EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY Term Description heterotroph hypothesis life began when the atmosphere was mostly hydrogen

, ammonia, methane, water; lightening, volcanic activity, UV radiation were common. heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food. autotrophs make their own food through photosynthesis. Evolved due to scarcity of resources available to the heterotrophs. anaerobic organisms Did not require oxygen. Oxygen was only produced as autotrophic waste originally. gene pool all the genes of an entire population genetic variability a result of random mutation. Each individual has a distinct set of genes from the rest of the population. random mutation due to DNA replication mistakes. Causes genetic variability. fossil record all information gathered about past life by paleontologists. Evidence for evolution. evolution changing gene pools due to random mutation, genetic variability, competition natural selection better competitors have better chances of surviving and producing offspring fitness ability to produce surviving offspring species different species cannot produce viable offspring speciation formation of new species, usually by evolution. divergent evolution the populations of the same species diverge due to changes in environmental factors diverged behaviors and traits changed, differed between populations homologous structures physical parts are similar between species due to a common ancestor. Result of divergent evolution. convergent evolution similar traits or behaviors arise between different populations or species. Cannot result in speciation; cannot cause a blend of two species into one. analogous structures similar adaptations due to convergent evolution (different original structures, same purpose). phylogeny evolutionary relationships. Basis of taxonomy. taxonomy science of classifying organisms Carolus Linnaeus developed the binomial system of naming organisms binomial system (Genus species) kingdom Monera Prokaryotic A) Bacteria: heterotrophs; can be mutualistic, pathogenic, or decomposers B) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae that can photosynthesize) Kingdom Protista eukaryotes. Contain organelles, nucleus, etc. Mostly unicellular but can form colonies; some like algae are multicellular A) Rhizopoda ( amoebas ): unicellular; move with pseudopodia. Soil, freshwater, marine. Some parasites. B) Apicomplexa ( sporozoans ): Animal parasites. Sexual and asexual stages; most require 2 host species for different stages. Ex. plasmodium (causes malaria) needs humans and mosquitoes. C) Ciliophora ( ciliates ): unicellular. Move/eat using cilia. Ex. paramecium. D) Myxomycota/Acrasiomycota ( slime molds ): overgrown amoebas. Many nuclei. E) Euglenophyta ( euglena ): unicellular, photosynthetic algae. F) Bacilariophyta ( diatoms ): unicellular; freshwater/marine. Glasslike walls. Walls form diatomaceous earth sediments (filtering medium) when they die. G) Phaeophyta ( brown algae ): seaweeds. Multicellular, marine. protozoa animal-like protists algae plant-like protists kindom Plantae Organized by non/vascular, vascular are divided into seed/less, and seeded plants are divided into gymno-/angiosperms. A) Byrophyta ( nonvascular ): no vascular tissue (xylem/phloem). Live in damp areas. Require water for fertilization. No stems, leaves, roots (ex. mosses, liverworts, hornworts) B) Pterophyta ( ferns ): earliest vascular plants. Have xylem/phloem/roots/leaves/stems. No seeds; instead, spores (wind-scattered) C) Coniferophyta ( conifers ): True vascular plants. Have cones carrying seeds (ex. pinecones). “naked-seed” plants (gymnosperms). Non-flowering. D) Anthophyta ( flowering ): True vascular plants. Produce flowers and pollen. Seeds protected by fruits/nuts.

5. planaria. crustaceans. E) Annelida ( segmented worms ): closed circulation. In plants. 3. mantle to secrete shell. Open circulatory system. sea stars. Marine. A) Zygomycota: sexual reproduction.An individual has its own set of genes. Ex. resist water loss. the term division is used instead of phylum. No stems. tail (at some point). hydra. Most are vertebrates. arachnids. clams.Species classified according to organizational scheme: (Kingdom. well-developed jaws/fins. Osteichthes ( bony fish ): bone skeletons. Ex. must be laid in water. oysters (not all: octopi.Evolution is a changing gene pool . Aquatic larval stage. Most have hard external shells (snails. 2 layers of cells to pass water/nutrients through. Endothermic. visceral mass containing organs. Filamentous. Contain xylem and phloem. C) Platyhelminthes ( flatworms ): bilateral symmetry and moderate cephalization (have a head). complex arrangement of vascular tissue in stem. species) . Heterotrophs. reptiles. Spiy exoskeleton.Members from different species cannot produce viable offspring together . SUMMARY . mammals (FARBM) 1. movement. vs radial symmetry = symmetrical around an axis. thick. Fish. 4. central. anus. thorax. dorsal nerve cord. Hair. jellyfish. squid have internal shells). Breathe through lungs/skin. segmented body (head. excrete waste through metanephridia. 