©Leila Crespo Fernández, Ph. D. Revised L.

Commander January 09

3/19/2009

(C) Leila Crespo Fernández, Ph. D. Revised L. Commander January 09

• Describe the hierarchy and the levels of organization present in nature, starting from subatomic particles to the organismal one. • Describe the fundamental chemical components of living matter. • Explain the importance and roles of inorganic and organic compounds in the metabolic processes of the human body.
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(C) Leila Crespo Fernández, Ph. D. Revised L. Commander mayo 05

Levels of organization: from the subatomic particles to the organism

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(C) Leila Crespo Fernández, Ph. D. Revised L. Commander mayo 05

Commander mayo 05 . Ph. Revised L. D.19 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.

Commander mayo 05 . D. Revised L. Ph.• The “building blocks” found in living matter • The smallest unit of an element that maintains its properties • There are 92 elements that have been discovered and are grouped according to their properties in the Periodic Table • Composed of subatomic particles 20 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.

• Atomic nucleus with protons (+) and neutrons • Orbits or energy levels. D. while liberating or consuming energy. Commander mayo 05 . Ph. Revised L. 21 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. around the nucleus with constantly moving electrons (-) • Electrons move from one level to the other.

Ph. Commander mayo 05 . D. Revised L.22 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.

Commander mayo 05 . Revised L.The distribution of the electrons in the energy levels of the atom 23 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Ph. D.

• The atoms are joined together by energy in what is called a chemical bond. • These molecules can be simple (oxygen and water) or complex (proteins and starch). Commander mayo 05 . 24 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. D. • The process by which they form is called a chemical reaction. Ph.• Atoms of the same or different elements can combine to form molecules. Revised L.

• Bonds are formed or broken: reactants and products • Consumes energy (endothermic) or liberates energy (exothermic) 25 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 . Revised L. D. Ph.

Electrons are shared Molecules are formed Potential energy: represents stored energy .

needs 4 to complete this level’s capacity • Organic molecules • “molecules of life” • Carbon with 4 hydrogen atoms • Methane: CH4 27 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 . D. 4 in the second. Ph.• 2 electrons in first energy level. Revised L.

Commander mayo 05 . Ph. D.charges) • Forms hydrogen bonds • Forms latticework arrangement of molecules when frozen 28 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Revised L.• H2O: water • Universal solvent • Shares electrons and uneven attractions causes\ polarity (+ and .

Commander mayo 05 .29 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. D. Ph. Revised L.

Ph. Revised L.? 30 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. D.• Produces ions with charge (+ and -) • Sodium chloride: table salt • Why do we put rice in the salt shaker in P.R. Commander mayo 05 .

Commander mayo 05 .• Measure of hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-) particles formed in solution • Logarithmic measure • pH meter is used 31 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Ph. D. Revised L.

9 32 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Ph. D. Revised L. Commander mayo 05 .• Hydrogen ions (H+) formed in solution: acidity in range from 0 to 6.

Commander mayo 05 . Revised L. D.1 to 14 33 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.• Hydroxide ions (OH-) in water solution: alkalinity in range from 7. Ph.

Ph. 34 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 .• The organism must maintain the adequate pH value for each metabolic process. • Examples: – acidosis in blood caused by glucose level alterations in diabetes – alkalosis by marked differences in inhalation and exhalation during asthma attacks and tantrums. • Alterations in pH may cause serious effects in the human body. D. Revised L.

D. Commander mayo 05 . Ph.• Forms macromolecules – Monomer = single unit – Polymer = large molecules • Condensation: formation • Hydrolysis: breaking • Organic = containing carbon 35 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Revised L.

Ph. D. Revised L.• Hexose: 6 carbons • Monomer for the large carbohydrate molecules • Ringed or linear molecule • All sugar molecules end in –ose 36 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 .

D. Ph. Revised L.Monosacharide + Glucose = disaccharide Disaccharide – Glucose = monosacharide Dehydration or Condensation vs. Hydrolysis 37 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 .

Commander mayo 05 . Revised L. Ph.Polysaccharides • Starch: potatoes. D. • Fruits Glycogen: • liver and muscle (our individual “lunch box”) 38 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.

D. Ph. Revised L. Commander mayo 05 .• Structure of cell wall • Dietary fiber in our body • How can we obtain dietary fiber in our meals? 39 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.

Revised L. D.• Fats – Olive oil: – Three fatty acids + one glycerol • Steroids – cholesterol – sex hormones 40 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 . Ph.

Liquid at room temperature 41 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández.Solid at room temperature Unsaturated: . D. Commander mayo 05 .Saturated: .Double bonds .More hydrogen . Revised L. Ph.

Ph.Amino acid: monomer • Polypeptide: Many amino acids • 20 different amino acids: constitute the “alphabet” from which all proteins are formed • Protein specificity • Structural vs. functional proteins 42 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. D. Commander mayo 05 . Revised L.

43 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Ph. Commander mayo 05 . Revised L. D.

Plants store proteins in their seeds. Collagen and elastin provide a fibrous framework in animal connective tissues. horns feathers. and other skin appendages. Casein. Storage Storage of Ovalbumin is the protein of egg white proteins amino acids used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo. .Are proteins important in our body? Examples Type Function Structural Support Insects and spiders use silk fibers to proteins make their cocoons and webs. is the major source of amino acids for baby mammals. Keratin is the protein of hair. the protein of milk. respectively.

Other proteins transport molecules across cell membranes. transports oxygen substances from the lungs to other parts of the body. .Are proteins important in our body? Examples Type Function Transport Transport of Hemoglobin. the iron containing protein proteins other of vertebrate blood.

. a hormone secreted by the proteins coordinpancreas. help regulate the sugar in ation the blood of vertebrates. Receptor proteins cell response to chemical stimuli Contractile Movement proteins Receptors built into the membrane of a nerve cell detect chemicals released by other nerve cells Actin and myosin are responsible for muscle movement responsible for cilia and flagella undulations.Are proteins important in our body? Type Function Examples Hormonal organism Insulin.

New York: Wiley. Revised L. T. D. Biology: Life on earth. The Sciences: An Integrated Approach. J & Hazen. R. R. G. New York: McGraw-Hill. (2006). NJ: Prentice Hall. Ph. (2006). Biology. • Trefil. 47 4/26/2009 (C) Leila Crespo Fernández. Commander mayo 05 . and Audesirk. Life. (2005). Upper Saddle River. (2007).• Audesirk. • Campbell & Reece. • Lewis. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummins.

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