 2007 Progress and Recent Trends in Biofuels Progress in Energy and Combustion Science Vol.Rama Mohan 2005 Performance Evaluation of DI and IDI engines with Jatropha oil based Biodiesel Vol. 9.Amba Prasad Rao and P. G. G.2003.J. N.Graw-Hill Publications.Vijaya Raju..6 Apr.Rama Mohan.Rama Mohan 2000 Esterfied Jatropha oil as a fuel in diesel engines pp 65-75 Proceedings of XVI National Conference on IC Engines and Combustion Effect of pp (NCICEC) Jadavpur University .G. 2.P. pp 72. 7.. Pramanik. Bechtold 1997. M. and Sharma. 2005 Prospects of Biodiesel Production from vegetable oils in India Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 43 . and Ragland. 1988 Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals Mc. 937-944 vol.Amba Prasad Rao and P. B. K. K. 5. G.Amba Prasad Rao and P. 3.References: 1..5 pp:363-378. 2003 Properties and use of Jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends in compression ignition engine Renewable Energy Vol. Richard L. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India).33 pp:1-18.K. Alternative Fuels Guide Book SAE Publications.86.33 pp:233-271.