2. Mammalia: Endothermic. Ex. Flowering. . Live young or shelled eggs. sharks. Nourish young (mostly live). flowering plants.Natural selection is a mode of evolution . B) Cnidaria ( coelenterates ): two layers of cells. roots. Conifers. sea anemonies. Class: Monocots: single-seed leaves (cotyledon). saclike digestive system. Foot for movement. puffballs. vascular. fibrous root system 2. Netlike veins. Dry and wet areas. Non-flowering. mouth. shelf fungi. Ex. Parallel veins. frogs. pinecones. taproot system. G) Echinodermata ( Echinoderms ):slow-moving. leeches.1. Amphibia: land/water. cones that carry the seeds of gymnospersm (conifers) eukaryotic. leaves. Chondrichthyes ( cartilaginous fish ): flexible skeletons. and the parasitic flukes and tapeworms.Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial system division nonvascular plants vascular plants seedless plants seed plants gymnosperms angiosperms conifer kingdom Fungi kingdom Animalia bilateral symmetry = mirrorlike. family. Excrete waste through Malpighian tubules. sand dollars. Absorptive feeders (take up small organic molecules from environment). genus. salamanders. scaled skin. fungi) B) Basidiomycota ( Club fungi ): inclues mushrooms. earthworms. flower parts in multiples of threes. . No vascular tissues (xylem or phloem). Molds and mycorrhizae (mutualistic associations between plant roots. phylum. Some edible. order. Radial symmetry. fungi. insects. A) Porifera ( sponges ): sessile (nonmoving). Lay shell-less eggs. class.Fitness is the ability to contribute to the next generation’s gene pool . Tube feet help in feeding. abdomen). Ferns vascular. Ex. Aves (birds): Tetrapods. amphibians. Class: Dicots: two seed leaves (two cotyledons). sea urchins. sting rays. Decomposers. gas exchange. D) Mollusca ( mollusks ): soft-bodied. Shell-less eggs. Reptilia: terrestrial. Water vascular system. naked-seed plants (not protected by a seed coat) ex. 6. Eggs or live young. birds. unicellular). sessile. Ex. (see diagram p182). flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5. H) Chordata ( chordates ): hollow notochord. exoskeleton (chitin). multinucleate. The gene pool is the genes of a population all combined. F) Arthropoda ( arthropods ):jointed appendages. Ex. Radial symmetry. Breathe through lungs. vascular tissue in a ring shape. mostly multicellular (except yeast. covered-seed plants.

Then only the Na+/K+ pump and leak channels affect voltage. specialized cells that carry electrical impulses between body parts Different because of the structures (processes.- Organisms fall into five kingdoms: Monera. The amount of time in which part of the axon cannot fire another action potential (there is a space of time necessary to return to resting potential). Animalia. Must fire action potentials in myelinated neurons. ALL ACTION POTENTIALS are EXACTLY ALIKE. Close at -90mV. allows K+ to leave the cell down its concentration gradient. Fungi. Protein pathway for things like ions to pass in and out of the cell in the direction of the gradient. Always open. to bring the membrane back to its resting polarized state. Neuron is resting. positive inside. ex. (-phyta) means plant (-mycota) means fungi ORGAN SYSTEMS NERVOUS SYSTEM neurons detects and interprets information from environment and controls most body function. Protista. Several of them on each soma Usually only one per soma. not carrying a signal Difference between inside of the neuron and outside. Open at -50mV. see below) branching from it Impulse travels from dendrite to soma to axon soma process dendrites axons polarized resting-membrane potential sodium-potassium pump channel leak channels voltage-gated channels threshold potential sodium voltage-gated channels potassium voltage-gated channels action potential polarized depolarization repolarization Schwann cells myelin sheath nodes of Ranvier salutatory conduction refractory period Cell body. membrane at rest. Short refractory periods are . Repolarizes membrane. The process of the alternating voltage-gated channels described above. Increases the speed that an impulse can travel down the axon (not all parts of the axon are forced to fire an action potential – only the parts of the axon described by the Nodes of Ranvier The spaces between the Schwann cells. positive ions are leaving the cell. By this pump and by the K+ leak channels. Stronger stimuli send stimuli more rapidly. Plantae. The wrapping of the Schwann cells. the K+ channel is always open. channels that open when cell membrane reaches particular voltage (ex -50mV) The potential at which voltage-gated channels open (ex -50mV) Begins due to slight depolarization of the membrane. 2K+ in. the sensations sent/received with the signals can be of different strengths. making the inside more negative. negative outside. the action potential travels. The severity is a result of the frequency of the potentials. all usual cellular organelles something that sticks off of something else. produces ATP. allowing Na+ to enter the cell Olose at +35mV. Open at +35mV (because Na+ has made the voltage positive) and allows K+ to leave the cell. in Na+/K+ pump. Resting membrane potential is -70mV (more negative on inside than outside) 3Na+ out. The “jumping” electrical conduction resulting from myelinated neurons. membrane potential becomes more positive membrane potential returns to resting value Special cells that may wrap the axon. in order to pass on the signal. Only occurs at a small portion of the neuron’s membrane at a time. all the way down the axon. However.

it must “add” the stimulation and inhibition signals together and act upon whichever is strongest. NOT RAPID like nervous – body needs time to react chemicals made by endocrine glands that act as signals amino-acid based. diverting blood to skeletal instead of digestive) Norepinephrine: primary neurotransmitter used by this division. Decision making and information processing Organs and skin neurons (anything outside of central). Temperature. electrolytic balance. (central) Completely within brain/spinal cord. balance Involuntary actions (breathing. Voluntary system (skeletal system control). etc. glucagon) cholesterol-based stimulated inhibited summation central nervous system peripheral nervous system sensory neurons motor neurons interneurons spinal cord CNS cerebrum CNS cerebellum CNS medulla CNS hypothalamus CNS somatic nervous system PNS autonomic nervous system PNS sympathetic division parasympathetic division vertebrate group arthropods ENDOCRINE SYSTEM hormones peptide hormones steroid hormones . (ex. Controls body through use of hormones. blood pressure). Connect sensory and motor neurons. . Rapid effect: turn enzymes on/off in a cell. causing vesicle to fuse with cell membrane (exocytosis) . blood vessels. insulin. depolarizes the membrane. heartbeat. speech. Most neurotransmitters depolarize the cell toward threshold Some neurogransmitters cause the cell to be inhibited (move away from threshold) Neuron can accept signals from many other neurons. spinal cord) Nervous system of anthropods/annelids are made up of a ventral nerve cord and brain. breath rate. and action potential begins in the new neuron. Brain and spinal cord neurons. digestive. breath rate. “resting and digesting” Most active when at rest Decreases heartrate. there is a gap (synaptic cleft) . Must bind to extracellular receptors. REMEMBER THIS ONE!  . Primitive homeostasis.Axon of one neuron does not touch dendrites of next. Na+ flows in. “fight or flight” Prepares body for stressful situations (increasing bp. Organisms all share similar central nervous system (brain. (heart.dendrites of the next neuron have receptors that bind to the neurotransmitter .Action potential reaches terminal end. Involuntary.receptors are connected to ion channels which open when receptors bind. diverts blood to digestive instead of skeletal) Also uses acetylcholine. bp. pancreas) Two divisions: para-/sympathetic divisions.synapse neurotransmitter acetylcholine synaptic cleft necessary to ensure that the impulse only travels in the desired direction (away from cell body) the point where the impulse gets transferred (neuron-to-organ junction) Most are chemical (use a neurotransmitter to pass impulse from one neuron to another) A chemical that passes the impulse on A common neurotransmitter (Ach). Ganglia (clusters of nerve cell bodies) range along the nerve cord and neurons branch from them. hormones.Vescicles in the terminal end of axon carry the neurotransmitter. Sends information to central nervous system (peripheral) send information from sensory organs to CNS (peripheral) send information/commands from CNS to organs of body. problem solving Awareness of sensations Coordinates muscle movement. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used here. Primitive reflexes Consciousness (voluntary) Movement.

hormones. secretes steroids: glucocorticoids.pituitary gland anterior pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) lutenizing hormone (LH) prolactin posterior pituitary gland oxytocin antidiuretic hormone (ADH) thyroxine hypothyroidism hyperthyroidism calcitonin parathyroid hormone adrenal glands adrenal medulla adrenal cortex glucocorticoids Bind to intracellular receptors Bind to DNA and alter the choice of genes which are transcribed from the DNA. no organelles (no nucleus!) mineralcorticoid pancreas islet cells insulin glucagon gonads testis ovary CIRCULATORY SYSTEM hemolymph plasma red blood cells . Increases blood volume and pressure. lipoproteins). targets gonads. A peptide hormone. Mostly water. The hormones act to increase/prolong effects of sympathetic nervous system. 2 lobes: anterior and posterior makes 6 different hormones: GH.) Produce ova. Estrogen: primarily estradiol Hormones necessary fro developing during puberty. Blood proteins made by liver. glucagon. Also vasopressin. glucagon). to release glucose. target kidneys. albumin. prolactin important in childhood and adolescence. produced in thyroid gland. Most of the cells in the plasma. Caused by a lack of iodine. also parathormone opposite of calcitonin above kidneys 2 parts: medulla. (opposite of insulin). cortex secretes adrenaline (epinephrine) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline) Stimulated by sympathetic neurons in stress situation. ADH causes contraction of uterus during childbirth. estrogens. progesterone. digestive enzymes (discussed later) produces insulin. LH. released when blood glucose is low. 2 hormones: oxytocin. Target other cells to use those fats instead of glucose to increase blood glucose levels and body metabolism. activates cells in bone to remove calcium from blood to build bone. Also strong anti-inflammatory. sex steroids (unimportant because more come from gonads and not adrenal cortex) cause liver to produce glucose from fats/proteins (gluconeogenesis). Secreted whenever blood glucose levels are high. Causes release of breastmilk. which prevents the production of sufficient thyroxine Overproduction of thyroxine. male/female sex organs producing gametes and secreting steroid hormones (sex steroids) Produce sperm and androgens (male sex steroids) including testosterone (responsible for development in puberty. TSH. mineralcorticoids. Overall causes retention of sodium and WATER. gasses. Stimulates mammary glands to make milk. Filled with hemoglobin protein. fibrinogen. secretes hormones (insulin. Also stimulates liver to store glucose (as glycogen). Can stimulate rate which older cells are replaced by new cells (cell turnover rate) Stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones stimulates adrenal cortex targets gonads (reproductive organs) to make ova mature and produce estrogen or testes to make sperm. Controlled by hypothalamus. DIFFERENT from cortisol – breaks what is already there. Makes cells increase metabolic rate contains iodine. and release glucose into the blood. Causes glycogenolysis. protein (ex. maintaining during adulthood. ions. controls other endocrine glands. maintaining characteristics during adulthood. transports stuff in the body. Reduces blood glucose levels. ACTH. the blood in organisms whose circulatory systems are not closed (within blood vessels) The fluid part (50% v/v) of blood. Most common: cortisol. Dissolved: glucose. stimulates development of corpus luteum (females) or testosterone (males) Released after childbirth. FSH. causes kidney to retain sodum (to take from urine and return to body). removes glucose from blood to use for cell resp. Regulate menstrual cycle. does not synthesize new glucose. Most common: aldosterone. Causes kidneys to retain water.

muscular walls. 7. These close first. moving air into and out of lungs switching O2 and CO2 with blood the parts of the respiratory system for ventilation only (not gas exchange) Nose. Pumps returning. aorta 10. larynx. viruses/bacteria/parasites/dead or sick cells) Specific WBCs that contribute to immunity: B and T cells. Sometimes occurs as a result of transfusion reaction. weaker chambers of the heart (top). Pulmonary veins Left side of heart. trachea. forcing many infections to arise important to blood clotting. stronger.(hemoglobin) binds to oxygen. Get smaller and branch out into arterioles and capillaries as they get away from the heart. Lungs 6. and back towards it. Lymphatic vessels are similar to veins in structure and movement. etc are necessary also). to body atrioventricular: Valves between atria and ventricles. semilunar: valves between ventricles and arteries. Remember Left/Right refer to the person’s perspective. Both contribute to the typical heartbeat sound. carbon dioxide and other wastes leave tissues and enter blood. Secrete substance that activates the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin threads that cause clotting. Low pressure. fluid inside lymphatic vessels. NOT ALL arteries are oxygen rich. Concentrated areas of WBCs. Capillaries merge into venules which mere into veins. Oxygen and nutrients leave blood and enter tissue. calcium. can be fatal. Anterior (superior/upper) and posterior (inferior) vena cava 2. bronchi. make antibodies help B cells and T cells divide Killer T cells destroy virus-infected body cells Human immunodeficiency virus – lives in helper T cells (the ones that help other T and B cells reproduce). Exchange of gasses between blood & tissues. Carries blood away from the heart. both are expressed independently. Not enough iron = not enough hemoglobin = not enough air = not enough cellular respiration = you get pretty freakin tired. Thick. pharynx. The contraction of skeletal muscles pushes blood through veins. deliver oxygen to body hemoglobin anemia white blood cells lymphocytes B-cells T-cells HIV platelets codominant agglutination Iron is necessary for hemoglobin production. NOTE ON BLOODTYPES: Carry blood away from heart. fight disease (phagocytes – they eat all the gross stuff. (ex. 1. Not muscular. If two alleles are found together. throat voicebox blood vessels artery capillaries vein valves [LYMPHATIC SYSTEM] [lymph nodes] [lymph] atria (circulatory cont) ventricles pulmonary circuit systemic circuit atrioventricular and semilunar valves RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ventilation gas exchange conduction zone pharynx larynx . by preventing blood from running in the wrong direction. Blood pressure drops in capillaries. bronchioles. These closed second. Pulmonary artery 5. High bp. Left ventricle 9. (vitamins K. assist in the return of blood to the heart through veins. Right atrium 3. recaptures fluid and returns it to blood vessels. NOT ALL veins are oxygen-poor. oxygen-poor blood to lungs to exchange CO2 for O2. Filter the fluid returning to the circulatory system. smaller. A and B bloodtypes) Clumping of red blood cells. larger chambers of the heart (bottom) Right side of heart. which transfer blood back to heart. Left atrium 8. Right ventricle 4. Smallest blood vessels. not the observer’s perspective.

vitamin. bicarbonate (neutralizes chyme pH in order to make enzymes more effective). lipase. Also contains lots of E. The name of the food as it exits stomach. and detoxifies blood). metabolizes fats. ulcers form. spleen contractions of alimentary canal that push food down to stomach Ingestion (intake) begins. produces glucose. and detoxifies blood) 2. C v making collagen (connective scurvy. Without mucus. Oxygen goes in. reabsorbs water from chyme (no digestion). stored/concentrated in gallbladder. bile (like soap) – helps break down fats by emulsifying them so that they mix better with the rest of the chyme (NOT digesting!). produces blood proeins.trachea right/left primary bronchi bronchioles alveoli diaphragm inspiration expiration DIGESTIVE SYSTEM alimentary canal accessory organs peristalsis mouth stomach chyme small intestine windpipe tubes leading to lungs smaller tubes. From pancreas. (NOTE: liver also stores glycogen. location of gas exchange due to passive diffusion. Most digestion. Also secrete pepsin to break down proteins. ostemomalacia (adults) weak bones iodine m to make thryoxine hypothyroidism filters waste products and secretes urine Involved in blood pressure and pH regulation as well contains urea (from amino acids). mental confusion DNA replic. gallbladder. Huge surface area for absorption. produces blood proteins. primary breathing muscle. rickets E v protecting membranes from anemia damage K v clotting bruise/bleed a lot iron m hemoglobin anemia calcium m bones/teeth. enzymes – amylase. Produced in liver (which also stores glycogen. capillaries come together to form portal veins that divide into capillaries upon reaching the liver Delivers nutrients directly from intestines to liver. Salivary glands secrete saliva (water. name vitamin/mineral function deficiency A v making retinal (for sight) night blindness B v making different forms of B skin disorders. acidic (around pH 1 or 2). inactive. catalyst for breaking down starch. Depends upon portal veins. produces glucose. Gastric glands produce HCl to kill germs. stores vitamins. liver. Stomach protected by mucus. metabolizes fats. break down food. Expands the chest cavity. healing inability tissue) D v calcium absorption weak bones/teeth. allowing the lungs to expand (lungs themselves have little muscle) lungs increase in size and air rushes into the lungs to fill the space exhalation – relaxation of diaphragm reduces chest cavity long tube: mouthesophagusstomachsmall intestingelarge intestine (colon)rectum anus Organs that contribute to digestion but are not involved in alimentary canal: teeth. but activated by HCl). (Originally pepsinogen. coli (nonpathogenic) which keep pathogenic bacteria from growing in the large intestine. needed for cell resp. supply the body with Vitamin K. tongue. anemia. Chyme subjected to: 1. salivary glands. Chyme becomes less watery and is called feces. Longest part of alimentary canal. water and CO2 (from Kreb’s and ETC) diffuse out. uric acid (from breaking down nucleic acids) and creatinine (waste from muscle metabolism) portal veins hepatic portal system large intestine vitamins/minerals URINARY SYSTEM kidneys urine . Also contains amylase. Accessory organs help grind into bolus (lump of food). mucus) to moisten and clump food together. protease. absorption here. stores vitamins. branched from bronchi bubbles of tissue with thin walls with little mucus. muscle contraction rickets (children).

. Multinucleate. the stronger the joint. some are only absorbed as necessary). The filtrate becomes urine. returning to blood (glucose. which are grouped into an entire muscle. organelles. First part to contract when muscle contracts. Possible because nephron tubule and blood vessel run parallel to one another. nuclei. and ultimately bp as well. Self-excitatory (can contract itself) walls of hollow organs (stomach. It travels down ureters to the bladder. Volunntary. The first process that the nephron uses to make urine (see Bowman’s Capsule definition) taking substances out of filtrate. Small twisted tube near glomerulus. Involuntary. Water is reabsorbed. thin chains of protein bundled thick fibers of protein structures of actin and myosin in muscle cells. worms use metanephridia to eliminate nitrogen wastes. (on the other hand. Aldosterone works here to increase sodium reabsorbed into the blood by the distal tubule. The capillaries have pores that act as sieves. receives filtrate from multiple nephrons. a line/string of sarcomeres myofibrils bundle with cytoplasm. insects use malphigian tubules. store minerals Relatively rigid. Plasma (now called filtrate) flows into the Bowman’s capsule due to blood pressure. but stuff that is too large (proteins. Length of loop is proportional to extent of reabsorption. ends of all bones. surrounded by cell membrane to form a muscle cell/fiber Muscle cells are grouped into fascicles. salt is transported out of filtrate and into kidney. About 1mil nephrons per kidney. Kidneys regulate bp by releasing renin when bp is low. but more specific and regulated than proximal. ADH works here to make collecting duct walls water-permeable. reabsorption and secretion. The more ligaments. Involuntary. long. Support body. Some are always secreted (ex creatinine). Substances are taken out of the blood and added to filtrate to be secreted. increasing sodium retention. tendons connect muscle to bone). Causes release of a chemical. found only in heart. Some structures are made of cartilage (flexibility and shape) Hold together different bones at joints. A knot of capillaries at beginning of nephron is called a glomerulus. cells) remains in capillaries. but more flexible. and is eliminated through urethra. produce blood cells. angiotensin II. It is modified as it flows. glomerulus Bowman’s capsule filtration reabsorption secretion proximal convoluted tubule loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule collecting duct renin other animals SKELETAL SYSTEM endoskeletons exoskeleton bone cartilage ligaments MUSCULAR SYSTEM cardiac muscle smooth muscle skeletal muscle actin myosin sarcomeres myofibril muscle cell fascicles Blood enters kidneys through renal arteries that branch into capillaries. water reabsorption. arachnids. impacting water reabsorption as well. which constricts blood vessels and increases secretion of aldosterone. attached to bones. made of cells within calcium phosphate matrix. crustaceans) Rigid.nephron Functional unit of the kidney. bladder). Urine concentration and water reabsorption is regulated. Mostly arthropods (insects. at joints. inside body outside body. protect organs. intestines. amino acids are always reabsorbed. fluid/ plasma portion passes through pores. Where most secretion and absorption takes place. Contains the glomerulus. important substances are returned to the blood while wastes are left in the tubules.

sensation. thermoregulation thin layers on surface. mostly dead cells. Ovum travels down uterine tube. 2. About 8 days. glucose. surrounding cells). When body temp rises: 1. shivering initated. blood vessels dilate to let more blood near surface (to get rid of heat) 2. morula 4 (cont). heat/water loss. embryo secretes hCG. poikilothermic) Regulate constant body temperature regardless of external temperature (endothermic). Caused by surge in LH 3. 3. actin filaments slide over each other until they overlap. ovarian cycle 1. glycogen added to lining. Controlled by progesterone secreted from ovaries. Functions: protection from abrasion. Luteal phase lines up with the secretory phase of the uterine cycle. sarcomeres. thick layer of connective tissue underneath epidermis that contains blood vessels. generates heat due to excessive muscle contraction REPRODUCTION testosterone produced as a response from LH from pituitary Necessary for sperm development and development of sex organs Testes found in an external sac (scrotum) to keep cool enough for sperm development seminiferous tubules location of sperm production. infection. fertilization occurs acrosome top of the sperm. striped (ex. sweat glands become active When body temp falls: 1. Zygote is formed due to the fusion of the sperm and ovum nuclei. Levels of hCG stay high until placenta is able to produce progesterone (after 3-4 months). Ovulation: oocyte released from follicle into uterine (Fallopian) tube. Menstruation: shedding of of old uterine lining (endometrium). EMBRYOLOGY. Morula reaches uterus. which prolongs the corpus luteum. then muscle gets shorter. sweat glands inactivated 3. luteal phase: Some of the follicle remains in ovary and matures into the corpus luteum. involuntary. gametes form Haploid cells. Cleavage: zygote starts dividing and travels toward uterus. FERTILIZATION. . Appearance comes from arrangement of protein filaments. skeletal. continues dividing and begins to hollow itself. cardiac). About 15 days. New blood vessels. Solid ball of cells resulting from the division of the zygote. and glands deep layer of fat for protection and insulation Body temperature control cannot regulate own temperatures (ectothermic. About 5 days. Surrounding cells divide. only half the chromosomes of a somatic cell ovum 2. Blood vessels constrict 2. grow. progesterone levels. Secretory phase: lining is enhanced to prepare for pregnancy. radiation. production of vitamin D. hair follicles. FETAL DEVELOPMENT gametes 1.Z-lines sliding filament theory striated SKIN epidermis dermis hypodermis thermoregulation cold-blooded warm-blooded Ends of the sarcomeres. uterus (controlled by estrogen and progesterone). Actin is attached to the Z-lines Process of muscle contraction. Natural life span about 2 weeks. Rapid. nerves. sustains a pregnancy versus ovaries (controlled by FSH and LH) which produce gametes uterine cycle 1. follicular phase: FSH causes development of follicle (maturing oocyte. 4. Estrogen affects uterus. which contains digestive enzymes to allow the sperm to penetrate the ovum. sarcomeres get shorter. sperm swims up through cervix. Due to follicle stimulating hormones from pituitary vas deferens large duct of merged seminiferous tubules connects with urethra to carry sperm out of body some glands secrete semen fluid to provide nutrients for sperm. blastocyst 5. uterus. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen. and prevents gondadotrophin the uterine lining from being shed. affecting uterus. Diploid cell. Low estrogen. 2. forming a blastocyst with an inner cell mass (clump of cells on one side) which ultimately forms the embryo. secrete estrogen. zygote 3. human chorionic If egg is fertilized. meets ovum in uterine tube. Proliferative phase: new uterine lining (endometrium) is built due to estrogen secreted from ovary.

it is a disposal site for solid wastes. splits into two 3C molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). heart. hair.human body: 11 different organ systems with their particular functions . lines inside of shell. in humans it is the embryo’s part of the placenta. bp . . Require ATP and NADPH water/mineral transport. connects embryo to placenta.palisade layer: most photosynth occurs here . gastrulation: inner mass divides into 3 primary germ layers. More exists in animals who have no placenta. ovule.muscular: supports skeleton. nails) and nervous system) 2.nervous system: carrying impulses . which contains megaspores. non-glandular organs like kidneys. food). carbon fixation occurs to form 6C (from carbon dioxide). mesoderm (leads to bones. Stigma. Dicot leaf diagram at left. such as egg-born animals Clear membrane surrounding embryo. digesting. which then produces glucose or regenerates ribulose biphosphate. ovary. Made from sieve cells (actual transport) and companion cells (helper cells.cuticle: layer of wax to protect leaf from attack and prevent water loss (usually on top surface) . ureters. Neurulation: all organs are formed (organogenesis). which makes pollen. which are made of microspores.embryonic stage fetal stage yolk sac amnion allantois chorion SUMMARY Outer ring becomes the placenta. . assist metabolism). releases oxygen Occur in thylakoid membranes take place in the stroma Starts with ribulose biphosphate (5C).respiratory: exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with blood.urinary: eliminating nitrogenous wastes.endocrine: controls with hormones .skin: thermoregulation. Female component of plant. mobility . pancreas). 7. In birds/reptiles. Ovary contains ovule. absorbing . convert solar energy to ATP and NADPH. small opening son bottom of leaf. sugar transport (phloem. Food for embryo. Mature pollen grains divide to form 2 sperm cells. protects. regulates pH . occurs primarily in leaves. protection .exchange of gases and waters occurs due to stomates. blood vessels. filled with amniotic fluid.circulatory system: transport throughout body .digestive: eating. Shock absorber for physical harm.Stomates opened/closed by guard cells. Surrounds the yolk of an egg/ovum.skeletal: holds body together. 6. style. Endoderm (leades to linins of resp. which can divide to form eggs. ectoderm (forms external structures (skin. when blastocyst has implanted. protects organs and produces blood cells. Male component of plant. helps with water balance. Filament supports anther. becomes umbilical cord in humans. gonads). In birds and reptiles. polar bodies. urinary systems as well as glandular organs like liver. 8 weeks of embryonic stage: 1.spongy: important for gas exchange .lymphatic system: filters fluids from tissues .reproduction: passing genetic information Solar energy used to produce carbohydrates. . baby matures and grows. Outermost membrane. reproductive. digestive. PLANTS photosynthesis light-dependent reactions linght-independent reactions xylem phloem stamen pistil . enclosing all other membranes. Made of tracheids and vessel elements. stores minerals .

one is harmed. conditioning. absorptive feeders (secrete hydrolytic enzymes to digest food outside before absorbing it into the body).Plant reproduction 1. touch . Types: A) Habituation: non-harmful stimulus is repeated over and over. the learning doesn’t stick) B) Conditioning – stimulus associated with a particular behavior (associative learning). C) Thigmotropism: growth of plant along a surface. germination occurs. Jim. Organisms of different species sometimes share a space. which only impact the individual and travel through the bloodstream. polar bodies become endosperm (food-storing tissue surrounding embryo) 6. Asexual spores: like seeds. one organism unaffected. pollen tubes grow. Drop off and grow into new organisms 2. gravity. When in proper environment. even yeast! :D which Effie should know for sure by now . 3 types: A) Mutualism: both organisms benefit B) Parasitism: one organism benefits. Induced by plant hormones (auxins) A) Phototropism: plant bends towards light B) Geotropism: Positive/negative gravitropism: positive – plant roots grow downward. MICROORGANISMS fungi Eukaryotes (yes.) cell walls made of chitin. and organism learns to ignore it (this learning is only temporary – if it doesn’t happen for a period of time. germinates 3. i) Classical conditioning – linking the behavior with an external stimulus ii) Operant conditioning – learning due to reward/punishment C) Insight learning: ability to approach new situations and deal with them (reasoning) Turning behaviors (response to stimuli). Negative – plant stems and leaves grow away from the earth. no cell wall Heterotrophs.Animals can communicate through pheromones . it grows into a new plant Minerals/water/nutrients transported by xylem and phloem Light vs Dark reactions Flowering plants reproduce when pollen falls on stigma. triggered by particular stimuli recognition of someone as mommy! Whoever’s there when it’s born. pollen tube grows through style to connect with ovary 4.Learned behaviors can be a result of habituation.Born-in behaviors: instinctive! Can be fixed-action or imprinting . . egg becomes embryo. sexual spores: combine to form new organisms - - . and Altoids. two sperm enter ovary (sperm fertilize egg. Pollen falls on sticky stigma 2. a biological clock which makes an organism do something daily chemicals released by one member of a species that affect another member predictably. insight .Plants respond to light. Think Dwight. seed is released/ovary becomes a fruit. the ovule becomes a seed and ovary becomes a fruit. NOT to be confused with hormones. when present Some fungi come as one giant multinucleate cell. many are decomposers Reproduction: 1. 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2 SUMMARY BEHAVIOR instinctive behavior fixed-action patterns imprinting learned behaviors tropism circadian rhythm pheromones symbiosis SUMMARY Not learned – exists since birth stereotypical.Plants/animals can coexist with symbiosis. two sperm enter ovule and fertilize the egg and polar bodies. one the polar bodies) 5. C) Commensalism: one organism benefits. require interaction with environment or other individuals.

becomes new organism. Every daughter cell of host is infected with virus. Lysogenic: viral genome integrated into host genome. fungi. and the new viruses are released to infect more host cells. 2. Host DNA polymerases replicate viral genome. protein coat surrounding a virus the nucleic acid portion of the virus (DNA or RNA) virus attaches to host cell (can only attach to a specific host) Virus injects its genome into the host. alfalfa). HSV1 in humans (causes cold sores) the layer of plasma membrane around a capsid. When the legume is harvested. a restriction enzyme found in E. the cell is lysed. 4. A plasmid or a virus) 4 types of microorganisms: protists. Easily cultured. vegetative growth: portion of fungus breaks off. Need additional substance in growth medium in order to culture. these genomes are repackaged. some heterotrophs . 2. bacteria live in nodules and supply the plant with fixed (non-gaseous) nitrogen. peanuts.some bacteria can help resupply soil with nitrogen . Reproduces independently. Transformation: bacteria pick up new DNA from extracellular environment. must either have it within the capsid and inject it into host. Bacteria resistant to antibiotics are unaffected (are not killed) Sensitive indicates that they can be killed by the antibiotics. clover. bacteria. Retroviruses go through the lysogenic life cycle. Conjugation: bacteria replicates DNA and donates to another bacteria through a pilus bridge 3. May be ligated to any other piece of DNA cut with another blunt cut restriction enzyme. Viruses are parasites.peptidoglycan binary fission resistant sensitive obligate aerobes obligate anaerobes facultative anaerobes auxotroph wild type mutualistic capsid genome attachment infection envelope RNA-dependent RNA pol (think “dependent” means “reads”) RNA-dependent DNA pol Eco RI sticky ends blunt cut plasmid restriction map amplify vector SUMMARY 3. coli. plants supply bacteria with nutrients. sugar) bacterial reproduction. Ex. bacteria). Legumes can re-enrich soil with nitrogen when too much is fixed for the plant to use. No chance of mixing DNA to influence evolution.bacteria .fungi : multicellular eukaryotes (mostly – yeast are unicellular) Can reproduce a/sexually/ vegetatively/by budding . another crop can be planted to take advantage of that nitrogen. Often occurs in research. viruses . . Transduction: virus DNA is included in a bacterium during infection. However. 2 possible life cycles: 1. remains dormant and is only replicated when host genome is replicated. budding: new fungus grows off the side Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan (protein. Map of the locations of various restriction sites within a chosen piece of DNA To increase the amount of DNA. Replicaton of chromosome.Some bacteria are autotrophs. Shuttle for moving DNA between species (ex. Need oxygen Poisoned by oxygen Can survive with fermentation but use oxygen whne available requires supplementary nutrition. peas. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria can form a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. Necessary for retroviruses (like HIV). and cell division. Plants that survive due to this relationship are legumes (beans. Circular piece of DNA (in yeast. Necessary for RNA viruses because it can make a strand of RNA from another strand of RNA (rather than a strand of DNA). Can undergo recombination: 1. staggered ends that can be ligated to another piece of DNA cut with the same restriction enzyme No staggered end. as a result of virus budding from infected cells. Not a part of genome. Cannot grow without the addition into the medium.Viruses are not alive. except carbon (still need glucose). also Reverse transcriptase – creates DNA from RNA. Virus can then remove itself and take effect later to begin the lytic cycle. Lytic: viral genome transcribed and translated to make viral proteins. or synthesize the polymerase necessary during translation. Capable of synthesizing everything they need.

Primary producers: photosynthetic (plants. rocklichen mosses/herbsgrasses/shrubspine trees  deciduous trees Deciduous trees (oaks. Plants. moss. wolves. 1. when it hunts).America. temp. maples). etc. and soil through root respiration C) Also enters soil through decomposition of dead organisms and through wastes D) Reenters the atmosphere by soil respiration and by cellular respiration. Much shorter timeframe than evolution (decades instead of thousands of years) Like lichen – live in previously uninhabited areas.flora Sum of all biomes – largest level of organization. Competition occurs between populations that have similar niches. Populations. not individuals. Stable community that does not change Communities and their environments. Evolution leads to populations that have different niches. Predators affect carrying capacity of environment. grasses. Herbivores. When a [BEAST!] eats another [… creature? xD]. Animals. etc. changes predictably. C) Deciduous forests. Most terrestrial. animals through consuming the plants. Few trees. Northern N. Lots of rain. Animals that eat wastes. communities). land-based A) Tundra: permanently frozen topsoil. Losing population must evolve to survive. and these can be passed to plants ore can be denitrified and returned to the atmosphere. Secondary consumers: eat primary consumers. which pass the nitrogen to legumes. Also coniferous forest (contains many conifers). exponential growth will always be coupled with limited growth (when run out of resources. Regulated by drought. A) Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere is converted to useable forms by Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules.fauna. Many insects. share a gene pool. remains of dead organisms. South of Taiga. Asia. a few trees. large herbivores.ECOLOGY abiotic biotic population exponential growth vs limited growth carrying capacity niche predation coevolution food chain note: only 10% of energy of one level is available to next. Eat other carnivores. D) Grasslands (Savanna): low-growing plants. Hot and cold seasons are distinct.ecological succession is changes that take place in community. 3. can evolve. Large areas classified mostly by ecosystems (climate. larger carnivores. beeches. Gradual process of change in an ecological community NOT evolution . caribou. primary consumers: eat primary producers. Mostly short shrubs. nutrients. Many small mammals. water) living – organisms. some aquatic. tertiary consumers: eat secondary consumers. The Earth. BEARS! B) Taiga: south of Tundra.) Maximum population sustainable by an environment the way it lives in its environment (nesting behavior. Deciduous trees drop leaves in winter and regrow them springtime. for a more stable community altogether. Europe. As far as the succession can go. which are eaten by animals. group of individuals that interbreed. . a few mammals (reindeer. wide variety of life. alternate evolution of two species based upon their interactions. No predators = higher carrying capacity. which are eaten by decomposers. Carnivores/omnivores 4. which turn the nitrogen into ammonium (ammonification) B) Nitrogen gas is also fixed by soil bacteria into ammonium C) Nitrifying bacteria turn the ammonium into nitrites. algae) (greater in number) 2. scavengers ecological succession pioneer organisms climax community ecosystem the water cycle the carbon cycle the nitrogen cycle biomes biosphere terrestrial biomes nonliving factors of environment (light. lichen. (fewer in number) note: organisms may be part of more than one caregory. A) evaporation/transpiration (through trees) B) rainfall C) runoff A) carbon dioxide in atmosphere is taken into plants by photosynthesis B) Enters animals through consuming the plants. what food it eats.

large ones also live in temperate. rodents. C) Oceanic (marine): open ocean. which feed secondary consumers. D) Littoral (fresh): near shore of lake. Large freeswimming animals that feed on each other. fish. etc.They are groups of individuals that share a gene pool and interbreed .Biomes are classified by their ecosystems. sea urchins/stars. Many plants. lizards. B) Neritic (marine): from intertidal to edge of continental shelf. . Coral reefs in tropical areas. Clams. Largest herbivores exist in tropical. light) A) Intertidal (marine): land meets water. oxygen. F) Desert: Driest of all. Insects are dominant herbivores. snakes.aquatic biomes SUMMARY grazing.Ecological succession does not equal evolution . Life must adapt to arid environment. F) Profundal zone. greatest diversity of all biomes. extends downward until light cannot penetrate. Cold or hot. seaweeds. nitrogen. Kelp. carbon cycles move nutrients through ecosystems . E) Tropical Rain Forests: highest rainfall. 2 types: pelagic (open water) and benthic (ocean bottom). fire.Food chains show movement of materials and energy . small consumers. Aphotic region. Very tall trees.Populations can expand by exponential or limited growth . Deepest parts: abyssal zones. Succulents grow. Dryness and total submersion (due to tides).Community = population of a particular environment . E) Limnetic (fresh): farther from shore. as well as birds.Water. Photosynthesizers and primary consumers. Little nutrients except phytoplankton. most stable biomes because there is not much variability in conditions (temp. Sunlight barely reaches lower regions. crustaceans. Nutrients from limnetic zone support some primary consumers. . snails.